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    Julius Schachter, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentLaboratory Medicine
    Address1001 Potrero Ave, SFGH 30
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-476-2370

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       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. By P, Papp JR, Schachter J, Gaydos CA, Van Der Pol B. Recommendations for the Laboratory-Based Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae - 2014. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2014 Mar 14; 63(RR-02):1-19.
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      2. West SK, Moncada J, Munoz B, Mkocha H, Storey P, Hardick J, Gaydos CA, Quinn TC, Schachter J. Is there evidence for resistance of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis to azithromycin after mass treatment for trachoma control? J Infect Dis. 2014 Jul 1; 210(1):65-71.
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      3. Schachter J. Will droplet digital PCR become the test of choice for detecting and quantifying ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection? Maybe not. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2013 Nov; 13(8):789-92.
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      4. Won H, Ramachandran P, Steece R, Van Der Pol B, Moncada J, Schachter J, Gaydos C. Is there evidence of the new variant Chlamydia trachomatis in the United States? Sex Transm Dis. 2013 May; 40(5):352-3.
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      5. Schachter J. A letter to members of the American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association on Thomas Parran and the Guatemalan Sexually Transmitted Disease Studies: What did he know? What did he do? What do we do? Sex Transm Dis. 2013 Apr; 40(4):283-4.
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      6. Rietmeijer CA, Aral SO, Blanchard JF, Schachter J. New in the Journal: "The Real World of STD Prevention". Sex Transm Dis. 2013 Jan; 40(1):1-2.
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      7. de Walque D, Dow WH, Nathan R, Abdul R, Abilahi F, Gong E, Isdahl Z, Jamison J, Jullu B, Krishnan S, Majura A, Miguel E, Moncada J, Mtenga S, Mwanyangala MA, Packel L, Schachter J, Shirima K, Medlin CA. Incentivising safe sex: a randomised trial of conditional cash transfers for HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention in rural Tanzania. BMJ Open. 2012; 2:e000747.
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      8. Keenan JD, See CW, Moncada J, Ayele B, Gebre T, Stoller NE, McCulloch CE, Porco TC, Gaynor BD, Emerson PM, Schachter J, Lietman TM. Diagnostic characteristics of tests for ocular Chlamydia after mass azithromycin distributions. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jan; 53(1):235-40.
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      9. Schachter J, Chernesky MA. Routine confirmation of positive nucleic acid amplification test results for Neisseria gonorrhoeae is not necessary. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Jan; 50(1):208; author reply 209-10.
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      10. Ayele B, Gebre T, Moncada J, House JI, Stoller NE, Zhou Z, Porco TC, Gaynor BD, Emerson PM, Schachter J, Keenan JD. Risk factors for ocular chlamydia after three mass azithromycin distributions. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Dec; 5(12):e1441.
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      11. Keenan JD, Moncada J, Gebre T, Ayele B, Chen MC, Yu SN, Emerson PM, Stoller NE, McCulloch CE, Gaynor BD, Schachter J. Chlamydial infection during trachoma monitoring: are the most difficult-to-reach children more likely to be infected? Trop Med Int Health. 2012 Mar; 17(3):392-6.
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      12. Keenan JD, Ayele B, Gebre T, Moncada J, Stoller NE, Zhou Z, Porco TC, McCulloch CE, Gaynor BD, Emerson PM, Schachter J, Lietman TM. Ribosomal RNA evidence of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection following 3 annual mass azithromycin distributions in communities with highly prevalent trachoma. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jan 15; 54(2):253-6.
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      13. Schachter J, Philip SS. Testing men who have sex with men for urethral infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is only half the job, and we need the right tools. Sex Transm Dis. 2011 Oct; 38(10):925-7.
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      14. Christerson L, de Vries HJ, de Barbeyrac B, Gaydos CA, Henrich B, Hoffmann S, Schachter J, Thorvaldsen J, Vall-Mayans M, Klint M, Herrmann B, Morré SA. Typing of lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Nov; 16(11):1777-9.
