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Dhruv Kazi, MD, MS

TitleAssociate Professor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentMedicine
Address1001 Potrero Ave
San Francisco CA 94110
Phone415-206-6490
EmailKazi@ucsf.edu
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Stanford University, Stanford, CAMaster of Science, Health Services Research 2012School of Medicine
    Stanford University, Stanford, CAEntrepreneurial Design for Extreme Affordability2012Hasso Plattner Institute of Design
    Stanford University, Stanford, CAStanford Ignite – Program in Innovation and Entrepreneurship2011Graduate School of Business
    University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CAClinical Fellowship in Cardiovascular Medicine2010School of Medicine
    London School of Economics and Political Science, London, United KingdomMaster of Science, International Health Policy and Health Economics2007
    Baylor College of Medicine: Ben Taub General Hospital and St Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TXChief Residency: Internal Medicine2006
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TXResidency: Internal Medicine2005
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TXInternship: Internal Medicine2003
    University of Mumbai, Mumbai, IndiaMedical Degree2001Seth G.S. Medical College

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    I am a general cardiologist and a cardiovascular health economist interested in understanding and improving long-term clinical outcomes among patients with cardiovascular disease in the United States and overseas.

    My recent work has involved the evaluation of novel diagnostic approaches, genetic testing, medical devices, and drug therapy, and has included the use of simulation modeling and advanced statistical techniques for large observational datasets (Medicare, Kaiser, National Inpatient Sample).

    I am particularly interested in the optimization of health care expenditures to maximize societal value. For instance, how does one determine the “best” use for scarce resources when considering alternative diagnostic or therapeutic strategies for a given disease or a range of commonly encountered diseases? Rather than viewing optimization as a zero-sum game, can we develop creative ways (for instance, by exploring synergies within the system or using low-cost technologies) to enhance productivity and expand the pie?

    I co-founded heartMAP – a low-cost, data-driven program focused on improving medication adherence among low-literacy patients with advanced cardiovascular disease. heartMAP harnesses technology and real-time data analysis to treat and track patients on anticoagulation, using incentives for stakeholder behavior modification. We are partnering with Narayana Hospitals in Bangalore, India, a pioneer in using industrial systems design to dramatically reduce the cost of cardiovascular surgery, and the Center for Chronic Disease Control in New Delhi, India’s leading private-public partnership for research in non-communicable diseases. See www.heart-map.org for more information.

    I aspire to leverage my dual training in cardiology and health economics to help ensure that our investments in healthcare represent true societal value. My clinical training has spanned four continents and included three large safety-net hospitals, three VAs and four quaternary care centers; and my research training has been at two of the world’s leading departments of health policy and health economics. I am confident that the breadth of my clinical and research experiences enables me to provide quality, compassionate health care to my patients, even as I strive to improve the system that delivers it.

    Collapse Interests
    health economics, cost-effectiveness, m-health, global health, India, anticoagulation, big data

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Global Health
    Collapse Twitter
    Collapse Featured Publications

