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    Douglas Nixon, MD, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address1001 Potrero Ave, SFGH 3
    San Francisco CA 94110
    Phone415-206-5518
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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Nititham J, Gupta R, Zeng X, Hartogensis W, Nixon DF, Deeks SG, Hecht FM, Liao W. Psoriasis risk SNPs and their association with HIV-1 control. Hum Immunol. 2016 Oct 31. PMID: 27810495.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Paquin-Proulx D, Gibbs A, Bächle SM, Checa A, Introini A, Leeansyah E, Wheelock CE, Nixon DF, Broliden K, Tjernlund A, Moll M, Sandberg JK. Innate Invariant NKT Cell Recognition of HIV-1-Infected Dendritic Cells Is an Early Detection Mechanism Targeted by Viral Immune Evasion. J Immunol. 2016 Sep 1; 197(5):1843-51. PMID: 27481843.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Paquin-Proulx D, Barsotti NS, Santos BA, Marinho AK, Kokron CM, Carvalho KI, Barros MT, Kalil J, Nixon DF, Kallas EG. Inversion of the Vd1 to Vd2 ?d T cell ratio in CVID is not restored by IVIg and is associated with immune activation and exhaustion. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Jul; 95(30):e4304. PMID: 27472706.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Patel S, Jones RB, Nixon DF, Bollard CM. T-cell therapies for HIV: Preclinical successes and current clinical strategies. Cytotherapy. 2016 Aug; 18(8):931-42. PMID: 27265874.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Kuebler PJ, Shaw BI, Leadabrand KS, Mehrotra ML, Grant RM, Kallás EG, Nixon DF. Brief Report: HIV-1 gp120 T-Cell Responses Correspond to Infection Outcomes in the Global iPrEx Chemoprophylaxis Trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Jun 1; 72(2):184-8. PMID: 26674373.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Paquin-Proulx D, Ching C, Vujkovic-Cvijin I, Fadrosh D, Loh L, Huang Y, Somsouk M, Lynch SV, Hunt PW, Nixon DF, SenGupta D. Bacteroides are associated with GALT iNKT cell function and reduction of microbial translocation in HIV-1 infection. Mucosal Immunol. 2016 Apr 6. PMID: 27049061.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Daubenmier J, Moran PJ, Kristeller J, Acree M, Bacchetti P, Kemeny ME, Dallman M, Lustig RH, Grunfeld C, Nixon DF, Milush JM, Goldman V, Laraia B, Laugero KD, Woodhouse L, Epel ES, Hecht FM. Effects of a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention in adults with obesity: A randomized clinical trial. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 Apr; 24(4):794-804. PMID: 26955895.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Kuebler PJ, Mehrotra ML, Shaw BI, Leadabrand KS, Milush JM, York VA, Defechereux P, Grant RM, Kallás EG, Nixon DF. Persistent HIV Type 1 Seronegative Status Is Associated With Lower CD8+ T-Cell Activation. J Infect Dis. 2016 Feb 15; 213(4):569-73. PMID: 26310308.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Kuebler PJ, Mehrotra ML, McConnell JJ, Holditch SJ, Shaw BI, Tarosso LF, Leadabrand KS, Milush JM, York VA, Raposo RA, Cheng RG, Eriksson EM, McMahan V, Glidden DV, Shiboski S, Grant RM, Nixon DF, Kallás EG. Cellular immune correlates analysis of an HIV-1 preexposure prophylaxis trial. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jul 7; 112(27):8379-84. PMID: 26100867; PMCID: PMC4500209.
      10. Almeida RR, Raposo RA, Coirada FC, da Silva JR, de Souza Ferreira LC, Kalil J, Nixon DF, Cunha-Neto E. Modulating APOBEC expression enhances DNA vaccine immunogenicity. Immunol Cell Biol. 2015 Nov; 93(10):868-76. PMID: 25953029.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Eriksson EM, Liegler T, Keh CE, Karlsson AC, Holditch SJ, Pilcher CD, Loeb L, Nixon DF, Hecht FM. Newly Exerted T Cell Pressures on Mutated Epitopes following Transmission Help Maintain Consensus HIV-1 Sequences. PLoS One. 2014; 10(4):e0120787. PMID: 25919393; PMCID: PMC4412704.
      12. Raposo RA, Gupta R, Abdel-Mohsen M, Dimon M, Debbaneh M, Jiang W, York VA, Leadabrand KS, Brown G, Malakouti M, Arron S, Kuebler PJ, Wu JJ, Pillai SK, Nixon DF, Liao W. Antiviral gene expression in psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Oct; 29(10):1951-7. PMID: 25809693; PMCID: PMC4580491 [Available on 10/01/16].
      13. Nixon DF, Simon GL, Raposo RA. Test, treat, and cure. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Jan 1; 68(1):e9-10. PMID: 25296100; PMCID: PMC4435739 [Available on 01/01/16].
      14. Leal FE, Michniowski M, Nixon DF. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1, breastfeeding, and antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2015 Mar; 31(3):271. PMID: 25296330.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Ribeiro SP, Milush JM, Cunha-Neto E, Kallas EG, Kalil J, Somsouk M, Hunt PW, Deeks SG, Nixon DF, SenGupta D. The CD8? memory stem T cell (T(SCM)) subset is associated with improved prognosis in chronic HIV-1 infection. J Virol. 2014 Dec; 88(23):13836-44. PMID: 25253339; PMCID: PMC4248986.
      16. Gupta R, Michaud HA, Zeng X, Debbaneh M, Arron ST, Jones RB, Ormsby CE, Nixon DF, Liao W. Diminished humoral responses against and reduced gene expression levels of human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) in psoriasis. J Transl Med. 2014; 12:256. PMID: 25224121; PMCID: PMC4174287.
      17. Raposo RA, Abdel-Mohsen M, Deng X, Hecht FM, Pilcher CD, Pillai SK, Nixon DF. Dynamic regulation of host restriction factor expression over the course of HIV-1 infection in vivo. J Virol. 2014 Oct; 88(19):11624-9. PMID: 25031350; PMCID: PMC4178813.
      18. Michaud HA, SenGupta D, de Mulder M, Deeks SG, Martin JN, Kobie JJ, Sacha JB, Nixon DF. Cutting edge: An antibody recognizing ancestral endogenous virus glycoproteins mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity on HIV-1-infected cells. J Immunol. 2014 Aug 15; 193(4):1544-8. PMID: 25024383; PMCID: PMC4120895.
      19. Gurfein BT, Davidenko O, Premenko-Lanier M, Milush JM, Acree M, Dallman MF, Touma C, Palme R, York VA, Fromentin G, Darcel N, Nixon DF, Hecht FM. Environmental enrichment alters splenic immune cell composition and enhances secondary influenza vaccine responses in mice. Mol Med. 2014; 20:179-90. PMID: 24687160; PMCID: PMC4002849.
      20. Sheppard NC, Jones RB, Burwitz BJ, Nimityongskul FA, Newman LP, Buechler MB, Reed JS, Piaskowski SM, Weisgrau KL, Castrovinci PA, Wilson NA, Ostrowski MA, Park B, Nixon DF, Rakasz EG, Sacha JB. Vaccination against endogenous retrotransposable element consensus sequences does not protect rhesus macaques from SIVsmE660 infection and replication. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e92012. PMID: 24651676; PMCID: PMC3961289.
      21. Loh L, Ivarsson MA, Michaëlsson J, Sandberg JK, Nixon DF. Invariant natural killer T cells developing in the human fetus accumulate and mature in the small intestine. Mucosal Immunol. 2014 Sep; 7(5):1233-43. PMID: 24646938.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Michaud HA, de Mulder M, SenGupta D, Deeks SG, Martin JN, Pilcher CD, Hecht FM, Sacha JB, Nixon DF. Trans-activation, post-transcriptional maturation, and induction of antibodies to HERV-K (HML-2) envelope transmembrane protein in HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology. 2014; 11:10. PMID: 24472118; PMCID: PMC3907665.
      23. Emu B, Moretto WJ, Hoh R, Krone M, Martin JN, Nixon DF, Deeks SG, McCune JM. Composition and function of T cell subpopulations are slow to change despite effective antiretroviral treatment of HIV disease. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85613. PMID: 24465619; PMCID: PMC3897457.
      24. Leeansyah E, Loh L, Nixon DF, Sandberg JK. Acquisition of innate-like microbial reactivity in mucosal tissues during human fetal MAIT-cell development. Nat Commun. 2014; 5:3143. PMID: 24452018; PMCID: PMC3916833.
