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    John Shepherd, PhD

    TitleAssociate Professor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentRadiology
    Address400 Parnassus Ave, UC Clinics
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-476-8814

       Biography 
       Awards and Honors
      Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden2013 - 2014Fulbright Scholar
      International Society for Clinical Densitometry2013 - 2013Oscar Gluck Humanitarian Award
      International Society for Clinical Densitometry2007 - 2007John P. Belezikian Global Leadership Award

       Overview 
       Overview
      John A. Shepherd, PhD, CCD, is an Associate Adjunct Professor in the Department of Radiology and the Director of the Breast and Bone Density Imaging Group at the University of California, San Francisco. He is an expert in quantitative breast imaging as well as musculoskeletal imaging using x-ray absorptiometry techniques. Dr. Shepherd received his BS in Engineering Physics from Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas, and he obtained his PhD in Engineering Physics from the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia, followed by a postdoctoral fellowship in Biophysics from Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey.

      Dr. Shepherd’s research interests involve quantitative imaging methods for tissue composition using x-rays. His mammographic methods are used extensively for research around the world and in the San Francisco Mammography Registry Program. Dr. Shepherd’s efforts are focused on the technical imaging aspects of the measurements of the body composition and the translation of these measurements into different fields of study. He has present and future research projects in the following areas: breast cancer risk and detection using breast density and tissue texture measures; dual-energy x-ray diagnostic mammography for characterizing compositional signatures of cancer lesions; total body protein measures, body shape analysis and metabolic diseases; statistics of quality assurance and quality control for quantitative measurements.

      Expertise:
      Quantitative breast imaging, breast density, bone density, body composition, statistical methods of quality control.

      Specialty:
      Quantitative imaging methods for tissue composition using x-rays, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

      Professional Interests:
      Body composition, diagnostic x-ray imaging, mammographic density, bone densitometry, dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), single X-ray absorptiometry (SXA), quantitative computed tomography, osteoporosis, breast cancer, peripheral bone densitometry, quantitative ultrasound

      Education and Training:
      • Bachelor of Science: Texas Tech University, Lubbock - Engineering Physics
      • Doctor of Philosophy: University of Virginia, Charlottesville - Engineering Physics
      • Postdoctoral Fellow: Princeton University, Princeton - Physics Department
      • Certified Clinical Densitometrist (CCD), International Society for Clinical Densitometry
      • Cert. Densitometry Technologist (CDT), International Society for Clinical Densitometry
      • Limited License: X-ray Bone Densitometry, American Registry of Radiologic Technologists California

       Interests
      Body composition, diagnostic x-ray imaging, mammographic density, bone densitometry, dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), single X-ray absorptiometry (SXA), quantitative computed tomography, osteoporosis, breast cancer, peripheral bone densitometry, quantitative ultrasound.

       ORNG Applications 
       Featured Publications
       Websites
       Faculty Mentoring
       Awarded Grants
       Global Health
       More Info

