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    Carol Gross, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Dentistry
    DepartmentCell and Tissue Biology
    Address600 16th Street
    San Francisco CA 94158
    Phone415-476-4161

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       Global Health
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       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Guo MS, Updegrove TB, Gogol EB, Shabalina SA, Gross CA, Storz G. MicL, a new sE-dependent sRNA, combats envelope stress by repressing synthesis of Lpp, the major outer membrane lipoprotein. Genes Dev. 2014 Jul 15; 28(14):1620-34.
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      2. Feklístov A, Sharon BD, Darst SA, Gross CA. Bacterial sigma factors: a historical, structural, and genomic perspective. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2014 Sep 8; 68:357-76.
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      3. Guo MS, Gross CA. Stress-induced remodeling of the bacterial proteome. Curr Biol. 2014 May 19; 24(10):R424-34.
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      4. Larson MH, Mooney RA, Peters JM, Windgassen T, Nayak D, Gross CA, Block SM, Greenleaf WJ, Landick R, Weissman JS. A pause sequence enriched at translation start sites drives transcription dynamics in vivo. Science. 2014 May 30; 344(6187):1042-7.
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      5. Li GW, Burkhardt D, Gross C, Weissman JS. Quantifying absolute protein synthesis rates reveals principles underlying allocation of cellular resources. Cell. 2014 Apr 24; 157(3):624-35.
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      6. Darst SA, Feklistov A, Gross CA. Promoter melting by an alternative s, one base at a time. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014 Apr 4; 21(4):350-1.
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      7. Lim B, Miyazaki R, Neher S, Siegele DA, Ito K, Walter P, Akiyama Y, Yura T, Gross CA. Heat Shock Transcription Factor s(32) Co-opts the Signal Recognition Particle to Regulate Protein Homeostasis in E. coli. PLoS Biol. 2013 Dec; 11(12):e1001735.
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      8. Rhodius VA, Segall-Shapiro TH, Sharon BD, Ghodasara A, Orlova E, Tabakh H, Burkhardt DH, Clancy K, Peterson TC, Gross CA, Voigt CA. Design of orthogonal genetic switches based on a crosstalk map of ss, anti-ss, and promoters. Mol Syst Biol. 2013; 9:702.
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      9. Lima S, Guo MS, Chaba R, Gross CA, Sauer RT. Dual molecular signals mediate the bacterial response to outer-membrane stress. Science. 2013 May 17; 340(6134):837-41.
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      10. McCusker KP, Medzihradszky KF, Shiver AL, Nichols RJ, Yan F, Maltby DA, Gross CA, Fujimori DG. Covalent intermediate in the catalytic mechanism of the radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine methyl synthase RlmN trapped by mutagenesis. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Oct 31; 134(43):18074-81.
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      11. Kwon E, Kim DY, Ngo TD, Gross CA, Gross JD, Kim KK. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus CpxA. Protein Sci. 2012 Sep; 21(9):1334-43.
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      12. Typas A, Banzhaf M, Gross CA, Vollmer W. From the regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis to bacterial growth and morphology. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2012 Feb; 10(2):123-36.
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      13. Oh E, Becker AH, Sandikci A, Huber D, Chaba R, Gloge F, Nichols RJ, Typas A, Gross CA, Kramer G, Weissman JS, Bukau B. Selective ribosome profiling reveals the cotranslational chaperone action of trigger factor in vivo. Cell. 2011 Dec 9; 147(6):1295-308.
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      14. Rhodius VA, Mutalik VK, Gross CA. Predicting the strength of UP-elements and full-length E. coli sE promoters. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Apr; 40(7):2907-24.
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      15. de Almeida A, Catone MV, Rhodius VA, Gross CA, Pettinari MJ. Unexpected stress-reducing effect of PhaP, a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) granule-associated protein, in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Sep; 77(18):6622-9.
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      16. Gogol EB, Rhodius VA, Papenfort K, Vogel J, Gross CA. Small RNAs endow a transcriptional activator with essential repressor functions for single-tier control of a global stress regulon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Aug 2; 108(31):12875-80.
