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    Bill Balke, MD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address185 Berry Street
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-514-8068
      Other Positions
      TitleDirector, Clinical Research Services, CTSI


       Overview 
       Overview
      Academic/Research Accomplishments:
      Dr. Balke is a clinical and research cardiac electrophysiologist and has maintained a productive basic science and translational research program since the completion of his postdoctoral fellowship. His scientific areas of interest include cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure. His laboratory has made seminal contributions to the understanding of the stochastic relationship of calcium entry during membrane depolarization to the subsequent release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in normal and diseased hearts, as supported by manuscripts in the highest quality peer-reviewed journals including Science, the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, and the Journal of Physiology. The NHLBI, the American Heart Association (AHA), and the Veteran’s Affairs Administration (VA) have funded his research program continuously for the last 18 years.

      In addition, his research program has provided the platform for mentored experiences for a number of NIH K award (K08, K23, K25, K01) recipients who have gone on to productive careers in academic medicine and industry. This program has also provided the substrate for several NIH-funded institutional training programs in cardiovascular physiology (NIH T32 awards), integrative physiology (NIH T32 award), women’s health (NIH K12 award, Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women’s Health (BIRCWH)) and an NIH Roadmap K12 program (UM) for an interdisciplinary training program to prepare junior faculty for successful careers in clinical and translational research.

      As a consequence of these research and mentoring experiences, Dr. Balke has held numerous leadership roles in the NHLBI’s peer-review process, including several terms as a regular member on the former Cardiovascular ‘A’ Study Section, the inaugural chairperson of the Electrical Signaling, Ion Transport and Arrhythmias (ESTA) Study Section, and the inaugural and current chairperson of the Institutional Training Mechanism (T32) Study Section. Through his chairmanship of all the NHLBI’s K award special emphasis panels (Mentored Clinical Scientist Development Program (K08), Mentored Patient-oriented Research Career Development Program (K23), and the Pathway to Independence Award (K99/R00)), he led the initiative to align the policies and approach of these mechanisms to provide a fair, uniform, and transparent process for selecting and supporting the best science and the most deserving investigators in the early stages of their career development. The identification and implementation of best practices in K award evaluation and review has enabled the NHLBI to define a new training paradigm for the academic development of clinically trained investigators, and has ensured the investigator “pipeline” for the future of cardiovascular science.

      Administrative Experiences:
      Dr. Balke has accumulated a unique blend of faculty and senior-level administrative experiences from premier institutions (namely, Johns Hopkins University, University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University, and the University of California San Francisco (UCSF)) with global reputations and missions as well as land grant institutions (University of Maryland (UM) and University of Kentucky (UK)) committed to local and regional missions. These positions represent escalating levels of scope and responsibility, progressing from Chief of the Division of Cardiology and Associate Chairman of the Department of Medicine (UM); Senior Associate Dean for Research, Associate Provost for Clinical and Translational Science, Associate Provost for Academic Planning and Implementation (UK); to his current position as Program Director of the Clinical Research Center and member of the Board of Directors of the UCSF Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI).


