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    Edward Gerstenfeld, MD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address500 Parnassus Avenue
    San Francisco CA 94117
    Phone415-476-5706
    vCardDownload vCard

      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      University of California, San FranciscoClinical Fellowship School of Medicine - Cardiology
      Northwestern UniversityM.D.School of Medicine1993

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      CLINICAL INTERESTS:
      1) Treatment of atrial fibrillation (including catheter ablation of paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation); mapping and ablation of atrial tachycardias/flutters that occur after AF ablation;
      2) Treatment and ablation of supraventricular tachycardias (atrial tachycardia, atrial flutter, AV node reentry, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome);
      3) Mapping and ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients with normal hearts, and in patients ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (including epicardial mapping and ablation).
      4) Treatment of ventricular tachycardia in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVC), including endocardial and epicardial mapping and ablation.
      5) Treatment of patients with inherited arrhythmia syndromes including long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic VT (CPVT), Brugada syndrome, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

      RESEARCH INTERESTS: Dr Gerstenfeld's laboratory is interested in better understanding the mechanism of atrial fibrillation using signal processing an humans and preclinical models. Dr Gerstenfeld has also worked in the preclinical and clinical lab developing new technology for the ablation of arrhythmias, including working with cryoablation and laser ablation. He has also worked with developing better imaging techniques for identifying scar before and after ablation using delayed enhancement cardiac MRI. Finally he has worked in the preclinical lab with models of ischemic ventricular tachycardia and pacing induced cardiomyopathy in order to better understand the mechanism of cardiomyopathy causes by premature ventricular beats.


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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Nguyen KT, Gladstone RA, Dukes JW, Nazer B, Vittinghoff E, Badhwar N, Vedantham V, Gerstenfeld EP, Lee BK, Lee RJ, Tseng ZH, Olgin JE, Scheinman MM, Marcus GM. The QT Interval as a Noninvasive Marker of Atrial Refractoriness. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2016 Oct 18. PMID: 27753113.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Woods CE, Shang C, Taghavi F, Downey P, Zalewski A, Rubio GR, Liu J, Homburger JR, Grunwald Z, Qi W, Bollensdorff C, Thanaporn P, Ali A, Riemer RK, Kohl P, Mochly-Rosen D, Gerstenfeld E, Large S, Ali ZA, Ashley EA. In Vivo Post-Cardiac Arrest Myocardial Dysfunction Is Supported by Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II-Mediated Calcium Long-Term Potentiation and Mitigated by Alda-1, an Agonist of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Type 2. Circulation. 2016 Sep 27; 134(13):961-77. PMID: 27582424; PMCID: PMC5040468 [Available on 09/27/17].
      3. Skoda J, Arya A, Garcia F, Gerstenfeld E, Marchlinski F, Hindricks G, Miller J, Petru J, Sediva L, Sha Q, Janotka M, Chovanec M, Waldauf P, Neuzil P, Reddy VY. Catheter Ablation of Ischemic Ventricular Tachycardia With Remote Magnetic Navigation: STOP-VT Multicenter Trial. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2016 Mar; 27 Suppl 1:S29-37. PMID: 26969220.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Roberts JD, Gerstenfeld EP. Concomitant Isolation of the Pulmonary Veins and Posterior Wall Using a Box Lesion Set in a Patient with Persistent Atrial Fibrillation and Variant Pulmonary Venous Anatomy. Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2016 Mar; 8(1):145-9. PMID: 26920183.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Nazer B, Salgaonkar V, Diederich CJ, Jones PD, Duggirala S, Tanaka Y, Ng B, Sievers R, Gerstenfeld EP. Epicardial Catheter Ablation Using High-Intensity Ultrasound: Validation in a Swine Model. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2015 Dec; 8(6):1491-7. PMID: 26546345.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Tanaka Y, Rahmutula D, Duggirala S, Nazer B, Fang Q, Olgin J, Sievers R, Gerstenfeld EP. Diffuse fibrosis leads to a decrease in unipolar voltage: Validation in a swine model of premature ventricular contraction-induced cardiomyopathy. Heart Rhythm. 2016 Feb; 13(2):547-54. PMID: 26416621.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Nazer B, Woods C, Dewland T, Moyers B, Badhwar N, Gerstenfeld EP. Importance of Ventricular Tachycardia Induction and Mapping for Patients Referred for Epicardial Ablation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2015 Nov; 38(11):1333-42. PMID: 26228002.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Gerstenfeld EP, Duggirala S. Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: Indications, Emerging Techniques, and Follow-Up. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Sep-Oct; 58(2):202-12. PMID: 26241304.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Ito H, Kawamura M, Badhwar N, Vedantham V, Tseng ZH, Lee BK, Lee RJ, Marcus GM, Gerstenfeld EP, Scheinman MM. The Effect of Direct Current Stimulation versus T-Wave Shock on Defibrillation Threshold Testing. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2015 Oct; 38(10):1173-80. PMID: 26137999.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Kawamura M, Hsu JC, Vedantham V, Marcus GM, Hsia HH, Gerstenfeld EP, Scheinman MM, Badhwar N. Clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias with right bundle branch block and superior axis: Comparison of apical crux area and posterior septal left ventricle. Heart Rhythm. 2015 Jun; 12(6):1137-44. PMID: 25728755.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Hoffmayer KS, Gerstenfeld EP. Contact force-sensing catheters. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2015 Jan; 30(1):74-80. PMID: 25389646.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Calkins H, Gerstenfeld EP, Schilling R, Verma A, Willems S. RE-CIRCUIT study-randomized evaluation of Dabigatran etexilate compared to warfarin in pulmonary vein ablation: assessment of an uninterrupted periprocedural anticoagulation strategy. Am J Cardiol. 2015 Jan 1; 115(1):154-5. PMID: 25456859.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Campos B, Jauregui ME, Marchlinski FE, Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP. Use of a novel fragmentation map to identify the substrate for ventricular tachycardia in postinfarction cardiomyopathy. Heart Rhythm. 2015 Jan; 12(1):95-103. PMID: 25285645.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Kawamura M, Gerstenfeld EP, Vedantham V, Rodrigues DM, Burkhardt JD, Kobayashi Y, Hsia HH, Marcus GM, Marchlinski FE, Scheinman MM, Badhwar N. Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia originating from the cardiac crux or inferior septum: epicardial idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2014 Dec; 7(6):1152-8. PMID: 25225238.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Tanaka Y, Genet M, Chuan Lee L, Martin AJ, Sievers R, Gerstenfeld EP. Utility of high-resolution electroanatomic mapping of the left ventricle using a multispline basket catheter in a swine model of chronic myocardial infarction. Heart Rhythm. 2015 Jan; 12(1):144-54. PMID: 25173890.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Nazer B, Gerstenfeld EP. Catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients with post-infarction cardiomyopathy. Korean Circ J. 2014 Jul; 44(4):210-7. PMID: 25089131; PMCID: PMC4117840.