      25. Milush JM, López-Vergès S, York VA, Deeks SG, Martin JN, Hecht FM, Lanier LL, Nixon DF. CD56negCD16? NK cells are activated mature NK cells with impaired effector function during HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology. 2013; 10:158. PMID: 24351015; PMCID: PMC3892122.
      26. Abdel-Mohsen M, Raposo RA, Deng X, Li M, Liegler T, Sinclair E, Salama MS, Ghanem Hel-D, Hoh R, Wong JK, David M, Nixon DF, Deeks SG, Pillai SK. Expression profile of host restriction factors in HIV-1 elite controllers. Retrovirology. 2013; 10:106. PMID: 24131498; PMCID: PMC3827935.
      27. Jones RB, Song H, Xu Y, Garrison KE, Buzdin AA, Anwar N, Hunter DV, Mujib S, Mihajlovic V, Martin E, Lee E, Kuciak M, Raposo RA, Bozorgzad A, Meiklejohn DA, Ndhlovu LC, Nixon DF, Ostrowski MA. LINE-1 retrotransposable element DNA accumulates in HIV-1-infected cells. J Virol. 2013 Dec; 87(24):13307-20. PMID: 24089548; PMCID: PMC3838212.
      28. de Mulder M, York VA, Wiznia AA, Michaud HA, Nixon DF, Holguin A, Rosenberg MG. HIV-1 drug resistance prevalence, drug susceptibility and variant characterization in the Jacobi Medical Center paediatric cohort, Bronx, NY, USA. HIV Med. 2014 Mar; 15(3):135-43. PMID: 24112468.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Raposo RA, Abdel-Mohsen M, Bilska M, Montefiori DC, Nixon DF, Pillai SK. Effects of cellular activation on anti-HIV-1 restriction factor expression profile in primary cells. J Virol. 2013 Nov; 87(21):11924-9. PMID: 23966394; PMCID: PMC3807358.
      30. Ivarsson MA, Loh L, Marquardt N, Kekäläinen E, Berglin L, Björkström NK, Westgren M, Nixon DF, Michaëlsson J. Differentiation and functional regulation of human fetal NK cells. J Clin Invest. 2013 Sep; 123(9):3889-901. PMID: 23945237; PMCID: PMC3754261.
      31. Raposo RA, Abdel-Mohsen M, Holditch SJ, Kuebler PJ, Cheng RG, Eriksson EM, Liao W, Pillai SK, Nixon DF. Increased expression of intrinsic antiviral genes in HLA-B*57-positive individuals. J Leukoc Biol. 2013 Nov; 94(5):1051-9. PMID: 23929683; PMCID: PMC3800066.
      32. Snyder-Cappione JE, Nixon DF, Chi JC, Nguyen ML, Kirby CK, Milush JM, Koth LL. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell exhaustion in sarcoidosis. Eur J Immunol. 2013 Aug; 43(8):2194-205. PMID: 23661497; PMCID: PMC3869389.
      33. Sanabani SS, Pessôa R, Soares de Oliveira AC, Martinez VP, Giret MT, de Menezes Succi RC, Carvalho K, Tomiyama CS, Nixon DF, Sabino EC, Kallas EG. Variability of HIV-1 genomes among children and adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e62552. PMID: 23667488; PMCID: PMC3646872.
      34. Champiat S, Garrison KE, Raposo RA, Burwitz BJ, Reed J, Tandon R, York VA, Newman LP, Nimityongskul FA, Wilson NA, Almeida RR, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Rosenberg MG, Wiznia AA, Spotts GE, Pilcher CD, Hecht FM, Ostrowski MA, Sacha JB, Nixon DF. T cells target APOBEC3 proteins in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected humans and simian immunodeficiency virus-infected Indian rhesus macaques. J Virol. 2013 Jun; 87(11):6073-80. PMID: 23536679; PMCID: PMC3648095.
      35. Batista MD, Tincati C, Milush JM, Ho EL, Ndhlovu LC, York VA, Kallas EG, Kalil J, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Chang D, Unemori P, Leslie KS, Maurer T, Liao W, Nixon DF. CD57 expression and cytokine production by T cells in lesional and unaffected skin from patients with psoriasis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e52144. PMID: 23468834; PMCID: PMC3585296.
      36. Leal FE, Ndhlovu LC, Hasenkrug AM, Bruno FR, Carvalho KI, Wynn-Williams H, Neto WK, Sanabani SS, Segurado AC, Nixon DF, Kallas EG. Expansion in CD39? CD4? immunoregulatory t cells and rarity of Th17 cells in HTLV-1 infected patients is associated with neurological complications. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013; 7(2):e2028. PMID: 23409198; PMCID: PMC3566991.
      37. Jones RB, Leal FE, Hasenkrug AM, Segurado AC, Nixon DF, Ostrowski MA, Kallas EG. Human endogenous retrovirus K(HML-2) Gag and Env specific T-cell responses are not detected in HTLV-I-infected subjects using standard peptide screening methods. J Negat Results Biomed. 2013; 12:3. PMID: 23305161; PMCID: PMC3560086.
      38. Perez CL, Milush JM, Buggert M, Eriksson EM, Larsen MV, Liegler T, Hartogensis W, Bacchetti P, Lund O, Hecht FM, Nixon DF, Karlsson AC. Targeting of conserved gag-epitopes in early HIV infection is associated with lower plasma viral load and slower CD4(+) T cell depletion. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Mar; 29(3):602-12. PMID: 23140171; PMCID: PMC3581067.
      39. Batista MD, Ho EL, Kuebler PJ, Milush JM, Lanier LL, Kallas EG, York VA, Chang D, Liao W, Unemori P, Leslie KS, Maurer T, Nixon DF. Skewed distribution of natural killer cells in psoriasis skin lesions. Exp Dermatol. 2013 Jan; 22(1):64-6. PMID: 23278897; PMCID: PMC3777400.
      40. Keh CE, Jha AR, Nzarubara B, Lanar DE, Dutta S, Theisen M, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Nixon DF, Greenhouse B. Associations between antibodies to a panel of Plasmodium falciparum specific antigens and response to sub-optimal antimalarial therapy in Kampala, Uganda. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e52571. PMID: 23285095; PMCID: PMC3526588.
      41. Eriksson EM, Keh CE, Deeks SG, Martin JN, Hecht FM, Nixon DF. Differential expression of CD96 surface molecule represents CD8? T cells with dissimilar effector function during HIV-1 infection. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e51696. PMID: 23272144; PMCID: PMC3521672.
      42. Jones RB, Garrison KE, Mujib S, Mihajlovic V, Aidarus N, Hunter DV, Martin E, John VM, Zhan W, Faruk NF, Gyenes G, Sheppard NC, Priumboom-Brees IM, Goodwin DA, Chen L, Rieger M, Muscat-King S, Loudon PT, Stanley C, Holditch SJ, Wong JC, Clayton K, Duan E, Song H, Xu Y, SenGupta D, Tandon R, Sacha JB, Brockman MA, Benko E, Kovacs C, Nixon DF, Ostrowski MA. HERV-K-specific T cells eliminate diverse HIV-1/2 and SIV primary isolates. J Clin Invest. 2012 Dec; 122(12):4473-89. PMID: 23143309; PMCID: PMC3533554.
      43. Tandon R, Giret MT, Sengupta D, York VA, Wiznia AA, Rosenberg MG, Kallas EG, Ndhlovu LC, Nixon DF. Age-related expansion of Tim-3 expressing T cells in vertically HIV-1 infected children. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e45733. PMID: 23029209; PMCID: PMC3454343.
      44. Ormsby CE, Sengupta D, Tandon R, Deeks SG, Martin JN, Jones RB, Ostrowski MA, Garrison KE, Vázquez-Pérez JA, Reyes-Terán G, Nixon DF. Human endogenous retrovirus expression is inversely associated with chronic immune activation in HIV-1 infection. PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e41021. PMID: 22879884; PMCID: PMC3413683.
      45. Champiat S, Raposo RA, Maness NJ, Lehman JL, Purtell SE, Hasenkrug AM, Miller JC, Dean H, Koff WC, Hong MA, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Spotts GE, Pilcher CD, Hecht FM, Kallas EG, Garrison KE, Nixon DF. Influence of HAART on alternative reading frame immune responses over the course of HIV-1 infection. PLoS One. 2012; 7(6):e39311. PMID: 22768072; PMCID: PMC3387156.
