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    Elizabeth Sinclair, PhD

    TitleAssociate Professor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address1001 Potrero Ave, SFGH 100
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-206-3461

       Overview 
       Overview
      Director - Core Immunology Laboratory (CIL)
      Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine- San Francisco General Hospital
      The goal of my research is to support immunology studies that will improve the clinical management and treatment of HIV/AIDS and related co-morbidities and inform the development of an effective vaccine against HIV. Additionally, I support immunological studies of aging, stress and cardiovascular disease. CIL enables highly collaborative multidisciplinary and translational research by providing access to immunology expertise, instrumentation and a wide range of immunology assay services. As director of CIL I determine which assays best address research hypothesis; evaluate and optimize new assays; devise practical and cost effective study designs; advise on data interpretation and assist with publication. In order to support the dynamic needs of cutting-edge translational research, CIL engages in continuous optimization and validation of new assays and modification of existing assays. Area’s of high interest include: HIV Eradication; T cell activation; cellular biomarkers of immune protection and cardiovascular disease and CSF lymphocyte dynamics in HIV-infection.


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       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Seu L, Ortiz GM, Epling L, Sinclair E, Swainson LA, Bajpai UD, Huang Y, Deeks SG, Hunt PW, Martin JN, McCune JM. Higher CD27(+)CD8(+) T Cells Percentages during Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy Predict Greater Subsequent CD4(+) T Cell Recovery in Treated HIV Infection. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e84091.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Josefsson L, von Stockenstrom S, Faria NR, Sinclair E, Bacchetti P, Killian M, Epling L, Tan A, Ho T, Lemey P, Shao W, Hunt PW, Somsouk M, Wylie W, Douek DC, Loeb L, Custer J, Hoh R, Poole L, Deeks SG, Hecht F, Palmer S. The HIV-1 reservoir in eight patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy is stable with few genetic changes over time. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Dec 17; 110(51):E4987-96.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Hatano H, Yukl SA, Ferre AL, Graf EH, Somsouk M, Sinclair E, Abdel-Mohsen M, Liegler T, Harvill K, Hoh R, Palmer S, Bacchetti P, Hunt PW, Martin JN, McCune JM, Tracy RP, Busch MP, O'Doherty U, Shacklett BL, Wong JK, Deeks SG. Prospective antiretroviral treatment of asymptomatic, HIV-1 infected controllers. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(10):e1003691.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Hatano H, Somsouk M, Sinclair E, Harvill K, Gilman L, Cohen M, Hoh R, Hunt PW, Martin JN, Wong JK, Deeks SG, Yukl SA. Comparison of HIV DNA and RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of HIV-infected controllers and noncontrollers. AIDS. 2013 Sep 10; 27(14):2255-60.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Patterson S, Moran P, Epel E, Sinclair E, Kemeny ME, Deeks SG, Bacchetti P, Acree M, Epling L, Kirschbaum C, Hecht FM. Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e63429.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Unemori P, Leslie KS, Hunt PW, Sinclair E, Epling L, Mitsuyasu R, Effros RB, Dock J, Dollard SG, Deeks SG, Martin JN, Maurer TA. Immunosenescence is associated with presence of Kaposi's sarcoma in antiretroviral treated HIV infection. AIDS. 2013 Jul 17; 27(11):1735-42.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Jain V, Hartogensis W, Bacchetti P, Hunt PW, Hatano H, Sinclair E, Epling L, Lee TH, Busch MP, McCune JM, Pilcher CD, Hecht FM, Deeks SG. Antiretroviral therapy initiated within 6 months of HIV infection is associated with lower T-cell activation and smaller HIV reservoir size. J Infect Dis. 2013 Oct 15; 208(8):1202-11.