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Frank Cantrell, PharmD

TitleDirector CPCS,San Diego
SchoolUCSF School of Pharmacy
DepartmentClinical Pharmacy
Address533 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone858-715-6303
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    Dr. Lee Cantrell is a Professor of Clinical Pharmacy in the Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Director of the San Diego Division of the California Poison Control System. He also holds faculty appointments with the UCSD Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences and the UCSD School of Medicine. Dr. Cantrell earned his Pharm.D. degree from the University of Southern California in 1992. Prior to joining the UCSF faculty (WOS) in 1997, he was supervisor at the Los Angeles Regional Drug and Poison Information Center and was a faculty member at the University of Southern California School of Pharmacy. Dr. Cantrell's area of expertise is clinical toxicology and poison control and he is board certified by the American Board of Applied Toxicology. Dr. Cantrell is asked to speak on topics related to toxicology and poison control on the local, state, and national levels. He serves as a reviewer for 15 medical publications and chairs committees within both the American Board of Applied Toxicology and the American Association of Poison Control Centers. He has presented 85 scientific papers and published 80 journal articles and 18 book chapters.


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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Cantrell F, Cantrell P, Wen A, Gerona R. Epinephrine Concentrations in EpiPens After the Expiration Date. Ann Intern Med. 2017 May 09. PMID: 28492859.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Lasoff DR, Koh CH, Corbett B, Minns AB, Cantrell FL. Loperamide Trends in Abuse and Misuse Over 13 Years: 2002-2015. Pharmacotherapy. 2016 Dec 20. PMID: 27995643.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Cantrell FL, Sherrard J, Andrade M, Schaber B, McIntyre IM. A pediatric fatality due to accidental hydromorphone ingestion. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017 Jan; 55(1):60-62. PMID: 27775447.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Cantrell FL, Mallett P, Aldridge L, Verilhac K, McIntyre IM. A tapentadol related fatality: Case report with postmortem concentrations. Forensic Sci Int. 2016 Sep; 266:e1-3. PMID: 27568082.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Cantrell FL, Wardi G, O'Connell C. Propofol Use for Toxin-Related Seizures. Pharmacotherapy. 2016 Jun; 36(6):702-4. PMID: 27150258.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Cantrell FL. In response to "Conservative Management of Intentional Massive Dabigatran Overdose". J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016 May; 64(5):1147. PMID: 27225374.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Cantrell FL, Nordt SP. In response - a descriptive analysis of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase rise and fall following acetaminophen overdose. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2016 Jul; 54(6):536. PMID: 27007616.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Thornton SL, Liu J, Soleymani K, Romasco RL, Farid H, Clark RF, Cantrell FL. Review of Experience of a Statewide Poison Control Center With Pediatric Exposures to Oral Antineoplastic Drugs in the Nonmedical Setting. Am J Ther. 2016 Mar-Apr; 23(2):e377-81. PMID: 23884076.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Thornton SL, Pchelnikova JL, Cantrell FL. Characteristics of Pediatric Exposures to Antidementia Drugs Reported to a Poison Control System. J Pediatr. 2016 May; 172:147-50. PMID: 26935787.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Behal N, Wong A, Mantara R, Cantrell FL. Human Poisoning Through Atypical Routes of Exposure. J Community Health. 2016 Feb; 41(1):105-8. PMID: 26250476.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Nordt SP, Clark RF, Machado C, Cantrell FL. Assessment of Digoxin-Specific Fab Fragment Dosages in Digoxin Poisoning. Am J Ther. 2016 Jan-Feb; 23(1):e63-7. PMID: 25379735.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Nordt SP, Vivero LE, Cantrell FL. Not Just a Drop in the Bucket-Inversion of Oxymetazoline Nasal Decongestant Container Increases Potential for Severe Pediatric Poisoning. J Pediatr. 2016 Jan; 168:240-1. PMID: 26522979.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Darracq MA, Cullen J, Rentmeester L, Cantrell FL, Ly BT. Orbeez: the magic water absorbing bead--risk of pediatric bowel obstruction? Pediatr Emerg Care. 2015 Jun; 31(6):416-8. PMID: 25474093.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Darracq MA, Cantrell FL, Klauk B, Thornton SL. A chance to cut is not always a chance to cure- fasciotomy in the treatment of rattlesnake envenomation: A retrospective poison center study. Toxicon. 2015 Jul; 101:23-6. PMID: 25935457.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Cantrell FL, Mena O, Gary RD, McIntyre IM. An acute gabapentin fatality: a case report with postmortem concentrations. Int J Legal Med. 2015 Jul; 129(4):771-5. PMID: 25904080.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Cantrell FL, Villano J. Comments on: "Toxicity of Antihypertensives in Unintentional Poisoning of Young Children". J Emerg Med. 2015 Jul; 49(1):63. PMID: 25858340.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Cantrell FL, Clark AK, McKinley M, Qozi M. Retrospective review of unintentional pediatric ingestions of doxylamine. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2015 Mar; 53(3):178-80. PMID: 25661472.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Cantrell FL, Clark RF. More on nicotine poisoning in infants. N Engl J Med. 2014 Aug 28; 371(9):880. PMID: 25162905.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Cantrell FL. Adverse effects of e-cigarette exposures. J Community Health. 2014 Jun; 39(3):614-6. PMID: 24338077.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Stevenson JW, Minns AB, Smollin C, Albertson TE, Cantrell FL, Tomaszewski C, Clark RF. An observational case series of dabigatran and rivaroxaban exposures reported to a poison control system. Am J Emerg Med. 2014 Sep; 32(9):1077-84. PMID: 24908445.
