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    Gerold Grodsky, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentDiabetes Center
    Address513 Parnassus Ave
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-476-5112

       Biography 
       Education and Training
      Institution Degree School or Department Year
      University of California, San FranciscoPh.D. Graduate Division (Biochemistry)1955
       Awards and Honors
      US Midwestern Islet Group2013Paul Lacy Prize
      UCSF2010Creation of the Gerold Grodsky, PhD Chair in Diabetes Research
      UCSF Diabetes Center2009Lifetime Achievement Award
      US Western Metabolic Group1990Williams and Levine Award
      National Institutes of Health1986Merit Award
      Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation1984David Rumbaugh Scientific Award

       Overview 
       Overview
      Dr. Grodsky is currently a consultant to laboratories in the Diabetes Center. He was the developer of the first precipitating radio immunoassay (insulin). His group published over 200 papers on the mechanisms involved in the synthesis, storage and secretion of insulin, with emphasis on the kinetics and quantitative relationships of these mechanisms. From these studies came the description of the fast and slow phases of insulin release and the hypothesis that insulin is stored in compartments of differing availability for release. The rapid phase of insulin release was shown to be vital in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and is being utilized in the design of the closed-loop artificial pancreas, faster acting beta-cell secretagogues, and fast absorbing insulin preparations.

      Other areas of research activity includes the demonstration of insulin-induced auto antibodies and their contribution to beta-cell destruction.

      Dr. Grodsky taught for 48 years focusing on regulation of glucose and energy Metabolism, insulin and diabetes. He served as Research Chairman of the Advisory Board for Diabetes to the Secretary of Health and on the editorial boards of numerous journals; he was the Founding Advisory Editor of the journal, "Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics" and is the Advisory Editor of the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. Since 1994, the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation, International has given an Annual Gerold Grodsky Award for basic research in diabetes.


       ORNG Applications 
       Websites
       NIH Grants Awarded
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       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Steil GM, Grodsky GM. The artificial pancreas: is it important to understand how the ß cell controls blood glucose? J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2013 Sep; 7(5):1359-69.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Bonner-Weir S, Grodsky G. Assessment of human islet preparations to be used for islet expansion, survival, or transplant. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2004 Aug; 6(4):493-4.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Evans JL, Goldfine ID, Maddux BA, Grodsky GM. Are oxidative stress-activated signaling pathways mediators of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction? Diabetes. 2003 Jan; 52(1):1-8.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Evans JL, Goldfine ID, Maddux BA, Grodsky GM. Oxidative stress and stress-activated signaling pathways: a unifying hypothesis of type 2 diabetes. Endocr Rev. 2002 Oct; 23(5):599-622.
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      5. Shi Y, Kanaani J, Menard-Rose V, Ma YH, Chang PY, Hanahan D, Tobin A, Grodsky G, Baekkeskov S. Increased expression of GAD65 and GABA in pancreatic beta-cells impairs first-phase insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Sep; 279(3):E684-94.
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      6. Grodsky GM. The importance of rapid insulin secretion: revisited. Diabetes Technol Ther. 1999; 1(3):259-60.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Langkjaer L, Brange J, Grodsky GM, Guy RH. Iontophoresis of monomeric insulin analogues in vitro: effects of insulin charge and skin pretreatment. J Control Release. 1998 Jan 23; 51(1):47-56.
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      8. Grodsky GM, Ma YH, Edwards RH. Chronic sympathetic innervation of islets in transgenic mice results in differential desensitization of alpha-adrenergic inhibition of insulin secretion. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 426:129-38.
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      9. Ma YH, Lores P, Wang J, Jami J, Grodsky GM. Constitutive (pro)insulin release from pancreas of transgenic mice expressing monomeric insulin. Endocrinology. 1995 Jun; 136(6):2622-30.
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      10. Ma YH, Wang J, Rodd GG, Bolaffi JL, Grodsky GM. Differences in insulin secretion between the rat and mouse: role of cAMP. Eur J Endocrinol. 1995 Mar; 132(3):370-6.
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      11. Bolaffi JL, Rodd GG, Wang J, Grodsky GM. Interrelationship of changes in islet nicotine adeninedinucleotide, insulin secretion, and cell viability induced by interleukin-1 beta. Endocrinology. 1994 Feb; 134(2):537-42.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Ma YH, Landis C, Tchao N, Wang J, Rodd G, Hanahan D, Bourne HR, Grodsky GM. Constitutively active stimulatory G-protein alpha s in beta-cells of transgenic mice causes counterregulation of the increased adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and insulin secretion. Endocrinology. 1994 Jan; 134(1):42-7.
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      13. Wogensen L, Ma YH, Grodsky GM, Robertson RP, Burton F, Sutcliffe JG, Sarvetnick N. Functional effects of transgenic expression of cholera toxin in pancreatic beta-cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1993 Dec; 98(1):33-42.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Bolaffi JL, Rodd GG, Ma YH, Grodsky GM. Opposite, phase-dependent effects of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(diethylamino) octyl ester or tetracaine on islet function during three phases of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Endocrinology. 1993 Jun; 132(6):2325-31.
