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    Matthew Lavail, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentAnatomy
    Address10 Koret Way
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-476-4233
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      The focus of our laboratory is photoreceptor degeneration, the cause of blinding diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, which affects approximately 1:3, 500 people worldwide, and age-related macular degeneration, which affects vision in the elderly in as many as 1:3 by the age of 75. Virtually no widely accepted forms of therapy exist for these diseases. We have been involved in several lines of research aimed at modulating the rate of photoreceptor degeneration by both genetic and environmental means; to develop mutant rhodopsin transgenic rat models with which to study various forms of therapy; to study the efficacy of neurotrophic factors in slowing the progression of degeneration; to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of injury-induced protection; to develop gene-based delivery of neurotrophic factors; and to develop gene-based ribozyme therapy for the treatment of dominantly inherited disorders. Much of our current research stems from our original observation that bFGF can slow photoreceptor degeneration in RCS rats with inherited retinal dystrophy, the first such pharmaceutical effect in retinal degenerations, and that various growth factors, neurotrophins and cytokines, can protect photoreceptors from cell death due to excessive light. Most recently, we have been studying the role of the Unfolded Protein Response in inherited and environmentally induced retinal degenerations.


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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Stiles M, Qi H, Sun E, Tan J, Porter H, Allegood J, Chalfant CE, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, LaVail MM, Mandal NA. Sphingolipid profile alters in retinal dystrophic P23H-1 rats and systemic FTY720 can delay retinal degeneration. J Lipid Res. 2016 May; 57(5):818-31. PMID: 26947037.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Ghazi NG, Abboud EB, Nowilaty SR, Alkuraya H, Alhommadi A, Cai H, Hou R, Deng WT, Boye SL, Almaghamsi A, Al Saikhan F, Al-Dhibi H, Birch D, Chung C, Colak D, LaVail MM, Vollrath D, Erger K, Wang W, Conlon T, Zhang K, Hauswirth W, Alkuraya FS. Treatment of retinitis pigmentosa due to MERTK mutations by ocular subretinal injection of adeno-associated virus gene vector: results of a phase I trial. Hum Genet. 2016 Mar; 135(3):327-43. PMID: 26825853.
        View in: PubMed
      3. LaVail MM, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Yang H, Hauswirth WW, Deng WT, Vollrath D. Gene Therapy for MERTK-Associated Retinal Degenerations. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016; 854:487-93. PMID: 26427450.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Chiang WC, Joseph V, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Lewin AS, Gorbatyuk MS, Ahern K, LaVail MM, Lin JH. Ablation of Chop Transiently Enhances Photoreceptor Survival but Does Not Prevent Retinal Degeneration in Transgenic Mice Expressing Human P23H Rhodopsin. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016; 854:185-91. PMID: 26427410.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Vollrath D, Yasumura D, Benchorin G, Matthes MT, Feng W, Nguyen NM, Sedano CD, Calton MA, LaVail MM. Tyro3 Modulates Mertk-Associated Retinal Degeneration. PLoS Genet. 2015 Dec; 11(12):e1005723. PMID: 26656104.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Murray SF, Jazayeri A, Matthes MT, Yasumura D, Yang H, Peralta R, Watt A, Freier S, Hung G, Adamson PS, Guo S, Monia BP, LaVail MM, McCaleb ML. Allele-Specific Inhibition of Rhodopsin With an Antisense Oligonucleotide Slows Photoreceptor Cell Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Oct 1; 56(11):6362-75. PMID: 26436889.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Alavi MV, Chiang WC, Kroeger H, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Iwawaki T, LaVail MM, Gould DB, Lin JH. In Vivo Visualization of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Retina Using the ERAI Reporter Mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Oct 1; 56(11):6961-70. PMID: 26513501; PMCID: PMC4627472 [Available on 04/01/16].
      8. Orhan E, Dalkara D, Neuillé M, Lechauve C, Michiels C, Picaud S, Léveillard T, Sahel JA, Naash MI, Lavail MM, Zeitz C, Audo I. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of P23H line 1 rat model. PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0127319. PMID: 26009893; PMCID: PMC4444340.