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Kazi DS, Moran AE, Bibbins-Domingo K. Cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 Inhibitor Therapy-Reply. JAMA. 2016 Nov 22; 316(20):2152. PMID: 27893125.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Kazi DS, Greenough PG, Madhok R, Heerboth A, Shaikh A, Leaning J, Balsari S. Using mobile technology to optimize disease surveillance and healthcare delivery at mass gatherings: a case study from India's Kumbh Mela. J Public Health (Oxf). 2016 Sep 21. PMID: 27694349.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Chen S, Gong E, Kazi DS, Gates AB, Karaye KM, Girerd N, Bai R, AlHabib KF, Li C, Sun K, Hong L, Fu H, Peng W, Liu X, Chen L, Schwalm JD, Yan LL. Development of a mobile phone-based intervention to improve adherence to secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in China. J Med Eng Technol. 2016 Oct - Nov; 40(7-8):372-382. PMID: 27686107.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Kazi DS, Bolger AF. Caveat Emptor: Antibiotics, Endocarditis, and Statistical Artifacts. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 May 3; 67(17):2088-90. PMID: 27126541.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Schoenfeld AJ, Davies JM, Marafino BJ, Dean M, DeJong C, Bardach NS, Kazi D, Boscardin WJ, Lin GA, Duseja R, Mei YJ, Mehrotra A, Dudley RA. Variation in Quality of Urgent Health Care Provided During Commercial Virtual Visits. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 May 1; 176(5):635-42. PMID: 27042813.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Sandhu AT, Dudley RA, Kazi DS. Cost Analysis of the American Board of Internal Medicine's Maintenance-of-Certification Program. Ann Intern Med. 2016 Apr 19; 164(8):571-2. PMID: 27089078.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Ben-Yehuda O, Kazi DS, Bonafede M, Wade SW, Machacz SF, Stephens LA, Hlatky MA, Hernandez JB. Angina and associated healthcare costs following percutaneous coronary intervention: A real-world analysis from a multi-payer database. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2016 Dec; 88(7):1017-1024. PMID: 26774951.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Tice JA, Kazi DS, Pearson SD. Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) Inhibitors for Treatment of High Cholesterol Levels: Effectiveness and Value. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Jan 1; 176(1):107-8. PMID: 26662572.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Kazi DS, Bolger AF. Infective endocarditis and antibiotic prophylaxis. Lancet. 2015 Aug 8; 386(9993):530. PMID: 26293437.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Sandhu AT, Dudley RA, Kazi DS. A Cost Analysis of the American Board of Internal Medicine's Maintenance-of-Certification Program. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Sep 15; 163(6):401-8. PMID: 26216046.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Adler AJ, Prabhakaran D, Bovet P, Kazi DS, Mancia G, Mungal-Singh V, Poulter N. Reducing Cardiovascular Mortality Through Prevention and Management of Raised Blood Pressure: A World Heart Federation Roadmap. Glob Heart. 2015 Jun; 10(2):111-22. PMID: 26213298.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Kazi DS, Leong TK, Chang TI, Solomon MD, Hlatky MA, Go AS. Association of spontaneous bleeding and myocardial infarction with long-term mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Apr 14; 65(14):1411-20. PMID: 25857906.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Fontil V, Bibbins-Domingo K, Kazi DS, Sidney S, Coxson PG, Khanna R, Victor RG, Pletcher MJ. Simulating Strategies for Improving Control of Hypertension Among Patients with Usual Source of Care in the United States: The Blood Pressure Control Model. J Gen Intern Med. 2015 Aug; 30(8):1147-55. PMID: 25749880; PMCID: PMC4510247 [Available on 08/01/16].