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      15. Grodsky GM, Ma YH, Cullen B, Sarvetnick N. Effect on insulin production sorting and secretion by major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression in the pancreatic beta-cell of transgenic mice. Endocrinology. 1992 Aug; 131(2):933-8.
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      16. Grodsky GM, Bolaffi JL. Desensitization of the insulin-secreting beta cell. J Cell Biochem. 1992 Jan; 48(1):3-11.
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      17. Bolaffi JL, Rodd GG, Ma YH, Bright D, Grodsky GM. The role of Ca(2+)-related events in glucose-stimulated desensitization of insulin secretion. Endocrinology. 1991 Oct; 129(4):2131-8.
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      18. Nagamatsu S, Carroll RJ, Grodsky GM, Steiner DF. Lack of islet amyloid polypeptide regulation of insulin biosynthesis or secretion in normal rat islets. Diabetes. 1990 Jul; 39(7):871-4.
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      19. Bolaffi JL, Rodd G, Ma YH, Grodsky GM. Effect of glucagon or somatostatin on desensitized insulin secretion. Endocrinology. 1990 Mar; 126(3):1750-5.
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      20. Grodsky GM. A new phase of insulin secretion. How will it contribute to our understanding of beta-cell function? Diabetes. 1989 Jun; 38(6):673-8.
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      21. Gold G, Walker MD, Edwards DL, Grodsky GM. Biosynthetic regulation of endogenous hamster insulin and exogenous rat insulin II in transfected HIT cells. Diabetes. 1988 Nov; 37(11):1509-14.
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      22. Gold G, Wieland FT, Grodsky GM. Unregulated secretion of an exogenous glycotripeptide by rat islets and HIT cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Oct 14; 156(1):457-62.
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      23. Nagamatsu S, Grodsky GM. Glucose-regulated proinsulin processing in isolated islets from rat pancreas. Diabetes. 1988 Oct; 37(10):1426-31.
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      24. Bolaffi JL, Bruno L, Heldt A, Grodsky GM. Characteristics of desensitization of insulin secretion in fully in vitro systems. Endocrinology. 1988 May; 122(5):1801-9.
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      25. Gold G, Qian RL, Grodsky GM. Insulin biosynthesis in HIT cells. Effects of glucose, forskolin, IBMX, and dexamethasone. Diabetes. 1988 Feb; 37(2):160-5.
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      26. Grodsky GM, Bolaffi JL. Some characteristics of chemically-induced beta-cell lesions as possible contributing factors in diabetes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1988; 246:339-46.
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      27. Grodsky GM. Continuous insulin treatment in the Chinese hamster. A review. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1988; 246:329-32.
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      28. Nagamatsu S, Grodsky GM. Analysis of proinsulin conversion activated by prior glucose: evidence that glucose stimulates synthesis of the conversion enzyme. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987 Nov 13; 148(3):1418-24.
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      29. Gishizky ML, Grodsky GM. Differential kinetics of rat insulin I and II processing in rat islets of Langerhans. FEBS Lett. 1987 Nov 2; 223(2):227-31.
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      30. Bolaffi JL, Nagamatsu S, Harris J, Grodsky GM. Protection by thymidine, an inhibitor of polyadenosine diphosphate ribosylation, of streptozotocin inhibition of insulin secretion. Endocrinology. 1987 May; 120(5):2117-22.
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      31. Nagamatsu S, Bolaffi JL, Grodsky GM. Direct effects of glucose on proinsulin synthesis and processing during desensitization. Endocrinology. 1987 Apr; 120(4):1225-31.
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      32. Landahl HD, Gold G, Grodsky GM. Model of synthesis and release of insulin from rat islet beta-cells and the effect of pretreatment with tolbutamide. Bull Math Biol. 1987; 49(4):379-94.
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      33. Bolaffi JL, Nowlain RE, Cruz L, Grodsky GM. Progressive damage of cultured pancreatic islets after single early exposure to streptozocin. Diabetes. 1986 Sep; 35(9):1027-33.
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      34. Bolaffi JL, Heldt A, Lewis LD, Grodsky GM. The third phase of in vitro insulin secretion. Evidence for glucose insensitivity. Diabetes. 1986 Mar; 35(3):370-3.
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      35. Gold G, Pou J, Gishizky ML, Landahl HD, Grodsky GM. Effects of tolbutamide pretreatment on the rate of conversion of newly synthesized proinsulin to insulin and the compartmental characteristics of insulin storage in isolated rat islets. Diabetes. 1986 Jan; 35(1):6-12.
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      36. Grodsky GM, Schmid-Formby F. Kinetic and quantitative relationships between insulin release and 65Zn efflux from perifused islets. Endocrinology. 1985 Aug; 117(2):704-10.
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      37. Maruyama H, Hisatomi A, Orci L, Grodsky GM, Unger RH. Insulin within islets is a physiologic glucagon release inhibitor. J Clin Invest. 1984 Dec; 74(6):2296-9.