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Yukl SA, Shergill AK, Ho T, Killian M, Girling V, Epling L, Li P, Wong LK, Crouch P, Deeks SG, Havlir DV, McQuaid K, Sinclair E, Wong JK. The distribution of HIV DNA and RNA in cell subsets differs in gut and blood of HIV-positive patients on ART: implications for viral persistence. J Infect Dis. 2013 Oct 15; 208(8):1212-20.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Yukl SA, Boritz E, Busch M, Bentsen C, Chun TW, Douek D, Eisele E, Haase A, Ho YC, Hütter G, Justement JS, Keating S, Lee TH, Li P, Murray D, Palmer S, Pilcher C, Pillai S, Price RW, Rothenberger M, Schacker T, Siliciano J, Siliciano R, Sinclair E, Strain M, Wong J, Richman D, Deeks SG. Challenges in detecting HIV persistence during potentially curative interventions: a study of the Berlin patient. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(5):e1003347.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Hatano H, Scherzer R, Wu Y, Harvill K, Maka K, Hoh R, Sinclair E, Palmer S, Martin JN, Busch MP, Deeks SG, Hsue PY. A randomized controlled trial assessing the effects of raltegravir intensification on endothelial function in treated HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Nov 1; 61(3):317-25.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Hatano H, Jain V, Hunt PW, Lee TH, Sinclair E, Do TD, Hoh R, Martin JN, McCune JM, Hecht F, Busch MP, Deeks SG. Cell-based measures of viral persistence are associated with immune activation and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)-expressing CD4+ T cells. J Infect Dis. 2013 Jul; 208(1):50-6.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Fanara P, Wong PY, Husted KH, Liu S, Liu VM, Kohlstaedt LA, Riiff T, Protasio JC, Boban D, Killion S, Killian M, Epling L, Sinclair E, Peterson J, Price RW, Cabin DE, Nussbaum RL, Brühmann J, Brandt R, Christine CW, Aminoff MJ, Hellerstein MK. Cerebrospinal fluid-based kinetic biomarkers of axonal transport in monitoring neurodegeneration. J Clin Invest. 2012 Sep 4; 122(9):3159-69.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Josefsson L, Eriksson S, Sinclair E, Ho T, Killian M, Epling L, Shao W, Lewis B, Bacchetti P, Loeb L, Custer J, Poole L, Hecht FM, Palmer S. Hematopoietic precursor cells isolated from patients on long-term suppressive HIV therapy did not contain HIV-1 DNA. J Infect Dis. 2012 Jul 1; 206(1):28-34.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Parrinello CM, Sinclair E, Landay AL, Lurain N, Sharrett AR, Gange SJ, Xue X, Hunt PW, Deeks SG, Hodis HN, Kaplan RC. Cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G antibody is associated with subclinical carotid artery disease among HIV-infected women. J Infect Dis. 2012 Jun 15; 205(12):1788-96.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Dahl V, Lee E, Peterson J, Spudich SS, Leppla I, Sinclair E, Fuchs D, Palmer S, Price RW. Raltegravir treatment intensification does not alter cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 infection or immunoactivation in subjects on suppressive therapy. J Infect Dis. 2011 Dec 15; 204(12):1936-45.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Crawford TQ, Ndhlovu LC, Tan A, Carvidi A, Hecht FM, Sinclair E, Barbour JD. HIV-1 infection abrogates CD8+ T cell mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling responses. J Virol. 2011 Dec; 85(23):12343-50.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Breen EC, Reynolds SM, Cox C, Jacobson LP, Magpantay L, Mulder CB, Dibben O, Margolick JB, Bream JH, Sambrano E, Martínez-Maza O, Sinclair E, Borrow P, Landay AL, Rinaldo CR, Norris PJ. Multisite comparison of high-sensitivity multiplex cytokine assays. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011 Aug; 18(8):1229-42.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Kitchen CM, Yeghiazarian L, Hoh R, McCune JM, Sinclair E, Martin JN, Deeks SG. Immune activation, CD4+ T cell counts, and viremia exhibit oscillatory patterns over time in patients with highly resistant HIV infection. PLoS One. 2011; 6(6):e21190.