      9. Chiang WC, Kroeger H, Sakami S, Messah C, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Coppinger JA, Palczewski K, LaVail MM, Lin JH. Robust Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation of Rhodopsin Precedes Retinal Degeneration. Mol Neurobiol. 2015 Aug; 52(1):679-95. PMID: 25270370; PMCID: PMC4383737 [Available on 08/01/16].
      10. Hiramatsu N, Messah C, Han J, LaVail MM, Kaufman RJ, Lin JH. Translational and posttranslational regulation of XIAP by eIF2a and ATF4 promotes ER stress-induced cell death during the unfolded protein response. Mol Biol Cell. 2014 May; 25(9):1411-20. PMID: 24623724; PMCID: PMC4004591.
      11. Kroeger H, LaVail MM, Lin JH. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in vertebrate mutant rhodopsin models of retinal degeneration. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 801:585-92. PMID: 24664747; PMCID: PMC4103620.
      12. Delwig A, Majumdar S, Ahern K, LaVail MM, Edwards R, Hnasko TS, Copenhagen DR. Glutamatergic neurotransmission from melanopsin retinal ganglion cells is required for neonatal photoaversion but not adult pupillary light reflex. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83974. PMID: 24391855; PMCID: PMC3877098.
      13. Li M, Yasumura D, Ma AA, Matthes MT, Yang H, Nielson G, Huang Y, Szoka FC, Lavail MM, Diamond MI. Intravitreal administration of HA-1077, a ROCK inhibitor, improves retinal function in a mouse model of huntington disease. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e56026. PMID: 23409115; PMCID: PMC3569418.
      14. Kroeger H, Messah C, Ahern K, Gee J, Joseph V, Matthes MT, Yasumura D, Gorbatyuk MS, Chiang WC, LaVail MM, Lin JH. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress genes, BiP and chop, in genetic and environmental models of retinal degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Nov; 53(12):7590-9. PMID: 23074209; PMCID: PMC3495601.
      15. McGill TJ, Prusky GT, Luna G, LaVail MM, Fisher SK, Lewis GP. Optomotor and immunohistochemical changes in the juvenile S334ter rat. Exp Eye Res. 2012 Nov; 104:65-73. PMID: 23036564; PMCID: PMC3509745.
      16. McGill TJ, Prusky GT, Douglas RM, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Lowe RJ, Duncan JL, Yang H, Ahern K, Daniello KM, Silver B, LaVail MM. Discordant anatomical, electrophysiological, and visual behavioral profiles of retinal degeneration in rat models of retinal degenerative disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012; 53(10):6232-44. PMID: 22899760; PMCID: PMC3444210.
      17. Deng WT, Dinculescu A, Li Q, Boye SL, Li J, Gorbatyuk MS, Pang J, Chiodo VA, Matthes MT, Yasumura D, Liu L, Alkuraya FS, Zhang K, Vollrath D, LaVail MM, Hauswirth WW. Tyrosine-mutant AAV8 delivery of human MERTK provides long-term retinal preservation in RCS rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Apr; 53(4):1895-904. PMID: 22408006; PMCID: PMC3995567.
      18. Shinde VM, Sizova OS, Lin JH, LaVail MM, Gorbatyuk MS. ER stress in retinal degeneration in S334ter Rho rats. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e33266. PMID: 22432009; PMCID: PMC3303830.
      19. Roddy GW, Rosa RH, Oh JY, Ylostalo JH, Bartosh TJ, Choi H, Lee RH, Yasumura D, Ahern K, Nielsen G, Matthes MT, LaVail MM, Prockop DJ. Stanniocalcin-1 rescued photoreceptor degeneration in two rat models of inherited retinal degeneration. Mol Ther. 2012 Apr; 20(4):788-97. PMID: 22294148; PMCID: PMC3321604.
      20. Wen R, Tao W, Luo L, Huang D, Kauper K, Stabila P, LaVail MM, Laties AM, Li Y. Regeneration of cone outer segments induced by CNTF. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012; 723:93-9. PMID: 22183320; PMCID: PMC3552642.
      21. Petrs-Silva H, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, LaVail MM, Lewin AS, Hauswirth WW. Suppression of rds expression by siRNA and gene replacement strategies for gene therapy using rAAV vector. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012; 723:215-23. PMID: 22183336; PMCID: PMC3556273.