       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Prebil LA, Ereman RR, Powell MJ, Jamshidian F, Kerlikowske K, Shepherd JA, Hurlbert MS, Benz CC. First pregnancy events and future breast density: modification by age at first pregnancy and specific VEGF and IGF1R gene variants. Cancer Causes Control. 2014 Jul; 25(7):859-68.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Cheddad A, Czene K, Shepherd JA, Li J, Hall P, Humphreys K. Enhancement of mammographic density measures in breast cancer risk prediction. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Apr 10.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Drukker K, Duewer F, Giger ML, Malkov S, Flowers CI, Joe B, Kerlikowske K, Drukteinis JS, Li H, Shepherd JA. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification. Med Phys. 2014 Mar; 41(3):031915.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Wren TA, Kalkwarf HJ, Zemel BS, Lappe JM, Oberfield S, Shepherd JA, Winer KK, Gilsanz V. Longitudinal Tracking of Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Bone Measures Over 6 Years in Children and Adolescents: Persistence of Low Bone Mass to Maturity. J Pediatr. 2014 Jan 30.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Wang J, Azziz A, Fan B, Malkov S, Klifa C, Newitt D, Yitta S, Hylton N, Kerlikowske K, Shepherd JA. Agreement of mammographic measures of volumetric breast density to MRI. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e81653.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Bertrand KA, Tamimi RM, Scott CG, Jensen MR, Pankratz VS, Visscher D, Norman A, Couch F, Shepherd J, Fan B, Chen YY, Ma L, Beck AH, Cummings SR, Kerlikowske K, Vachon CM. Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer by age and tumor characteristics. Breast Cancer Res. 2013 Nov 4; 15(6):R104.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Powers C, Fan B, Borrud LG, Looker AC, Shepherd JA. Long-Term Precision of Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Body Composition Measurements and Association With Their Covariates. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Nov 4.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Fan B, Shepherd JA, Levine MA, Steinberg D, Wacker W, Barden HS, Ergun D, Wu XP. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Whole-Body Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Reference Data for GE Lunar Systems. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct 22.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Kendler DL, Borges JL, Fielding RA, Itabashi A, Krueger D, Mulligan K, Camargos BM, Sabowitz B, Wu CH, Yu EW, Shepherd J. The Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: Indications of Use and Reporting of DXA for Body Composition. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct-Dec; 16(4):496-507.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Hangartner TN, Warner S, Braillon P, Jankowski L, Shepherd J. The Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: acquisition of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition and considerations regarding analysis and repeatability of measures. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct-Dec; 16(4):520-36.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Petak S, Barbu CG, Yu EW, Fielding R, Mulligan K, Sabowitz B, Wu CH, Shepherd JA. The Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: body composition analysis reporting. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct-Dec; 16(4):508-19.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Shepherd JA, Baim S, Bilezikian JP, Schousboe JT. Executive summary of the 2013 International Society for Clinical Densitometry Position Development Conference on Body Composition. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct-Dec; 16(4):489-95.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Schousboe JT, Shepherd JA, Bilezikian JP, Baim S. Executive summary of the 2013 International Society for Clinical Densitometry Position Development Conference on bone densitometry. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct-Dec; 16(4):455-66.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Dorgan JF, Klifa C, Deshmukh S, Egleston BL, Shepherd JA, Kwiterovich PO, Van Horn L, Snetselaar LG, Stevens VJ, Robson AM, Lasser NL, Hylton NM. Menstrual and reproductive characteristics and breast density in young women. Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Nov; 24(11):1973-83.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Wilson JP, Kanaya AM, Fan B, Shepherd JA. Ratio of trunk to leg volume as a new body shape metric for diabetes and mortality. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68716.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Treatment effects on measures of body composition in the TODAY clinical trial. Diabetes Care. 2013 Jun; 36(6):1742-8.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Caswell JL, Kerlikowske K, Shepherd JA, Cummings SR, Hu D, Huntsman S, Ziv E. High mammographic density in women of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Breast Cancer Res. 2013 May 13; 15(3):R40.