       ORNG Applications 
       In The News

       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Nasser N, Grady D, Balke CW. Commentary: Improving participant recruitment in clinical and translational research. Acad Med. 2011 Nov; 86(11):1334-5.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Aistrup GL, Balke CW, Wasserstrom JA. Arrhythmia triggers in heart failure: the smoking gun of [Ca2+]i dysregulation. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Nov; 8(11):1804-8.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Fahy BG, Balke CW, Umberger GH, Talbert J, Canales DN, Steltenkamp CL, Conigliaro J. Crossing the chasm: information technology to biomedical informatics. J Investig Med. 2011 Jun; 59(5):768-79.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Sumandea CA, Garcia-Cazarin ML, Bozio CH, Sievert GA, Balke CW, Sumandea MP. Cardiac troponin T, a sarcomeric AKAP, tethers protein kinase A at the myofilaments. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jan 7; 286(1):530-41.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Balke CW, Umberger GH, Mattacola CG. "Oh, the places you'll go": transformation of the nation's biomedical research enterprise in the 21st century. J Sport Rehabil. 2010 Nov; 19(4):359-68.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Kapur S, Aistrup GL, Sharma R, Kelly JE, Arora R, Zheng J, Veramasuneni M, Kadish AH, Balke CW, Wasserstrom JA. Early development of intracellular calcium cycling defects in intact hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010 Dec; 299(6):H1843-53.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Sfichi-Duke L, Garcia-Cazarin ML, Sumandea CA, Sievert GA, Balke CW, Zhan DY, Morimoto S, Sumandea MP. Cardiomyopathy-causing deletion K210 in cardiac troponin T alters phosphorylation propensity of sarcomeric proteins. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010 May; 48(5):934-42.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Wasserstrom JA, Sharma R, Kapur S, Kelly JE, Kadish AH, Balke CW, Aistrup GL. Multiple defects in intracellular calcium cycling in whole failing rat heart. Circ Heart Fail. 2009 May; 2(3):223-32.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Sumandea CA, Balke CW. Funding opportunities for investigators in the early stages of career development. Circulation. 2009 Mar 10; 119(9):1320-7.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Sumandea MP, Rybin VO, Hinken AC, Wang C, Kobayashi T, Harleton E, Sievert G, Balke CW, Feinmark SJ, Solaro RJ, Steinberg SF. Tyrosine phosphorylation modifies protein kinase C delta-dependent phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I. J Biol Chem. 2008 Aug 15; 283(33):22680-9.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Satin J, Itzhaki I, Rapoport S, Schroder EA, Izu L, Arbel G, Beyar R, Balke CW, Schiller J, Gepstein L. Calcium handling in human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Stem Cells. 2008 Aug; 26(8):1961-72.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Banyasz T, Lozinskiy I, Payne CE, Edelmann S, Norton B, Chen B, Chen-Izu Y, Izu LT, Balke CW. Transformation of adult rat cardiac myocytes in primary culture. Exp Physiol. 2008 Mar; 93(3):370-82.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Chen L, Zhang J, Gan TX, Chen-Izu Y, Hasday JD, Karmazyn M, Balke CW, Scharf SM. Left ventricular dysfunction and associated cellular injury in rats exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008 Jan; 104(1):218-23.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Chen-Izu Y, Chen L, Bányász T, McCulle SL, Norton B, Scharf SM, Agarwal A, Patwardhan A, Izu LT, Balke CW. Hypertension-induced remodeling of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling in ventricular myocytes occurs prior to hypertrophy development. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Dec; 293(6):H3301-10.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Izu LT, Bányász T, Balke CW, Chen-Izu Y. Eavesdropping on the social lives of Ca(2+) sparks. Biophys J. 2007 Nov 15; 93(10):3408-20.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Chen-Izu Y, Ward CW, Stark W, Banyasz T, Sumandea MP, Balke CW, Izu LT, Wehrens XH. Phosphorylation of RyR2 and shortening of RyR2 cluster spacing in spontaneously hypertensive rat with heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Oct; 293(4):H2409-17.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Bányász T, Chen-Izu Y, Balke CW, Izu LT. A new approach to the detection and statistical classification of Ca2+ sparks. Biophys J. 2007 Jun 15; 92(12):4458-65.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Fedorov VV, Lozinsky IT, Sosunov EA, Anyukhovsky EP, Rosen MR, Balke CW, Efimov IR. Application of blebbistatin as an excitation-contraction uncoupler for electrophysiologic study of rat and rabbit hearts. Heart Rhythm. 2007 May; 4(5):619-26.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Barrows BR, Azimzadeh AM, McCulle SL, Vives-Rodriguez G, Stark WN, Ambulos N, Yin J, Chen H, Balke CW, Moravec CS, Pierson RN, Gottlieb SS, Bond M, Johnson FL. Robust gene expression with amplified RNA from biopsy-sized human heart tissue. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2007 Jan; 42(1):260-4.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Sullivan PG, Balke CW, Esser KA. Mitochondrial buffering of calcium in the heart: potential mechanism for linking cyclic energetic cost with energy supply? Circ Res. 2006 Jul 21; 99(2):109-10.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Izu LT, Means SA, Shadid JN, Chen-Izu Y, Balke CW. Interplay of ryanodine receptor distribution and calcium dynamics. Biophys J. 2006 Jul 1; 91(1):95-112.