      46. Sacha JB, Kim IJ, Chen L, Ullah JH, Goodwin DA, Simmons HA, Schenkman DI, von Pelchrzim F, Gifford RJ, Nimityongskul FA, Newman LP, Wildeboer S, Lappin PB, Hammond D, Castrovinci P, Piaskowski SM, Reed JS, Beheler KA, Tharmanathan T, Zhang N, Muscat-King S, Rieger M, Fernandes C, Rumpel K, Gardner JP, Gebhard DH, Janies J, Shoieb A, Pierce BG, Trajkovic D, Rakasz E, Rong S, McCluskie M, Christy C, Merson JR, Jones RB, Nixon DF, Ostrowski MA, Loudon PT, Pruimboom-Brees IM, Sheppard NC. Vaccination with cancer- and HIV infection-associated endogenous retrotransposable elements is safe and immunogenic. J Immunol. 2012 Aug 1; 189(3):1467-79. PMID: 22745376; PMCID: PMC3401319.
      47. Sandberg JK, Andersson SK, Bächle SM, Nixon DF, Moll M. HIV-1 Vpu interference with innate cell-mediated immune mechanisms. Curr HIV Res. 2012 Jun; 10(4):327-33. PMID: 22524181; PMCID: PMC3412205.
      48. Gurfein BT, Stamm AW, Bacchetti P, Dallman MF, Nadkarni NA, Milush JM, Touma C, Palme R, Di Borgo CP, Fromentin G, Lown-Hecht R, Konsman JP, Acree M, Premenko-Lanier M, Darcel N, Hecht FM, Nixon DF. The calm mouse: an animal model of stress reduction. Mol Med. 2012; 18:606-17. PMID: 22398685; PMCID: PMC3388136.
      49. Carvalho KI, Bruno FR, Snyder-Cappione JE, Maeda SM, Tomimori J, Xavier MB, Haslett PA, Nixon DF, Kallas EG. Lower numbers of natural killer T cells in HIV-1 and Mycobacterium leprae co-infected patients. Immunology. 2012 May; 136(1):96-102. PMID: 22269018; PMCID: PMC3372761.
      50. Lai OY, Chen H, Michaud HA, Hayashi G, Kuebler PJ, Hultman GK, Ariza ME, Williams MV, Batista MD, Nixon DF, Foerster J, Bowcock AM, Liao W. Protective effect of human endogenous retrovirus K dUTPase variants on psoriasis susceptibility. J Invest Dermatol. 2012 Jul; 132(7):1833-40. PMID: 22437317; PMCID: PMC3375357.
      51. Ndhlovu LC, Lopez-Vergès S, Barbour JD, Jones RB, Jha AR, Long BR, Schoeffler EC, Fujita T, Nixon DF, Lanier LL. Tim-3 marks human natural killer cell maturation and suppresses cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Blood. 2012 Apr 19; 119(16):3734-43. PMID: 22383801; PMCID: PMC3335380.
      52. Chen H, Hayashi G, Lai OY, Dilthey A, Kuebler PJ, Wong TV, Martin MP, Fernandez Vina MA, McVean G, Wabl M, Leslie KS, Maurer T, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Carrington M, Bowcock AM, Nixon DF, Liao W. Psoriasis patients are enriched for genetic variants that protect against HIV-1 disease. PLoS Genet. 2012 Feb; 8(2):e1002514. PMID: 22577363; PMCID: PMC3343879.
      53. Holditch SJ, Eriksson EM, Tarosso LF, Kuebler PJ, Kallas EG, Nielsen EK, Wiznia AA, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF. Decay kinetics of HIV-1 specific T cell responses in vertically HIV-1 exposed seronegative infants. Front Immunol. 2011; 2:94. PMID: 22566883; PMCID: PMC3341962.
      54. Sharp ER, Willberg CB, Kuebler PJ, Abadi J, Fennelly GJ, Dobroszycki J, Wiznia AA, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF. Association of differentiation state of CD4+ T cells and disease progression in HIV-1 perinatally infected children. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29154. PMID: 22247768; PMCID: PMC3256156.
      55. de Vos G, Milush JM, Aaron J, Pichardo Y, York VA, Nazari R, Rosenstreich D, Nixon DF, Wiznia A. Peripheral CD8+ T-cell levels are decreased in atopic wheezing children aged less than 4 years. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2012; 22(6):442-4. PMID: 23101192.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Jones RB, John VM, Hunter DV, Martin E, Mujib S, Mihajlovic V, Burgers PC, Luider TM, Gyenes G, Sheppard NC, Sengupta D, Tandon R, Yue FY, Benko E, Kovacs C, Nixon DF, Ostrowski MA. Human endogenous retrovirus K(HML-2) Gag- and Env-specific T-cell responses are infrequently detected in HIV-1-infected subjects using standard peptide matrix-based screening. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012 Feb; 19(2):288-92. PMID: 22205657; PMCID: PMC3272926.
      57. Eriksson EM, Milush JM, Ho EL, Batista MD, Holditch SJ, Keh CE, Norris PJ, Keating SM, Deeks SG, Hunt PW, Martin JN, Rosenberg MG, Hecht FM, Nixon DF. Expansion of CD8+ T cells lacking Sema4D/CD100 during HIV-1 infection identifies a subset of T cells with decreased functional capacity. Blood. 2012 Jan 19; 119(3):745-55. PMID: 22134167; PMCID: PMC3265199.
      58. Tandon R, SenGupta D, Ndhlovu LC, Vieira RG, Jones RB, York VA, Vieira VA, Sharp ER, Wiznia AA, Ostrowski MA, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF. Identification of human endogenous retrovirus-specific T cell responses in vertically HIV-1-infected subjects. J Virol. 2011 Nov; 85(21):11526-31. PMID: 21880743; PMCID: PMC3194955.
      59. Lopez-Vergès S, Milush JM, Schwartz BS, Pando MJ, Jarjoura J, York VA, Houchins JP, Miller S, Kang SM, Norris PJ, Nixon DF, Lanier LL. Expansion of a unique CD57?NKG2Chi natural killer cell subset during acute human cytomegalovirus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Sep 6; 108(36):14725-32. PMID: 21825173; PMCID: PMC3169160.
      60. Sharp ER, Willberg CB, Kuebler PJ, Abadi J, Fennelly GJ, Dobroszycki J, Wiznia AA, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF. Immunodominance of HIV-1 specific CD8+ T-cell responses is related to disease progression rate in vertically infected adolescents. PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e21135. PMID: 21818255; PMCID: PMC3139570.
      61. Jha AR, Nixon DF, Rosenberg MG, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Hudson RR, Garrison KE, Pillai SK. Human endogenous retrovirus K106 (HERV-K106) was infectious after the emergence of anatomically modern humans. PLoS One. 2011; 6(5):e20234. PMID: 21633511; PMCID: PMC3102101.
      62. SenGupta D, Tandon R, Vieira RG, Ndhlovu LC, Lown-Hecht R, Ormsby CE, Loh L, Jones RB, Garrison KE, Martin JN, York VA, Spotts G, Reyes-Terán G, Ostrowski MA, Hecht FM, Deeks SG, Nixon DF. Strong human endogenous retrovirus-specific T cell responses are associated with control of HIV-1 in chronic infection. J Virol. 2011 Jul; 85(14):6977-85. PMID: 21525339; PMCID: PMC3126607.
      63. Ndhlovu LC, Leal FE, Hasenkrug AM, Jha AR, Carvalho KI, Eccles-James IG, Bruno FR, Vieira RG, York VA, Chew GM, Jones RB, Tanaka Y, Neto WK, Sanabani SS, Ostrowski MA, Segurado AC, Nixon DF, Kallas EG. HTLV-1 tax specific CD8+ T cells express low levels of Tim-3 in HTLV-1 infection: implications for progression to neurological complications. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011; 5(4):e1030. PMID: 21541358; PMCID: PMC3082508.
      64. Kuylenstierna C, Snyder-Cappione JE, Loo CP, Long BR, Gonzalez VD, Michaëlsson J, Moll M, Spotts G, Hecht FM, Nixon DF, Sandberg JK. NK cells and CD1d-restricted NKT cells respond in different ways with divergent kinetics to IL-2 treatment in primary HIV-1 infection. Scand J Immunol. 2011 Feb; 73(2):141-6. PMID: 21198755; PMCID: PMC3058350.