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      38. Gold G, Pou J, Nowlain RM, Grodsky GM. Effects of monensin on conversion of proinsulin to insulin and secretion of newly synthesized insulin in isolated rat islets. Diabetes. 1984 Nov; 33(11):1019-24.
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      39. Gold G, Grodsky GM. Kinetic aspects of compartmental storage and secretion of insulin and zinc. Experientia. 1984 Oct 15; 40(10):1105-14.
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      40. Figlewicz DP, Forhan SE, Hodgson AT, Grodsky GM. 65Zinc and endogenous zinc content and distribution in islets in relationship to insulin content. Endocrinology. 1984 Sep; 115(3):877-81.
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      41. Frankel BJ, Heldt AM, Gerritsen GC, Grodsky GM. Insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin release from the prediabetic Chinese hamster. Diabetologia. 1984 Sep; 27(3):387-91.
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      42. Gold G, Gishizky ML, Chick WL, Grodsky GM. Contrasting patterns of insulin biosynthesis, compartmental storage, and secretion. Rat tumor versus islet cells. Diabetes. 1984 Jun; 33(6):556-61.
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      43. Gishizky ML, Frankel BJ, Grodsky GM. Cyclophosphamide treatment of prediabetic Chinese hamsters. Acta Physiol Scand. 1984 May; 121(1):81-4.
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      44. Formby B, Schmid-Formby F, Grodsky GM. Relationship between insulin release and 65zinc efflux from rat pancreatic islets maintained in tissue culture. Diabetes. 1984 Mar; 33(3):229-34.
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      45. Nolte MS, Poon V, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH, Karam JH. Reduced solubility of short-acting soluble insulins when mixed with longer-acting insulins. Diabetes. 1983 Dec; 32(12):1177-81.
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      46. Atwater I, Frankel BJ, Rojas E, Grodsky GM. Beta cell membrane potential and insulin release; role of calcium and calcium:magnesium ratio. Q J Exp Physiol. 1983 Apr; 68(2):233-45.
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      47. Gold G, Gishizky ML, Grodsky GM. Evidence that glucose "marks" beta cells resulting in preferential release of newly synthesized insulin. Science. 1982 Oct 1; 218(4567):56-8.
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      48. Frankel BJ, Heldt AM, Grodsky GM. Insulin and glucagon release in the diabetic Chinese hamster: differences among inbred sublines. Diabetologia. 1982 Apr; 22(4):292-5.
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      49. Gold G, Landahl HD, Gishizky ML, Grodsky GM. Heterogeneity and compartmental properties of insulin storage and secretion in rat islets. J Clin Invest. 1982 Mar; 69(3):554-63.
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      50. Frankel BJ, Heldt AM, Grodsky GM. Effects of K+ and arginine on insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin release from the in vitro perfused rat pancreas. Endocrinology. 1982 Feb; 110(2):428-31.
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      51. Bohannon NV, Lorenzi M, Grodsky GM, Karam JH. Stimulatory effects of tolbutamide infusion on plasma glucagon in insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982 Feb; 54(2):459-62.
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      52. Landahl HD, Grodsky GM. Comparison of models of insulin release. Bull Math Biol. 1982; 44(3):399-409.
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      53. Grodsky GM, Anderson CE, Coleman DL, Craighead JE, Gerritsen GC, Hansen CT, Herberg L, Howard CF, Lernmark A, Matschinsky FM, Rayfield E, Riley WJ, Rossini AA. Metabolic and underlying causes of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 1982; 31(Suppl 1 Pt 2):45-53.
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      54. Gold G, Manning M, Heldt A, Nowlain R, Pettit JR, Grodsky GM. Diabetes induced with multiple subdiabetogenic doses of streptozotocin: lack of protection by exogenous superoxide dismutase. Diabetes. 1981 Aug; 30(8):634-8.
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      55. Figlewicz DP, Heldt A, Forhan SE, Grodsky GM. Effect of exogenous zinc on insulin secretion in vitro. Endocrinology. 1981 Feb; 108(2):730-2.
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      56. Frankel BJ, Atwater I, Grodsky GM. Calcium affects insulin release and membrane potential in islet beta-cells. Am J Physiol. 1981 Jan; 240(1):C64-72.
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      57. Bringer J, Heldt A, Grodsky GM. Prevention of insulin aggregation by dicarboxylic amino acids during prolonged infusion. Diabetes. 1981 Jan; 30(1):83-5.
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      58. Karam JH, Lewitt PA, Young CW, Nowlain RE, Frankel BJ, Fujiya H, Freedman ZR, Grodsky GM. Insulinopenic diabetes after rodenticide (Vacor) ingestion: a unique model of acquired diabetes in man. Diabetes. 1980 Dec; 29(12):971-8.
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      59. Figlewicz DP, Formby B, Hodgson AT, Schmid FG, Grodsky GM. Kinetics of 65zinc uptake and distribution in fractions from cultured rat islets of langerhans. Diabetes. 1980 Oct; 29(10):767-73.