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Wilson JP, Strauss BJ, Fan B, Duewer FW, Shepherd JA. Improved 4-compartment body-composition model for a clinically accessible measure of total body protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar; 97(3):497-504.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Gregson CL, Paggiosi MA, Crabtree N, Steel SA, McCloskey E, Duncan EL, Fan B, Shepherd JA, Fraser WD, Smith GD, Tobias JH. Analysis of body composition in individuals with high bone mass reveals a marked increase in fat mass in women but not men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Feb; 98(2):818-28.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Wilson JP, Fan B, Shepherd JA. Total and regional body volumes derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry output. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Jul-Sep; 16(3):368-73.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Shepherd JA, Fan B, Lu Y, Wu XP, Wacker WK, Ergun DL, Levine MA. A multinational study to develop universal standardization of whole-body bone density and composition using GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic DXA systems. J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Oct; 27(10):2208-16.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Wren TA, Shepherd JA, Kalkwarf HJ, Zemel BS, Lappe JM, Oberfield S, Dorey FJ, Winer KK, Gilsanz V. Racial disparity in fracture risk between white and nonwhite children in the United States. J Pediatr. 2012 Dec; 161(6):1035-40.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Shepherd JA. Is osteoporosis an obesity paradox? J Clin Densitom. 2013 Apr-Jun; 16(2):131-2.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Dorgan JF, Klifa C, Shepherd JA, Egleston BL, Kwiterovich PO, Himes JH, Gabriel KP, Van Horn L, Snetselaar LG, Stevens VJ, Barton BA, Robson AM, Lasser NL, Deshmukh S, Hylton NM. Height, adiposity and body fat distribution and breast density in young women. Breast Cancer Res. 2012 Jul 16; 14(4):R107.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Jonas MM, Balistreri W, Gonzalez-Peralta RP, Haber B, Lobritto S, Mohan P, Molleston JP, Murray KF, Narkewicz MR, Rosenthal P, Schwarz KB, Barton BA, Shepherd JA, Mitchell PD, Duggan C. Pegylated interferon for chronic hepatitis C in children affects growth and body composition: results from the pediatric study of hepatitis C (PEDS-C) trial. Hepatology. 2012 Aug; 56(2):523-31.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Looker AC, Borrud LG, Dawson-Hughes B, Shepherd JA, Wright NC. Osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femur neck or lumbar spine in older adults: United States, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. 2012 Apr; (93):1-8.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Looker AC, Borrud LG, Hughes JP, Fan B, Shepherd JA, Melton LJ. Lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and bone area: United States, 2005-2008. Vital Health Stat 11. 2012 Mar; (251):1-132.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Schwartz AV, Johnson KC, Kahn SE, Shepherd JA, Nevitt MC, Peters AL, Walkup MP, Hodges A, Williams CC, Bray GA. Effect of 1 year of an intentional weight loss intervention on bone mineral density in type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD randomized trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Mar; 27(3):619-27.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Shepherd JA, Kerlikowske K. Do fatty breasts increase or decrease breast cancer risk? Breast Cancer Res. 2012; 14(1):102.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Baracos V, Caserotti P, Earthman CP, Fields D, Gallagher D, Hall KD, Heymsfield SB, Müller MJ, Rosen AN, Pichard C, Redman LM, Shen W, Shepherd JA, Thomas D. Advances in the science and application of body composition measurement. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2012 Jan; 36(1):96-107.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Schwartz AV, Johnson KC, Kahn SE, Shepherd JA, Nevitt MC, Peters AL, Walkup MP, Hodges A, Williams CC, Bray GA. Effect of one year of an intentional weight loss intervention on bone mineral density in type 2 diabetes: Results from the look AHEAD randomized trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Dec 2.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Wilson JP, Mulligan K, Fan B, Sherman JL, Murphy EJ, Tai VW, Powers CL, Marquez L, Ruiz-Barros V, Shepherd JA. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based body volume measurement for 4-compartment body composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan; 95(1):25-31.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Shepherd JA, Wang L, Fan B, Gilsanz V, Kalkwarf HJ, Lappe J, Lu Y, Hangartner T, Zemel BS, Fredrick M, Oberfield S, Winer KK. Optimal monitoring time interval between DXA measures in children. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Nov; 26(11):2745-52.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Zemel BS, Kalkwarf HJ, Gilsanz V, Lappe JM, Oberfield S, Shepherd JA, Frederick MM, Huang X, Lu M, Mahboubi S, Hangartner T, Winer KK. Revised reference curves for bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density according to age and sex for black and non-black children: results of the bone mineral density in childhood study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Oct; 96(10):3160-9.