      17. Singh DK, Viswanathan MN, Tanel RE, Lee RJ, Lee BK, Marcus GM, Olgin JE, Han F, Vedantham V, Tseng ZH, Pellegrini C, Kawamura M, Gerstenfeld EP, Badhwar N, Scheinman M. His overdrive pacing during supraventricular tachycardia: a novel maneuver for distinguishing atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia from atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia. Heart Rhythm. 2014 Aug; 11(8):1327-35. PMID: 24793458.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Hoffmayer KS, Dewland TA, Hsia HH, Badhwar N, Hsu JC, Tseng ZH, Marcus GM, Scheinman MM, Gerstenfeld EP. Safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation without coronary angiography in aortic cusp ventricular arrhythmias. Heart Rhythm. 2014 Jul; 11(7):1117-21. PMID: 24732373.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Riuró H, Campuzano O, Berne P, Arbelo E, Iglesias A, Pérez-Serra A, Coll-Vidal M, Partemi S, Mademont-Soler I, Picó F, Allegue C, Oliva A, Gerstenfeld E, Sarquella-Brugada G, Castro-Urda V, Fernández-Lozano I, Mont L, Brugada J, Scornik FS, Brugada R. Genetic analysis, in silico prediction, and family segregation in long QT syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2015 Jan; 23(1):79-85. PMID: 24667783; PMCID: PMC4266740 [Available on 01/01/16].
      20. Stepanyan G, Badhwar N, Lee RJ, Marcus GM, Lee BK, Tseng ZH, Vedantham V, Olgin J, Scheinman M, Gerstenfeld EP. Safety of new oral anticoagulants for patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2014 Jun; 40(1):33-8. PMID: 24643666.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Kawamura M, Badhwar N, Vedantham V, Tseng ZH, Lee BK, Lee RJ, Marcus GM, Olgin JE, Gerstenfeld EP, Scheinman MM. Coupling interval dispersion and body mass index are independent predictors of idiopathic premature ventricular complex-induced cardiomyopathy. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2014 Jul; 25(7):756-62. PMID: 24612052.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Gerstenfeld EP. Contact force-sensing catheters: evolution or revolution in catheter ablation technology? Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2014 Feb; 7(1):5-6. PMID: 24550405.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Nazer B, Gerstenfeld EP, Hata A, Crum LA, Matula TJ. Cardiovascular applications of therapeutic ultrasound. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2014 Apr; 39(3):287-94. PMID: 24297498.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Stepanyan G, Gerstenfeld EP. Atrial fibrillation ablation in octogenarians: where do we stand? Curr Cardiol Rep. 2013 Oct; 15(10):406. PMID: 24026710.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Mountantonakis SE, Gerstenfeld EP. Reply: The challenge of voltage channels. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jan 7-14; 63(1):90-1. PMID: 24076494.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Gerstenfeld EP, Everett TH. Internal atrial defibrillation revisited: how low can we go? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jan 7-14; 63(1):49-51. PMID: 24076285.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Hsu JC, Badhwar N, Gerstenfeld EP, Lee RJ, Mandyam MC, Dewland TA, Imburgia KE, Hoffmayer KS, Vedantham V, Lee BK, Tseng ZH, Scheinman MM, Olgin JE, Marcus GM. Randomized trial of conventional transseptal needle versus radiofrequency energy needle puncture for left atrial access (the TRAVERSE-LA study). J Am Heart Assoc. 2013 Oct; 2(5):e000428. PMID: 24045120; PMCID: PMC3835257.
      28. Ermakov S, Hoffmayer KS, Gerstenfeld EP, Scheinman MM. Combination drug therapy for patients with intractable ventricular tachycardia associated with right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2014 Jan; 37(1):90-4. PMID: 24102153.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Scheinman M, Gerstenfeld E. Mapping of complex atrial tachycardia circuits by 3-dimensional body surface mapping: the first step in the dawn of a new era. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Sep 3; 62(10):898-9. PMID: 23727089.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Kapa S, Epstein AE, Callans DJ, Garcia FC, Lin D, Bala R, Riley MP, Hutchinson MD, Gerstenfeld EP, Tzou W, Marchlinski FE, Frankel DS, Cooper JM, Supple G, Deo R, Verdino RJ, Patel VV, Dixit S. Assessing arrhythmia burden after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation using an implantable loop recorder: the ABACUS study. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2013 Aug; 24(8):875-81. PMID: 23577826.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Dukkipati SR, Kuck KH, Neuzil P, Woollett I, Kautzner J, McElderry HT, Schmidt B, Gerstenfeld EP, Doshi SK, Horton R, Metzner A, d'Avila A, Ruskin JN, Natale A, Reddy VY. Pulmonary vein isolation using a visually guided laser balloon catheter: the first 200-patient multicenter clinical experience. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2013 Jun; 6(3):467-72. PMID: 23559674.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Hoffmayer KS, Gerstenfeld EP. Diagnosis and management of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2013 Apr; 38(4):131-58. PMID: 23497740.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Mountantonakis SE, Park RE, Frankel DS, Hutchinson MD, Dixit S, Cooper J, Callans D, Marchlinski FE, Gerstenfeld EP. Relationship between voltage map "channels" and the location of critical isthmus sites in patients with post-infarction cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 May 21; 61(20):2088-95. PMID: 23524215.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Leong-Sit P, Robinson M, Zado ES, Callans DJ, Garcia F, Lin D, Dixit S, Bala R, Riley MP, Hutchinson MD, Cooper J, Gerstenfeld EP, Marchlinski FE. Inducibility of atrial fibrillation and flutter following pulmonary vein ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2013 Jun; 24(6):617-23. PMID: 23387879.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Frankel DS, Tschabrunn CM, Cooper JM, Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Riley MP, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Apical ventricular tachycardia morphology in left ventricular nonischemic cardiomyopathy predicts poor transplant-free survival. Heart Rhythm. 2013 May; 10(5):621-6. PMID: 23276817.