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    Jay Nadel, MD

    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    Address513 Parnassus Ave, Med Sci
    San Francisco CA 94143
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      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK2012Invited Lecture, 7th International Symposium on Cough
      Catania, Italy2012 Invited Lecture, XIII National Conference of the Italian Union of Pneumology
      National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK2012John Widdicombe Memorial Lecture, 7th International Symposium on Cough
      Tokyo2011Honorary Lecturer, Japanese Respiratory Society
      Hawaii2011Special Lecturer, Chest Meeting, Airways Network
      Lucerne2010Honorary Lecturer, Transatlantic Airway Conference 25th Anniversary
      University of Paris2008René Descartes Medal
      Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland2005Honorary Jerome I. Kleinerman Annual Lecture
      University of Ferrara, Italy2002Honorary Member Associazione Nicolo Copernico Alumni Dell Ateneo Estense
      Free University of Berlin2002Festschrift Honoring Prof. Gert Kunkel
      Baylor College of Medicine2002First Annual Honorary Joseph R. Rodarte Lectureship in Pulmonary Medicine
      1999Best Doctors of San Francisco Bay Area Nomination
      Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia1998Alumni Achievement Award, JH Coley Lectureship
      1998Best Doctors of America Nomination
      American Thoracic Society1997Trudeau Medal
      Dickinson Law School, Carlisle, PA1997Honorary Degree in Law
      University of Lund, Sweden1996Honorary Doctorate of Medicine
      German Society of Pulmonology1994Honorary Membership, Society for Lung and Airway Research
      Finnish Association of Pulmonary Physicians1994Honorary Membership
      University of Helsinki1994Medal of the University
      San Francisco 1993Amberson Lecturer, American Thoracic Society
      Ben Gurion University1992Distinguished Achievement Award
      American Lung Association1992Crocker Clean Air Award (for outstanding research in Air Pollution)
      University of Southern California1992Sam J. Sills Honorary Lectureship
      University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy1991Honorary Doctorate of Medicine
      Aspen Lung Conferences1991Giles S. Filley Lecture
      University of Nebraska School of Medicine1990Kass Lectureship and Medalist
      Royal Society of Medicine Foundation1990Pfizer Visiting Professor
      Brown University School of Medicine1989Distinguished Lecturer, The Ninth William P. Buffum Oration
      American College of Chest Physicians1987Distinguished Lecturer in Physiology
      American Lung Association of California1984Clean Air Award
      American Lung Association of California1984California Medal
      California Thoracic Society1984Honorary Membership
      Hammersmith Hospital, London, England1973Visiting Scientist
      University of Oxford, Oxford, England1962Visiting Scientist, University Laboratory of Physiology
      Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco1960 - 1961Giannini Research Fellow
      Philadelphia General Hospital1955Blockley Award for Outstanding Publication
      Jefferson Medical College1953Medical Practice Prize

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      A. Background
      Dr. Nadel obtained pulmonary research training in the Cardiovascular Research Institute at UCSF under Dr. Julius Comroe. In 1968, he was appointed the first Chief of the Division of Pulmonary Diseases in the Department of Medicine. In the 1970s as President of the American Thoracic Society, he successfully lobbied Congress to rename the National Heart Institute the National Heart and Lung Institute. Increased funding for lung research accelerated the pace of lung research. The CVRI attracted young investigators first in Lung Physiology and Pharmacology and then in Cell and Molecular Biology.
      B. Early Research
      Dr. Nadel has focused research in chronic airway diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and Cystic Fibrosis (CF). The serious air pollution crisis in the early 1950s (London Fog, Donora) led to the identification of sulfur dioxide and ozone as important pollutants. Studies by Dr. Nadel and associates characterized the effect of these pollutants and discovered that individuals with obstructive lung diseases were especially sensitive to these inhaled pollutants. Dr. Nadel’s testimony at the State of California committee concerning air pollution standards led to the adoption of the California Standards. Adoption of similar United States Air Pollution Standards followed.