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Chen-Izu Y, McCulle SL, Ward CW, Soeller C, Allen BM, Rabang C, Cannell MB, Balke CW, Izu LT. Three-dimensional distribution of ryanodine receptor clusters in cardiac myocytes. Biophys J. 2006 Jul 1; 91(1):1-13.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Song LS, Sobie EA, McCulle S, Lederer WJ, Balke CW, Cheng H. Orphaned ryanodine receptors in the failing heart. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Mar 14; 103(11):4305-10.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Reid MB, Andrade FH, Balke CW, Esser KA. Redox mechanisms of muscle dysfunction in inflammatory disease. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2005 Nov; 16(4):925-49, ix.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Zhang J, Lee MY, Cavalli M, Chen L, Berra-Romani R, Balke CW, Bianchi G, Ferrari P, Hamlyn JM, Iwamoto T, Lingrel JB, Matteson DR, Wier WG, Blaustein MP. Sodium pump alpha2 subunits control myogenic tone and blood pressure in mice. J Physiol. 2005 Nov 15; 569(Pt 1):243-56.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Chen L, Einbinder E, Zhang Q, Hasday J, Balke CW, Scharf SM. Oxidative stress and left ventricular function with chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Oct 1; 172(7):915-20.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Xiao RP, Balke CW. Na+/Ca2+ exchange linking beta2-adrenergic G(i) signaling to heart failure: associated defect of adrenergic contractile support. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2004 Jan; 36(1):7-11.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Xiao RP, Zhang SJ, Chakir K, Avdonin P, Zhu W, Bond RA, Balke CW, Lakatta EG, Cheng H. Enhanced G(i) signaling selectively negates beta2-adrenergic receptor (AR)--but not beta1-AR-mediated positive inotropic effect in myocytes from failing rat hearts. Circulation. 2003 Sep 30; 108(13):1633-9.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Balke CW, Goldman L. Excitation contraction coupling in cardiac muscle: is there a purely voltage-dependent component? J Gen Physiol. 2003 May; 121(5):349-52.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Blaustein MP, Robinson SW, Gottlieb SS, Balke CW, Hamlyn JM. Sex, digitalis, and the sodium pump. Mol Interv. 2003 Mar; 3(2):68-72, 50.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Kirk MM, Izu LT, Chen-Izu Y, McCulle SL, Wier WG, Balke CW, Shorofsky SR. Role of the transverse-axial tubule system in generating calcium sparks and calcium transients in rat atrial myocytes. J Physiol. 2003 Mar 1; 547(Pt 2):441-51.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Sha Q, Robinson SW, McCulle SL, Shorofsky SR, Welling PA, Goldman L, Balke CW. An antisense oligonucleotide against H1 inhibits the classical sodium current but not ICa(TTX) in rat ventricular cells. J Physiol. 2003 Mar 1; 547(Pt 2):435-40.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Goldman L, Balke CW. Do defects in the late sodium current in human ventricular cells cause heart failure? J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2002 Nov; 34(11):1473-6.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Chen-Izu Y, Sha Q, Shorofsky SR, Robinson SW, Wier WG, Goldman L, Balke CW. I(Ca(TTX)) channels are distinct from those generating the classical cardiac Na(+) current. Biophys J. 2001 Nov; 81(5):2647-59.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Zang WJ, Balke CW, Wier WG. Graded alpha1-adrenoceptor activation of arteries involves recruitment of smooth muscle cells to produce 'all or none' Ca(2+) signals. Cell Calcium. 2001 May; 29(5):327-34.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Mauban JR, Lamont C, Balke CW, Wier WG. Adrenergic stimulation of rat resistance arteries affects Ca(2+) sparks, Ca(2+) waves, and Ca(2+) oscillations. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001 May; 280(5):H2399-405.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Shorofsky SR, Balke CW. Calcium currents and arrhythmias: insights from molecular biology. Am J Med. 2001 Feb 1; 110(2):127-40.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Izu LT, Mauban JR, Balke CW, Wier WG. Large currents generate cardiac Ca2+ sparks. Biophys J. 2001 Jan; 80(1):88-102.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Izu LT, Wier WG, Balke CW. Evolution of cardiac calcium waves from stochastic calcium sparks. Biophys J. 2001 Jan; 80(1):103-20.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Ahrensfield D, Balke CW, Benitez RM, Peters RW. Transient sinus node dysfunction in acute myocardial infarction associated with the use of a coronary stent. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2000 Jul; 50(3):349-51.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Wier WG, Balke CW, Michael JA, Mauban JR. A custom confocal and two-photon digital laser scanning microscope. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000 Jun; 278(6):H2150-6.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Balke CW, Wang Y. Distinguishing mechanisms from markers of cardiac contractile dysfunction: more than 1 way to skin the cat of heart failure. Circulation. 2000 Feb 22; 101(7):738-9.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Wier WG, Balke CW. Ca(2+) release mechanisms, Ca(2+) sparks, and local control of excitation-contraction coupling in normal heart muscle. Circ Res. 1999 Oct 29; 85(9):770-6.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Balke CW. Triglycerides. Hosp Pract (1995). 1999 Sep 1; 34(9):15-6.