      22. Gorbatyuk MS, Gorbatyuk OS, LaVail MM, Lin JH, Hauswirth WW, Lewin AS. Functional rescue of P23H rhodopsin photoreceptors by gene delivery. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012; 723:191-7. PMID: 22183333; PMCID: PMC3365920.
      23. Chen H, Tran JT, Brush RS, Saadi A, Rahman AK, Yu M, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Ahern K, Yang H, LaVail MM, Mandal MN. Ceramide signaling in retinal degeneration. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012; 723:553-8. PMID: 22183377; PMCID: PMC3552639.
      24. Maddox DM, Hicks WL, Vollrath D, LaVail MM, Naggert JK, Nishina PM. An ENU-induced mutation in the Mertk gene (Mertknmf12) leads to a slow form of retinal degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jun; 52(7):4703-9. PMID: 21436282; PMCID: PMC3175976.
      25. Zhao C, Yasumura D, Li X, Matthes M, Lloyd M, Nielsen G, Ahern K, Snyder M, Bok D, Dunaief JL, LaVail MM, Vollrath D. mTOR-mediated dedifferentiation of the retinal pigment epithelium initiates photoreceptor degeneration in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011 Jan; 121(1):369-83. PMID: 21135502; PMCID: PMC3007156.
      26. Ogando DG, Dahlquist KD, Alizadeh M, Kunchithapautham K, Li J, Yu N, LaVail MM, Rohrer B, Vollrath D, Danciger M. Candidate genes for chromosomes 6 and 10 quantitative trait loci for age-related retinal degeneration in mice. Mol Vis. 2010; 16:1004-18. PMID: 20577653; PMCID: PMC2890552.
      27. Gorbatyuk MS, Knox T, LaVail MM, Gorbatyuk OS, Noorwez SM, Hauswirth WW, Lin JH, Muzyczka N, Lewin AS. Restoration of visual function in P23H rhodopsin transgenic rats by gene delivery of BiP/Grp78. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Mar 30; 107(13):5961-6. PMID: 20231467; PMCID: PMC2851865.
      28. Li Y, Tao W, Luo L, Huang D, Kauper K, Stabila P, Lavail MM, Laties AM, Wen R. CNTF induces regeneration of cone outer segments in a rat model of retinal degeneration. PLoS One. 2010; 5(3):e9495. PMID: 20209167; PMCID: PMC2830484.
      29. Duncan JL, LaVail MM. Intense cyclic light-induced retinal degeneration in rats. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010 Feb; 128(2):244-5. PMID: 20142550.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Lin JH, Lavail MM. Misfolded proteins and retinal dystrophies. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010; 664:115-21. PMID: 20238009; PMCID: PMC2955894.
      31. Liu X, Robinson ML, Schreiber AM, Wu V, Lavail MM, Cang J, Copenhagen DR. Regulation of neonatal development of retinal ganglion cell dendrites by neurotrophin-3 overexpression. J Comp Neurol. 2009 Jun 10; 514(5):449-58. PMID: 19350645; PMCID: PMC2691146.
      32. Duncan KG, Hosseini K, Bailey KR, Yang H, Lowe RJ, Matthes MT, Kane JP, LaVail MM, Schwartz DM, Duncan JL. Expression of reverse cholesterol transport proteins ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009 Aug; 93(8):1116-20. PMID: 19304587; PMCID: PMC3541028.
      33. Lavail MM, Nishikawa S, Duncan JL, Yang H, Matthes MT, Yasumura D, Vollrath D, Overbeek PA, Ash JD, Robinson ML. Sustained delivery of NT-3 from lens fiber cells in transgenic mice reveals specificity of neuroprotection in retinal degenerations. J Comp Neurol. 2008 Dec 20; 511(6):724-35. PMID: 18925574; PMCID: PMC2702994.
      34. Pennesi ME, Nishikawa S, Matthes MT, Yasumura D, LaVail MM. The relationship of photoreceptor degeneration to retinal vascular development and loss in mutant rhodopsin transgenic and RCS rats. Exp Eye Res. 2008 Dec; 87(6):561-70. PMID: 18848932; PMCID: PMC3541029.
      35. Grishanin RN, Yang H, Liu X, Donohue-Rolfe K, Nune GC, Zang K, Xu B, Duncan JL, Lavail MM, Copenhagen DR, Reichardt LF. Retinal TrkB receptors regulate neural development in the inner, but not outer, retina. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008 Jul; 38(3):431-43. PMID: 18511296; PMCID: PMC2849660.