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      60. Norman AW, Frankel JB, Heldt AM, Grodsky GM. Vitamin D deficiency inhibits pancreatic secretion of insulin. Science. 1980 Aug 15; 209(4458):823-5.
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      61. O'Connor MD, Landahl H, Grodsky GM. Comparison of storage- and signal-limited models of pancreatic insulin secretion. Am J Physiol. 1980 May; 238(5):R378-89.
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      62. Frankel BJ, Grodsky GM. Effect of continuous low-dose insulin treatment on subsequent incidence of diabetes in genetically prediabetic Chinese hamsters. Diabetes. 1979 Jun; 28(6):544-7.
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      63. Frankel BJ, Schmid FG, Grodsky GM. Effect of continuous insulin infusion with an implantable seven-day minipump in the diabetic Chinese hamster. Endocrinology. 1979 May; 104(5):1532-9.
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      64. Karam JH, Lorenzi M, Young CW, Burns AD, Prosser PR, Grodsky GM, Galante M, Forsham PH. Feedback-controlled dextrose infusion during surgical management of insulinomas. Am J Med. 1979 Apr; 66(4):675-80.
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      65. Epstein G, Fanska R, Grodsky GM. The effect of potassium and valinomycin on insulin and glucagon secretion in the perfused rat pancreas. Endocrinology. 1978 Dec; 103(6):2207-15.
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      66. Frankel BJ, Imagawa WT, O'Connor MD, Lundquist I, Kromhout JA, Fanska RE, Grodsky GM. Glucose-stimulated 45Calcium efflux from isolated rat pancreatic islets. J Clin Invest. 1978 Sep; 62(3):525-31.
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      67. Frankel BJ, Kromhout JA, Imagawa W, Landahl HD, Grodsky GM. Glucose-stimulated 45Ca uptake in isolated rat islets. Diabetes. 1978 Apr; 27(4):365-9.
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      68. Grodsky GM, Epstein GH, Fanska R, Karam JH. Pancreatic action of the sulfonylureas. Fed Proc. 1977 Dec; 36(13):2714-9.
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      69. O'Connor MD, Landahl HD, Grodsky GM. Role of rate of change of glucose concentration as a signal for insulin release. Endocrinology. 1977 Jul; 101(1):85-8.
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      70. Grodsky GM, O'Connor MD. Factors influencing kinetic release of insulin in vitro. Panminerva Med. 1977 Mar-Apr; 19(2):117-22.
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      71. Lundquist I, Fanska R, Grodsky GM. Interaction of calcium and glucose on glucagon secretion. Endocrinology. 1976 Nov; 99(5):1304-12.
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      72. Charles MA, Lawecki J, Steiner AL, Grodsky GM. Cyclic nucleotides in pancreatic islets. Tolbutamide- and arginine-induced insulin release. Diabetes. 1976 Apr; 25(4):256-9.
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      73. Lundquist I, Fanska R, Grodsky GM. Direct calcium-stimulated release of glucagon from the isolation perfused rat pancreas and the effect of chemical sympathectomy. Endocrinology. 1976 Mar; 98(3):815-8.
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      74. Charles MA, Imagawa W, Forsham PH, Grodsky GM. Islet transplantation into rat liver: in vitro secretion of insulin from the isolated perfused liver and in vivo glucagon suppression. Endocrinology. 1976 Mar; 98(3):738-42.
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      75. Karam JH, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Letter: Weight-gain in infancy and development of juvenile diabetes mellitus. Lancet. 1976 Jan 3; 1(7949):45.
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      76. Gerich JE, Charles MA, Grodsky GM. Regulation of pancreatic insulin and glucagon secretion. Annu Rev Physiol. 1976; 38:353-88.
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      77. Grodsky GM, Fanska R, Lundquist I. Interrelationships between alpha and beta-anomers of glucose affecting both insulin and glucagon secretion in the perfused rat pancreas. II. Endocrinology. 1975 Sep; 97(3):573-80.
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      78. Charles MA, Lawecki J, Pictet R, Grodsky GM. Insulin secretion. Interrelationships of glucose, cyclic adenosine 3:5-monophosphate, and calcium. J Biol Chem. 1975 Aug 10; 250(15):6134-40.
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      79. Levin SR, Charles MA, O'connor M, Grodsky GM. Use of diphenylhydantoin and diazoxide to investigate insulin secretory mechanisms. Am J Physiol. 1975 Jul; 229(1):49-54.
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      80. Gerich JE, Lovinger R, Grodsky GM. Inhibition by somatostatin of glucagon and insulin release from the perfused rat pancreas in response to arginine, isoproterenol and theophylline: evidence for a preferential effect on glucagon secretion. Endocrinology. 1975 Mar; 96(3):749-54.
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      81. Frankel BJ, Gerich JE, Fanska RE, Gerritsen GC, Grodsky GM. Responses to arginine of the perfused pancreas of the genetically diabetic Chinese hamster. Diabetes. 1975 Mar; 24(3):273-9.
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      82. Grodsky GM, Fanska RE. The in vitro perfused pancreas. Methods Enzymol. 1975; 39:364-72.