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      45. Shorofsky SR, Aggarwal R, Corretti M, Baffa JM, Strum JM, Al-Seikhan BA, Kobayashi YM, Jones LR, Wier WG, Balke CW. Cellular mechanisms of altered contractility in the hypertrophied heart: big hearts, big sparks. Circ Res. 1999 Mar 5; 84(4):424-34.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Lamont C, Luther PW, Balke CW, Wier WG. Intercellular Ca2+ waves in rat heart muscle. J Physiol. 1998 Nov 1; 512 ( Pt 3):669-76.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Izu LT, Wier WG, Balke CW. Theoretical analysis of the Ca2+ spark amplitude distribution. Biophys J. 1998 Sep; 75(3):1144-62.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Shorofsky SR, Izu L, Wier WG, Balke CW. Ca2+ sparks triggered by patch depolarization in rat heart cells. Circ Res. 1998 Mar 9; 82(4):424-9.
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      49. Balke CW, Shorofsky SR. Alterations in calcium handling in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Cardiovasc Res. 1998 Feb; 37(2):290-9.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Fisher ML, Balke CW, Freudenberger R. Therapeutic options in advanced heart failure. Hosp Pract (1995). 1997 Dec 15; 32(12):97-106.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Aggarwal R, Shorofsky SR, Goldman L, Balke CW. Tetrodotoxin-blockable calcium currents in rat ventricular myocytes; a third type of cardiac cell sodium current. J Physiol. 1997 Dec 1; 505 ( Pt 2):353-69.
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      52. Bhat MB, Zhao J, Zang W, Balke CW, Takeshima H, Wier WG, Ma J. Caffeine-induced release of intracellular Ca2+ from Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. Effects on full-length and carboxyl-terminal portion of Ca2+ release channels. J Gen Physiol. 1997 Dec; 110(6):749-62.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Wier WG, ter Keurs HE, Marban E, Gao WD, Balke CW. Ca2+ 'sparks' and waves in intact ventricular muscle resolved by confocal imaging. Circ Res. 1997 Oct; 81(4):462-9.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Pratusevich VR, Balke CW. Factors shaping the confocal image of the calcium spark in cardiac muscle cells. Biophys J. 1996 Dec; 71(6):2942-57.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Balke CW. Spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations and waves in pulmonary vascular endothelial cells. Circ Res. 1996 Oct; 79(4):909-10.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Shacklock PS, Wier WG, Balke CW. Local Ca2+ transients (Ca2+ sparks) originate at transverse tubules in rat heart cells. J Physiol. 1995 Sep 15; 487 ( Pt 3):601-8.
        View in: PubMed
      57. López-López JR, Shacklock PS, Balke CW, Wier WG. Local calcium transients triggered by single L-type calcium channel currents in cardiac cells. Science. 1995 May 19; 268(5213):1042-5.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Wier WG, López-López JR, Shacklock PS, Balke CW. Calcium signalling in cardiac muscle cells. Ciba Found Symp. 1995; 188:146-60; discussion 160-4.
        View in: PubMed
      59. López-López JR, Shacklock PS, Balke CW, Wier WG. Local, stochastic release of Ca2+ in voltage-clamped rat heart cells: visualization with confocal microscopy. J Physiol. 1994 Oct 1; 480 ( Pt 1):21-9.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Wier WG, Egan TM, López-López JR, Balke CW. Local control of excitation-contraction coupling in rat heart cells. J Physiol. 1994 Feb 1; 474(3):463-71.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Balke CW, Egan TM, Wier WG. Processes that remove calcium from the cytoplasm during excitation-contraction coupling in intact rat heart cells. J Physiol. 1994 Feb 1; 474(3):447-62.