      65. Snyder-Cappione JE, Tincati C, Eccles-James IG, Cappione AJ, Ndhlovu LC, Koth LL, Nixon DF. A comprehensive ex vivo functional analysis of human NKT cells reveals production of MIP1-a and MIP1-ß, a lack of IL-17, and a Th1-bias in males. PLoS One. 2010; 5(11):e15412. PMID: 21082024; PMCID: PMC2972714.
      66. Streeck H, Nixon DF. T cell immunity in acute HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2010 Oct 15; 202 Suppl 2:S302-8. PMID: 20846037; PMCID: PMC2954287.
      67. Carvalho KI, Melo KM, Bruno FR, Snyder-Cappione JE, Nixon DF, Costa-Carvalho BT, Kallas EG. Skewed distribution of circulating activated natural killer T (NKT) cells in patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID). PLoS One. 2010; 5(9). PMID: 20844745; PMCID: PMC2936579.
      68. Lopez-Vergès S, Milush JM, Pandey S, York VA, Arakawa-Hoyt J, Pircher H, Norris PJ, Nixon DF, Lanier LL. CD57 defines a functionally distinct population of mature NK cells in the human CD56dimCD16+ NK-cell subset. Blood. 2010 Nov 11; 116(19):3865-74. PMID: 20733159; PMCID: PMC2981540.
      69. Ndhlovu LC, Sinclair E, Epling L, Tan QX, Ho T, Jha AR, Eccles-James I, Tincati C, Levy JA, Nixon DF, Hecht FM, Barbour JD. IL-2 immunotherapy to recently HIV-1 infected adults maintains the numbers of IL-17 expressing CD4+ T (T(H)17) cells in the periphery. J Clin Immunol. 2010 Sep; 30(5):681-92. PMID: 20571894; PMCID: PMC2935971.
      70. Willberg CB, Garrison KE, Jones RB, Meiklejohn DJ, Spotts G, Liegler TJ, Ostrowski MA, Karlsson AC, Hecht FM, Nixon DF. Rapid progressing allele HLA-B35 Px restricted anti-HIV-1 CD8+ T cells recognize vestigial CTL epitopes. PLoS One. 2010; 5(4):e10249. PMID: 20422053; PMCID: PMC2858076.
      71. Ndhlovu LC, Leal FE, Eccles-James IG, Jha AR, Lanteri M, Norris PJ, Barbour JD, Wachter DJ, Andersson J, Taskén K, Torheim EA, Aandahl EM, Kallas EG, Nixon DF. A novel human CD4+ T-cell inducer subset with potent immunostimulatory properties. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Jan; 40(1):134-41. PMID: 19877008; PMCID: PMC2902274.
      72. Schweighardt B, Wrin T, Meiklejohn DA, Spotts G, Petropoulos CJ, Nixon DF, Hecht FM. Immune escape mutations detected within HIV-1 epitopes associated with viral control during treatment interruption. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Jan; 53(1):36-46. PMID: 19910798; PMCID: PMC2843510.
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      77. Jha AR, Pillai SK, York VA, Sharp ER, Storm EC, Wachter DJ, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF, Garrison KE. Cross-sectional dating of novel haplotypes of HERV-K 113 and HERV-K 115 indicate these proviruses originated in Africa before Homo sapiens. Mol Biol Evol. 2009 Nov; 26(11):2617-26. PMID: 19666991; PMCID: PMC2760466.
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      84. Mold JE, Michaëlsson J, Burt TD, Muench MO, Beckerman KP, Busch MP, Lee TH, Nixon DF, McCune JM. Maternal alloantigens promote the development of tolerogenic fetal regulatory T cells in utero. Science. 2008 Dec 5; 322(5907):1562-5. PMID: 19056990; PMCID: PMC2648820.
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      86. Willberg CB, McConnell JJ, Eriksson EM, Bragg LA, York VA, Liegler TJ, Hecht FM, Grant RM, Nixon DF. Immunity to HIV-1 is influenced by continued natural exposure to exogenous virus. PLoS Pathog. 2008 Oct; 4(10):e1000185. PMID: 18949024; PMCID: PMC2562513.
      87. Erickson AL, Willberg CB, McMahan V, Liu A, Buchbinder SP, Grohskopf LA, Grant RM, Nixon DF. Potentially exposed but uninfected individuals produce cytotoxic and polyfunctional human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses which can be defined to the epitope level. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008 Nov; 15(11):1745-8. PMID: 18815234; PMCID: PMC2583520.
      88. Michaëlsson J, Barbosa HM, Jordan KA, Chapman JM, Brunialti MK, Neto WK, Nukui Y, Sabino EC, Chieia MA, Oliveira AS, Nixon DF, Kallas EG. The frequency of CD127low expressing CD4+CD25high T regulatory cells is inversely correlated with human T lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) proviral load in HTLV-1-infection and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. BMC Immunol. 2008; 9:41. PMID: 18664281; PMCID: PMC2515103.
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      90. McLaughlin BE, Baumgarth N, Bigos M, Roederer M, De Rosa SC, Altman JD, Nixon DF, Ottinger J, Oxford C, Evans TG, Asmuth DM. Nine-color flow cytometry for accurate measurement of T cell subsets and cytokine responses. Part I: Panel design by an empiric approach. Cytometry A. 2008 May; 73(5):400-10. PMID: 18383316.
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      91. McLaughlin BE, Baumgarth N, Bigos M, Roederer M, De Rosa SC, Altman JD, Nixon DF, Ottinger J, Li J, Beckett L, Shacklett BL, Evans TG, Asmuth DM. Nine-color flow cytometry for accurate measurement of T cell subsets and cytokine responses. Part II: Panel performance across different instrument platforms. Cytometry A. 2008 May; 73(5):411-20. PMID: 18383309.
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      92. Pérez CL, Larsen MV, Gustafsson R, Norström MM, Atlas A, Nixon DF, Nielsen M, Lund O, Karlsson AC. Broadly immunogenic HLA class I supertype-restricted elite CTL epitopes recognized in a diverse population infected with different HIV-1 subtypes. J Immunol. 2008 Apr 1; 180(7):5092-100. PMID: 18354235.
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      93. Long BR, Ndhlovu LC, Oksenberg JR, Lanier LL, Hecht FM, Nixon DF, Barbour JD. Conferral of enhanced natural killer cell function by KIR3DS1 in early human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2008 May; 82(10):4785-92. PMID: 18305035; PMCID: PMC2346752.
      94. Jones RB, Garrison KE, Wong JC, Duan EH, Nixon DF, Ostrowski MA. Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors differentially inhibit human LINE-1 retrotransposition. PLoS One. 2008; 3(2):e1547. PMID: 18253495; PMCID: PMC2212136.
      95. Lee AW, Sharp ER, O'Mahony A, Rosenberg MG, Israelski DM, Nolan GP, Nixon DF. Single-cell, phosphoepitope-specific analysis demonstrates cell type- and pathway-specific dysregulation of Jak/STAT and MAPK signaling associated with in vivo human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2008 Apr; 82(7):3702-12. PMID: 18216116; PMCID: PMC2268489.
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      99. Garrison KE, Jones RB, Meiklejohn DA, Anwar N, Ndhlovu LC, Chapman JM, Erickson AL, Agrawal A, Spotts G, Hecht FM, Rakoff-Nahoum S, Lenz J, Ostrowski MA, Nixon DF. T cell responses to human endogenous retroviruses in HIV-1 infection. PLoS Pathog. 2007 Nov; 3(11):e165. PMID: 17997601; PMCID: PMC2065876.
      100. Barbour JD, Sauer MM, Sharp ER, Garrison KE, Long BR, Tomiyama H, Bassichetto KC, Oliveira SM, Abbate MC, Nixon DF, Kallas EG. HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected adults in early HIV-1 infection have elevated CD4+ T cell counts. PLoS One. 2007; 2(10):e1080. PMID: 17957262; PMCID: PMC2031920.
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      106. Karlsson AC, Iversen AK, Chapman JM, de Oliviera T, Spotts G, McMichael AJ, Davenport MP, Hecht FM, Nixon DF. Sequential broadening of CTL responses in early HIV-1 infection is associated with viral escape. PLoS One. 2007; 2(2):e225. PMID: 17311088; PMCID: PMC1790860.
      107. Carr WH, Rosen DB, Arase H, Nixon DF, Michaelsson J, Lanier LL. Cutting Edge: KIR3DS1, a gene implicated in resistance to progression to AIDS, encodes a DAP12-associated receptor expressed on NK cells that triggers NK cell activation. J Immunol. 2007 Jan 15; 178(2):647-51. PMID: 17202323; PMCID: PMC2561215.