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      17. Chaba R, Alba BM, Guo MS, Sohn J, Ahuja N, Sauer RT, Gross CA. Signal integration by DegS and RseB governs the σ E-mediated envelope stress response in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Feb 1; 108(5):2106-11.
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      18. Rhodius VA, Gross CA. Using DNA microarrays to assay part function. Methods Enzymol. 2011; 497:75-113.
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      19. Typas A, Banzhaf M, van den Berg van Saparoea B, Verheul J, Biboy J, Nichols RJ, Zietek M, Beilharz K, Kannenberg K, von Rechenberg M, Breukink E, den Blaauwen T, Gross CA, Vollmer W. Regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis by outer-membrane proteins. Cell. 2010 Dec 23; 143(7):1097-109.
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      20. Nichols RJ, Sen S, Choo YJ, Beltrao P, Zietek M, Chaba R, Lee S, Kazmierczak KM, Lee KJ, Wong A, Shales M, Lovett S, Winkler ME, Krogan NJ, Typas A, Gross CA. Phenotypic landscape of a bacterial cell. Cell. 2011 Jan 7; 144(1):143-56.
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      21. Kwon E, Kim DY, Gross CA, Gross JD, Kim KK. The crystal structure Escherichia coli Spy. Protein Sci. 2010 Nov; 19(11):2252-9.
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      22. Koo BM, Rhodius VA, Nonaka G, deHaseth PL, Gross CA. Reduced capacity of alternative sigmas to melt promoters ensures stringent promoter recognition. Genes Dev. 2009 Oct 15; 23(20):2426-36.
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      23. Mutalik VK, Nonaka G, Ades SE, Rhodius VA, Gross CA. Promoter strength properties of the complete sigma E regulon of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 2009 Dec; 191(23):7279-87.
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      24. Koo BM, Rhodius VA, Campbell EA, Gross CA. Mutational analysis of Escherichia coli sigma28 and its target promoters reveals recognition of a composite -10 region, comprised of an 'extended -10' motif and a core -10 element. Mol Microbiol. 2009 May; 72(4):830-43.
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      25. Koo BM, Rhodius VA, Campbell EA, Gross CA. Dissection of recognition determinants of Escherichia coli sigma32 suggests a composite -10 region with an 'extended -10' motif and a core -10 element. Mol Microbiol. 2009 May; 72(4):815-29.
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      26. Ahuja N, Korkin D, Chaba R, Cezairliyan BO, Sauer RT, Kim KK, Gross CA. Analyzing the interaction of RseA and RseB, the two negative regulators of the sigmaE envelope stress response, using a combined bioinformatic and experimental strategy. J Biol Chem. 2009 Feb 20; 284(8):5403-13.
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      27. Typas A, Nichols RJ, Siegele DA, Shales M, Collins SR, Lim B, Braberg H, Yamamoto N, Takeuchi R, Wanner BL, Mori H, Weissman JS, Krogan NJ, Gross CA. High-throughput, quantitative analyses of genetic interactions in E. coli. Nat Methods. 2008 Sep; 5(9):781-7.
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      28. Guisbert E, Yura T, Rhodius VA, Gross CA. Convergence of molecular, modeling, and systems approaches for an understanding of the Escherichia coli heat shock response. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2008 Sep; 72(3):545-54.
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      29. Thirunavukkarasu N, Mishra MN, Spaepen S, Vanderleyden J, Gross CA, Tripathi AK. An extra-cytoplasmic function sigma factor and anti-sigma factor control carotenoid biosynthesis in Azospirillum brasilense. Microbiology. 2008 Jul; 154(Pt 7):2096-105.
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      30. Gross C, Felsheim R, Wackett LP. Genes and enzymes of azetidine-2-carboxylate metabolism: detoxification and assimilation of an antibiotic. J Bacteriol. 2008 Jul; 190(14):4859-64.
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      31. Yura T, Guisbert E, Poritz M, Lu CZ, Campbell E, Gross CA. Analysis of sigma32 mutants defective in chaperone-mediated feedback control reveals unexpected complexity of the heat shock response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Nov 6; 104(45):17638-43.