      The air pollution studies focused Dr. Nadel’s attention on the regulation of the airways, especially on the epithelium. These pollution studies were carried out at a time when cell biology was evolving. He recognized that inhalation of a variety of materials in the environment could be deleterious to the host (viruses, bacteria, air pollutants, allergens, cigarette smoke). These “invaders” enter the body and are deposited on the surface of the airway epithelium. This led to the understanding that the epithelial defenses must have the capacity to respond to the invaders. This realization led to a series of studies focusing on the epithelium and surrounding cells and their interactions.
      One question that arose in the early 1970s was how deposited foreign particulates are cleared from the respiratory tract. Dr. Nadel realized that fluid is required for cilia to clear foreign particulates. A senior colleague, Dr. I. Edelman (who discovered the chloride channel in the kidney), provided expertise that helped the Nadel group to first describe the Na+, Cl¯ exchange mechanism in the airway epithelium that regulates airway epithelial fluid movement (later cloned by other investigators and named CFTR). A series of studies followed that described signaling of the channel and the regulation of water movement.
      C. Later Studies
      With the evolution of cell biology, a focus on novel molecules in the airways followed. This included studies of arachidonic acid metabolites, including the roles of cyclooxygenase products and 15 lipoxygenase (isolated and cloned by the Nadel lab). Also included were Interleukin 8, cAMP, and mucin (see below).
      (1) Antimuscarinic Therapy of Bronchospasm. In the early 1960s, Drs. Nadel and Widdicombe studied the nervous control of airway smooth muscle, showing substantial smooth muscle contractile effects of the muscarinic receptors in the vagus nerves. Subsequent studies associated with the Boehringer-Ingelheim pharmaceutical company resulted in the development anti-cholinergic drugs (Atrovent, and subsequently Tiotropium). Critics of antimuscarinic drugs suggested that an inhibitor of mucin production could be life threatening, which proved to be wrong. The drug has subsequently proven to be effective and successful as a bronchodilator, especially in COPD.
      (2) Signaling Pathways for Mucin Production. Mucous hypersecretion has been increasingly recognized to play important roles in obstructive airway diseases, especially by plugging small airways, leading to deterioration and death. Presently, there is no effective therapy available for inhibiting mucin production. In 1999, the Nadel lab discovered that an epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) cascade is involved in mucin production by a wide variety of stimuli (Takayama et al., PNAS, 1999). A UCSF patent was obtained and phase two trials are underway.
      D. Recent Studies
      1. EGFR Signaling Pathways. Recent cell and molecular studies in the Nadel lab have characterized the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of the airway epithelium that modulate a variety of autocrine and paracrine responses. Normal healthy airway epithelial cells respond to exogenous stimuli (for example, viruses, bacteria, cigarette smoke, allergens). These responses include (a) activation of exogenous stimuli by Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)s, (b) activation of oxygen free radicals (ROS), (c) activation of epithelial surface metalloproteinases (e.g., TACE), (d) cleavage of EGFR ligands, and (e) binding of ligands to EGFR, causing EGFR activation and subsequent intracellular signaling. This sequence results in the production of multiple products such as mucins, interleukin 8, (a potent neutrophil chemoattractant), defensins, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epithelial cell production. In normal human airway epithelial cells, a variety of stimuli cause only mild activation of EGFR and modest generation of products such as mucins and IL-8. However, stimulation of airway epithelial cells from individuals with chronic airway diseases produces exaggerated amounts of mucins (mucous hypersecretion) and increased amounts of the neutrophil chemoattractant, IL-8. Because exaggerated proinflammatory responses are thought to be deleterious and to cause clinical deterioration in chronic airway diseases, Dr. Nadel’s lab has performed cellular studies to determine the cause of the exaggerated responses.
      (1) One mechanism for exaggerated responses is via a secondary feedback pathway that restimulates EGFR. These studies are in an early phase. They describe (a) a CCL20/CCR6 feedback exaggerating mucin production (Kim J. Immunol 2011); and (b) an E prostanoid-3-dependent feedback that exaggerates IL-8 production in airway cancer cells (Kim, Cell Research 2011). This area of investigation is promising and will continue.