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      15. Biebesheimer JB, House J, Hong KC, Lakew T, Alemayehu W, Zhou Z, Moncada J, Rogér A, Keenan J, Gaynor BD, Schachter J, Lietman TM. Complete local elimination of infectious trachoma from severely affected communities after six biannual mass azithromycin distributions. Ophthalmology. 2009 Nov; 116(11):2047-50.
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      16. Hong KC, Schachter J, Moncada J, Zhou Z, House J, Lietman TM. Lack of macrolide resistance in Chlamydia trachomatis after mass azithromycin distributions for trachoma. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Jul; 15(7):1088-90.
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      17. Moncada J, Schachter J, Liska S, Shayevich C, Klausner JD. Evaluation of self-collected glans and rectal swabs from men who have sex with men for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by use of nucleic acid amplification tests. J Clin Microbiol. 2009 Jun; 47(6):1657-62.
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      18. Schachter J, Bailey R, Dawson CR, Lietman TM. Reports on the prevalence of clinical conditions are more convincing when supported by objective evidence. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008; 2(9):e302.
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      19. Yang JL, Hong KC, Schachter J, Moncada J, Lekew T, House JI, Zhou Z, Neuwelt MD, Rutar T, Halfpenny C, Shah N, Whitcher JP, Lietman TM. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis ocular infection in trachoma-endemic communities by rRNA amplification. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Jan; 50(1):90-4.
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      20. Schachter J, Moncada J, Liska S, Shayevich C, Klausner JD. Nucleic acid amplification tests in the diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal infections of the oropharynx and rectum in men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jul; 35(7):637-42.
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      21. Moncada J, Donegan E, Schachter J. Evaluation of CDC-recommended approaches for confirmatory testing of positive Neisseria gonorrhoeae nucleic acid amplification test results. J Clin Microbiol. 2008 May; 46(5):1614-9.
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      22. Shafer MA, Boyer CB, Pollack LM, Moncada J, Chang YJ, Schachter J. Acquisition of Chlamydia trachomatis by young women during their first year of military service. Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Mar; 35(3):255-9.
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      23. Hobbs MM, van der Pol B, Totten P, Gaydos CA, Wald A, Warren T, Winer RL, Cook RL, Deal CD, Rogers ME, Schachter J, Holmes KK, Martin DH. From the NIH: proceedings of a workshop on the importance of self-obtained vaginal specimens for detection of sexually transmitted infections. Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jan; 35(1):8-13.
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      24. Savaris RF, Teixeira LM, Torres TG, Edelweiss MI, Moncada J, Schachter J. Comparing ceftriaxone plus azithromycin or doxycycline for pelvic inflammatory disease: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jul; 110(1):53-60.
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      25. Geisler WM, Chow JM, Schachter J, McCormack WM. Pelvic examination findings and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in asymptomatic young women screened with a nucleic acid amplification test. Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jun; 34(6):335-8.
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      26. Schachter J. The Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid deletion mutant--what does it mean to us? Sex Transm Dis. 2007 May; 34(5):257.
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      27. Dawson CR, Schachter J. Targeted treatment of active trachoma. JAMA. 2007 Feb 14; 297(6):588-9; author reply 589-90.
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      28. Schachter J, Dawson CR. Prototype misidentification makes conclusions about pathotype growth characteristics uncertain. J Infect Dis. 2007 Jan 15; 195(2):307-8; author reply 308-9.
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      29. Yang JL, Schachter J, Moncada J, Habte D, Zerihun M, House JI, Zhou Z, Hong KC, Maxey K, Gaynor BD, Lietman TM. Comparison of an rRNA-based and DNA-based nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in trachoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007 Mar; 91(3):293-5.
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      30. Donegan EA, Wirawan DN, Muliawan P, Schachter J, Moncada J, Parekh M, Knapp JS. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Bali, Indonesia: 2004. Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Oct; 33(10):625-9.