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      19. Hunt PW, Martin JN, Sinclair E, Epling L, Teague J, Jacobson MA, Tracy RP, Corey L, Deeks SG. Valganciclovir reduces T cell activation in HIV-infected individuals with incomplete CD4+ T cell recovery on antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2011 May 15; 203(10):1474-83.
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      20. Ho EL, Spudich SS, Lee E, Fuchs D, Sinclair E, Price RW. Minocycline fails to modulate cerebrospinal fluid HIV infection or immune activation in chronic untreated HIV-1 infection: results of a pilot study. AIDS Res Ther. 2011; 8:17.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Hatano H, Hayes TL, Dahl V, Sinclair E, Lee TH, Hoh R, Lampiris H, Hunt PW, Palmer S, McCune JM, Martin JN, Busch MP, Shacklett BL, Deeks SG. A randomized, controlled trial of raltegravir intensification in antiretroviral-treated, HIV-infected patients with a suboptimal CD4+ T cell response. J Infect Dis. 2011 Apr 1; 203(7):960-8.
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      22. Kaplan RC, Sinclair E, Landay AL, Lurain N, Sharrett AR, Gange SJ, Xue X, Parrinello CM, Hunt P, Deeks SG, Hodis HN. T cell activation predicts carotid artery stiffness among HIV-infected women. Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jul; 217(1):207-13.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Hunt PW, Landay AL, Sinclair E, Martinson JA, Hatano H, Emu B, Norris PJ, Busch MP, Martin JN, Brooks C, McCune JM, Deeks SG. A low T regulatory cell response may contribute to both viral control and generalized immune activation in HIV controllers. PLoS One. 2011; 6(1):e15924.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Hunt PW, Hatano H, Sinclair E, Lee TH, Busch MP, Martin JN, McCune JM, Deeks SG. HIV-specific CD4+ T cells may contribute to viral persistence in HIV controllers. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Mar 1; 52(5):681-7.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Kaplan RC, Sinclair E, Landay AL, Lurain N, Sharrett AR, Gange SJ, Xue X, Hunt P, Karim R, Kern DM, Hodis HN, Deeks SG. T cell activation and senescence predict subclinical carotid artery disease in HIV-infected women. J Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 15; 203(4):452-63.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Hartigan-O'Connor DJ, Jacobson MA, Tan QX, Sinclair E. Development of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immune recovery uveitis is associated with Th17 cell depletion and poor systemic CMV-specific T cell responses. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 1; 52(3):409-17.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Yukl SA, Shergill AK, McQuaid K, Gianella S, Lampiris H, Hare CB, Pandori M, Sinclair E, Günthard HF, Fischer M, Wong JK, Havlir DV. Effect of raltegravir-containing intensification on HIV burden and T-cell activation in multiple gut sites of HIV-positive adults on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2010 Oct 23; 24(16):2451-60.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Yukl SA, Gianella S, Sinclair E, Epling L, Li Q, Duan L, Choi AL, Girling V, Ho T, Li P, Fujimoto K, Lampiris H, Hare CB, Pandori M, Haase AT, Günthard HF, Fischer M, Shergill AK, McQuaid K, Havlir DV, Wong JK. Differences in HIV burden and immune activation within the gut of HIV-positive patients receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2010 Nov 15; 202(10):1553-61.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Ndhlovu LC, Sinclair E, Epling L, Tan QX, Ho T, Jha AR, Eccles-James I, Tincati C, Levy JA, Nixon DF, Hecht FM, Barbour JD. IL-2 immunotherapy to recently HIV-1 infected adults maintains the numbers of IL-17 expressing CD4+ T (T(H)17) cells in the periphery. J Clin Immunol. 2010 Sep; 30(5):681-92.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Naeger DM, Martin JN, Sinclair E, Hunt PW, Bangsberg DR, Hecht F, Hsue P, McCune JM, Deeks SG. Cytomegalovirus-specific T cells persist at very high levels during long-term antiretroviral treatment of HIV disease. PLoS One. 2010; 5(1):e8886.