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Hoffmayer KS, Bhave PD, Marcus GM, James CA, Tichnell C, Chopra N, Moxey L, Krahn AD, Dixit S, Stevenson W, Calkins H, Badhwar N, Gerstenfeld EP, Scheinman MM. An electrocardiographic scoring system for distinguishing right ventricular outflow tract arrhythmias in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy from idiopathic ventricular tachycardia. Heart Rhythm. 2013 Apr; 10(4):477-82. PMID: 23246596.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Hutchinson MD, Garcia FC, Mandel JE, Elkassabany N, Zado ES, Riley MP, Cooper JM, Bala R, Frankel DS, Lin D, Supple GE, Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Efforts to enhance catheter stability improve atrial fibrillation ablation outcome. Heart Rhythm. 2013 Mar; 10(3):347-53. PMID: 23128019.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Gerstenfeld EP. Recurrent ventricular tachycardia after catheter ablation in post-infarct cardiomyopathy: "failure" of ablation or progression of the substrate? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jan 8; 61(1):74-6. PMID: 23122794.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Campos B, Jauregui ME, Park KM, Mountantonakis SE, Gerstenfeld EP, Haqqani H, Garcia FC, Hutchinson MD, Callans DJ, Dixit S, Lin D, Riley MP, Tzou W, Cooper JM, Bala R, Zado ES, Marchlinski FE. New unipolar electrogram criteria to identify irreversibility of nonischemic left ventricular cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Nov 20; 60(21):2194-204. PMID: 23103045.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Tschabrunn CM, Haqqani HM, Cooper JM, Dixit S, Garcia FC, Gerstenfeld EP, Callans DJ, Zado ES, Marchlinski FE. Percutaneous epicardial ventricular tachycardia ablation after noncoronary cardiac surgery or pericarditis. Heart Rhythm. 2013 Feb; 10(2):165-9. PMID: 23059131.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Moss JD, Gerstenfeld EP, Deo R, Hutchinson MD, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE, Dixit S. ECG criteria for accurate localization of left anterolateral and posterolateral accessory pathways. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2012 Dec; 35(12):1444-50. PMID: 23035773.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Betensky BP, Jauregui M, Campos B, Michele J, Marchlinski FE, Oley L, Wylie B, Robinson D, Gerstenfeld EP. Use of a novel endoscopic catheter for direct visualization and ablation in an ovine model of chronic myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2012 Oct 23; 126(17):2065-72. PMID: 23008440.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Mathew J, Katz R, St John Sutton M, Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Ghio S, Gold MR, Linde C, Shlipak MG, Deo R. Chronic kidney disease and cardiac remodelling in patients with mild heart failure: results from the REsynchronization reVErses Remodeling in Systolic Left vEntricular Dysfunction (REVERSE) study. Eur J Heart Fail. 2012 Dec; 14(12):1420-8. PMID: 22956574; PMCID: PMC3506959.
      44. Deyell MW, Park KM, Han Y, Frankel DS, Dixit S, Cooper JM, Hutchinson MD, Lin D, Garcia F, Bala R, Riley MP, Gerstenfeld E, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Predictors of recovery of left ventricular dysfunction after ablation of frequent ventricular premature depolarizations. Heart Rhythm. 2012 Sep; 9(9):1465-72. PMID: 22640894.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Anastasio N, Frankel DS, Deyell MW, Zado E, Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Cooper J, Lin D, Marchlinski FE, Callans DJ. Nearly uniform failure of atrial flutter ablation and continuation of antiarrhythmic agents (hybrid therapy) for the long-term control of atrial fibrillation. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2012 Oct; 35(1):57-61. PMID: 22552760.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Jauregui-Abularach ME, Campos B, Betensky BP, Michele J, Gerstenfeld EP. Comparison of epicardial cryoablation and irrigated radiofrequency ablation in a Swine infarct model. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012 Sep; 23(9):1016-23. PMID: 22554000.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Frankel DS, Mountantonakis SE, Zado ES, Anter E, Bala R, Cooper JM, Deo R, Dixit S, Epstein AE, Garcia FC, Gerstenfeld EP, Hutchinson MD, Lin D, Patel VV, Riley MP, Robinson MR, Tzou WS, Verdino RJ, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Noninvasive programmed ventricular stimulation early after ventricular tachycardia ablation to predict risk of late recurrence. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Apr 24; 59(17):1529-35. PMID: 22516442.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Mandyam MC, Vedantham V, Scheinman MM, Tseng ZH, Badhwar N, Lee BK, Lee RJ, Gerstenfeld EP, Olgin JE, Marcus GM. Alcohol and vagal tone as triggers for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol. 2012 Aug 1; 110(3):364-8. PMID: 22521307; PMCID: PMC3398200.
      49. Lin D, Frankel DS, Zado ES, Gerstenfeld E, Dixit S, Callans DJ, Riley M, Hutchinson M, Garcia F, Bala R, Verdino R, Cooper J, Marchlinski FE. Pulmonary vein antral isolation and nonpulmonary vein trigger ablation without additional substrate modification for treating longstanding persistent atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012 Aug; 23(8):806-13. PMID: 22509772.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Frankel DS, Lin D, Anastasio N, Mountantonakis SE, Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Hutchinson MD, Riley MP, Marchlinski FE, Callans DJ. Frequent additional tachyarrhythmias in patients with inappropriate sinus tachycardia undergoing sinus node modification: an important cause of symptom recurrence. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012 Aug; 23(8):835-9. PMID: 22471900.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Jauregui Abularach ME, Campos B, Park KM, Tschabrunn CM, Frankel DS, Park RE, Gerstenfeld EP, Mountantonakis SE, Mountantonakis S, Garcia FC, Dixit S, Tzou WS, Hutchinson MD, Lin D, Riley MP, Cooper JM, Bala R, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Ablation of ventricular arrhythmias arising near the anterior epicardial veins from the left sinus of Valsalva region: ECG features, anatomic distance, and outcome. Heart Rhythm. 2012 Jun; 9(6):865-73. PMID: 22306618.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Gerstenfeld EP. Have lasers finally found their niche in interventional cardiology? Heart. 2012 Apr; 98(7):525-6. PMID: 22155703.