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      32. Chaba R, Grigorova IL, Flynn JM, Baker TA, Gross CA. Design principles of the proteolytic cascade governing the sigmaE-mediated envelope stress response in Escherichia coli: keys to graded, buffered, and rapid signal transduction. Genes Dev. 2007 Jan 1; 21(1):124-36.
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      33. Guisbert E, Rhodius VA, Ahuja N, Witkin E, Gross CA. Hfq modulates the sigmaE-mediated envelope stress response and the sigma32-mediated cytoplasmic stress response in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2007 Mar; 189(5):1963-73.
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      34. Nonaka G, Blankschien M, Herman C, Gross CA, Rhodius VA. Regulon and promoter analysis of the E. coli heat-shock factor, sigma32, reveals a multifaceted cellular response to heat stress. Genes Dev. 2006 Jul 1; 20(13):1776-89.
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      35. Kurata H, El-Samad H, Iwasaki R, Ohtake H, Doyle JC, Grigorova I, Gross CA, Khammash M. Module-based analysis of robustness tradeoffs in the heat shock response system. PLoS Comput Biol. 2006 Jul 28; 2(7):e59.
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      36. Grigorova IL, Phleger NJ, Mutalik VK, Gross CA. Insights into transcriptional regulation and sigma competition from an equilibrium model of RNA polymerase binding to DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 4; 103(14):5332-7.
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      37. Rhodius VA, Suh WC, Nonaka G, West J, Gross CA. Conserved and variable functions of the sigmaE stress response in related genomes. PLoS Biol. 2006 Jan; 4(1):e2.
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      38. Onufryk C, Crouch ML, Fang FC, Gross CA. Characterization of six lipoproteins in the sigmaE regulon. J Bacteriol. 2005 Jul; 187(13):4552-61.
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      39. Altman S, Bassler BL, Beckwith J, Belfort M, Berg HC, Bloom B, Brenchley JE, Campbell A, Collier RJ, Connell N, Cozzarelli NR, Craig NL, Darst S, Ebright RH, Elledge SJ, Falkow S, Galan JE, Gottesman M, Gourse R, Grindley ND, Gross CA, Grossman A, Hochschild A, Howe M, Hurwitz J, Isberg RR, Kaplan S, Kornberg A, Kustu SG, Landick RC, Landy A, Levy SB, Losick R, Long SR, Maloy SR, Mekalanos JJ, Neidhardt FC, Pace NR, Ptashne M, Roberts JW, Roth JR, Rothman-Denes LB, Salyers A, Schaechter M, Shapiro L, Silhavy TJ, Simon MI, Walker G, Yanofsky C, Zinder N. An open letter to Elias Zerhouni. Science. 2005 Mar 4; 307(5714):1409-10.
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      40. El-Samad H, Kurata H, Doyle JC, Gross CA, Khammash M. Surviving heat shock: control strategies for robustness and performance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 22; 102(8):2736-41.
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      41. Berghöfer-Hochheimer Y, Lu CZ, Gross CA. Altering the interaction between sigma70 and RNA polymerase generates complexes with distinct transcription-elongation properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 25; 102(4):1157-62.
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      42. Guisbert E, Herman C, Lu CZ, Gross CA. A chaperone network controls the heat shock response in E. coli. Genes Dev. 2004 Nov 15; 18(22):2812-21.
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      43. Grigorova IL, Chaba R, Zhong HJ, Alba BM, Rhodius V, Herman C, Gross CA. Fine-tuning of the Escherichia coli sigmaE envelope stress response relies on multiple mechanisms to inhibit signal-independent proteolysis of the transmembrane anti-sigma factor, RseA. Genes Dev. 2004 Nov 1; 18(21):2686-97.
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      44. Geszvain K, Gruber TM, Mooney RA, Gross CA, Landick R. A hydrophobic patch on the flap-tip helix of E.coli RNA polymerase mediates sigma(70) region 4 function. J Mol Biol. 2004 Oct 22; 343(3):569-87.