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      83. Grodsky GM, Fanska R, West L, Manning M. Anomeric specificity of glucose-stimulated insulin release: evidence for a glucoreceptor? Science. 1974 Nov 8; 186(4163):536-8.
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      84. Grodsky GM, Frankel BJ, Gerich KE, Gerritsen GC. The diabetic Chinese hamster: in vitro insulin and glucagon release; the ""chemical diabetic";; and the effect of diet on ketonuria. Diabetologia. 1974 Nov; 10 Suppl:521-8.
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      85. Gerich JE, Charles MA, Grodsky GM. Characterization of the effects of arginine and glucose on glucagon and insulin release from the perfused rat pancreas. J Clin Invest. 1974 Oct; 54(4):833-41.
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      86. Karam JH, Grodsky GM, Ching KN, Schmid F, Burrill K, Forsham PH. "Staircase" glucose stimulation of insulin secretion in obesity. Measure of beta-cell sensitivity and capacity. Diabetes. 1974 Sep; 23(9):763-70.
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      87. Frankel BJ, Gerich JE, Hagura R, Fanska RE, Gerritsen GC, Grodsky GM. Abnormal secretion of insulin and glucagon by the in vitro perfused pancreas of the genetically diabetic Chinese hamster. J Clin Invest. 1974 Jun; 53(6):1637-46.
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      88. Gerich JE, Frankel BJ, Fanska R, West L, Forsham PH, Grodsky GM. Calcium dependency of glucagon secretion from the in vitro perfused rat pancreas. Endocrinology. 1974 May; 94(5):1381-5.
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      89. Tantillo JJ, Karam JH, Burrill KC, Jones MA, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Immunogenicity of "single peak" beef-pork insulin in diabetic subjects. Diabetes. 1974 Apr; 23(4):276-81.
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      90. Grodsky GM, Sando H, Levin S, Gerich J, Karam J. Synthesis and secretion of insulin in dynamic perfusion systems. Adv Metab Disord. 1974; 7(0):155-70.
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      91. Jayarao KS, Faulk WP, Karam JH, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Measurement of immune complexes in insulin-treated diabetics. J Immunol Methods. 1973 Dec; 3(4):337-45.
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      92. Johnson S, Karam JH, Levin SR, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Hyperinsulin response to oral leucine in obesity and acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1973 Sep; 37(3):431-5.
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      93. Sando H, Grodsky GM. Dynamic synthesis and release of insulin and proinsulin from perifused islets. Diabetes. 1973 May; 22(5):354-60.
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      94. Grodsky GM, Fanska R, Schmid FG. Evaluation of the role of exogenous insulin on phasic insulin secretion. Diabetes. 1973 Apr; 22(4):256-63.
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      95. Charles MA, Fanska R, Schmid FG, Forsham PH, Grodsky GM. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in pancreatic islets: glucose-induced insulin release. Science. 1973 Feb 9; 179(4073):569-71.
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      96. Gerich JE, Charles MA, Levin SR, Forsham PH, Grodsky GM. In vitro inhibition of pancreatic glucagon secretion by diphenylhydantoin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1972 Dec; 35(6):823-4.
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      97. Ching KN, Karam JH, Choy FB, Kolb FO, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Hyperinsulinuria in patients with renal calculi. Clin Chim Acta. 1972 Sep; 40(2):383-9.
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      98. Grodsky GM. A threshold distribution hypothesis for packet storage of insulin and its mathematical modeling. J Clin Invest. 1972 Aug; 51(8):2047-59.
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      99. Levin SR, Grodsky GM, Hagura R, Smith D. Comparison of the inhibitory effects of diphenylhydantoin and diazoxide upon insulin secretion from the isolated perfused pancreas. Diabetes. 1972 Aug; 21(8):856-62.
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      100. Levin SR, Grodsky GM, Hagura R, Smith DF, Forsham PH. Relationships between arginine and glucose in the induction of insulin secretion from the isolated, perfused rat pancreas. Endocrinology. 1972 Mar; 90(3):624-31.
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      101. Grodsky GM. A threshold distribution hypothesis for packet storage of insulin. II. Effect of calcium. Diabetes. 1972; 21(2 Suppl):584-93.
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      102. Karam JH, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Coxsackie viruses and diabetes. Lancet. 1971 Nov 27; 2(7735):1209.
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      103. Levin SR, Karam JH, Hane S, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Enhancement of arginine-induced insulin secretion in man by prior administration of glucose. Diabetes. 1971 Mar; 20(3):171-6.
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      104. Kolb HJ, Grodsky GM. Biological and immunological activity of fructose 1,6-diphosphatase. Application of a quantitative displacement radioimmunoassay. Biochemistry. 1970 Dec 8; 9(25):4900-6.
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      105. Lee JC, Grodsky GM, Bennett LL, Smith-Kyle DF, Craw L. Ultrastructure of beta-cells during the dynamic response to glucose and tolbutamide in vitro. Diabetologia. 1970 Dec; 6(6):542-3.