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      31. Bernstein KT, Chow JM, Ruiz J, Schachter J, Horowitz E, Bunnell R, Bolan G. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among men and women entering California prisons. Am J Public Health. 2006 Oct; 96(10):1862-6.
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      32. Schachter J, Chow JM, Howard H, Bolan G, Moncada J. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by nucleic acid amplification testing: our evaluation suggests that CDC-recommended approaches for confirmatory testing are ill-advised. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Jul; 44(7):2512-7.
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      33. Boyer CB, Shafer MA, Pollack LM, Canchola J, Moncada J, Schachter J. Sociodemographic markers and behavioral correlates of sexually transmitted infections in a nonclinical sample of adolescent and young adult women. J Infect Dis. 2006 Aug 1; 194(3):307-15.
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      34. Schachter J, Chernesky MA, Willis DE, Fine PM, Martin DH, Fuller D, Jordan JA, Janda W, Hook EW. Vaginal swabs are the specimens of choice when screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: results from a multicenter evaluation of the APTIMA assays for both infections. Sex Transm Dis. 2005 Dec; 32(12):725-8.
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      35. Chernesky MA, Hook EW, Martin DH, Lane J, Johnson R, Jordan JA, Fuller D, Willis DE, Fine PM, Janda WM, Schachter J. Women find it easy and prefer to collect their own vaginal swabs to diagnose Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. Sex Transm Dis. 2005 Dec; 32(12):729-33.
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      36. Spaargaren J, Schachter J, Moncada J, de Vries HJ, Fennema HS, Peña AS, Coutinho RA, Morré SA. Slow epidemic of lymphogranuloma venereum L2b strain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Nov; 11(11):1787-8.
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      37. Schachter J, Moncada J. Lymphogranuloma venereum: how to turn an endemic disease into an outbreak of a new disease? Start looking. Sex Transm Dis. 2005 Jun; 32(6):331-2.
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      38. Boyer CB, Shafer MA, Shaffer RA, Brodine SK, Pollack LM, Betsinger K, Chang YJ, Kraft HS, Schachter J. Evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral, group, randomized controlled intervention trial to prevent sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies in young women. Prev Med. 2005 Apr; 40(4):420-31.
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      39. Lindan C, Mathur M, Kumta S, Jerajani H, Gogate A, Schachter J, Moncada J. Utility of pooled urine specimens for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in men attending public sexually transmitted infection clinics in Mumbai, India, by PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Apr; 43(4):1674-7.
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      40. Schachter J, Hook EW, Martin DH, Willis D, Fine P, Fuller D, Jordan J, Janda WM, Chernesky M. Confirming positive results of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for Chlamydia trachomatis: all NAATs are not created equal. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Mar; 43(3):1372-3.
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      41. Marrazzo JM, Johnson RE, Green TA, Stamm WE, Schachter J, Bolan G, Hook EW, Jones RB, Martin DH, St Louis ME, Black CM. Impact of patient characteristics on performance of nucleic acid amplification tests and DNA probe for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with genital infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Feb; 43(2):577-84.
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      42. Kawa DE, Schachter J, Stephens RS. Immune response to the Chlamydia trachomatis outer membrane protein PorB. Vaccine. 2004 Oct 22; 22(31-32):4282-6.
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      43. Martin DH, Nsuami M, Schachter J, Hook EW, Ferrero D, Quinn TC, Gaydos C. Use of multiple nucleic acid amplification tests to define the infected-patient "gold standard" in clinical trials of new diagnostic tests for Chlamydia trachomatis infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Oct; 42(10):4749-58.
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      44. Moncada J, Schachter J, Hook EW, Ferrero D, Gaydos C, Quinn TC, Willis D, Weissfeld A, Martin DH. The effect of urine testing in evaluations of the sensitivity of the Gen-Probe Aptima Combo 2 assay on endocervical swabs for Chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae: the infected patient standard reduces sensitivity of single site evaluation. Sex Transm Dis. 2004 May; 31(5):273-7.