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      45. Alba BM, Gross CA. Regulation of the Escherichia coli sigma-dependent envelope stress response. Mol Microbiol. 2004 May; 52(3):613-9.
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      46. Young BA, Gruber TM, Gross CA. Minimal machinery of RNA polymerase holoenzyme sufficient for promoter melting. Science. 2004 Feb 27; 303(5662):1382-4.
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      47. Walsh NP, Alba BM, Bose B, Gross CA, Sauer RT. OMP peptide signals initiate the envelope-stress response by activating DegS protease via relief of inhibition mediated by its PDZ domain. Cell. 2003 Apr 4; 113(1):61-71.
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      48. Campbell EA, Tupy JL, Gruber TM, Wang S, Sharp MM, Gross CA, Darst SA. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli sigmaE with the cytoplasmic domain of its anti-sigma RseA. Mol Cell. 2003 Apr; 11(4):1067-78.
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      49. Ades SE, Grigorova IL, Gross CA. Regulation of the alternative sigma factor sigma(E) during initiation, adaptation, and shutoff of the extracytoplasmic heat shock response in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2003 Apr; 185(8):2512-9.
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      50. Herman C, Prakash S, Lu CZ, Matouschek A, Gross CA. Lack of a robust unfoldase activity confers a unique level of substrate specificity to the universal AAA protease FtsH. Mol Cell. 2003 Mar; 11(3):659-69.
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      51. Gruber TM, Gross CA. Assay of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: sigma-core interactions. Methods Enzymol. 2003; 370:206-12.
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      52. Gruber TM, Gross CA. Multiple sigma subunits and the partitioning of bacterial transcription space. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2003; 57:441-66.
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      53. Wang JD, Herman C, Tipton KA, Gross CA, Weissman JS. Directed evolution of substrate-optimized GroEL/S chaperonins. Cell. 2002 Dec 27; 111(7):1027-39.
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      54. Alba BM, Leeds JA, Onufryk C, Lu CZ, Gross CA. DegS and YaeL participate sequentially in the cleavage of RseA to activate the sigma(E)-dependent extracytoplasmic stress response. Genes Dev. 2002 Aug 15; 16(16):2156-68.
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      55. Li H, Rhodius V, Gross C, Siggia ED. Identification of the binding sites of regulatory proteins in bacterial genomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Sep 3; 99(18):11772-7.
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      56. Young BA, Gruber TM, Gross CA. Views of transcription initiation. Cell. 2002 May 17; 109(4):417-20.
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      57. Rhodius V, Van Dyk TK, Gross C, LaRossa RA. Impact of genomic technologies on studies of bacterial gene expression. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2002; 56:599-624.
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      58. Chan CL, Gross CA. The anti-initial transcribed sequence, a portable sequence that impedes promoter escape, requires sigma70 for function. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 12; 276(41):38201-9.
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      59. Gruber TM, Markov D, Sharp MM, Young BA, Lu CZ, Zhong HJ, Artsimovitch I, Geszvain KM, Arthur TM, Burgess RR, Landick R, Severinov K, Gross CA. Binding of the initiation factor sigma(70) to core RNA polymerase is a multistep process. Mol Cell. 2001 Jul; 8(1):21-31.
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      60. Young BA, Anthony LC, Gruber TM, Arthur TM, Heyduk E, Lu CZ, Sharp MM, Heyduk T, Burgess RR, Gross CA. A coiled-coil from the RNA polymerase beta' subunit allosterically induces selective nontemplate strand binding by sigma(70). Cell. 2001 Jun 29; 105(7):935-44.
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      61. Alba BM, Zhong HJ, Pelayo JC, Gross CA. degS (hhoB) is an essential Escherichia coli gene whose indispensable function is to provide sigma (E) activity. Mol Microbiol. 2001 Jun; 40(6):1323-33.
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      62. Cicero MP, Sharp MM, Gross CA, Kreuzer KN. Substitutions in bacteriophage T4 AsiA and Escherichia coli sigma(70) that suppress T4 motA activation mutations. J Bacteriol. 2001 Apr; 183(7):2289-97.