      108. Willberg CB, Nixon DF. Treatment interruption in chronic HIV-1 infection: does it deliver? Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2007 Jan; 2(1):26-30. PMID: 19372862.
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      109. Metzner KJ, Binley JM, Gettie A, Marx P, Nixon DF, Connor RI. Tenofovir treatment augments anti-viral immunity against drug-resistant SIV challenge in chronically infected rhesus macaques. Retrovirology. 2006; 3:97. PMID: 17184540; PMCID: PMC1769512.
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      112. Nomura LE, Emu B, Hoh R, Haaland P, Deeks SG, Martin JN, McCune JM, Nixon DF, Maecker HT. IL-2 production correlates with effector cell differentiation in HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. AIDS Res Ther. 2006; 3:18. PMID: 16859558; PMCID: PMC1562434.
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      114. Hare CB, Pappalardo BL, Busch MP, Karlsson AC, Phelps BH, Alexander SS, Bentsen C, Ramstead CA, Nixon DF, Levy JA, Hecht FM. Seroreversion in subjects receiving antiretroviral therapy during acute/early HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Mar 1; 42(5):700-8. PMID: 16447118.
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      115. Jordan KA, Furlan SN, Gonzalez VD, Karlsson AC, Quigley MF, Deeks SG, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF, Sandberg JK. CD8 T cell effector maturation in HIV-1-infected children. Virology. 2006 Mar 30; 347(1):117-26. PMID: 16406047.
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      116. Rakoff-Nahoum S, Kuebler PJ, Heymann JJ, E Sheehy M, Ortiz GM, S Ogg G, Barbour JD, Lenz J, Steinfeld AD, Nixon DF. Detection of T lymphocytes specific for human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) in patients with seminoma. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006 Jan; 22(1):52-6. PMID: 16438646.
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      117. Papasavvas E, Kostman JR, Thiel B, Pistilli M, Mackiewicz A, Foulkes A, Gross R, Jordan KA, Nixon DF, Grant R, Poulin JF, McCune JM, Mounzer K, Montaner LJ. HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell responses in chronically HIV-1 infected blippers on antiretroviral therapy in relation to viral replication following treatment interruption. J Clin Immunol. 2006 Jan; 26(1):40-54. PMID: 16418802.
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      120. Emu B, Sinclair E, Favre D, Moretto WJ, Hsue P, Hoh R, Martin JN, Nixon DF, McCune JM, Deeks SG. Phenotypic, functional, and kinetic parameters associated with apparent T-cell control of human immunodeficiency virus replication in individuals with and without antiretroviral treatment. J Virol. 2005 Nov; 79(22):14169-78. PMID: 16254352; PMCID: PMC1280210.
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      122. Sharp ER, Barbour JD, Karlsson RK, Jordan KA, Sandberg JK, Wiznia A, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF. Higher frequency of HIV-1-specific T cell immune responses in African American children vertically infected with HIV-1. J Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 15; 192(10):1772-80. PMID: 16235176.
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      123. Nixon DF, Deeks SG, Shacklett BL, Karlsson AC. Multidrug-resistant, dual-tropic HIV-1 and rapid progression. Lancet. 2005 Jun 4-10; 365(9475):1924-5. PMID: 15936414.
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      125. Schweighardt B, Roy AM, Meiklejohn DA, Grace EJ, Moretto WJ, Heymann JJ, Nixon DF. R5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replicates more efficiently in primary CD4+ T-cell cultures than X4 HIV-1. J Virol. 2004 Sep; 78(17):9164-73. PMID: 15308712; PMCID: PMC506961.
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      127. Plana M, Garcia F, Oxenius A, Ortiz GM, Lopez A, Cruceta A, Mestre G, Fumero E, Fagard C, Sambeat MA, Segura F, Miró JM, Arnedo M, Lopalcos L, Pumarola T, Hirschel B, Phillips RE, Nixon DF, Gallart T, Gatell JM. Relevance of HIV-1-specific CD4+ helper T-cell responses during structured treatment interruptions in patients with CD4+ T-cell nadir above 400/mm3. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Jul 1; 36(3):791-9. PMID: 15213562.
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      128. Shacklett BL, Cox CA, Quigley MF, Kreis C, Stollman NH, Jacobson MA, Andersson J, Sandberg JK, Nixon DF. Abundant expression of granzyme A, but not perforin, in granules of CD8+ T cells in GALT: implications for immune control of HIV-1 infection. J Immunol. 2004 Jul 1; 173(1):641-8. PMID: 15210827.
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      129. Shacklett BL, Cox CA, Wilkens DT, Karl Karlsson R, Nilsson A, Nixon DF, Price RW. Increased adhesion molecule and chemokine receptor expression on CD8+ T cells trafficking to cerebrospinal fluid in HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jun 15; 189(12):2202-12. PMID: 15181567.
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      130. Meiklejohn DA, Karlsson RK, Karlsson AC, Chapman JM, Nixon DF, Schweighardt B. ELISPOT cell rescue. J Immunol Methods. 2004 May; 288(1-2):135-47. PMID: 15183092.
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      131. Karlsson AC, Younger SR, Martin JN, Grossman Z, Sinclair E, Hunt PW, Hagos E, Nixon DF, Deeks SG. Immunologic and virologic evolution during periods of intermittent and persistent low-level viremia. AIDS. 2004 Apr 30; 18(7):981-9. PMID: 15096800.
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      132. Sandberg JK, Stoddart CA, Brilot F, Jordan KA, Nixon DF. Development of innate CD4+ alpha-chain variable gene segment 24 (Valpha24) natural killer T cells in the early human fetal thymus is regulated by IL-7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 May 4; 101(18):7058-63. PMID: 15118099; PMCID: PMC406465.
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      136. Chandwani R, Jordan KA, Shacklett BL, Papasavvas E, Montaner LJ, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF, Sandberg JK. Limited magnitude and breadth in the HLA-A2-restricted CD8 T-Cell response to Nef in children with vertically acquired HIV-1 infection. Scand J Immunol. 2004 Jan; 59(1):109-14. PMID: 14723629.
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      137. Alexander TH, Ortiz GM, Wellons MF, Allen A, Grace EJ, Schweighardt B, Brancato J, Sandberg JK, Furlan SN, Miralles GD, Nixon DF, Bartlett JA. Changes in CD4+ T-cell differentiation phenotype during structured treatment interruption in patients with chronic HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003 Dec 15; 34(5):475-81. PMID: 14657757.
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      138. Karlsson AC, Martin JN, Younger SR, Bredt BM, Epling L, Ronquillo R, Varma A, Deeks SG, McCune JM, Nixon DF, Sinclair E. Comparison of the ELISPOT and cytokine flow cytometry assays for the enumeration of antigen-specific T cells. J Immunol Methods. 2003 Dec; 283(1-2):141-53. PMID: 14659906.
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      139. Papasavvas E, Sandberg JK, Rutstein R, Moore EC, Mackiewicz A, Thiel B, Pistilli M, June RR, Jordan KA, Gross R, Maino VC, Nixon DF, Montaner LJ. Presence of human immunodeficiency virus-1-specific CD4 and CD8 cellular immune responses in children with full or partial virus suppression. J Infect Dis. 2003 Sep 15; 188(6):873-82. PMID: 12964119.
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      140. Shacklett BL, Yang O, Hausner MA, Elliott J, Hultin L, Price C, Fuerst M, Matud J, Hultin P, Cox C, Ibarrondo J, Wong JT, Nixon DF, Anton PA, Jamieson BD. Optimization of methods to assess human mucosal T-cell responses to HIV infection. J Immunol Methods. 2003 Aug; 279(1-2):17-31. PMID: 12969544.
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      141. Karlsson AC, Deeks SG, Barbour JD, Heiken BD, Younger SR, Hoh R, Lane M, Sällberg M, Ortiz GM, Demarest JF, Liegler T, Grant RM, Martin JN, Nixon DF. Dual pressure from antiretroviral therapy and cell-mediated immune response on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease gene. J Virol. 2003 Jun; 77(12):6743-52. PMID: 12767994; PMCID: PMC156163.
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      143. Sandberg JK, Fast NM, Jordan KA, Furlan SN, Barbour JD, Fennelly G, Dobroszycki J, Spiegel HM, Wiznia A, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell function in children with vertically acquired HIV-1 infection is critically influenced by age and the state of the CD4+ T cell compartment. J Immunol. 2003 Apr 15; 170(8):4403-10. PMID: 12682278.