      (2) Modulation of Proinflammatory Responses. Multiple signaling pathways exist in the epithelial cells. One is the so-called “pro-inflammatory” EGFR pathway. Dr. Nadel and colleagues are presently investigating how activation of one pathway affects other pathways (via reinforcement or via reciprocal actions).
      (3) Viral infections are an important source of illness, deterioration of lung function and death. Drs. Nadel and Koff are co-inventors of a method for inhibiting respiratory viral growth. The studies are underway.
      (4) CFTR is a molecule that encodes the Cl¯ channel. However, there is also evidence that CFTR on the airway epithelial surface is an inhibitor of inflammatory activity and its absence in Cystic Fibrosis is involved in inflammation in CF. The Nadel lab is studying mechanisms of action of CFTR and its role in inflammatory airway diseases.

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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Gelb AF, Christenson SA, Nadel JA. Understanding the pathophysiology of the asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2016 Mar; 22(2):100-5. PMID: 26717511.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Gelb AF, Nadel JA. Understanding the pathophysiology of the asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Sep; 136(3):553-5. PMID: 26343939.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Gelb AF, Yamamoto A, Verbeken EK, Nadel JA. Unraveling the Pathophysiology of the Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome: Unsuspected Mild Centrilobular Emphysema Is Responsible for Loss of Lung Elastic Recoil in Never Smokers With Asthma With Persistent Expiratory Airflow Limitation. Chest. 2015 Aug; 148(2):313-20. PMID: 25950858.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Kalinowski A, Ueki I, Min-Oo G, Ballon-Landa E, Knoff D, Galen B, Lanier LL, Nadel JA, Koff JL. EGFR activation suppresses respiratory virus-induced IRF1-dependent CXCL10 production. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014 Jul 15; 307(2):L186-96. PMID: 24838750; PMCID: PMC4101792.
      5. Nadel JA. The CFTR and EGFR relationship in airway vascular growth, and its importance in cystic fibrosis. Eur Respir J. 2013 Dec; 42(6):1438-40. PMID: 24293414.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Gelb AF, Yamamoto A, Mauad T, Kollin J, Schein MJ, Nadel JA. Unsuspected mild emphysema in nonsmoking patients with chronic asthma with persistent airway obstruction. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Jan; 133(1):263-5.e1-3. PMID: 24290280.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Ueki IF, Min-Oo G, Kalinowski A, Ballon-Landa E, Lanier LL, Nadel JA, Koff JL. Respiratory virus-induced EGFR activation suppresses IRF1-dependent interferon ? and antiviral defense in airway epithelium. J Exp Med. 2013 Sep 23; 210(10):1929-36. PMID: 23999497; PMCID: PMC3782052.
      8. Kim S, Beyer BA, Lewis C, Nadel JA. Normal CFTR inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent pro-inflammatory chemokine production in human airway epithelial cells. PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e72981. PMID: 23977375; PMCID: PMC3745379.
      9. Chung KF, Nadel JA, Fontana G. John Widdicombe's contribution to respiratory physiology and cough: reminiscences. Cough. 2013; 9(1):6. PMID: 23497652; PMCID: PMC3601007.