    14. Kazi DS, Hlatky MA. A delicate balance: the cost effectiveness of new antiplatelet agents. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Feb 10; 65(5):477-9. PMID: 25660926.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Kazi DS, Hlatky MA. The value of pharmacogenetic testing—reply. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Feb; 175(2):314-5. PMID: 25642673.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Kazi DS, Prabhakaran D, Bolger AF. Rising above the rhetoric: mobile applications and the delivery of cost-effective cardiovascular care in resource-limited settings. Future Cardiol. 2015; 11(1):1-4. PMID: 25606694.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Kazi DS. From innovation to implementation: optimizing long-term outcomes after TAVR. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Dec 23; 64(24):2616-8. PMID: 25524340.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Hlatky MA, Andersson C, Chang TI, Kazi D, Solomon MD, Go AS. Reply: Beta-blockers for angina: time to reassess the specific impact of drug therapy in coronary heart disease patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Dec 23; 64(24):2712. PMID: 25524354.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Marseille E, Larson B, Kazi DS, Kahn JG, Rosen S. Thresholds for the cost-effectiveness of interventions: alternative approaches. Bull World Health Organ. 2015 Feb 1; 93(2):118-24. PMID: 25883405; PMCID: PMC4339959.
    20. Kazi DS, Owens DK, Hlatky MA. Cost-effectiveness of genotype-guided and dual antiplatelet therapies. In response. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Sep 2; 161(5):378-9. PMID: 25178577.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Kazi DS, Hlatky MA. Warfarin, genes, and the (health care) environment. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Aug; 174(8):1338-9. PMID: 24934523.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Andersson C, Shilane D, Go AS, Chang TI, Kazi D, Solomon MD, Boothroyd DB, Hlatky MA. ß-blocker therapy and cardiac events among patients with newly diagnosed coronary heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jul 22; 64(3):247-52. PMID: 25034059.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Wang H, Liddell CA, Coates MM, Mooney MD, Levitz CE, Schumacher AE, Apfel H, Iannarone M, Phillips B, Lofgren KT, Sandar L, Dorrington RE, Rakovac I, Jacobs TA, Liang X, Zhou M, Zhu J, Yang G, Wang Y, Liu S, Li Y, Ozgoren AA, Abera SF, Abubakar I, Achoki T, Adelekan A, Ademi Z, Alemu ZA, Allen PJ, AlMazroa MA, Alvarez E, Amankwaa AA, Amare AT, Ammar W, Anwari P, Cunningham SA, Asad MM, Assadi R, Banerjee A, Basu S, Bedi N, Bekele T, Bell ML, Bhutta Z, Blore JD, Basara BB, Boufous S, Breitborde N, Bruce NG, Bui LN, Carapetis JR, Cárdenas R, Carpenter DO, Caso V, Castro RE, Catalá-Lopéz F, Cavlin A, Che X, Chiang PP, Chowdhury R, Christophi CA, Chuang TW, Cirillo M, da Costa Leite I, Courville KJ, Dandona L, Dandona R, Davis A, Dayama A, Deribe K, Dharmaratne SD, Dherani MK, Dilmen U, Ding EL, Edmond KM, Ermakov SP, Farzadfar F, Fereshtehnejad SM, Fijabi DO, Foigt N, Forouzanfar MH, Garcia AC, Geleijnse JM, Gessner BD, Goginashvili K, Gona P, Goto A, Gouda HN, Green MA, Greenwell KF, Gugnani HC, Gupta R, Hamadeh RR, Hammami M, Harb HL, Hay S, Hedayati MT, Hosgood HD, Hoy DG, Idrisov BT, Islami F, Ismayilova S, Jha V, Jiang G, Jonas JB, Juel K, Kabagambe EK, Kazi DS, Kengne AP, Kereselidze M, Khader YS, Khalifa SE, Khang YH, Kim D, Kinfu Y, Kinge JM, Kokubo Y, Kosen S, Defo BK, Kumar GA, Kumar K, Kumar RB, Lai T, Lan Q, Larsson A, Lee JT, Leinsalu M, Lim SS, Lipshultz SE, Logroscino G, Lotufo PA, Lunevicius R, Lyons RA, Ma S, Mahdi AA, Marzan MB, Mashal MT, Mazorodze TT, McGrath JJ, Memish ZA, Mendoza W, Mensah GA, Meretoja A, Miller TR, Mills EJ, Mohammad KA, Mokdad AH, Monasta L, Montico M, Moore AR, Moschandreas J, Msemburi WT, Mueller UO, Muszynska MM, Naghavi M, Naidoo KS, Narayan KM, Nejjari C, Ng M, de Dieu Ngirabega J, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Nyakarahuka L, Ohkubo T, Omer SB, Caicedo AJ, Pillay-van Wyk V, Pope D, Pourmalek F, Prabhakaran D, Rahman SU, Rana SM, Reilly RQ, Rojas-Rueda D, Ronfani L, Rushton L, Saeedi MY, Salomon JA, Sampson U, Santos IS, Sawhney M, Schmidt JC, Shakh-Nazarova M, She J, Sheikhbahaei S, Shibuya K, Shin HH, Shishani K, Shiue I, Sigfusdottir ID, Singh JA, Skirbekk V, Sliwa K, Soshnikov SS, Sposato LA, Stathopoulou VK, Stroumpoulis K, Tabb KM, Talongwa RT, Teixeira CM, Terkawi AS, Thomson AJ, Thorne-Lyman AL, Toyoshima H, Dimbuene ZT, Uwaliraye P, Uzun SB, Vasankari TJ, Vasconcelos AM, Vlassov VV, Vollset SE, Waller S, Wan X, Weichenthal S, Weiderpass E, Weintraub RG, Westerman R, Wilkinson JD, Williams HC, Yang YC, Yentur GK, Yip P, Yonemoto N, Younis M, Yu C, Jin KY, El Sayed Zaki M, Zhu S, Vos T, Lopez AD, Murray CJ. Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2014 Sep 13; 384(9947):957-79. PMID: 24797572; PMCID: PMC4165626.