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      45. Donegan E, Moncada J, Chernesky M, Schachter J. Sexually transmitted infection/HIV laboratory testing in resource-limited countries: steps to improve use effective testing and to ensure diagnostic capacity. Sex Transm Dis. 2003 Dec; 30(12):905-8.
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      46. Moncada J, Chow JM, Schachter J. Volume effect on sensitivity of nucleic acid amplification tests for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens from females. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Oct; 41(10):4842-3.
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      47. Shafer MA, Moncada J, Boyer CB, Betsinger K, Flinn SD, Schachter J. Comparing first-void urine specimens, self-collected vaginal swabs, and endocervical specimens to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by a nucleic acid amplification test. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Sep; 41(9):4395-9.
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      48. Schachter J, McCormack WM, Chernesky MA, Martin DH, Van Der Pol B, Rice PA, Hook EW, Stamm WE, Quinn TC, Chow JM. Vaginal swabs are appropriate specimens for diagnosis of genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Aug; 41(8):3784-9.
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      49. Holm SO, Jha HC, Bhatta RC, Chaudhary JS, Thapa BB, Davis D, Pokhrel RP, Yinghui M, Zegans M, Schachter J, Frick KD, Tapert L, Lietman TM. Comparison of two azithromycin distribution strategies for controlling trachoma in Nepal. Bull World Health Organ. 2001; 79(3):194-200.
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      50. Castle PE, Escoffery C, Schachter J, Rattray C, Schiffman M, Moncada J, Sugai K, Brown C, Cranston B, Hanchard B, Palefsky JM, Burk RD, Hutchinson ML, Strickler HD. Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 2, and human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 are not associated with grade of cervical neoplasia in Jamaican colposcopy patients. Sex Transm Dis. 2003 Jul; 30(7):575-80.
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      51. Caldwell HD, Wood H, Crane D, Bailey R, Jones RB, Mabey D, Maclean I, Mohammed Z, Peeling R, Roshick C, Schachter J, Solomon AW, Stamm WE, Suchland RJ, Taylor L, West SK, Quinn TC, Belland RJ, McClarty G. Polymorphisms in Chlamydia trachomatis tryptophan synthase genes differentiate between genital and ocular isolates. J Clin Invest. 2003 Jun; 111(11):1757-69.
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      52. Gaynor BD, Miao Y, Cevallos V, Jha H, Chaudary JS, Bhatta R, Osaki-Holm S, Yi E, Schachter J, Whitcher JP, Lietman T. Eliminating trachoma in areas with limited disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 May; 9(5):596-8.
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      53. Bird M, Dawson CR, Schachter JS, Miao Y, Shama A, Osman A, Bassem A, Lietman TM. Does the diagnosis of trachoma adequately identify ocular chlamydial infection in trachoma-endemic areas? J Infect Dis. 2003 May 15; 187(10):1669-73.
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      54. Thein J, Zhao P, Liu H, Xu J, Jha H, Miao Y, Pizzarello L, Tapert L, Schachter J, Mabon M, Osaki-Holm S, Lietman T, Paxton A. Does clinical diagnosis indicate ocular chlamydial infection in areas with a low prevalence of trachoma? Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2002 Oct; 9(4):263-9.
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      55. Black CM, Marrazzo J, Johnson RE, Hook EW, Jones RB, Green TA, Schachter J, Stamm WE, Bolan G, St Louis ME, Martin DH. Head-to-head multicenter comparison of DNA probe and nucleic acid amplification tests for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women performed with an improved reference standard. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Oct; 40(10):3757-63.
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      56. Schachter J, Dawson CR. Elimination of blinding trachoma. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2002 Oct; 15(5):491-5.