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      31. Dubois SG, Epling CL, Teague J, Matthay KK, Sinclair E. Flow cytometric detection of Ewing sarcoma cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010 Jan; 54(1):13-8.
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      32. Lin J, Epel E, Cheon J, Kroenke C, Sinclair E, Bigos M, Wolkowitz O, Mellon S, Blackburn E. Analyses and comparisons of telomerase activity and telomere length in human T and B cells: insights for epidemiology of telomere maintenance. J Immunol Methods. 2010 Jan 31; 352(1-2):71-80.
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      33. Jacobson MA, Ditmer DP, Sinclair E, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Hunt P, Mocarski ES, Shiboski C. Human herpesvirus replication and abnormal CD8+ T cell activation and low CD4+ T cell counts in antiretroviral-suppressed HIV-infected patients. PLoS One. 2009; 4(4):e5277.
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      34. Jiang W, Lederman MM, Hunt P, Sieg SF, Haley K, Rodriguez B, Landay A, Martin J, Sinclair E, Asher AI, Deeks SG, Douek DC, Brenchley JM. Plasma levels of bacterial DNA correlate with immune activation and the magnitude of immune restoration in persons with antiretroviral-treated HIV infection. J Infect Dis. 2009 Apr 15; 199(8):1177-85.
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      35. Barbour JD, Ndhlovu LC, Xuan Tan Q, Ho T, Epling L, Bredt BM, Levy JA, Hecht FM, Sinclair E. High CD8+ T cell activation marks a less differentiated HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell response that is not altered by suppression of viral replication. PLoS One. 2009; 4(2):e4408.
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      36. Jacobson MA, Adler SP, Sinclair E, Black D, Smith A, Chu A, Moss RB, Wloch MK. A CMV DNA vaccine primes for memory immune responses to live-attenuated CMV (Towne strain). Vaccine. 2009 Mar 4; 27(10):1540-8.
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      37. Sinclair E, Ronquillo R, Lollo N, Deeks SG, Hunt P, Yiannoutsos CT, Spudich S, Price RW. Antiretroviral treatment effect on immune activation reduces cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Apr 15; 47(5):544-52.
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      38. Emu B, Sinclair E, Hatano H, Ferre A, Shacklett B, Martin JN, McCune JM, Deeks SG. HLA class I-restricted T-cell responses may contribute to the control of human immunodeficiency virus infection, but such responses are not always necessary for long-term virus control. J Virol. 2008 Jun; 82(11):5398-407.
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      39. Napolitano LA, Schmidt D, Gotway MB, Ameli N, Filbert EL, Ng MM, Clor JL, Epling L, Sinclair E, Baum PD, Li K, Killian ML, Bacchetti P, McCune JM. Growth hormone enhances thymic function in HIV-1-infected adults. J Clin Invest. 2008 Mar; 118(3):1085-98.
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      40. Bradley NM, Husted J, Sey MS, Sinclair E, Li KK, Husain AF, Danjoux C, Barnes EA, Tsao MN, Barbera L, Harris K, Chiu H, Doyle M, Chow E. Did the pattern of practice in the prescription of palliative radiotherapy for the treatment of uncomplicated bone metastases change between 1999 and 2005 at the rapid response radiotherapy program? Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2008 Jun; 20(5):327-36.
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      41. Jacobson MA, Tan QX, Girling V, Poon C, Van Natta M, Jabs DA, Inokuma M, Maecker HT, Bredt B, Sinclair E. Poor predictive value of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cell assays for the development of CMV retinitis in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Feb 1; 46(3):458-66.