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      63. Behrens S, Maier R, de Cock H, Schmid FX, Gross CA. The SurA periplasmic PPIase lacking its parvulin domains functions in vivo and has chaperone activity. EMBO J. 2001 Jan 15; 20(1-2):285-94.
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      64. Sharp MM, Chan CL, Lu CZ, Marr MT, Nechaev S, Merritt EW, Severinov K, Roberts JW, Gross CA. The interface of sigma with core RNA polymerase is extensive, conserved, and functionally specialized. Genes Dev. 1999 Nov 15; 13(22):3015-26.
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      65. Suh WC, Lu CZ, Gross CA. Structural features required for the interaction of the Hsp70 molecular chaperone DnaK with its cochaperone DnaJ. J Biol Chem. 1999 Oct 22; 274(43):30534-9.
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      66. Ades SE, Connolly LE, Alba BM, Gross CA. The Escherichia coli sigma(E)-dependent extracytoplasmic stress response is controlled by the regulated proteolysis of an anti-sigma factor. Genes Dev. 1999 Sep 15; 13(18):2449-61.
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      67. Suh WC, Burkholder WF, Lu CZ, Zhao X, Gottesman ME, Gross CA. Interaction of the Hsp70 molecular chaperone, DnaK, with its cochaperone DnaJ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Dec 22; 95(26):15223-8.
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      68. Gross CA, Chan C, Dombroski A, Gruber T, Sharp M, Tupy J, Young B. The functional and regulatory roles of sigma factors in transcription. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1998; 63:141-55.
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      69. De Las Peñas A, Connolly L, Gross CA. SigmaE is an essential sigma factor in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1997 Nov; 179(21):6862-4.
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      70. Connolly L, De Las Penas A, Alba BM, Gross CA. The response to extracytoplasmic stress in Escherichia coli is controlled by partially overlapping pathways. Genes Dev. 1997 Aug 1; 11(15):2012-21.
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      71. De Las Peñas A, Connolly L, Gross CA. The sigmaE-mediated response to extracytoplasmic stress in Escherichia coli is transduced by RseA and RseB, two negative regulators of sigmaE. Mol Microbiol. 1997 Apr; 24(2):373-85.
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      72. Rouvière PE, Gross CA. SurA, a periplasmic protein with peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity, participates in the assembly of outer membrane porins. Genes Dev. 1996 Dec 15; 10(24):3170-82.
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      73. Chan CL, Lonetto MA, Gross CA. Sigma domain structure: one down, one to go. Structure. 1996 Nov 15; 4(11):1235-8.
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      74. Tavormina PL, Landick R, Gross CA. Isolation, purification, and in vitro characterization of recessive-lethal-mutant RNA polymerases from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996 Sep; 178(17):5263-71.
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      75. Dombroski AJ, Johnson BD, Lonetto M, Gross CA. The sigma subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase senses promoter spacing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Aug 20; 93(17):8858-62.
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      76. Heisler LM, Feng G, Jin DJ, Gross CA, Landick R. Amino acid substitutions in the two largest subunits of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase that suppress a defective Rho termination factor affect different parts of the transcription complex. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jun 14; 271(24):14572-83.
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      77. Wild J, Rossmeissl P, Walter WA, Gross CA. Involvement of the DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperone team in protein secretion in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1996 Jun; 178(12):3608-13.
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      78. Tavormina PL, Reznikoff WS, Gross CA. Identifying interacting regions in the beta subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. J Mol Biol. 1996 May 3; 258(2):213-23.
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      79. Gross CA, Chan CL, Lonetto MA. A structure/function analysis of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1996 Apr 29; 351(1339):475-82.
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      80. Kamath-Loeb AS, Lu CZ, Suh WC, Lonetto MA, Gross CA. Analysis of three DnaK mutant proteins suggests that progression through the ATPase cycle requires conformational changes. J Biol Chem. 1995 Dec 15; 270(50):30051-9.