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      62. Gold MR, Balke CW. The cellular action of antiarrhythmic drugs. Heart Dis Stroke. 1993 Sep-Oct; 2(5):434-8.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Balke CW, Gold MR. Excitation-contraction-relaxation coupling in the normal and failing heart. Heart Dis Stroke. 1993 Mar-Apr; 2(2):150-5.
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      64. Balke CW, Gold MR. Calcium channels in the heart: an overview. Heart Dis Stroke. 1992 Nov-Dec; 1(6):398-403.
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      65. Balke CW, Rose WC, Marban E, Wier WG. Macroscopic and unitary properties of physiological ion flux through T-type Ca2+ channels in guinea-pig heart cells. J Physiol. 1992 Oct; 456:247-65.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Rose WC, Balke CW, Wier WG, Marban E. Macroscopic and unitary properties of physiological ion flux through L-type Ca2+ channels in guinea-pig heart cells. J Physiol. 1992 Oct; 456:267-84.
        View in: PubMed
      67. Balke CW, Wier WG. Modulation of L-type calcium channels by sodium ions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 May 15; 89(10):4417-21.
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      68. Balke CW, Wier WG. Ryanodine does not affect calcium current in guinea pig ventricular myocytes in which Ca2+ is buffered. Circ Res. 1991 Mar; 68(3):897-902.
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      69. Spear JF, Balke CW, Lesh MD, Kadish AH, Levine JL, Moore EN. Effect of cellular uncoupling by heptanol on conduction in infarcted myocardium. Circ Res. 1990 Jan; 66(1):202-17.
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      70. Kadish A, Balke CW, Levine JF, Moore EN, Spear JF. Activation patterns in healed experimental myocardial infarction. Circ Res. 1989 Dec; 65(6):1698-709.
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      71. Kadish A, Shinnar M, Moore EN, Levine JH, Balke CW, Spear JF. Interaction of fiber orientation and direction of impulse propagation with anatomic barriers in anisotropic canine myocardium. Circulation. 1988 Dec; 78(6):1478-94.
        View in: PubMed
      72. de Langen CD, Balke CW, Spear JF, Levine JH, Moore EN. Interaction of metoprolol and lidocaine on the ventricular fibrillation threshold in the anesthetized dog. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1988 Dec; 12(6):683-8.
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      73. Balke CW, Lesh MD, Spear JF, Kadish A, Levine JH, Moore EN. Effects of cellular uncoupling on conduction in anisotropic canine ventricular myocardium. Circ Res. 1988 Nov; 63(5):879-92.
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      74. Levine JH, Moore EN, Kadish AH, Weisman HF, Balke CW, Hanich RF, Spear JF. Mechanisms of depressed conduction from long-term amiodarone therapy in canine myocardium. Circulation. 1988 Sep; 78(3):684-91.
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      75. de Langen CD, Hanich RF, Michelson EL, Kadish AH, Levine JH, Balke CW, Spear JF, Moore EN. Differential effects of procainamide, lidocaine and acetylstrophanthidin on body surface potentials and epicardial conduction in dogs with chronic myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988 Feb; 11(2):403-13.
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      76. Shook TL, Balke CW, Kotilainen PW, Hubelbank M, Selwyn AP, Stone PH. Comparison of amplitude-modulated (direct) and frequency-modulated ambulatory techniques for recording ischemic electrocardiographic changes. Am J Cardiol. 1987 Oct 1; 60(10):895-900.
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      77. Roubenoff R, Roubenoff RA, Preto J, Balke CW. Malnutrition among hospitalized patients. A problem of physician awareness. Arch Intern Med. 1987 Aug; 147(8):1462-5.
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      78. Balke CW, Kaplinsky E, Michelson EL, Naito M, Dreifus LS. Reperfusion ventricular tachyarrhythmias: correlation with antecedent coronary artery occlusion tachyarrhythmias and duration of myocardial ischemia. Am Heart J. 1981 Apr; 101(4):449-56.
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      79. Kaplinsky E, Ogawa S, Kmetzo J, Balke CW, Dreifus LS. Intramyocardial activation in early ventricular arrhythmias following coronary artery ligation. J Electrocardiol. 1980; 13(1):1-6.
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      80. Kaplinsky E, Ogawa S, Balke CW, Dreifus LS. Two periods of early ventricular arrhythmia in the canine acute myocardial infarction model. Circulation. 1979 Aug; 60(2):397-403.
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