      10. Nadel JA. Mucous hypersecretion and relationship to cough. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Oct; 26(5):510-3. PMID: 23434445.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Kim S, Lewis C, Nadel JA. Epidermal growth factor receptor reactivation induced by E-prostanoid-3 receptor- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme-dependent feedback exaggerates interleukin-8 production in airway cancer (NCI-H292) cells. Exp Cell Res. 2011 Nov 1; 317(18):2650-60. PMID: 21925169.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Kim S, Lewis C, Nadel JA. CCL20/CCR6 feedback exaggerates epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent MUC5AC mucin production in human airway epithelial (NCI-H292) cells. J Immunol. 2011 Mar 15; 186(6):3392-400. PMID: 21300824.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Burgel PR, Nadel JA. Epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated innate immune responses and their roles in airway diseases. Eur Respir J. 2008 Oct; 32(4):1068-81. PMID: 18827153.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Koff JL, Shao MX, Ueki IF, Nadel JA. Multiple TLRs activate EGFR via a signaling cascade to produce innate immune responses in airway epithelium. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008 Jun; 294(6):L1068-75. PMID: 18375743.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Nadel JA. Innate immune mucin production via epithelial cell surface signaling: relationship to allergic disease. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Feb; 7(1):57-62. PMID: 17218812.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Koff JL, Shao MX, Kim S, Ueki IF, Nadel JA. Pseudomonas lipopolysaccharide accelerates wound repair via activation of a novel epithelial cell signaling cascade. J Immunol. 2006 Dec 15; 177(12):8693-700. PMID: 17142770.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Shao MX, Nadel JA. Neutrophil elastase induces MUC5AC mucin production in human airway epithelial cells via a cascade involving protein kinase C, reactive oxygen species, and TNF-alpha-converting enzyme. J Immunol. 2005 Sep 15; 175(6):4009-16. PMID: 16148149.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Shao MX, Nadel JA. Dual oxidase 1-dependent MUC5AC mucin expression in cultured human airway epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 18; 102(3):767-72. PMID: 15640347; PMCID: PMC545521.
      19. Nadel JA. . COPD. Role of the Airway Epithelium in Defense Against Inhaled Invaders. 2005; 3:285-287.
      20. Shao MX, Nakanaga T, Nadel JA. Cigarette smoke induces MUC5AC mucin overproduction via tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme in human airway epithelial (NCI-H292) cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004 Aug; 287(2):L420-7. PMID: 15121636.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Shao MX, Ueki IF, Nadel JA. Tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme mediates MUC5AC mucin expression in cultured human airway epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Sep 30; 100(20):11618-23. PMID: 12972643; PMCID: PMC208807.
      22. Takeyama K, Dabbagh K, Jeong Shim J, Dao-Pick T, Ueki IF, Nadel JA. Oxidative stress causes mucin synthesis via transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor: role of neutrophils. J Immunol. 2000 Feb 1; 164(3):1546-52. PMID: 10640773.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Takeyama K, Dabbagh K, Lee HM, Agustí C, Lausier JA, Ueki IF, Grattan KM, Nadel JA. Epidermal growth factor system regulates mucin production in airways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Mar 16; 96(6):3081-6. PMID: 10077640; PMCID: PMC15898.
      24. Li JD, Dohrman AF, Gallup M, Miyata S, Gum JR, Kim YS, Nadel JA, Prince A, Basbaum CB. Transcriptional activation of mucin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Feb 4; 94(3):967-72. PMID: 9023366; PMCID: PMC19623.
      25. Rosenecker J, Zhang W, Hong K, Lausier J, Geppetti P, Yoshihara S, Papahadjopoulos D, Nadel JA. Increased liposome extravasation in selected tissues: effect of substance P. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jul 9; 93(14):7236-41. PMID: 8692975; PMCID: PMC38966.
      26. Inoue H, Massion PP, Ueki IF, Grattan KM, Hara M, Dohrman AF, Chan B, Lausier JA, Golden JA, Nadel JA. Pseudomonas stimulates interleukin-8 mRNA expression selectively in airway epithelium, in gland ducts, and in recruited neutrophils. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1994 Dec; 11(6):651-63. PMID: 7946394.
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      27. Richman-Eisenstat JB, Jorens PG, Hébert CA, Ueki I, Nadel JA. Interleukin-8: an important chemoattractant in sputum of patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Am J Physiol. 1993 Apr; 264(4 Pt 1):L413-8. PMID: 8476069.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Jorens PG, Graf PD, Ueki IF, Olesch J, Nadel JA. Interleukin-8 induces neutrophil accumulation in the trachea of allergic dogs. Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 1992; 105:190-6. PMID: 1308996.