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      53. Dixit S, Marchlinski FE, Lin D, Callans DJ, Bala R, Riley MP, Garcia FC, Hutchinson MD, Ratcliffe SJ, Cooper JM, Verdino RJ, Patel VV, Zado ES, Cash NR, Killian T, Tomson TT, Gerstenfeld EP. Randomized ablation strategies for the treatment of persistent atrial fibrillation: RASTA study. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012 Apr; 5(2):287-94. PMID: 22139886.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Gerstenfeld EP. New technologies for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2011 Oct; 13(5):393-401. PMID: 21789501.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Saghy L, Callans DJ, Garcia F, Lin D, Marchlinski FE, Riley M, Dixit S, Tzou WS, Haqqani HM, Pap R, Kim S, Gerstenfeld EP. Is there a relationship between complex fractionated atrial electrograms recorded during atrial fibrillation and sinus rhythm fractionation? Heart Rhythm. 2012 Feb; 9(2):181-8. PMID: 21946341.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Bala R, Ren JF, Hutchinson MD, Desjardins B, Tschabrunn C, Gerstenfeld EP, Deo R, Dixit S, Garcia FC, Cooper J, Lin D, Riley MP, Tzou WS, Verdino R, Epstein AE, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Assessing epicardial substrate using intracardiac echocardiography during VT ablation. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011 Oct; 4(5):667-73. PMID: 21880675; PMCID: PMC3220997.
      57. Tzou WS, Zado ES, Lin D, Callans DJ, Dixit S, Cooper JM, Bala R, Garcia F, Hutchinson MD, Riley MP, Deo R, Gerstenfeld EP, Marchlinski FE. Sinus rhythm ECG criteria associated with basal-lateral ventricular tachycardia substrate in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011 Dec; 22(12):1351-8. PMID: 21736660.
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      58. Anter E, Hutchinson MD, Deo R, Haqqani HM, Callans DJ, Gerstenfeld EP, Garcia FC, Bala R, Lin D, Riley MP, Litt HI, Woo JY, Acker MA, Szeto WY, Zado ES, Marchlinski FE, Dixit S. Surgical ablation of refractory ventricular tachycardia in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011 Aug; 4(4):494-500. PMID: 21673018.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Betensky BP, Park RE, Marchlinski FE, Hutchinson MD, Garcia FC, Dixit S, Callans DJ, Cooper JM, Bala R, Lin D, Riley MP, Gerstenfeld EP. The V(2) transition ratio: a new electrocardiographic criterion for distinguishing left from right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia origin. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 May 31; 57(22):2255-62. PMID: 21616286.
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      60. Mountantonakis SE, Frankel DS, Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Lin D, Hutchinson MD, Riley M, Bala R, Cooper J, Callans D, Garcia F, Zado ES, Marchlinski FE. Reversal of outflow tract ventricular premature depolarization-induced cardiomyopathy with ablation: effect of residual arrhythmia burden and preexisting cardiomyopathy on outcome. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Oct; 8(10):1608-14. PMID: 21699837.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Gerstenfeld EP, Lavi N, Bazan V, Gojraty S, Kim SJ, Michele J. Mechanism of complex fractionated electrograms recorded during atrial fibrillation in a canine model. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2011 Jul; 34(7):844-57. PMID: 21418250.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Haqqani HM, Tschabrunn CM, Tzou WS, Dixit S, Cooper JM, Riley MP, Lin D, Hutchinson MD, Garcia FC, Bala R, Verdino RJ, Callans DJ, Gerstenfeld EP, Zado ES, Marchlinski FE. Isolated septal substrate for ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy: incidence, characterization, and implications. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Aug; 8(8):1169-76. PMID: 21392586.
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      63. Mountantonakis S, Frankel DS, Hutchinson MD, Dixit S, Riley M, Callans DJ, Garcia F, Lin D, Tzou W, Bala R, Marchlinski FE, Gerstenfeld EP. Feasibility of catheter ablation of mitral annular flutter in patients with prior mitral valve surgery. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Jun; 8(6):809-14. PMID: 21236363.
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      64. Hutchinson MD, Gerstenfeld EP, Desjardins B, Bala R, Riley MP, Garcia FC, Dixit S, Lin D, Tzou WS, Cooper JM, Verdino RJ, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Endocardial unipolar voltage mapping to detect epicardial ventricular tachycardia substrate in patients with nonischemic left ventricular cardiomyopathy. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011 Feb; 4(1):49-55. PMID: 21131557; PMCID: PMC3041847.
      65. Van Herendael H, Garcia F, Lin D, Riley M, Bala R, Cooper J, Tzou W, Hutchinson MD, Verdino R, Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Callans DJ, Tschabrunn CM, Zado ES, Marchlinski FE. Idiopathic right ventricular arrhythmias not arising from the outflow tract: prevalence, electrocardiographic characteristics, and outcome of catheter ablation. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Apr; 8(4):511-8. PMID: 21129502.
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      66. Leong-Sit P, Roux JF, Zado E, Callans DJ, Garcia F, Lin D, Marchlinski FE, Bala R, Dixit S, Riley M, Hutchinson MD, Cooper J, Russo AM, Verdino R, Gerstenfeld EP. Antiarrhythmics after ablation of atrial fibrillation (5A Study): six-month follow-up study. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2011 Feb; 4(1):11-4. PMID: 21076158.
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      67. Leong-Sit P, Zado E, Callans DJ, Garcia F, Lin D, Dixit S, Bala R, Riley MP, Hutchinson MD, Cooper J, Gerstenfeld EP, Marchlinski FE. Efficacy and risk of atrial fibrillation ablation before 45 years of age. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2010 Oct; 3(5):452-7. PMID: 20858861.
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      68. Baetz BE, Gerstenfeld EP, Kolansky DM, Spinler SA. Bivalirudin use during radiofrequency catheter ablation procedures in two patients with a history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Sep; 30(9):952. PMID: 20812431.