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      57. Chernesky M, Smieja M, Schachter J, Summersgill J, Schindler L, Solomon N, Campbell K, Campbell L, Cappuccio A, Gaydos C, Chong S, Moncada J, Phillips J, Jang D, Wood BJ, Petrich A, Hammerschlag M, Cerney M, Mahony J. Comparison of an industry-derived LCx Chlamydia pneumoniae PCR research kit to in-house assays performed in five laboratories. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Jul; 40(7):2357-62.
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      58. Shafer MA, Boyer CB, Shaffer RA, Schachter J, Ito SI, Brodine SK. Correlates of sexually transmitted diseases in a young male deployed military population. Mil Med. 2002 Jun; 167(6):496-500.
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      59. Serlin M, Shafer MA, Tebb K, Gyamfi AA, Moncada J, Schachter J, Wibbelsman C. What sexually transmitted disease screening method does the adolescent prefer? Adolescents' attitudes toward first-void urine, self-collected vaginal swab, and pelvic examination. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Jun; 156(6):588-91.
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      60. Dawson CR, Schachter J. Should trachoma be treated with antibiotics? Lancet. 2002 Jan 19; 359(9302):184-5.
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      61. Diamant J, Benis R, Schachter J, Moncada J, Pang F, Jha HC, Bhatta RC, Porco T, Lietman T. Pooling of Chlamydia laboratory tests to determine the prevalence of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2001 Jul; 8(2-3):109-17.
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      62. Schachter J. NAATs to diagnose Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection: a promise still unfulfilled. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2001 Jul; 1(2):137-44.
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      63. Boyer CB, Shafer MA, Shaffer RA, Brodine SK, Ito SI, Yniguez DL, Benas DM, Schachter J. Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV in young military men: evaluation of a cognitive-behavioral skills-building intervention. Sex Transm Dis. 2001 Jun; 28(6):349-55.
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      64. Schachter J. My choice: Chlamydia trachomatis in STDs: early days of the modern era. Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Jun; 76 Suppl 1:S16.
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      65. Schachter J, Hook EW, McCormack WM, Quinn TC, Chernesky M, Chong S, Girdner JI, Dixon PB, DeMeo L, Williams E, Cullen A, Lorincz A. Ability of the digene hybrid capture II test to identify Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in cervical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Nov; 37(11):3668-71.
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      66. Schachter J, West SK, Mabey D, Dawson CR, Bobo L, Bailey R, Vitale S, Quinn TC, Sheta A, Sallam S, Mkocha H, Mabey D, Faal H. Azithromycin in control of trachoma. Lancet. 1999 Aug 21; 354(9179):630-5.
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      67. Ellen JM, Lammel CJ, Shafer MA, Teitle E, Schachter J, Stephens RS. Cervical secretory immunoglobulin A in adolescent girls. J Adolesc Health. 1999 Aug; 25(2):150-4.
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      68. Boyer CB, Shafer MA, Teitle E, Wibbelsman CJ, Seeberg D, Schachter J. Sexually transmitted diseases in a health maintenance organization teen clinic: associations of race, partner's age, and marijuana use. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999 Aug; 153(8):838-44.
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      69. Schachter J. Which test is best for chlamydia? Curr Opin Infect Dis. 1999 Feb; 12(1):41-5.
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      70. Shafer MA, Pantell RH, Schachter J. Is the routine pelvic examination needed with the advent of urine-based screening for sexually transmitted diseases? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999 Feb; 153(2):119-25.
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      71. Lietman T, Brooks D, Moncada J, Schachter J, Dawson C, Dean D. Chronic follicular conjunctivitis associated with Chlamydia psittaci or Chlamydia pneumoniae. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Jun; 26(6):1335-40.
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      72. Korn AP, Hessol NA, Padian NS, Bolan GA, Donegan E, Landers DV, Schachter J. Risk factors for plasma cell endometritis among women with cervical Neisseria gonorrhoeae, cervical Chlamydia trachomatis, or bacterial vaginosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 May; 178(5):987-90.