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      29. Nadel JA, Conrad DJ, Ueki IF, Schuster A, Sigal E. Immunocytochemical localization of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase in erythrocytes, leukocytes, and airway cells. J Clin Invest. 1991 Apr; 87(4):1139-45. PMID: 2010530; PMCID: PMC295116.
      30. Rubinstein I, Nadel JA, Graf PD, Caughey GH. Mast cell chymase potentiates histamine-induced wheal formation in the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs. J Clin Invest. 1990 Aug; 86(2):555-9. PMID: 2384602; PMCID: PMC296760.
      31. Jacoby DB, Nadel JA. Parainfluenza virus infection of cultured airway epithelial cells. J Virol Methods. 1989 Nov; 26(2):199-208. PMID: 2559102.
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      32. Vanderslice P, Craik CS, Nadel JA, Caughey GH. Molecular cloning of dog mast cell tryptase and a related protease: structural evidence of a unique mode of serine protease activation. Biochemistry. 1989 May 16; 28(10):4148-55. PMID: 2504277.
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      33. Sommerhoff CP, Caughey GH, Finkbeiner WE, Lazarus SC, Basbaum CB, Nadel JA. Mast cell chymase. A potent secretagogue for airway gland serous cells. J Immunol. 1989 Apr 1; 142(7):2450-6. PMID: 2494259.
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      34. Sigal E, Grunberger D, Craik CS, Caughey GH, Nadel JA. Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase from human leukocytes: purification and structural homology to other mammalian lipoxygenases. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res. 1989; 19:156-9. PMID: 2526462.
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      35. Sigal E, Craik CS, Highland E, Grunberger D, Costello LL, Dixon RA, Nadel JA. Molecular cloning and primary structure of human 15-lipoxygenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Dec 15; 157(2):457-64. PMID: 3202857.
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      36. Gruenert DC, Basbaum CB, Welsh MJ, Li M, Finkbeiner WE, Nadel JA. Characterization of human tracheal epithelial cells transformed by an origin-defective simian virus 40. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Aug; 85(16):5951-5. PMID: 2457904; PMCID: PMC281883.
      37. Jacoby DB, Tamaoki J, Borson DB, Nadel JA. Influenza infection causes airway hyperresponsiveness by decreasing enkephalinase. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1988 Jun; 64(6):2653-8. PMID: 3042736.
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      38. Caughey GH, Viro NF, Lazarus SC, Nadel JA. Purification and characterization of dog mastocytoma chymase: identification of an octapeptide conserved in chymotryptic leukocyte proteinases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988 Jan 29; 952(2):142-9. PMID: 3122835.
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      39. Caughey GH, Viro NF, Ramachandran J, Lazarus SC, Borson DB, Nadel JA. Dog mastocytoma tryptase: affinity purification, characterization, and amino-terminal sequence. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1987 Nov 1; 258(2):555-63. PMID: 3118812.
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      40. Hunter JA, Finkbeiner WE, Nadel JA, Goetzl EJ, Holtzman MJ. Predominant generation of 15-lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid by epithelial cells from human trachea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Jul; 82(14):4633-7. PMID: 3927287; PMCID: PMC390440.
      41. Leikauf GD, Ueki IF, Nadel JA. Autonomic regulation of viscoelasticity of cat tracheal gland secretions. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1984 Feb; 56(2):426-30. PMID: 6706754.
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      42. Barnes PJ, Skoogh BE, Nadel JA, Roberts JM. Postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors predominate over alpha 1-adrenoceptors in canine tracheal smooth muscle and mediate neuronal and hormonal alpha-adrenergic contraction. Mol Pharmacol. 1983 May; 23(3):570-5. PMID: 6135147.
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      43. Sheppard D, Epstein J, Holtzman MJ, Nadel JA, Boushey HA. Effect of route of atropine delivery on bronchospasm from cold air and methacholine. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1983 Jan; 54(1):130-3. PMID: 6337982.
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      44. Sheppard D, Epstein J, Holtzman MJ, Nadel JA, Boushey HA. Dose-dependent inhibition of cold air-induced bronchoconstriction by atropine. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1982 Jul; 53(1):169-74. PMID: 6749773.