      View in: PubMed
    21. O'Connell CW, Schneir AB, Hwang JQ, Cantrell FL. Phenibut, the appearance of another potentially dangerous product in the United States. Am J Med. 2014 Aug; 127(8):e3-4. PMID: 24713208.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Thornton SL, Darracq M, Lo J, Cantrell FL. Castor bean seed ingestions: a state-wide poison control system's experience. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2014 Apr; 52(4):265-8. PMID: 24579983.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Darracq MA, Toy JM, Chen T, Mo C, Cantrell FL. A retrospective review of isolated gliptin-exposure cases reported to a state poison control system. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2014 Mar; 52(3):226-30. PMID: 24580063.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Darracq MA, Clark RF, Jacoby I, Vilke GM, DeMers G, Cantrell FL. Disaster preparedness of poison control centers in the USA: a 15-year follow-up study. J Med Toxicol. 2014 Mar; 10(1):19-25. PMID: 23842905; PMCID: PMC3951635.
    25. Cantrell FL, Ogera P, Mallett P, McIntyre IM. Fatal oral methylphenidate intoxication with postmortem concentrations. J Forensic Sci. 2014 May; 59(3):847-9. PMID: 24502813.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Cantrell FL, Nordt SP, Krauss JR. Inconsistencies in emergency instructions on common household product labels. J Community Health. 2013 Oct; 38(5):823-8. PMID: 23584666.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Darracq MA, Thornton SL, Do HM, Bok D, Clark RF, Cantrell FL. Utilization of hyperinsulinemia euglycemia and intravenous fat emulsion following poison center recommendations. J Med Toxicol. 2013 Sep; 9(3):226-30. PMID: 23412936; PMCID: PMC3770986.
    28. Schneir AB, Rentmeester L, Clark RF, Cantrell FL. Toxicity following laundry detergent pod ingestion. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013 Jun; 29(6):741-2. PMID: 23736068.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Darracq MA, Ghafouri N, Pesce A, Cantrell FL. Hand sanitizer intoxication following a crude extraction method. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2013 May; 39(3):217-8. PMID: 23721538.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Darracq MA, Cantrell FL. Hemodialysis and extracorporeal removal after pediatric and adolescent poisoning reported to a state poison center. J Emerg Med. 2013 Jun; 44(6):1101-7. PMID: 23602791.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Minns AB, McIlvoy A, Clark A, Clark RF, Cantrell FL. Examining the risk of methanol poisoning from methyl acetate-containing products. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Jun; 31(6):964-6. PMID: 23602747.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Darracq MA, Clark A, Qian L, Cantrell FL. A retrospective review of isolated duloxetine-exposure cases. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2013 Feb; 51(2):106-10. PMID: 23356816.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Darracq MA, Rentmeester LL, Clark RF, Tomaszewski CA, Schneir AB, Cantrell FL. Cost of hemodialysis versus fomepizole-only for treatment of ethylene glycol intoxication. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2013 Mar; 51(3):188. PMID: 23356815.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Martinez RM, Nordt SP, Cantrell FL. Prescription acetaminophen ingestions associated with hepatic injury and death. J Community Health. 2012 Dec; 37(6):1249-52. PMID: 22466137.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Carstairs SD, Griffith EA, Alayin T, Ejike JC, Cantrell FL. Recurrent seizure activity in a child after acute vilazodone ingestion. Ann Emerg Med. 2012 Dec; 60(6):819-20. PMID: 23178026.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Kreshak A, Tomaszewski C, Clark R, Cantrell FL. A response to the letter to the editors about "flumazenil administration in poisoned pediatric patients". Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012 Nov; 28(11):1255. PMID: 23128662.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Cantrell LF, Nelson CL, Gary RD, McIntyre IM. Fatal metformin intoxication with markedly elevated blood and liver concentrations. J Anal Toxicol. 2012 Nov-Dec; 36(9):657-9. PMID: 22995481.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Kreshak AA, Cantrell FL, Clark RF, Tomaszewski CA. A poison center's ten-year experience with flumazenil administration to acutely poisoned adults. J Emerg Med. 2012 Oct; 43(4):677-82. PMID: 22766408.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Thornton SL, Nguyen KT, Shenn SK, Castillo EM, Clark RF, Cantrell FL. A retrospective review of early gastrointestinal symptoms in the prediction of crotaline envenomation severity. Wilderness Environ Med. 2012 Dec; 23(4):360-2. PMID: 22727676.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Lo JC, Ubaldo C, Cantrell FL. A retrospective review of whole bowel irrigation in pediatric patients. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2012 Jun; 50(5):414-7. PMID: 22578074.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Ghafouri N, Darracq MA, Cantrell FL. Ondansetron-associated hypotension following pediatric self-poisoning. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012 Jun; 28(6):596-7. PMID: 22668671.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Kreshak AA, Tomaszewski CA, Clark RF, Cantrell FL. Flumazenil administration in poisoned pediatric patients. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012 May; 28(5):448-50. PMID: 22531190.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Carstairs SD, Cantrell FL. The spice of life: an analysis of nutmeg exposures in California. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2011 Mar; 49(3):177-80. PMID: 21495887.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Cantrell L, Farson-Collier M. Clinical Course Following Supratherapeutic Teriparatide Dosing. Ann Pharmacother. 2011 Feb; 45(2):281. PMID: 21304029.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Cantrell FL, Minns A. Cybersuicide with "homemade Valium". Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2011 Jan; 49(1):56. PMID: 21288154.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Carstairs SD, Luk JY, Tomaszewski CA, Cantrell FL. Ingestion of Lantana camara is not associated with significant effects in children. Pediatrics. 2010 Dec; 126(6):e1585-8. PMID: 21041281.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Nordt SP, Scaduto L, Clark RF, Cantrell FL. Retrospective review of acute acamprosate exposures to a poison control system. Am J Addict. 2010 Sep-Oct; 19(5):462-3. PMID: 20716311.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Carstairs SD, Urquhart A, Hoffman J, Clark RF, Cantrell FL. A retrospective review of supratherapeutic modafinil exposures. J Med Toxicol. 2010 Sep; 6(3):307-10. PMID: 20358418; PMCID: PMC2929436.
    49. Cantrell FL, Nordt S, McIntyre I, Schneir A. Death on the doorstep of a border community - intentional self-poisoning with veterinary pentobarbital. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010 Oct; 48(8):849-50. PMID: 20738183.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Carstairs SD, Cantrell FL. Peyote and mescaline exposures: a 12-year review of a statewide poison center database. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010 May; 48(4):350-3. PMID: 20170392.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Tomaszewski C, Cantrell FL, Clark R. Intravenous and enteral N-acetylcysteine can be both cost effective. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010 May; 48(4):399; author 399-400. PMID: 20507252.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Minns AB, Cantrell FL, Clark RF. Death due to acute salicylate intoxication despite dialysis. J Emerg Med. 2011 May; 40(5):515-7. PMID: 20347249.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Vohra R, Salazar A, Cantrell FL, Fernando R, Clark RF. The poison pen: bedside diagnosis of urinary diquat. J Med Toxicol. 2010 Mar; 6(1):35-6. PMID: 20229151; PMCID: PMC2861174.
    54. Nordt SP, Minns A, Tomaszewski C, Cantrell FL, Clark RF. Retrospective review of digoxin exposures to a poison control system following recall of DigitekĀ® tablets. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2010; 10(4):261-3. PMID: 20653332.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Kreshak AA, Clark AK, Clark RF, Ly BT, Cantrell FL. A retrospective poison center review of varenicline-exposed patients. Ann Pharmacother. 2009 Dec; 43(12):1986-91. PMID: 19934384.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Vohra R, Seefeld A, Cantrell FL, Clark RF. Salvia divinorum: exposures reported to a statewide poison control system over 10 years. J Emerg Med. 2011 Jun; 40(6):643-50. PMID: 19765944.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Minns AB, Ebrahimi S, Te L, Ly B, Clark RF, Cantrell FL. A retrospective review of California poison control system data of sibutramine exposures. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2009 Sep; 47(8):814-7. PMID: 19778191.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Clark RF, Ly B, Schneir A, Cantrell FL, Tomaszewski C, Tanen DA. More discussion of over the counter cough and cold preparations. Ann Emerg Med. 2009 Aug; 54(2):309-10. PMID: 19616731.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Nordt SP, Wu J, Zahller S, Clark RF, Cantrell FL. Palytoxin poisoning after dermal contact with zoanthid coral. J Emerg Med. 2011 Apr; 40(4):397-9. PMID: 19545971.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Young MC, Shah N, Cantrell FL, Clark RF. Risk assessment of isolated aripiprazole exposures and toxicities: a retrospective study. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2009 Jul; 47(6):580-3. PMID: 19586356.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Cantrell FL, Vance C, Schaber B, McIntyre I. Fatal fluoxetine intoxication with markedly elevated central blood, vitreous, and liver concentrations. J Anal Toxicol. 2009 Jan-Feb; 33(1):62-4. PMID: 19161671.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Clark RF, Cantrell FL, Pacal A, Chen W, Betten DP. Subcutaneous silicone injection leading to multi-system organ failure. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008 Nov; 46(9):834-7. PMID: 18608261.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Cantrell FL. A fatal case of sevoflurane abuse. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008 Nov; 46(9):918-9. PMID: 18608264.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Dunford JV, Lucas J, Vent N, Clark RF, Cantrell FL. Asphyxiation due to dry ice in a walk-in freezer. J Emerg Med. 2009 May; 36(4):353-6. PMID: 18814998.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Rangan C, Everson G, Cantrell FL. Central alpha-2 adrenergic eye drops: case series of 3 pediatric systemic poisonings. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2008 Mar; 24(3):167-9. PMID: 18347496.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Vohra R, Cantrell FL, Williams SR. Fasciculations after rattlesnake envenomations: a retrospective statewide poison control system study. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008 Feb; 46(2):117-21. PMID: 18259958.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Schwarz KA, Cantrell FL, Vohra RB, Clark RF. Suboxone (buprenorphine/naloxone) toxicity in pediatric patients: a case report. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007 Sep; 23(9):651-2. PMID: 17876257.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Cantrell FL, Clark RF. Supratherapeutic doses of sulfonylureas in diabetic patients: how much is too much? Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2007 Jun-Aug; 45(5):482-4. PMID: 17503251.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Betten DP, Cantrell FL, Thomas SC, Williams SR, Clark RF. A prospective evaluation of shortened course oral N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of acute acetaminophen poisoning. Ann Emerg Med. 2007 Sep; 50(3):272-9. PMID: 17210206.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Fung F, Cantrell FL, Clark RF. Neurotoxicity of mercury in dental amalgam. JAMA. 2006 Sep 27; 296(12):1462; author reply 1462-3. PMID: 17003391.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Cantrell FL, Breckenridge HM, Jost P. Transrectal methamphetamine use: a novel route of exposure. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Jul 4; 145(1):78-9. PMID: 16818936.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Richardson WH, Tanen DA, Tong TC, Betten DP, Carstairs SD, Williams SR, Cantrell FL, Clark RF. North American coral snake antivenin for the neutralization of non-native elapid venoms in a murine model. Acad Emerg Med. 2006 Feb; 13(2):121-6. PMID: 16436788.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Richardson WH, Tanen DA, Tong TC, Betten DP, Carstairs SD, Williams SR, Cantrell FL, Clark RF. Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom is effective in the neutralization of South American viperidae venoms in a murine model. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Jun; 45(6):595-602. PMID: 15940091.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Cantrell FL. Look what I found! Poison hunting on eBay. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2005; 43(5):375-9. PMID: 16235512.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Cantrell FL, Williams SR. Fatal unintentional overdose of diltiazem with antemortem and postmortem values. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2005; 43(6):587-8. PMID: 16255342.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Cantrell FL, Clark RF, Manoguerra AS. Determining triage guidelines for unintentional overdoses with calcium channel antagonists. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2005; 43(7):849-53. PMID: 16440512.
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    77. Cantrell FL, Nestor M. Benign clinical course following atomoxetine overdose. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2005; 43(1):57. PMID: 15732449.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Cantrell FL, Ritter M, Himes E. Intentional overdose with tiagabine: an unusual clinical presentation. J Emerg Med. 2004 Oct; 27(3):271-2. PMID: 15388215.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Cantrell FL. Sildenafil citrate ingestion in a pediatric patient. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2004 May; 20(5):314-5. PMID: 15123903.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Cantrell FL, Farson-Collier M. The benign clinical course following a large pediatric montelukast ingestion. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2004; 42(3):333-4. PMID: 15362605.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Cantrell FL. Envenomation by the Mexican beaded lizard: a case report. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2003; 41(3):241-4. PMID: 12807305.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Nordt SP, Cantrell FL, Rodriguez GJ. Anaphylactic reaction to dermal exposure to cephalexin. Am J Emerg Med. 1999 Sep; 17(5):492-3. PMID: 10496518.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Nordt SP, Cantrell FL. Elevated lithium level: a case and brief overview of lithium poisoning. Psychosom Med. 1999 Jul-Aug; 61(4):564-5. PMID: 10443766.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Cantrell FL. Treatment of theophylline overdose. Am J Emerg Med. 1997 Sep; 15(5):547. PMID: 9270403.
      View in: PubMed
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