      36. Danciger M, Ogando D, Yang H, Matthes MT, Yu N, Ahern K, Yasumura D, Williams RW, Lavail MM. Genetic modifiers of retinal degeneration in the rd3 mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Jul; 49(7):2863-9. PMID: 18344445; PMCID: PMC2574750.
      37. McGill TJ, Prusky GT, Douglas RM, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Nune G, Donohue-Rolfe K, Yang H, Niculescu D, Hauswirth WW, Girman SV, Lund RD, Duncan JL, LaVail MM. Intraocular CNTF reduces vision in normal rats in a dose-dependent manner. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Dec; 48(12):5756-66. PMID: 18055829.
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      38. Lin JH, Li H, Yasumura D, Cohen HR, Zhang C, Panning B, Shokat KM, Lavail MM, Walter P. IRE1 signaling affects cell fate during the unfolded protein response. Science. 2007 Nov 9; 318(5852):944-9. PMID: 17991856; PMCID: PMC3670588.
      39. Paskowitz DM, Greenberg KP, Yasumura D, Grimm D, Yang H, Duncan JL, Kay MA, Lavail MM, Flannery JG, Vollrath D. Rapid and stable knockdown of an endogenous gene in retinal pigment epithelium. Hum Gene Ther. 2007 Oct; 18(10):871-80. PMID: 17892416.
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      40. Johnson J, Fremeau RT, Duncan JL, Rentería RC, Yang H, Hua Z, Liu X, LaVail MM, Edwards RH, Copenhagen DR. Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 is required for photoreceptor synaptic signaling but not for intrinsic visual functions. J Neurosci. 2007 Jul 4; 27(27):7245-55. PMID: 17611277; PMCID: PMC2443709.
      41. Rhee KD, Ruiz A, Duncan JL, Hauswirth WW, Lavail MM, Bok D, Yang XJ. Molecular and cellular alterations induced by sustained expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Mar; 48(3):1389-400. PMID: 17325188.
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      42. Smit-McBride Z, Oltjen SL, Lavail MM, Hjelmeland LM. A strong genetic determinant of hyperoxia-related retinal degeneration on mouse chromosome 6. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jan; 48(1):405-11. PMID: 17197561.
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      43. Paskowitz DM, Donohue-Rolfe KM, Yang H, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Hosseini K, Graybeal CM, Nune G, Zarbin MA, Lavail MM, Duncan JL. Neurotrophic factors minimize the retinal toxicity of verteporfin photodynamic therapy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jan; 48(1):430-7. PMID: 17197564.
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      44. Paskowitz DM, LaVail MM, Duncan JL. Light and inherited retinal degeneration. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006 Aug; 90(8):1060-6. PMID: 16707518; PMCID: PMC1857196.
      45. Duncan JL, Paskowitz DM, Nune GC, Yasumura D, Yang H, Matthes MT, Zarbin MA, LaVail MM. Retinal damage caused by photodynamic therapy can be reduced using BDNF. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006; 572:297-302. PMID: 17249587.
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      46. Lavail MM. Survival factors for treatment of retinal degenerative disorders: preclinical gains and issues for translation into clinical studies. Retina. 2005 Dec; 25(8 Suppl):S25-S26. PMID: 16374321.
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      47. Danciger M, Yang H, Handschumacher L, LaVail MM. Constant light-induced retinal damage and the RPE65-MET450 variant: assessment of the NZW/LacJ mouse. Mol Vis. 2005; 11:374-9. PMID: 15947737.
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      48. Paskowitz DM, Nune G, Yasumura D, Yang H, Bhisitkul RB, Sharma S, Matthes MT, Zarbin MA, Lavail MM, Duncan JL. BDNF reduces the retinal toxicity of verteporfin photodynamic therapy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004 Nov; 45(11):4190-6. PMID: 15505074.
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      49. Rapaport DH, Wong LL, Wood ED, Yasumura D, LaVail MM. Timing and topography of cell genesis in the rat retina. J Comp Neurol. 2004 Jun 21; 474(2):304-24. PMID: 15164429.