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      73. Schachter J, Jones RB, Butler RC, Rice B, Brooks D, Van der Pol B, Gray M, Moncada J. Evaluation of the Vidas Chlamydia test to detect and verify Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Aug; 35(8):2102-6.
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      74. Dawson CR, Schachter J, Sallam S, Sheta A, Rubinstein RA, Washton H. A comparison of oral azithromycin with topical oxytetracycline/polymyxin for the treatment of trachoma in children. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Mar; 24(3):363-8.
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      75. Schachter J. DFA, EIA, PCR, LCR and other technologies: what tests should be used for diagnosis of chlamydia infections? Immunol Invest. 1997 Jan-Feb; 26(1-2):157-61.
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      76. Jossens MO, Eskenazi B, Schachter J, Sweet RL. Risk factors for pelvic inflammatory disease. A case control study. Sex Transm Dis. 1996 May-Jun; 23(3):239-47.
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      77. Chow JM, Moncada J, Brooks D, Bolan G, Shaw H, Schachter J. Is urine leukocyte esterase test a useful screening method to predict Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women? J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Mar; 34(3):534-6.
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      78. Korn AP, Hessol N, Padian N, Bolan G, Muzsnai D, Donegan E, Jonte J, Schachter J, Landers DV. Commonly used diagnostic criteria for pelvic inflammatory disease have poor sensitivity for plasma cell endometritis. Sex Transm Dis. 1995 Nov-Dec; 22(6):335-41.
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      79. Schachter J, Moncada J, Whidden R, Shaw H, Bolan G, Burczak JD, Lee HH. Noninvasive tests for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection: application of ligase chain reaction to first-catch urine specimens of women. J Infect Dis. 1995 Nov; 172(5):1411-4.
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      80. Dean D, Oudens E, Bolan G, Padian N, Schachter J. Major outer membrane protein variants of Chlamydia trachomatis are associated with severe upper genital tract infections and histopathology in San Francisco. J Infect Dis. 1995 Oct; 172(4):1013-22.
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      81. Chiappino ML, Dawson C, Schachter J, Nichols BA. Cytochemical localization of glycogen in Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions. J Bacteriol. 1995 Sep; 177(18):5358-63.
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      82. Schachter J, Chow JM. The fallibility of diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted diseases: the impact of behavioral and epidemiologic studies. Sex Transm Dis. 1995 May-Jun; 22(3):191-6.
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      83. Dean D, Shama A, Schachter J, Dawson CR. Molecular identification of an avian strain of Chlamydia psittaci causing severe keratoconjunctivitis in a bird fancier. Clin Infect Dis. 1995 May; 20(5):1179-85.
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      84. Korn AP, Bolan G, Padian N, Ohm-Smith M, Schachter J, Landers DV. Plasma cell endometritis in women with symptomatic bacterial vaginosis. Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Mar; 85(3):387-90.
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      85. Schachter J, Stamm WE, Quinn TC, Andrews WW, Burczak JD, Lee HH. Ligase chain reaction to detect Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the cervix. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Oct; 32(10):2540-3.
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      86. Jossens MO, Schachter J, Sweet RL. Risk factors associated with pelvic inflammatory disease of differing microbial etiologies. Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Jun; 83(6):989-97.
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      87. Moncada J, Schachter J, Shafer MA, Williams E, Gourlay L, Lavin B, Bolan G. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in first catch urine samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic males. Sex Transm Dis. 1994 Jan-Feb; 21(1):8-12.
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      88. Schachter J, Wyrick PB. Culture and isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods Enzymol. 1994; 236:377-90.
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      89. Shafer MA, Schachter J, Moncada J, Keogh J, Pantell R, Gourlay L, Eyre S, Boyer CB. Evaluation of urine-based screening strategies to detect Chlamydia trachomatis among sexually active asymptomatic young males. JAMA. 1993 Nov 3; 270(17):2065-70.