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      81. Rouvière PE, De Las Peñas A, Mecsas J, Lu CZ, Rudd KE, Gross CA. rpoE, the gene encoding the second heat-shock sigma factor, sigma E, in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 1995 Mar 1; 14(5):1032-42.
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      82. Mecsas J, Welch R, Erickson JW, Gross CA. Identification and characterization of an outer membrane protein, OmpX, in Escherichia coli that is homologous to a family of outer membrane proteins including Ail of Yersinia enterocolitica. J Bacteriol. 1995 Feb; 177(3):799-804.
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      83. Heisler LM, Suzuki H, Landick R, Gross CA. Four contiguous amino acids define the target for streptolydigin resistance in the beta subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 1993 Dec 5; 268(34):25369-75.
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      84. Mecsas J, Rouviere PE, Erickson JW, Donohue TJ, Gross CA. The activity of sigma E, an Escherichia coli heat-inducible sigma-factor, is modulated by expression of outer membrane proteins. Genes Dev. 1993 Dec; 7(12B):2618-28.
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      85. Dombroski AJ, Walter WA, Gross CA. Amino-terminal amino acids modulate sigma-factor DNA-binding activity. Genes Dev. 1993 Dec; 7(12A):2446-55.
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      86. Wild J, Walter WA, Gross CA, Altman E. Accumulation of secretory protein precursors in Escherichia coli induces the heat shock response. J Bacteriol. 1993 Jul; 175(13):3992-7.
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      87. Singer M, Jin DJ, Walter WA, Gross CA. Genetic evidence for the interaction between cluster I and cluster III rifampicin resistant mutations. J Mol Biol. 1993 May 5; 231(1):1-5.
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      88. Dombroski AJ, Walter WA, Gross CA. The role of the sigma subunit in promoter recognition by RNA polymerase. Cell Mol Biol Res. 1993; 39(4):311-7.
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      89. Zhou YN, Gross CA. How a mutation in the gene encoding sigma 70 suppresses the defective heat shock response caused by a mutation in the gene encoding sigma 32. J Bacteriol. 1992 Nov; 174(22):7128-37.
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      90. Shi W, Zhou Y, Wild J, Adler J, Gross CA. DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE are required for flagellum synthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1992 Oct; 174(19):6256-63.
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      91. Dombroski AJ, Walter WA, Record MT, Siegele DA, Gross CA. Polypeptides containing highly conserved regions of transcription initiation factor sigma 70 exhibit specificity of binding to promoter DNA. Cell. 1992 Aug 7; 70(3):501-12.
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      92. Zhou YN, Walter WA, Gross CA. A mutant sigma 32 with a small deletion in conserved region 3 of sigma has reduced affinity for core RNA polymerase. J Bacteriol. 1992 Aug; 174(15):5005-12.
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      93. Wild J, Kamath-Loeb A, Ziegelhoffer E, Lonetto M, Kawasaki Y, Gross CA. Partial loss of function mutations in DnaK, the Escherichia coli homologue of the 70-kDa heat shock proteins, affect highly conserved amino acids implicated in ATP binding and hydrolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Aug 1; 89(15):7139-43.
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      94. Wild J, Altman E, Yura T, Gross CA. DnaK and DnaJ heat shock proteins participate in protein export in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 1992 Jul; 6(7):1165-72.
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      95. Lonetto M, Gribskov M, Gross CA. The sigma 70 family: sequence conservation and evolutionary relationships. J Bacteriol. 1992 Jun; 174(12):3843-9.
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      96. Singer M, Walter WA, Cali BM, Rouviere P, Liebke HH, Gourse RL, Gross CA. Physiological effects of the fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase ts8 mutation on stable RNA synthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991 Oct; 173(19):6249-57.
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      97. Mecsas J, Cowing DW, Gross CA. Development of RNA polymerase-promoter contacts during open complex formation. J Mol Biol. 1991 Aug 5; 220(3):585-97.
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      98. Jin DJ, Gross CA. RpoB8, a rifampicin-resistant termination-proficient RNA polymerase, has an increased Km for purine nucleotides during transcription elongation. J Biol Chem. 1991 Aug 5; 266(22):14478-85.