    24. Kassebaum NJ, Bertozzi-Villa A, Coggeshall MS, Shackelford KA, Steiner C, Heuton KR, Gonzalez-Medina D, Barber R, Huynh C, Dicker D, Templin T, Wolock TM, Ozgoren AA, Abd-Allah F, Abera SF, Abubakar I, Achoki T, Adelekan A, Ademi Z, Adou AK, Adsuar JC, Agardh EE, Akena D, Alasfoor D, Alemu ZA, Alfonso-Cristancho R, Alhabib S, Ali R, Al Kahbouri MJ, Alla F, Allen PJ, AlMazroa MA, Alsharif U, Alvarez E, Alvis-Guzmán N, Amankwaa AA, Amare AT, Amini H, Ammar W, Antonio CA, Anwari P, Arnlöv J, Arsenijevic VS, Artaman A, Asad MM, Asghar RJ, Assadi R, Atkins LS, Badawi A, Balakrishnan K, Basu A, Basu S, Beardsley J, Bedi N, Bekele T, Bell ML, Bernabe E, Beyene TJ, Bhutta Z, Bin Abdulhak A, Blore JD, Basara BB, Bose D, Breitborde N, Cárdenas R, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Castro RE, Catalá-López F, Cavlin A, Chang JC, Che X, Christophi CA, Chugh SS, Cirillo M, Colquhoun SM, Cooper LT, Cooper C, da Costa Leite I, Dandona L, Dandona R, Davis A, Dayama A, Degenhardt L, De Leo D, del Pozo-Cruz B, Deribe K, Dessalegn M, deVeber GA, Dharmaratne SD, Dilmen U, Ding EL, Dorrington RE, Driscoll TR, Ermakov SP, Esteghamati A, Faraon EJ, Farzadfar F, Felicio MM, Fereshtehnejad SM, de Lima GM, Forouzanfar MH, França EB, Gaffikin L, Gambashidze K, Gankpé FG, Garcia AC, Geleijnse JM, Gibney KB, Giroud M, Glaser EL, Goginashvili K, Gona P, González-Castell D, Goto A, Gouda HN, Gugnani HC, Gupta R, Gupta R, Hafezi-Nejad N, Hamadeh RR, Hammami M, Hankey GJ, Harb HL, Havmoeller R, Hay SI, Pi IB, Hoek HW, Hosgood HD, Hoy DG, Husseini A, Idrisov BT, Innos K, Inoue M, Jacobsen KH, Jahangir E, Jee SH, Jensen PN, Jha V, Jiang G, Jonas JB, Juel K, Kabagambe EK, Kan H, Karam NE, Karch A, Karema CK, Kaul A, Kawakami N, Kazanjan K, Kazi DS, Kemp AH, Kengne AP, Kereselidze M, Khader YS, Khalifa SE, Khan EA, Khang YH, Knibbs L, Kokubo Y, Kosen S, Defo BK, Kulkarni C, Kulkarni VS, Kumar GA, Kumar K, Kumar RB, Kwan G, Lai T, Lalloo R, Lam H, Lansingh VC, Larsson A, Lee JT, Leigh J, Leinsalu M, Leung R, Li X, Li Y, Li Y, Liang J, Liang X, Lim SS, Lin HH, Lipshultz SE, Liu S, Liu Y, Lloyd BK, London SJ, Lotufo PA, Ma J, Ma S, Machado VM, Mainoo NK, Majdan M, Mapoma CC, Marcenes W, Marzan MB, Mason-Jones AJ, Mehndiratta MM, Mejia-Rodriguez F, Memish ZA, Mendoza W, Miller TR, Mills EJ, Mokdad AH, Mola GL, Monasta L, de la Cruz Monis J, Hernandez JC, Moore AR, Moradi-Lakeh M, Mori R, Mueller UO, Mukaigawara M, Naheed A, Naidoo KS, Nand D, Nangia V, Nash D, Nejjari C, Nelson RG, Neupane SP, Newton CR, Ng M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Nisar MI, Nolte S, Norheim OF, Nyakarahuka L, Oh IH, Ohkubo T, Olusanya BO, Omer SB, Opio JN, Orisakwe OE, Pandian JD, Papachristou C, Park JH, Caicedo AJ, Patten SB, Paul VK, Pavlin BI, Pearce N, Pereira DM, Pesudovs K, Petzold M, Poenaru D, Polanczyk GV, Polinder S, Pope D, Pourmalek F, Qato D, Quistberg DA, Rafay A, Rahimi K, Rahimi-Movaghar V, ur Rahman S, Raju M, Rana SM, Refaat A, Ronfani L, Roy N, Pimienta TG, Sahraian MA, Salomon JA, Sampson U, Santos IS, Sawhney M, Sayinzoga F, Schneider IJ, Schumacher A, Schwebel DC, Seedat S, Sepanlou SG, Servan-Mori EE, Shakh-Nazarova M, Sheikhbahaei S, Shibuya K, Shin HH, Shiue I, Sigfusdottir ID, Silberberg DH, Silva AP, Singh JA, Skirbekk V, Sliwa K, Soshnikov SS, Sposato LA, Sreeramareddy CT, Stroumpoulis K, Sturua L, Sykes BL, Tabb KM, Talongwa RT, Tan F, Teixeira CM, Tenkorang EY, Terkawi AS, Thorne-Lyman AL, Tirschwell DL, Towbin JA, Tran BX, Tsilimbaris M, Uchendu US, Ukwaja KN, Undurraga EA, Uzun SB, Vallely AJ, van Gool CH, Vasankari TJ, Vavilala MS, Venketasubramanian N, Villalpando S, Violante FS, Vlassov VV, Vos T, Waller S, Wang H, Wang L, Wang X, Wang Y, Weichenthal S, Weiderpass E, Weintraub RG, Westerman R, Wilkinson JD, Woldeyohannes SM, Wong JQ, Wordofa MA, Xu G, Yang YC, Yano Y, Yentur GK, Yip P, Yonemoto N, Yoon SJ, Younis MZ, Yu C, Jin KY, El Sayed Zaki M, Zhao Y, Zheng Y, Zhou M, Zhu J, Zou XN, Lopez AD, Naghavi M, Murray CJ, Lozano R. Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2014 Sep 13; 384(9947):980-1004. PMID: 24797575; PMCID: PMC4255481.