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      106. Stathakos P, Fanska R, Carbone JV, Grodsky GM. Jaundice associated with peritoneal absorption of bilirubin. Gastroenterology. 1970 Nov; 59(5):769-78.
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      107. Grodsky GM, Kolb HJ, Fanska RE, Nemechek C. Effect of age of rat on development of hepatic carriers for bilirubin: a possible explanation for physiologic jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn. Metabolism. 1970 Mar; 19(3):246-52.
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      108. Levin SR, Booker J, Smith DF, Grodsky GM. Inhibition of insulin secretion by diphenylhydantoin in the isolated perfused pancreas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1970 Mar; 30(3):400-1.
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      109. Grodsky G, Landahl H, Curry D, Bennett L. A two-compartmental model for insulin secretion. Adv Metab Disord. 1970; 1:Suppl 1:45-50.
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      110. Grodsky GM. Insulin and the pancreas. Vitam Horm. 1970; 28:37-101.
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      111. Lee JC, Grodsky GM, Caplan J, Craw L. Experimental immune diabetes in the rabbit. Light, fluorescence, and electron microscopic studies. Am J Pathol. 1969 Dec; 57(3):597-616.
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      112. Burr IM, Balant L, Stauffacher W, Renold AE, Grodsky G. Dynamic aspects of proinsulin release from perifused rat pancreas. Lancet. 1969 Oct 25; 2(7626):882-3.
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      113. Grodsky GM, Curry D, Landahl H, Bennett L. [Further studies on the dynamic aspects of insulin release in vitro with evidence for a two-compartmental storage system]. Acta Diabetol Lat. 1969 Sep; 6 Suppl 1:554-78.
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      114. Burr IM, Renold AE, Stauffacher W, Grodsky GM, Balant L. [Regulation of insulin release in perifused pancreatic tissue]. Acta Diabetol Lat. 1969 Sep; 6 Suppl 1:580-96.
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      115. Bennett LL, Curry DL, Grodsky GM. Calcium-magnesium antagonism in insulin secretion by the perfused rat pancreas. Endocrinology. 1969 Sep; 85(3):594-6.
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      116. Karam JH, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Insulin-resistant diabetes with autoantibodies induced by exogenous insulin. Successful treatment by insulin withdrawal. Diabetes. 1969 Jul; 18(7):445-54.
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      117. Alexander RW, Forsham PH, Grodsky GM. Early insulin response to intravenous glucose in steroid-stress diabetes. Metabolism. 1969 Mar; 18(3):248-51.
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      118. Karam JH, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Insulin secretion in obesity: pseudodiabetes? Am J Clin Nutr. 1968 Dec; 21(12):1445-54.
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      119. Simpson RG, Benedetti A, Grodsky GM, Karam JH, Forsham PH. Early phase of insulin release. Diabetes. 1968 Nov; 17(11):684-92.
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      120. McMillan DE, Deller JJ, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Evaluation of clinical acitivity of acromegaly by observation of the diurnal variation of serum inorganic phosphate. Metabolism. 1968 Nov; 17(11):966-76.
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      121. Mondon CE, Burton SD, Grodsky GM, Ishida T. Glucose tolerance and insulin response of potassium-deficienct rat and isolated liver. Am J Physiol. 1968 Oct; 215(4):779-87.
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      122. Grodsky GM, Curry DL, Bennett LL, Rodrigo JJ. [Factors influencing different rates of insulin release in vitro]. Acta Diabetol Lat. 1968 Oct; 5 Suppl 1:140-61.
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      123. Curry DL, Bennett LL, Grodsky GM. Dynamics of insulin secretion by the perfused rat pancreas. Endocrinology. 1968 Sep; 83(3):572-84.
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      124. Toreson WE, Lee JC, Grodsky GM. The histopathology of immune diabetes in the rabbit. Am J Pathol. 1968 May; 52(5):1099-115.
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      125. Grasso SG, Karam JH, Wegienka LC, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Use of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in studying the mechanism of lipid mobilization. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1968 Apr; 28(4):535-42.
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      126. Curry DL, Bennett LL, Grodsky GM. Requirement for calcium ion in insulin secretion by the perfused rat pancreas. Am J Physiol. 1968 Jan; 214(1):174-8.
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      127. Benedetti A, Simpson RG, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Exaggerated insulin response to glucagon in simple obesity. Diabetes. 1967 Sep; 16(9):666-9.
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      128. Grodsky GM, Bennett LL, Smith DF, Schmid FG. Effect of pulse administration of glucose or glucagon on insulin secretion in vitro. Metabolism. 1967 Mar; 16(3):222-33.
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      129. Wegienka LC, Grodsky GM, Karam JH, Grasso SG, Forsham PH. Comparison of insulin and 2-deoxy-D-glucose-induced glucopenia as stimulators of growth hormone secretion. Metabolism. 1967 Mar; 16(3):245-56.
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      130. Hartog M, Cline MJ, Grodsky GM. The response of human leucocyte cultures to stimulation by tuberculin and phytohaemagglutinin measured by the uptake of radioactive thymidine. Clin Exp Immunol. 1967 Mar; 2(2):217-28.