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      45. Sheppard D, Saisho A, Nadel JA, Boushey HA. Exercise increases sulfur dioxide-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1981 May; 123(5):486-91. PMID: 7235370.
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      46. German VF, Ueki IF, Nadel JA. Micropipette measurement of airway submucosal gland secretion: laryngeal reflex. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1980 Sep; 122(3):413-6. PMID: 7416616.
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      47. Ueki I, German VF, Nadel JA. Micropipette measurement of airway submucosal gland secretion. Autonomic effects. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1980 Feb; 121(2):351-7. PMID: 7362142.
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      48. Golden JA, Nadel JA, Boushey HA. Bronchial hyperirritability in healthy subjects after exposure to ozone. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1978 Aug; 118(2):287-94. PMID: 697179.
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      49. Newth CJ, Cotton DJ, Nadel JA. Pulmonary diffusing capacity measured at multiple intervals during a single exhalation in man. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1977 Oct; 43(4):617-25. PMID: 908675.
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      50. Olver RE, Davis B, Marin MG, Nadel JA. Active transport of Na+ and Cl- across the canine tracheal epithelium in vitro. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1975 Dec; 112(6):811-5. PMID: 1202998.
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      51. Jones JG, Fraser RB, Nadel JA. Prediction of maximum expiratory flow rate from area-transmural pressure curve of compressed airway. J Appl Physiol. 1975 Jun; 38(6):1002-11. PMID: 1141112.
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      52. Gamsu G, Nadel JA. New technique for roentgenographic study of airways and lungs using powdered tantalum. Cancer. 1972 Nov; 30(5):1353-7. PMID: 5083072.
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      53. Fallat RJ, Powell MR, Youker JE, Nadel JA. Pulmonary deposition and clearance of 131-I-labeled oil after lymphography in man. Correlation with lung function. Radiology. 1970 Dec; 97(3):511-20. PMID: 4321609.
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      54. Hinchcliffe WA, Zamel N, Fishman NH, Dedo HH, Greenspan RH, Nadel J. Roentgenographic study of the human trachea with powdered tantalum. Radiology. 1970 Nov; 97(2):327-30. PMID: 5481137.
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      55. Nadel JA, Clarke SW. A new technique for studying airway deposition, morphology and mechanisms using powdered tantalum. Inhaled Part. 1970; 1:43-7. PMID: 5527720.
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      56. Lawson TL, Margulis AR, Nadel JA, Rambo ON, Wolfe WG. Intraperitoneal introduction of tantalum powder. A roentgenographic and pathologic study. Invest Radiol. 1969 Sep-Oct; 4(5):293-300. PMID: 5346887.
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      57. Goldsmith JR, Nadel JA. Experimental exposure of human subjects to ozone. J Air Pollut Control Assoc. 1969 May; 19(5):329-30. PMID: 5797492.
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      58. Nadel JA, Wolfe WG, Graf PD. Powdered tantalum as a medium for bronchography in canine and human lungs. Invest Radiol. 1968 Jul-Aug; 3(4):229-38. PMID: 5678890.
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      59. Simonsson BG, Jacobs FM, Nadel JA. Role of autonomic nervous system and the cough reflex in the increased responsiveness of airways in patients with obstructive airway disease. J Clin Invest. 1967 Nov; 46(11):1812-8. PMID: 6070326; PMCID: PMC292931.
      60. Gold WM, Kaufman HS, Nadel JA. Elastic recoil of the lungs in chronic asthmatic patients before and after therapy. J Appl Physiol. 1967 Oct; 23(4):433-8. PMID: 6053669.
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      64. WIDDICOMBE JG, KENT DC, NADEL JA. Mechanism of bronchoconstriction during inhalation of dust. J Appl Physiol. 1962 Jul; 17:613-6. PMID: 14006723.
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      65. NADEL JA, COMROE JH. Acute effects of inhalation of cigarette smoke on airway conductance. J Appl Physiol. 1961 Jul; 16:713-6. PMID: 13727341.
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