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Katzman W, Cawthon P, Hicks GE, Vittinghoff E, Shepherd J, Cauley JA, Harris T, Simonsick EM, Strotmeyer E, Womack C, Kado DM. Association of spinal muscle composition and prevalence of hyperkyphosis in healthy community-dwelling older men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Feb; 67(2):191-5.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Maskarinec G, Morimoto Y, Daida Y, Shepherd J, Novotny R. A comparison of breast density measures between mothers and adolescent daughters. BMC Cancer. 2011; 11:330.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Toombs RJ, Ducher G, Shepherd JA, De Souza MJ. The impact of recent technological advances on the trueness and precision of DXA to assess body composition. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Jan; 20(1):30-9.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Looker AC, Melton LJ, Borrud LG, Shepherd JA. Lumbar spine bone mineral density in US adults: demographic patterns and relationship with femur neck skeletal status. Osteoporos Int. 2012 Apr; 23(4):1351-60.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Shepherd JA, Kerlikowske K, Ma L, Duewer F, Fan B, Wang J, Malkov S, Vittinghoff E, Cummings SR. Volume of mammographic density and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Jul; 20(7):1473-82.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Looker AC, Melton LJ, Borrud LG, Shepherd JA. Changes in femur neck bone density in US adults between 1988-1994 and 2005-2008: demographic patterns and possible determinants. Osteoporos Int. 2012 Feb; 23(2):771-80.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Baker-LePain JC, Nakamura MC, Shepherd J, von Scheven E. Assessment of bone remodelling in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2011 Mar; 50(3):611-9.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Gilsanz V, Chalfant J, Kalkwarf H, Zemel B, Lappe J, Oberfield S, Shepherd J, Wren T, Winer K. Age at onset of puberty predicts bone mass in young adulthood. J Pediatr. 2011 Jan; 158(1):100-5, 105.e1-2.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Maskarinec G, Morimoto Y, Daida Y, Laidevant A, Malkov S, Shepherd JA, Novotny R. Comparison of breast density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry with mammographic density among adult women in Hawaii. Cancer Epidemiol. 2011 Apr; 35(2):188-93.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Shepherd JA, Fan B, Lu Y, Marquez L, Salama K, Hwang J, Fung EB. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with serum ferritin predicts liver iron concentration and changes in concentration better than ferritin alone. J Clin Densitom. 2010 Oct-Dec; 13(4):399-406.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Katzman WB, Wanek L, Shepherd JA, Sellmeyer DE. Age-related hyperkyphosis: its causes, consequences, and management. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010 Jun; 40(6):352-60.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Dorgan JF, Liu L, Klifa C, Hylton N, Shepherd JA, Stanczyk FZ, Snetselaar LG, Van Horn L, Stevens VJ, Robson A, Kwiterovich PO, Lasser NL, Himes JH, Pettee Gabriel K, Kriska A, Ruder EH, Fang CY, Barton BA. Adolescent diet and subsequent serum hormones, breast density, and bone mineral density in young women: results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children follow-up study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Jun; 19(6):1545-56.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Short DF, Zemel BS, Gilsanz V, Kalkwarf HJ, Lappe JM, Mahboubi S, Oberfield SE, Shepherd JA, Winer KK, Hangartner TN. Fitting of bone mineral density with consideration of anthropometric parameters. Osteoporos Int. 2011 Apr; 22(4):1047-57.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Borrud LG, Flegal KM, Looker AC, Everhart JE, Harris TB, Shepherd JA. Body composition data for individuals 8 years of age and older: U.S. population, 1999-2004. Vital Health Stat 11. 2010 Apr; (250):1-87.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Kalkwarf HJ, Gilsanz V, Lappe JM, Oberfield S, Shepherd JA, Hangartner TN, Huang X, Frederick MM, Winer KK, Zemel BS. Tracking of bone mass and density during childhood and adolescence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Apr; 95(4):1690-8.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Flegal KM, Ogden CL, Yanovski JA, Freedman DS, Shepherd JA, Graubard BI, Borrud LG. High adiposity and high body mass index-for-age in US children and adolescents overall and by race-ethnic group. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Apr; 91(4):1020-6.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Zemel BS, Leonard MB, Kelly A, Lappe JM, Gilsanz V, Oberfield S, Mahboubi S, Shepherd JA, Hangartner TN, Frederick MM, Winer KK, Kalkwarf HJ. Height adjustment in assessing dual energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mass and density in children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Mar; 95(3):1265-73.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Laidevant AD, Malkov S, Flowers CI, Kerlikowske K, Shepherd JA. Compositional breast imaging using a dual-energy mammography protocol. Med Phys. 2010 Jan; 37(1):164-74.