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      131. Imura H, Sparks LL, Tosaka M, Hane S, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Immunologic studies of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): effect of carboxypeptidase digestion on biologic and immunologic activities. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1967 Jan; 27(1):15-21.
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      132. Grodsky GM, Bennett LL. Cation requirements for insulin secretion in the isolated perfused pancreas. Diabetes. 1966 Dec; 15(12):910-3.
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      133. Simpson RG, Benedetti A, Grodsky GM, Karam JH, Forsham PH. Stimulation of insulin release by glucagon in noninsulin-dependent diabetics. Metabolism. 1966 Nov; 15(11):1046-9.
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      134. Karam JH, Grasso SG, Wegienka LC, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Effect of selected hexoses, of epinephrine and of glucagon on insulin secretion in man. Diabetes. 1966 Aug; 15(8):571-8.
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      135. Grodsky GM, Feldman R, Toreson WE, Lee JC. Diabetes mellitus in rabbits immunized with insulin. Diabetes. 1966 Aug; 15(8):579-85.
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      136. Deller JJ, Di Raimondo VC, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Acromegaly. The effects of various steroid hormones on the insulin-induced growth hormone response. Calif Med. 1966 Jan; 104(1):1-5.
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      137. Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Insulin and the pancreas. Annu Rev Physiol. 1966; 28:347-80.
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      138. Karam JH, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. The relationship of obesity and growth hormone to serum insulin levels. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1965 Oct 8; 131(1):374-87.
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      139. Imura H, Sparks LL, Grodsky GM, Forsham PH. Immunologic studies of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): dissociation of biologic and immunologic activities. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1965 Oct; 25(10):1361-9.
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      140. GRODSKY GM. PRODUCTION OF AUTOANTIBODIES TO INSULIN IN MAN AND RABBITS. Diabetes. 1965 Jul; 14:396-403.
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      141. KANE JP, LONGCOPE C, PAVLATOS FC, GRODSKY GM. STUDIES OF CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN IDIOPATHIC HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA. Metabolism. 1965 Apr; 14:471-86.
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      142. KARAM JH, GRODSKY GM, PAVLATOS FC, FORSHAM PH. CRITICAL FACTORS IN EXCESSIVE SERUM-INSULIN RESPONSE TO GLUCOSE. OBESITY IN MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES AND GROWTH HORMONE IN ACROMEGALY. Lancet. 1965 Feb 6; 1(7380):286-9.
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      143. GRODSKY GM, KARAM JH, PAVLATOS FC, FORSHAM PH. SERUM-INSULIN RESPONSE TO GLUCOSE IN PREDIABETIC SUBJECTS. Lancet. 1965 Feb 6; 1(7380):290-1.
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      144. CHAO PY, KARAM JH, GRODSKY GM. INSULIN I-131 BINDING IN SERUM FROM NORMAL AND DIABETIC SUBJECTS BY ULTRACENTRIFUGATION AND GEL FILTRATION. Diabetes. 1965 Jan; 14:27-32.
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      145. BROWN WR, GRODSKY GM, CARBONE JV. INTRACELLULAR DISTRIBUTION OF TRITIATED BILIRUBIN DURING HEPATIC UPTAKE AND EXCRETION. Am J Physiol. 1964 Dec; 207:1237-41.
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      146. GRODSKY GM, BENNETT LL. INSULIN SECRETION FROM THE ISOLATED PANCREAS IN ABSENCE OF INSULINOGENESIS: EFFECT OF GLUCOSE. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1963 Dec; 114:769-71.
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      147. FORSHAM PH, GRODSKY GM, KARAM JH, PAVLATOS FC. RECENT CHANGES IN THE CONCEPT OF DIABETES. Rev Invest Clin. 1963 Oct-Dec; 15:345-57.
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      148. GRODSKY GM, BATTS AA, BENNETT LL, VCELLA C, MCWILLIAMS NB, SMITH DF. EFFECTS OF CARBOHYDRATES ON SECRETION OF INSULIN FROM ISOLATED RAT PANCREAS. Am J Physiol. 1963 Oct; 205:638-44.
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      149. FELDMAN R, GRODSKY GM, KOHOUT FW, MCWILLIAMS NB. IMMUNOLOGIC STUDIES IN A DIABETIC SUBJECT RESISTANT TO BOVINE INSULIN BUT SENSITIVE TO PORCINE INSULIN. Am J Med. 1963 Sep; 35:411-7.
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      150. KARAM JH, GRODSKY GM, FORSHAM PH. Excessive insulin response to glucose in obese subjects as measured by immunochemical assay. Diabetes. 1963 May-Jun; 12:197-204.
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      151. GRODSKY GM, CONTOPOULOS AN, FANSKA R, CARBONE JV. Distribution of bilirubin-H3 in the fetal and maternal rat. Am J Physiol. 1963 May; 204:837-41.