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      99. Kamath-Loeb AS, Gross CA. Translational regulation of sigma 32 synthesis: requirement for an internal control element. J Bacteriol. 1991 Jun; 173(12):3904-6.
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      100. Straus D, Walter W, Gross CA. DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE heat shock proteins negatively regulate heat shock gene expression by controlling the synthesis and stability of sigma 32. Genes Dev. 1990 Dec; 4(12A):2202-9.
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      101. Cowing DW, Gross CA. Interaction of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing sigma 32 with heat shock promoters. DNase I footprinting and methylation protection. J Mol Biol. 1989 Dec 5; 210(3):513-20.
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      102. Cowing DW, Mecsas J, Record MT, Gross CA. Intermediates in the formation of the open complex by RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing the sigma factor sigma 32 at the groE promoter. J Mol Biol. 1989 Dec 5; 210(3):521-30.
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      103. Straus DB, Walter WA, Gross CA. The activity of sigma 32 is reduced under conditions of excess heat shock protein production in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 1989 Dec; 3(12A):2003-10.
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      104. Erickson JW, Gross CA. Identification of the sigma E subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: a second alternate sigma factor involved in high-temperature gene expression. Genes Dev. 1989 Sep; 3(9):1462-71.
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      105. Siegele DA, Hu JC, Walter WA, Gross CA. Altered promoter recognition by mutant forms of the sigma 70 subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. J Mol Biol. 1989 Apr 20; 206(4):591-603.
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      106. Singer M, Baker TA, Schnitzler G, Deischel SM, Goel M, Dove W, Jaacks KJ, Grossman AD, Erickson JW, Gross CA. A collection of strains containing genetically linked alternating antibiotic resistance elements for genetic mapping of Escherichia coli. Microbiol Rev. 1989 Mar; 53(1):1-24.
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      107. Straus DB, Walter WA, Gross CA. Escherichia coli heat shock gene mutants are defective in proteolysis. Genes Dev. 1988 Dec; 2(12B):1851-8.
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      108. Jin DJ, Cashel M, Friedman DI, Nakamura Y, Walter WA, Gross CA. Effects of rifampicin resistant rpoB mutations on antitermination and interaction with nusA in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1988 Nov 20; 204(2):247-61.
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      109. Hu JC, Gross CA. Mutations in rpoD that increase expression of genes in the mal regulon of Escherichia coli K-12. J Mol Biol. 1988 Sep 5; 203(1):15-27.
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      110. Siegele DA, Hu JC, Gross CA. Mutations in rpoD, the gene encoding the sigma 70 subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase, that increase expression of the lac operon in the absence of CAP-cAMP. J Mol Biol. 1988 Sep 5; 203(1):29-37.
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      111. Zhou YN, Kusukawa N, Erickson JW, Gross CA, Yura T. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli mutants that lack the heat shock sigma factor sigma 32. J Bacteriol. 1988 Aug; 170(8):3640-9.
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      112. Jin DJ, Walter WA, Gross CA. Characterization of the termination phenotypes of rifampicin-resistant mutants. J Mol Biol. 1988 Jul 20; 202(2):245-53.
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      113. Jin DJ, Gross CA. Mapping and sequencing of mutations in the Escherichia coli rpoB gene that lead to rifampicin resistance. J Mol Biol. 1988 Jul 5; 202(1):45-58.
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      114. Straus DB, Walter WA, Gross CA. The heat shock response of E. coli is regulated by changes in the concentration of sigma 32. Nature. 1987 Sep 24-30; 329(6137):348-51.
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      115. Erickson JW, Vaughn V, Walter WA, Neidhardt FC, Gross CA. Regulation of the promoters and transcripts of rpoH, the Escherichia coli heat shock regulatory gene. Genes Dev. 1987 Jul; 1(5):419-32.
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      116. Grossman AD, Straus DB, Walter WA, Gross CA. Sigma 32 synthesis can regulate the synthesis of heat shock proteins in Escherichia coli. Genes Dev. 1987 Apr; 1(2):179-84.