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      50. Hauswirth WW, Li Q, Raisler B, Timmers AM, Berns KI, Flannery JG, LaVail MM, Lewin AS. Range of retinal diseases potentially treatable by AAV-vectored gene therapy. Novartis Found Symp. 2004; 255:179-88; discussion 188-94. PMID: 14750604.
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      51. Jones BW, Watt CB, Frederick JM, Baehr W, Chen CK, Levine EM, Milam AH, Lavail MM, Marc RE. Retinal remodeling triggered by photoreceptor degenerations. J Comp Neurol. 2003 Sep 8; 464(1):1-16. PMID: 12866125.
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      52. Ranchon I, LaVail MM, Kotake Y, Anderson RE. Free radical trap phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone protects against light damage but does not rescue P23H and S334ter rhodopsin transgenic rats from inherited retinal degeneration. J Neurosci. 2003 Jul 9; 23(14):6050-7. PMID: 12853423.
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      53. Danciger M, Lyon J, Worrill D, LaVail MM, Yang H. A strong and highly significant QTL on chromosome 6 that protects the mouse from age-related retinal degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Jun; 44(6):2442-9. PMID: 12766041.
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      54. Duncan JL, LaVail MM, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Yang H, Trautmann N, Chappelow AV, Feng W, Earp HS, Matsushima GK, Vollrath D. An RCS-like retinal dystrophy phenotype in mer knockout mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Feb; 44(2):826-38. PMID: 12556419.
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      55. Lee D, Geller S, Walsh N, Valter K, Yasumura D, Matthes M, LaVail M, Stone J. Photoreceptor degeneration in Pro23His and S334ter transgenic rats. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003; 533:297-302. PMID: 15180276.
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      56. Duncan JL, Yang H, Vollrath D, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Trautmann N, Chappelow AV, Feng W, Earp HS, Matsushima GK, LaVail MM. Inherited retinal dystrophy in Mer knockout mice. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003; 533:165-72. PMID: 15180261.
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      57. Anderson RE, Maude MB, McClellan M, Matthes MT, Yasumura D, LaVail MM. Low docosahexaenoic acid levels in rod outer segments of rats with P23H and S334ter rhodopsin mutations. Mol Vis. 2002 Sep 23; 8:351-8. PMID: 12355064.
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      58. Bok D, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Ruiz A, Duncan JL, Chappelow AV, Zolutukhin S, Hauswirth W, LaVail MM. Effects of adeno-associated virus-vectored ciliary neurotrophic factor on retinal structure and function in mice with a P216L rds/peripherin mutation. Exp Eye Res. 2002 Jun; 74(6):719-35. PMID: 12126945.
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      59. Feng W, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, LaVail MM, Vollrath D. Mertk triggers uptake of photoreceptor outer segments during phagocytosis by cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2002 May 10; 277(19):17016-22. PMID: 11861639.
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      60. Rohrer B, LaVail MM, Jones KR, Reichardt LF. Neurotrophin receptor TrkB activation is not required for the postnatal survival of retinal ganglion cells in vivo. Exp Neurol. 2001 Nov; 172(1):81-91. PMID: 11681842.
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      61. LaVail MM. Legacy of the RCS rat: impact of a seminal study on retinal cell biology and retinal degenerative diseases. Prog Brain Res. 2001; 131:617-27. PMID: 11420975.
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      62. LaVail MM, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Drenser KA, Flannery JG, Lewin AS, Hauswirth WW. Ribozyme rescue of photoreceptor cells in P23H transgenic rats: long-term survival and late-stage therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Oct 10; 97(21):11488-93. PMID: 11005848; PMCID: PMC17227.
      63. Rohrer B, Korenbrot JI, LaVail MM, Reichardt LF, Xu B. Role of neurotrophin receptor TrkB in the maturation of rod photoreceptors and establishment of synaptic transmission to the inner retina. J Neurosci. 1999 Oct 15; 19(20):8919-30. PMID: 10516311; PMCID: PMC2757409.
      64. LaVail MM, Gorrin GM, Yasumura D, Matthes MT. Increased susceptibility to constant light in nr and pcd mice with inherited retinal degenerations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Apr; 40(5):1020-4. PMID: 10102304.
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      65. Nishikawa S, LaVail MM. Neovascularization of the RPE: temporal differences in mice with rod photoreceptor gene defects. Exp Eye Res. 1998 Nov; 67(5):509-15. PMID: 9878212.