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Looker AC, Melton LJ, Harris TB, Borrud LG, Shepherd JA. Prevalence and trends in low femur bone density among older US adults: NHANES 2005-2006 compared with NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res. 2010 Jan; 25(1):64-71.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Malkov S, Wang J, Kerlikowske K, Cummings SR, Shepherd JA. Single x-ray absorptiometry method for the quantitative mammographic measure of fibroglandular tissue volume. Med Phys. 2009 Dec; 36(12):5525-36.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Fan B, Lu Y, Genant H, Fuerst T, Shepherd J. Does standardized BMD still remove differences between Hologic and GE-Lunar state-of-the-art DXA systems? Osteoporos Int. 2010 Jul; 21(7):1227-36.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Klifa C, Carballido-Gamio J, Wilmes L, Laprie A, Shepherd J, Gibbs J, Fan B, Noworolski S, Hylton N. Magnetic resonance imaging for secondary assessment of breast density in a high-risk cohort. Magn Reson Imaging. 2010 Jan; 28(1):8-15.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Yeh BM, Shepherd JA, Wang ZJ, Teh HS, Hartman RP, Prevrhal S. Dual-energy and low-kVp CT in the abdomen. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009 Jul; 193(1):47-54.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Cummings SR, Tice JA, Bauer S, Browner WS, Cuzick J, Ziv E, Vogel V, Shepherd J, Vachon C, Smith-Bindman R, Kerlikowske K. Prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: approaches to estimating and reducing risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 Mar 18; 101(6):384-98.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Flegal KM, Shepherd JA, Looker AC, Graubard BI, Borrud LG, Ogden CL, Harris TB, Everhart JE, Schenker N. Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Feb; 89(2):500-8.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Looker AC, Melton LJ, Harris T, Borrud L, Shepherd J, McGowan J. Age, gender, and race/ethnic differences in total body and subregional bone density. Osteoporos Int. 2009 Jul; 20(7):1141-9.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Shepherd JA, Malkov S, Fan B, Laidevant A, Novotny R, Maskarinec G. Breast density assessment in adolescent girls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a feasibility study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jul; 17(7):1709-13.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Shepherd JA, Morgan SL, Lu Y. Comparing BMD results between two similar DXA systems using the generalized least significant change. J Clin Densitom. 2008 Apr-Jun; 11(2):237-42.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Fan B, Lewiecki EM, Sherman M, Lu Y, Miller PD, Genant HK, Shepherd JA. Improved precision with Hologic Apex software. Osteoporos Int. 2008 Nov; 19(11):1597-602.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Prevrhal S, Klifa CS, Shepherd JA, Ries MD, Genant HK. Computer-assisted technique to delineate osteolytic lesions around the femoral component in total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2008 Sep; 23(6):833-8.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Prevrhal S, Shepherd JA, Faulkner KG, Gaither KW, Black DM, Lang TF. Comparison of DXA hip structural analysis with volumetric QCT. J Clin Densitom. 2008 Apr-Jun; 11(2):232-6.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Zemel B, Bass S, Binkley T, Ducher G, Macdonald H, McKay H, Moyer-Mileur L, Shepherd J, Specker B, Ward K, Hans D. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography in children and adolescents: the 2007 ISCD Pediatric Official Positions. J Clin Densitom. 2008 Jan-Mar; 11(1):59-74.
        View in: PubMed
      67. Hans DB, Shepherd JA, Schwartz EN, Reid DM, Blake GM, Fordham JN, Fuerst T, Hadji P, Itabashi A, Krieg MA, Lewiecki EM. Peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the management of osteoporosis: the 2007 ISCD Official Positions. J Clin Densitom. 2008 Jan-Mar; 11(1):188-206.
        View in: PubMed
      68. Blake GM, Shepherd JA. Effect of random BMD measurement errors on diagnostic classification using T-scores. J Clin Densitom. 2007 Oct-Dec; 10(4):415-7; author reply 417-8.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Shepherd JA, Blake GM. T-scores and Z-scores. J Clin Densitom. 2007 Oct-Dec; 10(4):349-50.
        View in: PubMed
      70. Shepherd JA, Lu Y. A generalized least significant change for individuals measured on different DXA systems. J Clin Densitom. 2007 Jul-Sep; 10(3):249-58.
        View in: PubMed
      71. Grady D, Vittinghoff E, Lin F, Hanes V, Ensrud K, Habel LA, Wallace R, Macer J, Cummings SR, Shepherd J. Effect of ultra-low-dose transdermal estradiol on breast density in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2007 May-Jun; 14(3 Pt 1):391-6.
        View in: PubMed
      72. Kalkwarf HJ, Zemel BS, Gilsanz V, Lappe JM, Horlick M, Oberfield S, Mahboubi S, Fan B, Frederick MM, Winer K, Shepherd JA. The bone mineral density in childhood study: bone mineral content and density according to age, sex, and race. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jun; 92(6):2087-99.