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      90. Shafer MA, Hilton JF, Ekstrand M, Keogh J, Gee L, DiGiorgio-Haag L, Shalwitz J, Schachter J. Relationship between drug use and sexual behaviors and the occurrence of sexually transmitted diseases among high-risk male youth. Sex Transm Dis. 1993 Nov-Dec; 20(6):307-13.
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      91. Zhao Q, Schachter J, Stephens RS. Lack of allelic polymorphism for the major outer membrane protein gene of the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (Chlamydia psittaci). Infect Immun. 1993 Jul; 61(7):3078-80.
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      92. Landers DV, Sung ML, Bottles K, Schachter J. Does addition of anti-inflammatory agents to antimicrobial therapy reduce infertility after murine chlamydial salpingitis? Sex Transm Dis. 1993 May-Jun; 20(3):121-5.
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      93. Moncada J, Schachter J, Bolan G, Nathan J, Shafer MA, Clark A, Schwebke J, Stamm W, Mroczkowski T, Seliborska Z, et al. Evaluation of Syva's enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1992 Nov-Dec; 15(8):663-8.
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      94. Jones HM, Schachter J, Stephens RS. Evaluation of the humoral immune response in trachoma to Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane proteins by sequence-defined immunoassay. J Infect Dis. 1992 Oct; 166(4):915-9.
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      95. Dean D, Schachter J, Dawson CR, Stephens RS. Comparison of the major outer membrane protein variant sequence regions of B/Ba isolates: a molecular epidemiologic approach to Chlamydia trachomatis infections. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug; 166(2):383-92.
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      96. Safrin S, Schachter J, Dahrouge D, Sweet RL. Long-term sequelae of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. A retrospective cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Apr; 166(4):1300-5.
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      97. Landers DV, Erlich K, Sung M, Schachter J. Role of L3T4-bearing T-cell populations in experimental murine chlamydial salpingitis. Infect Immun. 1991 Oct; 59(10):3774-7.
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      98. Courtright P, Sheppard J, Lane S, Sadek A, Schachter J, Dawson CR. Latrine ownership as a protective factor in inflammatory trachoma in Egypt. Br J Ophthalmol. 1991 Jun; 75(6):322-5.
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      99. Walker CK, Landers DV, Ohm-Smith MJ, Robbie MO, Luft J, Schachter J, Sweet RL. Comparison of cefotetan plus doxycycline with cefoxitin plus doxycycline in the inpatient treatment of acute salpingitis. Sex Transm Dis. 1991 Apr-Jun; 18(2):119-23.
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      100. Landers DV, Wolner-Hanssen P, Paavonen J, Thorpe E, Kiviat N, Ohm-Smith M, Green JR, Schachter J, Holmes KK, Eschenbach DA, et al. Combination antimicrobial therapy in the treatment of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Mar; 164(3):849-58.
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      101. Schachter J. Evaluation of diagnostic tests. Ups J Med Sci Suppl. 1991; 50:24-5.
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      102. Schachter J. Chlamydial infections. West J Med. 1990 Nov; 153(5):523-34.
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      103. Wagar EA, Schachter J, Bavoil P, Stephens RS. Differential human serologic response to two 60,000 molecular weight Chlamydia trachomatis antigens. J Infect Dis. 1990 Oct; 162(4):922-7.
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      104. Moncada J, Schachter J, Bolan G, Engelman J, Howard L, Mushahwar I, Ridgway G, Mumtaz G, Stamm W, Clark A. Confirmatory assay increases specificity of the chlamydiazyme test for Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the cervix. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Aug; 28(8):1770-3.
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      105. Pham RT, Sung M, Dawson CR, Schachter J. Chlamydial infection of subcutaneous conjunctival transplants in guinea pigs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1990 Jul; 31(7):1367-73.
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      106. Crombleholme WR, Schachter J, Grossman M, Landers DV, Sweet RL. Amoxicillin therapy for Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1990 May; 75(5):752-6.