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      69. Gerstenfeld EP. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with midcavitary obstruction: another substrate for ventricular tachycardia? J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010 Sep; 21(9):1000-1. PMID: 20487115.
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      70. Gerstenfeld EP. Ventricular tachycardia recurrence after "failed" endocardial ablation: a Sisyphean challenge? Heart Rhythm. 2010 Dec; 7(12):1753-4. PMID: 20727421.
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      71. Gerstenfeld EP, Michele J. Pulmonary vein isolation using a compliant endoscopic laser balloon ablation system in a swine model. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2010 Oct; 29(1):1-9. PMID: 20625804.
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      72. Riley MP, Zado E, Bala R, Callans DJ, Cooper J, Dixit S, Garcia F, Gerstenfeld EP, Hutchinson MD, Lin D, Patel V, Verdino R, Marchlinski FE. Lack of uniform progression of endocardial scar in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachycardia. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2010 Aug; 3(4):332-8. PMID: 20558846.
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      73. Torres JL, Shah BK, Greenberg RM, Deger FT, Gerstenfeld EP. A left ventricular epicardial to right ventricular endocardial dominant frequency gradient exists in human ventricular fibrillation. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2010 Oct; 29(1):11-6. PMID: 20461544.
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      74. Tzou WS, Marchlinski FE, Zado ES, Lin D, Dixit S, Callans DJ, Cooper JM, Bala R, Garcia F, Hutchinson MD, Riley MP, Verdino R, Gerstenfeld EP. Long-term outcome after successful catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2010 Jun; 3(3):237-42. PMID: 20335557.
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      75. Bala R, Garcia FC, Hutchinson MD, Gerstenfeld EP, Dhruvakumar S, Dixit S, Cooper JM, Lin D, Harding J, Riley MP, Zado E, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic features of ventricular arrhythmias originating from the right/left coronary cusp commissure. Heart Rhythm. 2010 Mar; 7(3):312-22. PMID: 20097621.
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      76. Sauer WH, Zado E, Gerstenfeld EP, Marchlinski FE, Callans DJ. Incidence and predictors of mortality following ablation of ventricular tachycardia in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Heart Rhythm. 2010 Jan; 7(1):9-14. PMID: 19939743.
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      77. Roux JF, Zado E, Callans DJ, Garcia F, Lin D, Marchlinski FE, Bala R, Dixit S, Riley M, Russo AM, Hutchinson MD, Cooper J, Verdino R, Patel V, Joy PS, Gerstenfeld EP. Antiarrhythmics After Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation (5A Study). Circulation. 2009 Sep 22; 120(12):1036-40. PMID: 19738139.
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      78. Gojraty S, Lavi N, Valles E, Kim SJ, Michele J, Gerstenfeld EP. Dominant frequency mapping of atrial fibrillation: comparison of contact and noncontact approaches. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2009 Sep; 20(9):997-1004. PMID: 19470038.
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      79. Tzou WS, Gerstenfeld EP. Genetic testing in the management of inherited arrhythmia syndromes. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2009 Sep; 11(5):343-51. PMID: 19709494.
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      80. Cano O, Hutchinson M, Lin D, Garcia F, Zado E, Bala R, Riley M, Cooper J, Dixit S, Gerstenfeld E, Callans D, Marchlinski FE. Electroanatomic substrate and ablation outcome for suspected epicardial ventricular tachycardia in left ventricular nonischemic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Aug 25; 54(9):799-808. PMID: 19695457.
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      81. Bazan V, Martí-Almor J, Perez-Rodon J, Bruguera J, Gerstenfeld EP, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Incremental pacing for the diagnosis of complete cavotricuspid isthmus block during radiofrequency ablation of atrial flutter. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010 Jan; 21(1):33-9. PMID: 19656252.
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      82. Rivas N, Dhruvakumar S, Mainigi SK, Smith T, Gerstenfeld EP, Marchlinski FE. Ventricular premature depolarizations triggered by incremental dose isoproterenol infusion: common electrocardiographic features. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2009 Jun; 25(1):43-51. PMID: 19148731.
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      83. Roux JF, Gojraty S, Bala R, Liu CF, Dixit S, Hutchinson MD, Garcia F, Lin D, Callans DJ, Riley M, Marchlinski F, Gerstenfeld EP. Effect of pulmonary vein isolation on the distribution of complex fractionated electrograms in humans. Heart Rhythm. 2009 Feb; 6(2):156-60. PMID: 19187903.
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      84. Valles E, Fan R, Roux JF, Liu CF, Harding JD, Dhruvakumar S, Hutchinson MD, Riley M, Bala R, Garcia FC, Lin D, Dixit S, Callans DJ, Gerstenfeld EP, Marchlinski FE. Localization of atrial fibrillation triggers in patients undergoing pulmonary vein isolation: importance of the carina region. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Oct 21; 52(17):1413-20. PMID: 18940533.
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      85. Fan R, Cano O, Ho SY, Bala R, Callans DJ, Dixit S, Garcia F, Gerstenfeld EP, Hutchinson M, Lin D, Riley M, Marchlinski FE. Characterization of the phrenic nerve course within the epicardial substrate of patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachycardia. Heart Rhythm. 2009 Jan; 6(1):59-64. PMID: 19121801.
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      86. Zado E, Callans DJ, Riley M, Hutchinson M, Garcia F, Bala R, Lin D, Cooper J, Verdino R, Russo AM, Dixit S, Gerstenfeld E, Marchlinski FE. Long-term clinical efficacy and risk of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation in the elderly. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008 Jun; 19(6):621-6. PMID: 18462325.
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      87. Roux JF, Gojraty S, Bala R, Liu CF, Hutchinson MD, Dixit S, Callans DJ, Marchlinski F, Gerstenfeld EP. Complex fractionated electrogram distribution and temporal stability in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008 Aug; 19(8):815-20. PMID: 18373601.
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      88. Nayak HM, Verdino RJ, Russo AM, Gerstenfeld EP, Hsia HH, Lin D, Dixit S, Cooper JM, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Ventricular tachycardia storm after initiation of biventricular pacing: incidence, clinical characteristics, management, and outcome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008 Jul; 19(7):708-15. PMID: 18363690.