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      144. Sandberg JK, Bhardwaj N, Nixon DF. Dominant effector memory characteristics, capacity for dynamic adaptive expansion, and sex bias in the innate Valpha24 NKT cell compartment. Eur J Immunol. 2003 Mar; 33(3):588-96. PMID: 12616479.
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      145. Aandahl EM, Sandberg JK, Beckerman KP, Taskén K, Moretto WJ, Nixon DF. CD7 is a differentiation marker that identifies multiple CD8 T cell effector subsets. J Immunol. 2003 Mar 1; 170(5):2349-55. PMID: 12594257.
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      146. Nixon DF, Aandahl EM, Sandberg JK. New observations on CD8 cell responses. AIDS. 2003; 17 Suppl 4:S61-5. PMID: 15080181.
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      147. Jennes W, Kestens L, Nixon DF, Shacklett BL. Enhanced ELISPOT detection of antigen-specific T cell responses from cryopreserved specimens with addition of both IL-7 and IL-15--the Amplispot assay. J Immunol Methods. 2002 Dec 1; 270(1):99-108. PMID: 12379342.
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      148. Schweighardt B, Ortiz GM, Grant RM, Wellons M, Miralles GD, Kostrikis LG, Bartlett JA, Nixon DF. Emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in patients undergoing structured treatment interruptions. AIDS. 2002 Nov 22; 16(17):2342-4. PMID: 12441810.
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      149. Shacklett BL, Ling B, Veazey RS, Luckay A, Moretto WJ, Wilkens DT, Hu J, Israel ZR, Nixon DF, Marx PA. Boosting of SIV-specific T cell responses in rhesus macaques that resist repeated intravaginal challenge with SIVmac251. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002 Sep 20; 18(14):1081-8. PMID: 12396459.
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      150. Keir ME, Rosenberg MG, Sandberg JK, Jordan KA, Wiznia A, Nixon DF, Stoddart CA, McCune JM. Generation of CD3+CD8low thymocytes in the HIV type 1-infected thymus. J Immunol. 2002 Sep 1; 169(5):2788-96. PMID: 12193754.
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      151. Sandberg JK, Fast NM, Palacios EH, Fennelly G, Dobroszycki J, Palumbo P, Wiznia A, Grant RM, Bhardwaj N, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF. Selective loss of innate CD4(+) V alpha 24 natural killer T cells in human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Virol. 2002 Aug; 76(15):7528-34. PMID: 12097565; PMCID: PMC136353.
      152. Shacklett BL, Means RE, Larsson M, Wilkens DT, Beadle TJ, Merritt MJ, Bhardwaj N, Palumbo PE, Skurnick JH, Louria DB, Nixon DF. Dendritic cell amplification of HIV type 1-specific CD8+ T cell responses in exposed, seronegative heterosexual women. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002 Jul 20; 18(11):805-15. PMID: 12167272.
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      153. Aandahl EM, Moretto WJ, Haslett PA, Vang T, Bryn T, Tasken K, Nixon DF. Inhibition of antigen-specific T cell proliferation and cytokine production by protein kinase A type I. J Immunol. 2002 Jul 15; 169(2):802-8. PMID: 12097383.
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      154. Klenerman P, Tolfvenstam T, Price DA, Nixon DF, Broliden K, Oxenius A. T lymphocyte responses against human parvovirus B19: small virus, big response. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2002 Jun; 50(5):317-25. PMID: 12116850.
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      155. Larsson M, Wilkens DT, Fonteneau JF, Beadle TJ, Merritt MJ, Kost RG, Haslett PA, Cu-Uvin S, Bhardwaj N, Nixon DF, Shacklett BL. Amplification of low-frequency antiviral CD8 T cell responses using autologous dendritic cells. AIDS. 2002 Jan 25; 16(2):171-80. PMID: 11807300.
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      156. Skurnick JH, Palumbo P, DeVico A, Shacklett BL, Valentine FT, Merges M, Kamin-Lewis R, Mestecky J, Denny T, Lewis GK, Lloyd J, Praschunus R, Baker A, Nixon DF, Stranford S, Gallo R, Vermund SH, Louria DB. Correlates of nontransmission in US women at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection through sexual exposure. J Infect Dis. 2002 Feb 15; 185(4):428-38. PMID: 11865394; PMCID: PMC2743095.
      157. Ortiz GM, Hu J, Goldwitz JA, Chandwani R, Larsson M, Bhardwaj N, Bonhoeffer S, Ramratnam B, Zhang L, Markowitz MM, Nixon DF. Residual viral replication during antiretroviral therapy boosts human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in subjects treated early after infection. J Virol. 2002 Jan; 76(1):411-5. PMID: 11739706; PMCID: PMC135693.
      158. Hioe CE, Tuen M, Chien PC, Jones G, Ratto-Kim S, Norris PJ, Moretto WJ, Nixon DF, Gorny MK, Zolla-Pazner S. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 presentation to CD4 T cells by antibodies specific for the CD4 binding domain of gp120. J Virol. 2001 Nov; 75(22):10950-7. PMID: 11602735; PMCID: PMC114675.
      159. Ortiz GM, Wellons M, Brancato J, Vo HT, Zinn RL, Clarkson DE, Van Loon K, Bonhoeffer S, Miralles GD, Montefiori D, Bartlett JA, Nixon DF. Structured antiretroviral treatment interruptions in chronically HIV-1-infected subjects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Nov 6; 98(23):13288-93. PMID: 11687611; PMCID: PMC60863.
      160. Rose NF, Marx PA, Luckay A, Nixon DF, Moretto WJ, Donahoe SM, Montefiori D, Roberts A, Buonocore L, Rose JK. An effective AIDS vaccine based on live attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus recombinants. Cell. 2001 Sep 7; 106(5):539-49. PMID: 11551502.
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      161. Sandberg JK, Fast NM, Nixon DF. Functional heterogeneity of cytokines and cytolytic effector molecules in human CD8+ T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2001 Jul 1; 167(1):181-7. PMID: 11418647.
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      162. García F, Plana M, Ortiz GM, Bonhoeffer S, Soriano A, Vidal C, Cruceta A, Arnedo M, Gil C, Pantaleo G, Pumarola T, Gallart T, Nixon DF, Miró JM, Gatell JM. The virological and immunological consequences of structured treatment interruptions in chronic HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2001 Jun 15; 15(9):F29-40. PMID: 11416735.
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      163. McDermott AB, Spiegel HM, Irsch J, Ogg GS, Nixon DF. A simple and rapid magnetic bead separation technique for the isolation of tetramer-positive virus-specific CD8 T cells. AIDS. 2001 Apr 13; 15(6):810-2. PMID: 11371703.
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      164. Sheehy ME, McDermott AB, Furlan SN, Klenerman P, Nixon DF. A novel technique for the fluorometric assessment of T lymphocyte antigen specific lysis. J Immunol Methods. 2001 Mar 1; 249(1-2):99-110. PMID: 11226468.
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      165. Komanduri KV, Donahoe SM, Moretto WJ, Schmidt DK, Gillespie G, Ogg GS, Roederer M, Nixon DF, McCune JM. Direct measurement of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to CMV in HIV-1-infected subjects. Virology. 2001 Jan 20; 279(2):459-70. PMID: 11162802.
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      166. Tolfvenstam T, Oxenius A, Price DA, Shacklett BL, Spiegel HM, Hedman K, Norbeck O, Levi M, Olsen K, Kantzanou M, Nixon DF, Broliden K, Klenerman P. Direct ex vivo measurement of CD8(+) T-lymphocyte responses to human parvovirus B19. J Virol. 2001 Jan; 75(1):540-3. PMID: 11119624; PMCID: PMC113948.
      167. Moretto WJ, Drohan LA, Nixon DF. Rapid quantification of SIV-specific CD8 T cell responses with recombinant vaccinia virus ELISPOT or cytokine flow cytometry. AIDS. 2000 Nov 10; 14(16):2625-7. PMID: 11101083.
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      168. Bonhoeffer S, Rembiszewski M, Ortiz GM, Nixon DF. Risks and benefits of structured antiretroviral drug therapy interruptions in HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2000 Oct 20; 14(15):2313-22. PMID: 11089619.
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      169. Shacklett BL, Cu-Uvin S, Beadle TJ, Pace CA, Fast NM, Donahue SM, Caliendo AM, Flanigan TP, Carpenter CC, Nixon DF. Quantification of HIV-1-specific T-cell responses at the mucosal cervicovaginal surface. AIDS. 2000 Sep 8; 14(13):1911-5. PMID: 10997394.