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      42. Hunt PW, Brenchley J, Sinclair E, McCune JM, Roland M, Page-Shafer K, Hsue P, Emu B, Krone M, Lampiris H, Douek D, Martin JN, Deeks SG. Relationship between T cell activation and CD4+ T cell count in HIV-seropositive individuals with undetectable plasma HIV RNA levels in the absence of therapy. J Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 1; 197(1):126-33.
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      43. Owen RE, Sinclair E, Emu B, Heitman JW, Hirschkorn DF, Epling CL, Tan QX, Custer B, Harris JM, Jacobson MA, McCune JM, Martin JN, Hecht FM, Deeks SG, Norris PJ. Loss of T cell responses following long-term cryopreservation. J Immunol Methods. 2007 Sep 30; 326(1-2):93-115.
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      44. Hsue PY, Hunt PW, Sinclair E, Bredt B, Franklin A, Killian M, Hoh R, Martin JN, McCune JM, Waters DD, Deeks SG. Increased carotid intima-media thickness in HIV patients is associated with increased cytomegalovirus-specific T-cell responses. AIDS. 2006 Nov 28; 20(18):2275-83.
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      45. Hartigan-O'Connor DJ, Poon C, Sinclair E, McCune JM. Human CD4+ regulatory T cells express lower levels of the IL-7 receptor alpha chain (CD127), allowing consistent identification and sorting of live cells. J Immunol Methods. 2007 Jan 30; 319(1-2):41-52.
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      46. Sinclair E, Tan QX, Sharp M, Girling V, Poon C, Natta MV, Jabs DA, Inokuma M, Maecker HT, Bredt B, Jacobson MA. Protective immunity to cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in AIDS is associated with CMV-specific T cells that express interferon- gamma and interleukin-2 and have a CD8+ cell early maturational phenotype. J Infect Dis. 2006 Dec 1; 194(11):1537-46.
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      47. Deeks SG, Schweighardt B, Wrin T, Galovich J, Hoh R, Sinclair E, Hunt P, McCune JM, Martin JN, Petropoulos CJ, Hecht FM. Neutralizing antibody responses against autologous and heterologous viruses in acute versus chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: evidence for a constraint on the ability of HIV to completely evade neutralizing antibody responses. J Virol. 2006 Jun; 80(12):6155-64.
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      48. Jacobson MA, Sinclair E, Bredt B, Agrillo L, Black D, Epling CL, Carvidi A, Ho T, Bains R, Girling V, Adler SP. Safety and immunogenicity of Towne cytomegalovirus vaccine with or without adjuvant recombinant interleukin-12. Vaccine. 2006 Jun 19; 24(25):5311-9.
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      49. Hunt PW, Deeks SG, Bangsberg DR, Moss A, Sinclair E, Liegler T, Bates M, Tsao G, Lampiris H, Hoh R, Martin JN. The independent effect of drug resistance on T cell activation in HIV infection. AIDS. 2006 Mar 21; 20(5):691-9.
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      50. Jacobson MA, Sinclair E, Bredt B, Agrillo L, Black D, Epling CL, Carvidi A, Ho T, Bains R, Adler SP. Antigen-specific T cell responses induced by Towne cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine in CMV-seronegative vaccine recipients. J Clin Virol. 2006 Mar; 35(3):332-7.
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      51. Emu B, Sinclair E, Favre D, Moretto WJ, Hsue P, Hoh R, Martin JN, Nixon DF, McCune JM, Deeks SG. Phenotypic, functional, and kinetic parameters associated with apparent T-cell control of human immunodeficiency virus replication in individuals with and without antiretroviral treatment. J Virol. 2005 Nov; 79(22):14169-78.