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      89. Gerstenfeld EP. Functional block in the posterior left atrium another piece in the puzzle of atrial fibrillation initiation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Feb 26; 51(8):863-4. PMID: 18294573.
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      90. Lin D, Ilkhanoff L, Gerstenfeld E, Dixit S, Beldner S, Bala R, Garcia F, Callans D, Marchlinski FE. Twelve-lead electrocardiographic characteristics of the aortic cusp region guided by intracardiac echocardiography and electroanatomic mapping. Heart Rhythm. 2008 May; 5(5):663-9. PMID: 18452867.
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      91. Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Ratcliffe SJ, Cooper JM, Russo AM, Kimmel SE, Callans DJ, Lin D, Verdino RJ, Patel VV, Zado E, Marchlinski FE. Single procedure efficacy of isolating all versus arrhythmogenic pulmonary veins on long-term control of atrial fibrillation: a prospective randomized study. Heart Rhythm. 2008 Feb; 5(2):174-81. PMID: 18242535.
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      92. Gerstenfeld EP. Noncontact frequency mapping of atrial fibrillation: are we ready to accept "virtual" mapping? J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007 Nov; 18(11):1154-6. PMID: 17887976.
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      93. Bazan V, Gerstenfeld EP, Garcia FC, Bala R, Rivas N, Dixit S, Zado E, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Site-specific twelve-lead ECG features to identify an epicardial origin for left ventricular tachycardia in the absence of myocardial infarction. Heart Rhythm. 2007 Nov; 4(11):1403-10. PMID: 17954399.
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      94. Gerstenfeld EP, Jacobson J, Bazan V, Lazar S, Tomaszewski JE, Marchlinski FE, Michele J. Comparison of high power, medium power, and irrigated-tip ablation strategies for pulmonary vein isolation in a canine model. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007 Aug; 18(8):849-53. PMID: 17553075.
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      95. Dhruvakumar S, Gerstenfeld EP. Complications associated with catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2007 Jun; 55(3):353-68. PMID: 17534254.
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      96. Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Bala R, Callans DJ, Lin D, Sauer W, Garcia F, Cooper J, Russo AM, Marchlinski FE. Surface electrocardiogram characteristics of atrial tachycardias occurring after pulmonary vein isolation. Heart Rhythm. 2007 Sep; 4(9):1136-43. PMID: 17765610.
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      97. Ilkhanoff L, Gerstenfeld EP, Zado ES, Marchlinski FE. Changes in ventricular dimensions and function during recovery of atrial tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy treated with catheter ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007 Sep; 18(10):1104-6. PMID: 17584487.
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      98. Chinitz JS, Gerstenfeld EP, Marchlinski FE, Callans DJ. Atrial fibrillation is common after ablation of isolated atrial flutter during long-term follow-up. Heart Rhythm. 2007 Aug; 4(8):1029-33. PMID: 17675077.
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      99. Gerstenfeld EP. Persistent pulmonary vein isolation: the elusive goal of atrial fibrillation ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007 Apr; 18(4):399-401. PMID: 17394454.
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      100. Lin D, Garcia F, Jacobson J, Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Verdino R, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Use of noncontact mapping and saline-cooled ablation catheter for sinus node modification in medically refractory inappropriate sinus tachycardia. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2007 Feb; 30(2):236-42. PMID: 17338721.
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      101. Gerstenfeld EP, Marchlinski FE. Mapping and ablation of left atrial tachycardias occurring after atrial fibrillation ablation. Heart Rhythm. 2007 Mar; 4(3 Suppl):S65-72. PMID: 17336888.
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      102. Gerstenfeld EP, Callans D, Dixit S, Lin D, Cooper J, Russo AM, Verdino R, Weiner M, Zado E, Marchlinski FE. Characteristics of patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation: trends over a seven-year period 1999-2005. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007 Jan; 18(1):23-8. PMID: 17081205.
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      103. Mainigi SK, Sauer WH, Cooper JM, Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Callans DJ, Russo AM, Verdino RJ, Lin D, Zado ES, Marchlinski FE. Incidence and predictors of very late recurrence of atrial fibrillation after ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007 Jan; 18(1):69-74. PMID: 17081214.
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      104. Gentlesk PJ, Sauer WH, Gerstenfeld EP, Lin D, Dixit S, Zado E, Callans D, Marchlinski FE. Reversal of left ventricular dysfunction following ablation of atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007 Jan; 18(1):9-14. PMID: 17081210.
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      105. Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Callans DJ, Cooper JM, Lin D, Russo AM, Verdino RJ, Patel VV, Kimmel SE, Ratcliffe SJ, Hsia HH, Nayak HM, Zado E, Ren JF, Marchlinski FE. Comparison of cool tip versus 8-mm tip catheter in achieving electrical isolation of pulmonary veins for long-term control of atrial fibrillation: a prospective randomized pilot study. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 Oct; 17(10):1074-9. PMID: 16879626.
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      106. Sauer WH, Alonso C, Zado E, Cooper JM, Lin D, Dixit S, Russo A, Verdino R, Ji S, Gerstenfeld EP, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia in patients referred for atrial fibrillation ablation: response to ablation that incorporates slow-pathway modification. Circulation. 2006 Jul 18; 114(3):191-5. PMID: 16831982.
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      107. Bazan V, Bala R, Garcia FC, Sussman JS, Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Callans DJ, Zado E, Marchlinski FE. Twelve-lead ECG features to identify ventricular tachycardia arising from the epicardial right ventricle. Heart Rhythm. 2006 Oct; 3(10):1132-9. PMID: 17018339.
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      108. Mainigi SK, Cooper JM, Russo AM, Nayak HM, Lin D, Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Hsia HH, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE, Verdino RJ. Elevated defibrillation thresholds in patients undergoing biventricular defibrillator implantation: incidence and predictors. Heart Rhythm. 2006 Sep; 3(9):1010-6. PMID: 16945792.
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      109. Sauer WH, McKernan ML, Lin D, Gerstenfeld EP, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Clinical predictors and outcomes associated with acute return of pulmonary vein conduction during pulmonary vein isolation for treatment of atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm. 2006 Sep; 3(9):1024-8. PMID: 16945795.