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      107. Schachter J, Dawson CR. The epidemiology of trachoma predicts more blindness in the future. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1990; 69:55-62.
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      108. Schachter J, Moncada JV. In vitro activity of ofloxacin against Chlamydia trachomatis. Am J Med. 1989 Dec 29; 87(6C):14S-16S.
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      109. Schachter J. Chlamydial infections--past, present, future. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1989 Dec 1; 195(11):1501-6.
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      110. Crombleholme WR, Schachter J, Ohm-Smith M, Luft J, Whidden R, Sweet RL. Efficacy of single-agent therapy for the treatment of acute pelvic inflammatory disease with ciprofloxacin. Am J Med. 1989 Nov 30; 87(5A):142S-147S.
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      111. Shafer MA, Schachter J, Moscicki AB, Weiss A, Shalwitz J, Vaughan E, Millstein SG. Urinary leukocyte esterase screening test for asymptomatic chlamydial and gonococcal infections in males. JAMA. 1989 Nov 10; 262(18):2562-6.
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      112. Moscicki AB, Winkler B, Irwin CE, Schachter J. Differences in biologic maturation, sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted disease between adolescents with and without cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. J Pediatr. 1989 Sep; 115(3):487-93.
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      113. Moncada J, Schachter J, Shipp M, Bolan G, Wilber J. Cytobrush in collection of cervical specimens for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Aug; 27(8):1863-6.
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      114. Courtright P, Sheppard J, Schachter J, Said ME, Dawson CR. Trachoma and blindness in the Nile Delta: current patterns and projections for the future in the rural Egyptian population. Br J Ophthalmol. 1989 Jul; 73(7):536-40.
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      115. Schachter J. Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infections. J Chemother. 1989 Jul; 1(4 Suppl):899-901.
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      116. Schachter J. Pathogenesis of chlamydial infections. Pathol Immunopathol Res. 1989; 8(3-4):206-20.
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      117. Sweet RL, Landers DV, Schachter J, Crombleholme WR. Sulbactam/ampicillin in the treatment of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Suppl Int J Gynecol Obstet. 1989; 2:13-9; discussion 47-8.
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      118. Schachter J, Moncada J, Dawson CR, Sheppard J, Courtright P, Said ME, Zaki S, Hafez SF, Lorincz A. Nonculture methods for diagnosing chlamydial infection in patients with trachoma: a clue to the pathogenesis of the disease? J Infect Dis. 1988 Dec; 158(6):1347-52.
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      119. Dattel BJ, Landers DV, Coulter K, Hinton J, Sweet RL, Schachter J. Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from sexually abused female adolescents. Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Aug; 72(2):240-2.
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      120. Sweet RL, Schachter J, Landers DV, Ohm-Smith M, Robbie MO. Treatment of hospitalized patients with acute pelvic inflammatory disease: comparison of cefotetan plus doxycycline and cefoxitin plus doxycycline. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Mar; 158(3 Pt 2):736-41.
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      121. Schachter J, Martin DH. Failure of multiple passages to increase chlamydial recovery. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Oct; 25(10):1851-3.
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      122. Schachter J. Laboratory aspects of chlamydial infections. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1987; 224:73-7.
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      123. Banks J, Eddie B, Sung M, Sugg N, Schachter J, Meyer KF. Plaque reduction technique for demonstrating neutralizing antibodies for Chlamydia. Infect Immun. 1970 Oct; 2(4):443-7.
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      124. Oh JO, Ostler HB, Schachter J. Protective effect of a synthetic polynucleotide complex (poly I: C) on ocular lesions produced by trachoma agent in rabbits. Infect Immun. 1970 Jun; 1(6):566-73.
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      125. Banks J, Eddie B, Schachter J, Meyer KF. Plaque formation by Chlamydia in L cells. Infect Immun. 1970 Mar; 1(3):259-62.
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