        View in: PubMed
      73. Shepherd JA, Fan B, Lu Y, Lewiecki EM, Miller P, Genant HK. Comparison of BMD precision for Prodigy and Delphi spine and femur scans. Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17(9):1303-8.
        View in: PubMed
      74. Shepherd JA, Lu Y, Wilson K, Fuerst T, Genant H, Hangartner TN, Wilson C, Hans D, Leib ES. Cross-calibration and minimum precision standards for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: the 2005 ISCD Official Positions. J Clin Densitom. 2006 Jan-Mar; 9(1):31-6.
        View in: PubMed
      75. Shepherd JA, Herve L, Landau J, Fan B, Kerlikowske K, Cummings SR. Clinical comparison of a novel breast DXA technique to mammographic density. Med Phys. 2006 May; 33(5):1490-8.
        View in: PubMed
      76. Shepherd JA, Meta M, Landau J, Sherrer YS, Goddard DH, Ovalle MI, Rosholm A, Genant HK. Metacarpal index and bone mineral density in healthy African-American women. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Dec; 16(12):1621-6.
        View in: PubMed
      77. Prevrhal S, Lu Y, Genant HK, Toschke JO, Shepherd JA. Towards standardization of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the forearm: a common region of interest (ROI) improves the comparability among DXA devices. Calcif Tissue Int. 2005 May; 76(5):348-54.
        View in: PubMed
      78. Melton LJ, Looker AC, Shepherd JA, O'Connor MK, Achenbach SJ, Riggs BL, Khosla S. Osteoporosis assessment by whole body region vs. site-specific DXA. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Dec; 16(12):1558-64.
        View in: PubMed
      79. Shepherd JA, Herve L, Landau J, Fan B, Kerlikowske K, Cummings SR. Novel use of single X-ray absorptiometry for measuring breast density. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2005 Apr; 4(2):173-82.
        View in: PubMed
      80. Kerlikowske K, Shepherd J, Creasman J, Tice JA, Ziv E, Cummings SR. Are breast density and bone mineral density independent risk factors for breast cancer? J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Mar 2; 97(5):368-74.
        View in: PubMed
      81. Ziv E, Tice J, Smith-Bindman R, Shepherd J, Cummings S, Kerlikowske K. Mammographic density and estrogen receptor status of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Dec; 13(12):2090-5.
        View in: PubMed
      82. Binkley N, Kiebzak GM, Lewiecki EM, Krueger D, Gangnon RE, Miller PD, Shepherd JA, Drezner MK. Recalculation of the NHANES database SD improves T-score agreement and reduces osteoporosis prevalence. J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Feb; 20(2):195-201.
        View in: PubMed
      83. Lewiecki EM, Watts NB, McClung MR, Petak SM, Bachrach LK, Shepherd JA, Downs RW. Official positions of the international society for clinical densitometry. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Aug; 89(8):3651-5.
        View in: PubMed
      84. Ziv E, Shepherd J, Smith-Bindman R, Kerlikowske K. Mammographic breast density and family history of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003 Apr 2; 95(7):556-8.
        View in: PubMed
      85. Prevrhal S, Fox JC, Shepherd JA, Genant HK. Accuracy of CT-based thickness measurement of thin structures: modeling of limited spatial resolution in all three dimensions. Med Phys. 2003 Jan; 30(1):1-8.
        View in: PubMed
      86. Mingin GC, Nguyen HT, Mathias RS, Shepherd JA, Glidden D, Baskin LS. Growth and metabolic consequences of bladder augmentation in children with myelomeningocele and bladder exstrophy. Pediatrics. 2002 Dec; 110(6):1193-8.
        View in: PubMed
      87. Prevrhal S, Shepherd JA, Smith-Bindman R, Cummings SR, Kerlikowske K. Accuracy of mammographic breast density analysis: results of formal operator training. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Nov; 11(11):1389-93.
        View in: PubMed
      88. Grigorian M, Shepherd JA, Cheng XG, Njeh CF, Toschke JO, Genant HK. Does osteoporosis classification using heel BMD agree across manufacturers? Osteoporos Int. 2002 Aug; 13(8):613-7.
        View in: PubMed
      89. Shepherd JA, Kerlikowske KM, Smith-Bindman R, Genant HK, Cummings SR. Measurement of breast density with dual X-ray absorptiometry: feasibility. Radiology. 2002 May; 223(2):554-7.
        View in: PubMed
      90. Shepherd JA, Cheng XG, Lu Y, Njeh C, Toschke J, Engelke K, Grigorian M, Genant HK. Universal standardization of forearm bone densitometry. J Bone Miner Res. 2002 Apr; 17(4):734-45.
        View in: PubMed
      91. Sherman ME, Shepherd J, Frassetto L, Genant HK. Discrepancy in results between spine and hip scans of a woman with end stage renal disease. J Clin Densitom. 2002; 5(1):95-8.
        View in: PubMed
      92. Njeh CF, Chen MB, Fan B, Grigorian M, Shepherd JA, Saeed I, Genant HK. Evaluation of a gel-coupled quantitative ultrasound device for bone status assessment. J Ultrasound Med. 2001 Nov; 20(11):1219-28.
        View in: PubMed
      93. Njeh CF, Saeed I, Grigorian M, Kendler DL, Fan B, Shepherd J, McClung M, Drake WM, Genant HK. Assessment of bone status using speed of sound at multiple anatomical sites. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2001 Oct; 27(10):1337-45.
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