    25. Solomon MD, Go AS, Shilane D, Boothroyd DB, Leong TK, Kazi DS, Chang TI, Hlatky MA. Comparative effectiveness of clopidogrel in medically managed patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jun 3; 63(21):2249-57. PMID: 24703914.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Kazi DS, Garber AM, Shah RU, Dudley RA, Mell MW, Rhee C, Moshkevich S, Boothroyd DB, Owens DK, Hlatky MA. Cost-effectiveness of genotype-guided and dual antiplatelet therapies in acute coronary syndrome. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Feb 18; 160(4):221-32. PMID: 24727840.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Hlatky MA, Boothroyd DB, Baker L, Kazi DS, Solomon MD, Chang TI, Shilane D, Go AS. Comparative effectiveness of multivessel coronary bypass surgery and multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2013 May 21; 158(10):727-34. PMID: 23609014; PMCID: PMC4117804.
    28. Chang TI, Leong TK, Kazi DS, Lee HS, Hlatky MA, Go AS. Comparative effectiveness of coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary intervention for multivessel coronary disease in a community-based population with chronic kidney disease. Am Heart J. 2013 May; 165(5):800-8, 808.e1-2. PMID: 23622918; PMCID: PMC4125571.
    29. Kazi DS, Hlatky MA. Atrial fibrillation ablation, symptoms, and stroke risk: comment on "Discerning the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic episodes of atrial fibrillation before and after catheter ablation (DISCERN AF)". JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jan 28; 173(2):156-7. PMID: 23266835.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Kazi DS, Mark DB. The economics of heart failure. Heart Fail Clin. 2013 Jan; 9(1):93-106. PMID: 23168320.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Chang TI, Shilane D, Kazi DS, Montez-Rath ME, Hlatky MA, Winkelmayer WC. Multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention in ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Dec; 23(12):2042-9. PMID: 23204445; PMCID: PMC3507369.
    32. Kazi DS, Hlatky MA. Repeat revascularization is a faulty end point for clinical trials. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2012 May; 5(3):249-50. PMID: 22592752.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Kazi DS. Banishing smoking from public spaces. N Engl J Med. 2011 Sep 29; 365(13):1255-6; author reply 1256. PMID: 21991902.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Krummen DE, Patel M, Nguyen H, Ho G, Kazi DS, Clopton P, Holland MC, Greenberg SL, Feld GK, Faddis MN, Narayan SM. Accurate ECG diagnosis of atrial tachyarrhythmias using quantitative analysis: a prospective diagnostic and cost-effectiveness study. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010 Nov; 21(11):1251-9. PMID: 20522152; PMCID: PMC2970682.
    35. Narayan SM, Kazi D, Krummen DE, Rappel WJ. Repolarization and activation restitution near human pulmonary veins and atrial fibrillation initiation: a mechanism for the initiation of atrial fibrillation by premature beats. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Oct 7; 52(15):1222-30. PMID: 18926325; PMCID: PMC2604131.
    36. Kazi D, Deswal A. Role and optimal dosing of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure. Cardiol Clin. 2008 Feb; 26(1):1-14, v. PMID: 18312901.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Kazi D. Rosiglitazone and implications for pharmacovigilance. BMJ. 2007 Jun 16; 334(7606):1233-4. PMID: 17569897; PMCID: PMC1892466.
    38. Kazi DS. Katrina's dance. Am J Med. 2006 Nov; 119(11):910-1. PMID: 17071153.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Kazi D, Farmer JA. Raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: innovative strategies against an old adversary. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2005 Mar; 7(2):88-94. PMID: 15727722.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Kazi D, Deswal A. Role and optimal dosing of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. Heart Fail Clin. 2005 Apr; 1(1):25-37. PMID: 17386831.
      View in: PubMed
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