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      170. Jin X, Ogg G, Bonhoeffer S, Safrit J, Vesanen M, Bauer D, Chen D, Cao Y, Demoitie MA, Zhang L, Markowitz M, Nixon D, McMichael A, Ho DD. An antigenic threshold for maintaining human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Mol Med. 2000 Sep; 6(9):803-9. PMID: 11071274; PMCID: PMC1949982.
      171. Lechner F, Sullivan J, Spiegel H, Nixon DF, Ferrari B, Davis A, Borkowsky B, Pollack H, Barnes E, Dusheiko G, Klenerman P. Why do cytotoxic T lymphocytes fail to eliminate hepatitis C virus? Lessons from studies using major histocompatibility complex class I peptide tetramers. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2000 Aug 29; 355(1400):1085-92. PMID: 11186310; PMCID: PMC1692808.
      172. Papasavvas E, Ortiz GM, Gross R, Sun J, Moore EC, Heymann JJ, Moonis M, Sandberg JK, Drohan LA, Gallagher B, Shull J, Nixon DF, Kostman JR, Montaner LJ. Enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in chronically infected persons after temporary treatment interruption. J Infect Dis. 2000 Sep; 182(3):766-75. PMID: 10950770.
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      173. Shacklett BL, Beadle TJ, Pacheco PA, Grendell JH, Haslett PA, King AS, Ogg GS, Basuk PM, Nixon DF. Isolation of cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes from gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of HIV type 1-infected subjects. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000 Aug 10; 16(12):1157-62. PMID: 10954891.
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      174. Larsson M, Messmer D, Somersan S, Fonteneau JF, Donahoe SM, Lee M, Dunbar PR, Cerundolo V, Julkunen I, Nixon DF, Bhardwaj N. Requirement of mature dendritic cells for efficient activation of influenza A-specific memory CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 2000 Aug 1; 165(3):1182-90. PMID: 10903715.
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      175. Donahoe SM, Moretto WJ, Samuel RV, Metzner KJ, Marx PA, Hanke T, Connor RI, Nixon DF. Direct measurement of CD8+ T cell responses in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus. Virology. 2000 Jul 5; 272(2):347-56. PMID: 10873778.
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      176. Appay V, Nixon DF, Donahoe SM, Gillespie GM, Dong T, King A, Ogg GS, Spiegel HM, Conlon C, Spina CA, Havlir DV, Richman DD, Waters A, Easterbrook P, McMichael AJ, Rowland-Jones SL. HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells produce antiviral cytokines but are impaired in cytolytic function. J Exp Med. 2000 Jul 3; 192(1):63-75. PMID: 10880527; PMCID: PMC1887711.
      177. Spiegel HM, Chandwani R, Sheehy ME, Dobroszycki J, Fennelly G, Wiznia A, Radding J, Rigaud M, Pollack H, Borkowsky W, Rosenberg M, Nixon DF. The impact of early initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD8 T cell response in children. J Infect Dis. 2000 Jul; 182(1):88-95. PMID: 10882585.
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      178. Shacklett BL, Beadle TJ, Pacheco PA, Grendell JH, Haslett PA, King AS, Ogg GS, Basuk PM, Nixon DF. Characterization of HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes expressing the mucosal lymphocyte integrin CD103 in rectal and duodenal lymphoid tissue of HIV-1-infected subjects. Virology. 2000 May 10; 270(2):317-27. PMID: 10792991.
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      179. Binley JM, Schiller DS, Ortiz GM, Hurley A, Nixon DF, Markowitz MM, Moore JP. The relationship between T cell proliferative responses and plasma viremia during treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection with combination antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2000 Apr; 181(4):1249-63. PMID: 10762561.
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      180. Haslett PA, Nixon DF, Shen Z, Larsson M, Cox WI, Manandhar R, Donahoe SM, Kaplan G. Strong human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD4+ T cell responses in a cohort of chronically infected patients are associated with interruptions in anti-HIV chemotherapy. J Infect Dis. 2000 Apr; 181(4):1264-72. PMID: 10751137.
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      181. Seth A, Yasutomi Y, Jacoby H, Callery JC, Kaminsky SM, Koff WC, Nixon DF, Letvin NL. Evaluation of a lipopeptide immunogen as a therapeutic in HIV type 1-seropositive individuals. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000 Mar 1; 16(4):337-43. PMID: 10716371.
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      182. Nixon DF, Donahoe SM, Kakimoto WM, Samuel RV, Metzner KJ, Gettie A, Hanke T, Marx PA, Connor RI. Simian immunodeficiency virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and protection against challenge in rhesus macaques immunized with a live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine. Virology. 2000 Jan 5; 266(1):203-10. PMID: 10612675.
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      183. Jin X, Roberts CG, Nixon DF, Safrit JT, Zhang LQ, Huang YX, Bhardwaj N, Jesdale B, DeGroot AS, Koup RA. Identification of subdominant cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes encoded by autologous HIV type 1 sequences, using dendritic cell stimulation and computer-driven algorithm. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000 Jan 1; 16(1):67-76. PMID: 10628818.
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      184. Jin X, Demoitie MA, Donahoe SM, Ogg GS, Bonhoeffer S, Kakimoto WM, Gillespie G, Moss PA, Dyer W, Kurilla MG, Riddell SR, Downie J, Sullivan JS, McMichael AJ, Workman C, Nixon DF. High frequency of cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T-effector cells in HLA-A*0201-positive subjects during multiple viral coinfections. J Infect Dis. 2000 Jan; 181(1):165-75. PMID: 10608763.
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      185. Spiegel HM, Ogg GS, DeFalcon E, Sheehy ME, Monard S, Haslett PA, Gillespie G, Donahoe SM, Pollack H, Borkowsky W, McMichael AJ, Nixon DF. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1- and cytomegalovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes can persist at high frequency for prolonged periods in the absence of circulating peripheral CD4(+) T cells. J Virol. 2000 Jan; 74(2):1018-22. PMID: 10623767; PMCID: PMC111625.
      186. Ortiz GM, Nixon DF, Trkola A, Binley J, Jin X, Bonhoeffer S, Kuebler PJ, Donahoe SM, Demoitie MA, Kakimoto WM, Ketas T, Clas B, Heymann JJ, Zhang L, Cao Y, Hurley A, Moore JP, Ho DD, Markowitz M. HIV-1-specific immune responses in subjects who temporarily contain virus replication after discontinuation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Invest. 1999 Sep; 104(6):R13-8. PMID: 10491418; PMCID: PMC408442.
      187. Spiegel HM, DeFalcon E, Ogg GS, Larsson M, Beadle TJ, Tao P, McMichael AJ, Bhardwaj N, O'Callaghan C, Cox WI, Krasinski K, Pollack H, Borkowsky W, Nixon DF. Changes in frequency of HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T cell precursors and circulating effectors after combination antiretroviral therapy in children. J Infect Dis. 1999 Aug; 180(2):359-68. PMID: 10395850.
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      188. Dhodapkar MV, Steinman RM, Sapp M, Desai H, Fossella C, Krasovsky J, Donahoe SM, Dunbar PR, Cerundolo V, Nixon DF, Bhardwaj N. Rapid generation of broad T-cell immunity in humans after a single injection of mature dendritic cells. J Clin Invest. 1999 Jul; 104(2):173-80. PMID: 10411546; PMCID: PMC408478.
      189. Larsson M, Jin X, Ramratnam B, Ogg GS, Engelmayer J, Demoitie MA, McMichael AJ, Cox WI, Steinman RM, Nixon D, Bhardwaj N. A recombinant vaccinia virus based ELISPOT assay detects high frequencies of Pol-specific CD8 T cells in HIV-1-positive individuals. AIDS. 1999 May 7; 13(7):767-77. PMID: 10357375.
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      190. Nixon DF, Douek D, Kuebler PJ, Jin X, Vesanen M, Bonhoeffer S, Cao Y, Koup RA, Ho DD, Markowitz M. Molecular tracking of an Human Immunodeficiency Virus nef specific cytotoxic T-cell clone shows persistence of clone-specific T-cell receptor DNA but not mRNA following early combination antiretroviral therapy. Immunol Lett. 1999 Mar; 66(1-3):219-28. PMID: 10203058.