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      117. Grossman AD, Taylor WE, Burton ZF, Burgess RR, Gross CA. Stringent response in Escherichia coli induces expression of heat shock proteins. J Mol Biol. 1985 Nov 20; 186(2):357-65.
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      118. Cowing DW, Bardwell JC, Craig EA, Woolford C, Hendrix RW, Gross CA. Consensus sequence for Escherichia coli heat shock gene promoters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 May; 82(9):2679-83.
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      119. Hu JC, Gross CA. Mutations in the sigma subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase which affect positive control of transcription. Mol Gen Genet. 1985; 199(1):7-13.
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      120. Reznikoff WS, Siegele DA, Cowing DW, Gross CA. The regulation of transcription initiation in bacteria. Annu Rev Genet. 1985; 19:355-87.
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      121. Baker TA, Grossman AD, Gross CA. A gene regulating the heat shock response in Escherichia coli also affects proteolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Nov; 81(21):6779-83.
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      122. Grossman AD, Erickson JW, Gross CA. The htpR gene product of E. coli is a sigma factor for heat-shock promoters. Cell. 1984 Sep; 38(2):383-90.
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      123. Taylor WE, Straus DB, Grossman AD, Burton ZF, Gross CA, Burgess RR. Transcription from a heat-inducible promoter causes heat shock regulation of the sigma subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase. Cell. 1984 Sep; 38(2):371-81.
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      124. Grossman AD, Ullmann A, Burgess RR, Gross CA. Regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12: effects of the rpoD800 sigma mutation, glucose, and chloramphenicol. J Bacteriol. 1984 Apr; 158(1):110-4.
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      125. Gross CA, Grossman AD, Liebke H, Walter W, Burgess RR. Effects of the mutant sigma allele rpoD800 on the synthesis of specific macromolecular components of the Escherichia coli K12 cell. J Mol Biol. 1984 Jan 25; 172(3):283-300.
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      126. Baker TA, Howe MM, Gross CA. Mu dX, a derivative of Mu d1 (lac Apr) which makes stable lacZ fusions at high temperature. J Bacteriol. 1983 Nov; 156(2):970-4.
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      127. Burton ZF, Gross CA, Watanabe KK, Burgess RR. The operon that encodes the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase also encodes ribosomal protein S21 and DNA primase in E. coli K12. Cell. 1983 Feb; 32(2):335-49.
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      128. Hu JC, Gross CA. Marker rescue with plasmids bearing deletions in rpoD identifies a dispensable part of E. coli sigma factor. Mol Gen Genet. 1983; 191(3):492-8.
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      129. Grossman AD, Burgess RR, Walter W, Gross CA. Mutations in the Ion gene of E. coli K12 phenotypically suppress a mutation in the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase. Cell. 1983 Jan; 32(1):151-9.
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      130. Burton Z, Burgess RR, Lin J, Moore D, Holder S, Gross CA. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned rpoD gene for the RNA polymerase sigma subunit from E coli K12. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Jun 25; 9(12):2889-903.
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      131. Gross CA, Blattner FR, Taylor WE, Lowe PA, Burgess RR. Isolation and characterization of transducing phage coding for sigma subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Nov; 76(11):5789-93.
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      132. Burgess RR, Gross CA, Walter W, Lowe PA. Altered chemical properties in three mutants of E. coli RNA polymerase sigma subunit. Mol Gen Genet. 1979 Oct 1; 175(3):251-7.
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      133. deHaseth PL, Gross CA, Burgess RR, Record MT. Measurement of binding constants for protein-DNA interactions by DNA-cellulose chromatography. Biochemistry. 1977 Nov 1; 16(22):4777-83.
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      134. von Hippel PH, Revzin A, Gross CA, Wang AC. Non-specific DNA binding of genome regulating proteins as a biological control mechanism: I. The lac operon: equilibrium aspects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Dec; 71(12):4808-12.
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      135. Laiken SL, Gross CA, Von Hippel PH. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of Escherichia coli lac repressor-inducer interactions. J Mol Biol. 1972 Apr 28; 66(1):143-55.
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