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      152. PARKER JW, ELEVITCH FR, GRODSKY GM. Binding of fluorescent insulin to intracellular antibodies in guinea pigs immunized with insulin. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1963 May; 113:48-53.
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      153. BOWER BF, GRODSKY GM. Uptake of glucose dependent on insulin in the isolated bladder of the toad. Nature. 1963 Apr 27; 198:391-2.
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      154. GRODSKY GM, KARAM JH, PAVLATOS FC, FORSHAM PH. Reduction by phenformin of excessive insulin levels after glucose loading in obese and diabetic subjects. Metabolism. 1963 Apr; 12:278-86.
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      155. GRODSKY GM, CARBONE JV, FANSKA R, PENG CT. Tritiated bilirubin: preparation and physiological studies. Am J Physiol. 1962 Sep; 203:532-6.
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      156. SUSSMAN S, CARBONE JV, GRODSKY G, HJELTE V, MILLER P. Sulfobromophthalein sodium metabolism in newborn infants. Pediatrics. 1962 Jun; 29:899-906.
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      157. KARAM JH, GRODSKY GM. Insulin content of pancreas after sodium fluoroacetate-induce hyperglycemia. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1962 Feb; 109:451-4.
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      158. GRODSKY GM. [New aspects of bilirubin and bromsulfalein metabolism]. Praxis. 1961 Dec 7; 50:1299-301.
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      159. PARKER JW, GRODSKY GM, CARBONE JV. A study of the metabolites of florantyrone. Gastroenterology. 1961 Dec; 41:563-7.
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      160. GRODSKY GM, HAYASHIDA T, PENG CT, GESCHWIND II. Production of glucagon antibodies and their role in metabolism and immunoassay of glucagon. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1961 Jul; 107:491-4.
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      161. GRODSKY GM, FORSHAM PH. Comparative binding of beef and human insulin to insulin antibodies produced in man and guinea pigs. J Clin Invest. 1961 May; 40:799-802.
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      162. GRODSKY GM, CARBONE JV, FANSKA R. Biosynthesis of a sulfobromophthalein mercaptide with glutathione. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1961 Mar; 106:526-30.
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      163. PHILP JR, GRODSKY GM, CARBONE JV. Mercaptide conjugation in the uptake and secretion of sulfobromophthalein. Am J Physiol. 1961 Mar; 200:545-7.
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      164. KUBIN RH, GRODSKY GM, CARBONE JV. Investigation of rose bengal conjugation. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1960 Aug-Sep; 104:650-3.
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      165. GRODSKY GM, FORSHAM PH. An immunochemical assay of total extractable insulin in man. J Clin Invest. 1960 Jul; 39:1070-9.
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      166. GRODSKY GM, KROPATKIN M, POOL JG. Deficient synthesis of factor VII by liver tissue of fetal and newborn rats. Am J Physiol. 1960 Jul; 199:139-42.
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      167. GRODSKY GM, CARBONE JV, FANSKA R. Identification of metabolites of sulfobromophthalein. J Clin Invest. 1959 Nov; 38:1981-8.
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      168. CARBONE JV, GRODSKY GM, HJELTE V. Effect of hepatic dysfunction on circulating levels of sulfobromophthalein and its metabolites. J Clin Invest. 1959 Nov; 38:1989-95.
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      169. ROSENAU W, CARBONE JV, GRODSKY GM. Metabolism of sulfobromophthalein in hepatectomized and hepatectomized-nephrectomized dog. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1959 Oct; 102:131-3.
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      170. GRODSKY GM, PENG CT. Extractable insulin measured by immuno-chemical assay: effect of tolbutamide. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1959 May; 101(1):100-3.
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      171. GRODSKY GM, PENG CT, FORSHAM PH. Effect of modification of insulin on specific binding in insulin-resistant sera. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1959 Mar; 81(1):264-72.
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      172. GRODSKY GM, CARBONE JV, FANSKA R. Metabolism of sulphobromophthalein. Nature. 1959 Feb 14; 183(4659):469-70.
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      173. GRODSKY GM, CARBONE JV, FANSKA R. Enzymatic defect in metabolism of bilirubin in fetal and newborn rat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1958 Feb; 97(2):291-4.
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      174. GRODSKY GM. An assay of insulin by fibril formation from small samples of pancreas. Biochem J. 1958 Jan; 68(1):142-5.
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      175. GRODSKY GM, CARBONE JV. The synthesis of bilirubin glucuronide by tissue homogenates. J Biol Chem. 1957 May; 226(1):449-58.
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      176. GRODSKY GM, TARVER H. Isotopic studies on the reconstitution of insulin under normal and at high pressure; exchange and adsorption of alanine to insulin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1957 May; 68(1):215-28.
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      177. CARBONE JV, GRODSKY GM. Constitutional nonhemolytic hyperbilirubinemia in the rat: defect of bilirubin conjugation. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1957 Mar; 94(3):461-3.
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      178. GRODSKY G, TARVER H, LIGHT A, SIMPSON MV. Paper chromatography of insulin. Nature. 1956 Feb 4; 177(4501):223-5.
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