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      52. Maecker HT, Rinfret A, D'Souza P, Darden J, Roig E, Landry C, Hayes P, Birungi J, Anzala O, Garcia M, Harari A, Frank I, Baydo R, Baker M, Holbrook J, Ottinger J, Lamoreaux L, Epling CL, Sinclair E, Suni MA, Punt K, Calarota S, El-Bahi S, Alter G, Maila H, Kuta E, Cox J, Gray C, Altfeld M, Nougarede N, Boyer J, Tussey L, Tobery T, Bredt B, Roederer M, Koup R, Maino VC, Weinhold K, Pantaleo G, Gilmour J, Horton H, Sekaly RP. Standardization of cytokine flow cytometry assays. BMC Immunol. 2005; 6:13.
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      53. Neuenburg JK, Sinclair E, Nilsson A, Kreis C, Bacchetti P, Price RW, Grant RM. HIV-producing T cells in cerebrospinal fluid. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Oct 1; 37(2):1237-44.
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      54. Karlsson AC, Younger SR, Martin JN, Grossman Z, Sinclair E, Hunt PW, Hagos E, Nixon DF, Deeks SG. Immunologic and virologic evolution during periods of intermittent and persistent low-level viremia. AIDS. 2004 Apr 30; 18(7):981-9.
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      55. Deeks SG, Martin JN, Sinclair E, Harris J, Neilands TB, Maecker HT, Hagos E, Wrin T, Petropoulos CJ, Bredt B, McCune JM. Strong cell-mediated immune responses are associated with the maintenance of low-level viremia in antiretroviral-treated individuals with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jan 15; 189(2):312-21.
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      56. Sinclair E, Black D, Epling CL, Carvidi A, Josefowicz SZ, Bredt BM, Jacobson MA. CMV antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell IFNgamma expression and proliferation responses in healthy CMV-seropositive individuals. Viral Immunol. 2004; 17(3):445-54.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Karlsson AC, Martin JN, Younger SR, Bredt BM, Epling L, Ronquillo R, Varma A, Deeks SG, McCune JM, Nixon DF, Sinclair E. Comparison of the ELISPOT and cytokine flow cytometry assays for the enumeration of antigen-specific T cells. J Immunol Methods. 2003 Dec; 283(1-2):141-53.
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      58. Suni MA, Dunn HS, Orr PL, de Laat R, Sinclair E, Ghanekar SA, Bredt BM, Dunne JF, Maino VC, Maecker HT. Performance of plate-based cytokine flow cytometry with automated data analysis. BMC Immunol. 2003 Sep 2; 4:9.
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      59. Hunt PW, Martin JN, Sinclair E, Bredt B, Hagos E, Lampiris H, Deeks SG. T cell activation is associated with lower CD4+ T cell gains in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with sustained viral suppression during antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2003 May 15; 187(10):1534-43.
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      60. Maecker HT, Dunn HS, Suni MA, Khatamzas E, Pitcher CJ, Bunde T, Persaud N, Trigona W, Fu TM, Sinclair E, Bredt BM, McCune JM, Maino VC, Kern F, Picker LJ. Use of overlapping peptide mixtures as antigens for cytokine flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods. 2001 Sep 1; 255(1-2):27-40.
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      61. Sinclair E, Barbosa P, Feinberg MB. The nef gene products of both simian and human immunodeficiency viruses enhance virus infectivity and are functionally interchangeable. J Virol. 1997 May; 71(5):3641-51.
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      62. Sinclair E, Gray F, Ciardi A, Scaravilli F. Immunohistochemical changes and PCR detection of HIV provirus DNA in brains of asymptomatic HIV-positive patients. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1994 Jan; 53(1):43-50.
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      63. Sinclair E, Gray F, Scaravilli F. PCR detection of HIV proviral DNA in the brain of an asymptomatic HIV-positive patient. J Neurol. 1992 Oct; 239(8):469-70.
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      64. Sinclair E, Scaravilli F. Detection of HIV proviral DNA in cortex and white matter of AIDS brains by non-isotopic polymerase chain reaction: correlation with diffuse poliodystrophy. AIDS. 1992 Sep; 6(9):925-32.
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