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      110. Lazar S, Dixit S, Callans DJ, Lin D, Marchlinski FE, Gerstenfeld EP. Effect of pulmonary vein isolation on the left-to-right atrial dominant frequency gradient in human atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm. 2006 Aug; 3(8):889-95. PMID: 16876735.
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      111. Rami TG, Bala R, Gerstenfeld EP. Supraventricular arrhythmias limit effective cardiac resynchronization therapy: diagnosis using intracardiac electrograms and device based pacing maneuvers. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2006 Mar; 15(2):119-23. PMID: 16755341.
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      112. Dixit S, Callans DJ, Gerstenfeld EP, Marchlinski FE. Reentrant and nonreentrant forms of atrio-ventricular nodal tachycardia mimicking atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 Mar; 17(3):312-6. PMID: 16643407.
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      113. Gerstenfeld EP, Sauer W, Callans DJ, Dixit S, Lin D, Russo AM, Beldner S, McKernan M, Marchlinski FE. Predictors of success after selective pulmonary vein isolation of arrhythmogenic pulmonary veins for treatment of atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm. 2006 Feb; 3(2):165-70. PMID: 16443531.
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      114. Testani JM, Kolansky DM, Litt H, Gerstenfeld EP. Focal myocarditis mimicking acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: diagnosis using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Tex Heart Inst J. 2006; 33(2):256-9. PMID: 16878641; PMCID: PMC1524714.
      115. Gerstenfeld EP, Callans DJ, Sauer W, Jacobson J, Marchlinski FE. Reentrant and nonreentrant focal left atrial tachycardias occur after pulmonary vein isolation. Heart Rhythm. 2005 Nov; 2(11):1195-202. PMID: 16253909.
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      116. Gerstenfeld EP. Does rhythm control improve functional status in patients with atrial fibrillation? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Nov 15; 46(10):1900-1. PMID: 16286178.
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      117. Lin D, Hsia HH, Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Callans DJ, Nayak H, Russo A, Marchlinski FE. Idiopathic fascicular left ventricular tachycardia: linear ablation lesion strategy for noninducible or nonsustained tachycardia. Heart Rhythm. 2005 Sep; 2(9):934-9. PMID: 16171747.
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      118. Spencer CT, Byrne BJ, Gewitz MH, Wechsler SB, Kao AC, Gerstenfeld EP, Merliss AD, Carboni MP, Bryant RM. Ventricular arrhythmia in the X-linked cardiomyopathy Barth syndrome. Pediatr Cardiol. 2005 Sep-Oct; 26(5):632-7. PMID: 16235007.
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      119. Marchlinski F, Garcia F, Siadatan A, Sauer W, Beldner S, Zado E, Hsia H, Lin D, Cooper J, Verdino R, Gerstenfeld E, Dixit S, Russo A, Callans D. Ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation ablation in the setting of ischemic heart disease. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005 Sep; 16 Suppl 1:S59-70. PMID: 16138888.
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      120. Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Lin D, Callans DJ, Hsia HH, Nayak HM, Zado E, Marchlinski FE. Identification of distinct electrocardiographic patterns from the basal left ventricle: distinguishing medial and lateral sites of origin in patients with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia. Heart Rhythm. 2005 May; 2(5):485-91. PMID: 15840472.
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      121. Ren JF, Marchlinski FE, Callans DJ, Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Lin D, Nayak HM, Hsia HH. Increased intensity of anticoagulation may reduce risk of thrombus during atrial fibrillation ablation procedures in patients with spontaneous echo contrast. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005 May; 16(5):474-7. PMID: 15877616.
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      122. Russo AM, Sauer W, Gerstenfeld EP, Hsia HH, Lin D, Cooper JM, Dixit S, Verdino RJ, Nayak HM, Callans DJ, Patel V, Marchlinski FE. Defibrillation threshold testing: is it really necessary at the time of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator insertion? Heart Rhythm. 2005 May; 2(5):456-61. PMID: 15840466.
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      123. Gerstenfeld EP. Defibrillation threshold testing: is one shock enough? Heart Rhythm. 2005 Feb; 2(2):123-4. PMID: 15851282.
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      124. Rajawat YS, Patel VV, Gerstenfeld EP, Nayak H, Marchlinski FE. Advantages and pitfalls of combining device-based and pharmacologic therapies for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias: observations from a tertiary referral center. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2004 Dec; 27(12):1670-81. PMID: 15613132.
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      125. Lazar S, Dixit S, Marchlinski FE, Callans DJ, Gerstenfeld EP. Presence of left-to-right atrial frequency gradient in paroxysmal but not persistent atrial fibrillation in humans. Circulation. 2004 Nov 16; 110(20):3181-6. PMID: 15533867.
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      126. Patel VV, Rho RW, Gerstenfeld EP, Hsia HH, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Right bundle-branch block ventricular tachycardias: septal versus lateral ventricular origin based on activation time to the right ventricular apex. Circulation. 2004 Oct 26; 110(17):2582-7. PMID: 15492311.
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      127. Marchlinski FE, Zado E, Dixit S, Gerstenfeld E, Callans DJ, Hsia H, Lin D, Nayak H, Russo A, Pulliam W. Electroanatomic substrate and outcome of catheter ablative therapy for ventricular tachycardia in setting of right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2004 Oct 19; 110(16):2293-8. PMID: 15477406.
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      128. Gerstenfeld EP, Callans DJ, Dixit S, Russo AM, Nayak H, Lin D, Pulliam W, Siddique S, Marchlinski FE. Mechanisms of organized left atrial tachycardias occurring after pulmonary vein isolation. Circulation. 2004 Sep 14; 110(11):1351-7. PMID: 15353501.
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      129. Dixit S, Ren JF, Callans DJ, Gerstenfeld EP, Zado E, Vanderhoff ME, Marchlinski FE. Favorable effect of pulmonic vein isolation by partial circumferential ablation on ostial flow velocity. Heart Rhythm. 2004 Sep; 1(3):262-7. PMID: 15851167.
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      130. Callans DJ, Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Zado E, Vanderhoff M, Ren JF, Marchlinski FE. Efficacy of repeat pulmonary vein isolation procedures in patients with recurrent atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2004 Sep; 15(9):1050-5. PMID: 15363079.