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      191. Markowitz M, Vesanen M, Tenner-Racz K, Cao Y, Binley JM, Talal A, Hurley A, Jin X, Chaudhry MR, Yaman M, Frankel S, Heath-Chiozzi M, Leonard JM, Moore JP, Racz P, Nixon DF, Ho DD, J X. The effect of commencing combination antiretroviral therapy soon after human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection on viral replication and antiviral immune responses. J Infect Dis. 1999 Mar; 179(3):527-37. PMID: 9952358.
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      192. Kakimoto WM, Gettie A, Smith S, Donahoe SM, Jin X, Marx P, Connor R, Nixon DF. Comparison of restimulation methods to elicit SIV specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) in vitro: Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) provides a novel method for the quantification of SIV specific CTL precursors. Immunol Lett. 1999 Mar; 66(1-3):135-40. PMID: 10203046.
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      193. Ogg GS, Jin X, Bonhoeffer S, Moss P, Nowak MA, Monard S, Segal JP, Cao Y, Rowland-Jones SL, Hurley A, Markowitz M, Ho DD, McMichael AJ, Nixon DF. Decay kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus-specific effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes after combination antiretroviral therapy. J Virol. 1999 Jan; 73(1):797-800. PMID: 9847391; PMCID: PMC103892.
      194. Dyer WB, Ogg GS, Demoitie MA, Jin X, Geczy AF, Rowland-Jones SL, McMichael AJ, Nixon DF, Sullivan JS. Strong human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity in Sydney Blood Bank Cohort patients infected with nef-defective HIV type 1. J Virol. 1999 Jan; 73(1):436-43. PMID: 9847349; PMCID: PMC103850.
      195. Jin X, Roberts CG, Nixon DF, Cao Y, Ho DD, Walker BD, Muldoon M, Korber BT, Koup RA. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and their relationship to vertical human immunodeficiency virus transmission. ARIEL Project Investigators. J Infect Dis. 1998 Nov; 178(5):1317-26. PMID: 9780251.
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      196. Ogg GS, Jin X, Bonhoeffer S, Dunbar PR, Nowak MA, Monard S, Segal JP, Cao Y, Rowland-Jones SL, Cerundolo V, Hurley A, Markowitz M, Ho DD, Nixon DF, McMichael AJ. Quantitation of HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and plasma load of viral RNA. Science. 1998 Mar 27; 279(5359):2103-6. PMID: 9516110.
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      197. Singh M, Hioe C, Qiu H, Li XM, Wang CY, Koff W, Zamb T, Nixon DF. CTL induction using synthetic peptides delivered in emulsions--critical role of the formulation procedure. Vaccine. 1997 Nov; 15(16):1773-8. PMID: 9364682.
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      198. Kuebler PJ, Nixon DF. Cytotoxic T cell induction with ratchet peptide libraries. Vaccine. 1996 Dec; 14(17-18):1664-70. PMID: 9032897.
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      199. Nixon DF, Hioe C, Chen PD, Bian Z, Kuebler P, Li ML, Qiu H, Li XM, Singh M, Richardson J, McGee P, Zamb T, Koff W, Wang CY, O'Hagan D. Synthetic peptides entrapped in microparticles can elicit cytotoxic T cell activity. Vaccine. 1996 Nov; 14(16):1523-30. PMID: 9014294.
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      200. Allsopp CE, Plebanski M, Gilbert S, Sinden RE, Harris S, Frankel G, Dougan G, Hioe C, Nixon D, Paoletti E, Layton G, Hill AV. Comparison of numerous delivery systems for the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes by immunization. Eur J Immunol. 1996 Aug; 26(8):1951-9. PMID: 8765044.
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      201. Hioe CE, Qiu H, Chend PD, Bian Z, Li ML, Li J, Singh M, Kuebler P, McGee P, O'Hagan D, Zamb T, Koff W, Allsopp C, Wang CY, Nixon DF. Comparison of adjuvant formulations for cytotoxic T cell induction using synthetic peptides. Vaccine. 1996 Apr; 14(5):412-8. PMID: 8735553.
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      202. Rowland-Jones SL, Nixon DF, Aldhous MC, Gotch F, Ariyoshi K, Hallam N, Kroll JS, Froebel K, McMichael A. HIV-specific cytotoxic T-cell activity in an HIV-exposed but uninfected infant. Lancet. 1993 Apr 3; 341(8849):860-1. PMID: 8096564.
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      203. Sutton J, Rowland-Jones S, Rosenberg W, Nixon D, Gotch F, Gao XM, Murray N, Spoonas A, Driscoll P, Smith M. A sequence pattern for peptides presented to cytotoxic T lymphocytes by HLA B8 revealed by analysis of epitopes and eluted peptides. Eur J Immunol. 1993 Feb; 23(2):447-53. PMID: 7679646.
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      204. Gotch F, Nixon D, Gallimore A, McAdam S, McMichael A. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes shared between HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV. J Med Primatol. 1993 Feb-May; 22(2-3):119-23. PMID: 7692055.
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      205. Nixon DF, Broliden K, Ogg G, Broliden PA. Cellular and humoral antigenic epitopes in HIV and SIV. Immunology. 1992 Aug; 76(4):515-34. PMID: 1383131; PMCID: PMC1421556.
      206. Rowland-Jones SL, Phillips RE, Nixon DF, Gotch FM, Edwards JP, Ogunlesi AO, Elvin JG, Rothbard JA, Bangham CR, Rizza CR. Human immunodeficiency virus variants that escape cytotoxic T-cell recognition. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1992 Aug; 8(8):1353-4. PMID: 1466955.
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      207. Phillips RE, Rowland-Jones S, Nixon DF, Gotch FM, Edwards JP, Ogunlesi AO, Elvin JG, Rothbard JA, Bangham CR, Rizza CR. Human immunodeficiency virus genetic variation that can escape cytotoxic T cell recognition. Nature. 1991 Dec 12; 354(6353):453-9. PMID: 1721107.
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      208. Nixon D. Vaccines for HIV infected pregnant women? BMJ. 1991 Oct 26; 303(6809):1061. PMID: 1954470; PMCID: PMC1671776.
      209. Nixon DF, McMichael AJ. Cytotoxic T-cell recognition of HIV proteins and peptides. AIDS. 1991 Sep; 5(9):1049-59. PMID: 1718319.
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      210. Nixon DF, Huet S, Rothbard J, Kieny MP, Delchambre M, Thiriart C, Rizza CR, Gotch FM, McMichael AJ. An HIV-1 and HIV-2 cross-reactive cytotoxic T-cell epitope. AIDS. 1990 Sep; 4(9):841-5. PMID: 1701304.
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      211. Huet S, Nixon DF, Rothbard JB, Townsend A, Ellis SA, McMichael AJ. Structural homologies between two HLA B27-restricted peptides suggest residues important for interaction with HLA B27. Int Immunol. 1990; 2(4):311-6. PMID: 2126195.
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      212. Gotch FM, Nixon DF, Alp N, McMichael AJ, Borysiewicz LK. High frequency of memory and effector gag specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in HIV seropositive individuals. Int Immunol. 1990; 2(8):707-12. PMID: 2083233.
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      213. Nixon DF, McMichael AJ. HIV-gag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Res Immunol. 1989 Jan; 140(1):107-10; discussion 121. PMID: 2657907.
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      214. Mills KH, Nixon DF, McMichael AJ. T-cell strategies in AIDS vaccines: MHC-restricted T-cell responses to HIV proteins. AIDS. 1989; 3 Suppl 1:S101-10. PMID: 2575396.
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      215. Nixon DF, Townsend AR, Elvin JG, Rizza CR, Gallwey J, McMichael AJ. HIV-1 gag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes defined with recombinant vaccinia virus and synthetic peptides. Nature. 1988 Dec 1; 336(6198):484-7. PMID: 2461519.
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      216. McManus C, Newhouse H, Seitz S, Nixon D, Poppendiek H, Heymsfield S. Human gradient-layer calorimeter: development of an accurate and practical instrument for clinical studies. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1984 May-Jun; 8(3):317-20. PMID: 6539834.
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      217. Nixon DF, Ting JP, Frelinger JA. Ia antigens on non-lymphoid tissues their origins and functions. Immunol Today. 1982 Dec; 3(12):339-42. PMID: 25290677.
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      218. Waterfield JD, Nixon DF, Mair MG. Lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against allogeneic tumour cells. IV. Fine specificity mapping and characterization of concanavalin A-activated cytotoxic effector lymphocytes. Immunology. 1981 Dec; 44(4):685-93. PMID: 6797935; PMCID: PMC1554981.
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