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      131. Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Mechanisms underlying sustained firing from pulmonary veins: evidence from pacing maneuvers and pharmacological manipulation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2004 Aug; 27(8):1120-9. PMID: 15305962.
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      132. Siddique SM, Gerstenfeld EP. Supraventricular tachycardia observed upon termination of atrial flutter: what is the mechanism? J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2004 Jul; 15(7):834-6. PMID: 15250874.
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      133. Beldner S, Gerstenfeld EP, Lin D, Marchlinski F. Ablation of atrial fibrillation: localizing triggers, mapping systems and ablation techniques. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2004 Apr; 52(2):95-109. PMID: 15194992.
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      134. Rajawat YS, Gerstenfeld EP, Patel VV, Dixit S, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. ECG criteria for localizing the pulmonary vein origin of spontaneous atrial premature complexes: validation using intracardiac recordings. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2004 Feb; 27(2):182-8. PMID: 14764168.
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      135. Russo AM, Nayak H, Verdino R, Springman J, Gerstenfeld E, Hsia H, Marchlinski FE. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator events in patients with asymptomatic nonsustained ventricular tachycardia: is device implantation justified? Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2003 Dec; 26(12):2289-95. PMID: 14675014.
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      136. Gerstenfeld EP, Callans DJ, Dixit S, Zado E, Marchlinski FE. Incidence and location of focal atrial fibrillation triggers in patients undergoing repeat pulmonary vein isolation: implications for ablation strategies. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2003 Jul; 14(7):685-90. PMID: 12930245.
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      137. Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Callans DJ, Rajawat Y, Rho R, Marchlinski FE. Quantitative comparison of spontaneous and paced 12-lead electrocardiogram during right ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Jun 4; 41(11):2046-53. PMID: 12798580.
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      138. Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Rho RW, Patel V, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Change in distant atrial activation patterns during circumferential pacemapping of pulmonic vein ostium: implications for localizing triggers for atrial fibrillation. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2003 Jun; 8(3):187-94. PMID: 12815304.
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      139. Marchlinski FE, Callans D, Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Rho R, Ren JF, Zado E. Efficacy and safety of targeted focal ablation versus PV isolation assisted by magnetic electroanatomic mapping. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2003 Apr; 14(4):358-65. PMID: 12741705.
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      140. Gerstenfeld EP, Ren JF, Marchlinski FE. Atrial tachycardia successfully treated by electrical isolation of the superior vena cava. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2003 Apr; 26(4 Pt 1):906-10. PMID: 12715853.
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      141. Rho RW, Patel VV, Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Poku JW, Ross HM, Callans D, Kocovic DZ. Elevations in ventricular pacing threshold with the use of the Y adaptor: implications for biventricular pacing. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2003 Mar; 26(3):747-51. PMID: 12698677.
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      142. Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Callans DJ, Marchlinski FE. Electrocardiographic patterns of superior right ventricular outflow tract tachycardias: distinguishing septal and free-wall sites of origin. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2003 Jan; 14(1):1-7. PMID: 12625602.
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      143. Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Callans D, Rho R, Rajawat Y, Zado E, Marchlinski FE. Utility of exit block for identifying electrical isolation of the pulmonary veins. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2002 Oct; 13(10):971-9. PMID: 12435181.
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      144. Rajawat YS, Dias D, Gerstenfeld EP, Dixit S, Shah B, Russo AM, Marchlinski FE. Interactions of antiarrhythmic drugs and implantable devices in controlling ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2002 Sep; 4(5):434-40. PMID: 12169241.
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      145. Nakai T, Lesh MD, Gerstenfeld EP, Virmani R, Jones R, Lee RJ. Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (PLAATO) for preventing cardioembolism: first experience in canine model. Circulation. 2002 May 7; 105(18):2217-22. PMID: 11994258.
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      146. Gerstenfeld EP, Khoo M, Martin RC, Cook JR, Lancey R, Rofino K, Vander Salm TJ, Mittleman RS. Effectiveness of bi-atrial pacing for reducing atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2001 Sep; 5(3):275-83. PMID: 11500582.
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      147. Gerstenfeld EP, Guerra P, Sparks PB, Hattori K, Lesh MD. Clinical outcome after radiofrequency catheter ablation of focal atrial fibrillation triggers. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2001 Aug; 12(8):900-8. PMID: 11513440.
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      148. Gerstenfeld EP, Lesh MD. Is there a role for biatrial pacing in the prevention of atrial arrhythmias? J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2000 Oct; 11(10):1092-3. PMID: 11059971.
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      149. Gerstenfeld EP, SippensGroenewegen A, Lux RL, Lesh MD. Derivation of an optimal lead set for measuring ectopic atrial activation from the pulmonary veins by using body surface mapping. J Electrocardiol. 2000; 33 Suppl:179-85. PMID: 11265719.
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      150. Gerstenfeld EP, Hill MR, French SN, Mehra R, Rofino K, Vander Salm TJ, Mittleman RS. Evaluation of right atrial and biatrial temporary pacing for the prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 Jun; 33(7):1981-8. PMID: 10362203.
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      151. Gerstenfeld EP, Balarajan Y, Cooke R, Mittleman RS. Migration and right atrial perforation of an Accufix atrial lead retention wire following partial lead removal during myomectomy. Chest. 1998 Aug; 114(2):637-9. PMID: 9726760.
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      152. Sih HJ, Ropella KM, Swiryn S, Gerstenfeld EP, Sahakian AV. Observations from intraatrial recordings on the termination of electrically induced atrial fibrillation in humans. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1994 Jul; 17(7):1231-42. PMID: 7937229.
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      153. Gerstenfeld EP, Sahakian AV, Swiryn S. Evidence for transient linking of atrial excitation during atrial fibrillation in humans. Circulation. 1992 Aug; 86(2):375-82. PMID: 1638706.
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      154. Swiryn S, Gerstenfeld E, Sih H, Srinivasan A, Sahakian A. The organization of atrial fibrillation. J Electrocardiol. 1992; 25 Suppl:147. PMID: 1297684.
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      155. Gerstenfeld EP, Sahakian AV, Baerman JM, Ropella KM, Swiryn S. Detection of changes in atrial endocardial activation with use of an orthogonal catheter. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991 Oct; 18(4):1034-42. PMID: 1894849.
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