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      66. Cao W, Li F, Steinberg RH, LaVail MM. Induction of c-fos and c-jun mRNA expression by basic fibroblast growth factor in cultured rat Müller cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998 Mar; 39(3):565-73. PMID: 9501868.
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      67. LaVail MM, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Lau-Villacorta C, Unoki K, Sung CH, Steinberg RH. Protection of mouse photoreceptors by survival factors in retinal degenerations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998 Mar; 39(3):592-602. PMID: 9501871.
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      68. Cheng T, Cao W, Wen R, Steinberg RH, LaVail MM. Prostaglandin E2 induces vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor mRNA expression in cultured rat Müller cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998 Mar; 39(3):581-91. PMID: 9501870.
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      69. Cao W, Wen R, Li F, Lavail MM, Steinberg RH. Mechanical injury increases bFGF and CNTF mRNA expression in the mouse retina. Exp Eye Res. 1997 Aug; 65(2):241-8. PMID: 9268592.
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      70. LaVail MM, Matthes MT, Yasumura D, Steinberg RH. Variability in rate of cone degeneration in the retinal degeneration (rd/rd) mouse. Exp Eye Res. 1997 Jul; 65(1):45-50. PMID: 9237863.
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      71. Padgett LC, Lui GM, Werb Z, LaVail MM. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in the retinal pigment epithelium and interphotoreceptor matrix: vectorial secretion and regulation. Exp Eye Res. 1997 Jun; 64(6):927-38. PMID: 9301473.
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      72. Wen R, Song Y, Cheng T, Matthes MT, Yasumura D, LaVail MM, Steinberg RH. Injury-induced upregulation of bFGF and CNTF mRNAS in the rat retina. J Neurosci. 1995 Nov; 15(11):7377-85. PMID: 7472491.
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      73. Unoki K, LaVail MM. Protection of the rat retina from ischemic injury by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Mar; 35(3):907-15. PMID: 8125754.
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      74. White MP, Gorrin GM, Mullen RJ, LaVail MM. Retinal degeneration in the nervous mutant mouse. II. Electron microscopic analysis. J Comp Neurol. 1993 Jul 8; 333(2):182-98. PMID: 8345102.
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      75. LaVail MM, White MP, Gorrin GM, Yasumura D, Porrello KV, Mullen RJ. Retinal degeneration in the nervous mutant mouse. I. Light microscopic cytopathology and changes in the interphotoreceptor matrix. J Comp Neurol. 1993 Jul 8; 333(2):168-81. PMID: 7688384.
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      76. LaVail MM, Unoki K, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Yancopoulos GD, Steinberg RH. Multiple growth factors, cytokines, and neurotrophins rescue photoreceptors from the damaging effects of constant light. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Dec 1; 89(23):11249-53. PMID: 1454803; PMCID: PMC50527.
      77. Lavail MM, Li L, Turner JE, Yasumura D. Retinal pigment epithelial cell transplantation in RCS rats: normal metabolism in rescued photoreceptors. Exp Eye Res. 1992 Oct; 55(4):555-62. PMID: 1483502.
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      78. Connolly SE, Hjelmeland LM, LaVail MM. Immunohistochemical localization of basic fibroblast growth factor in mature and developing retinas of normal and RCS rats. Curr Eye Res. 1992 Oct; 11(10):1005-17. PMID: 1451525.
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      79. Faktorovich EG, Steinberg RH, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, LaVail MM. Basic fibroblast growth factor and local injury protect photoreceptors from light damage in the rat. J Neurosci. 1992 Sep; 12(9):3554-67. PMID: 1527595.
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      80. Uehara F, Yasumura D, LaVail MM. Development of light-evoked changes of the interphotoreceptor matrix in normal and RCS rats with inherited retinal dystrophy. Exp Eye Res. 1991 Jul; 53(1):55-60. PMID: 1879502.
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      81. Uehara F, Yasumura D, LaVail MM. Rod- and cone-associated interphotoreceptor matrix in the rat retina. Differences in light-evoked distributional changes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1991 Feb; 32(2):285-92. PMID: 1993579.
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      82. LaVail MM, Faktorovich EG, Hepler JM, Pearson KL, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, Steinberg RH. Basic fibroblast growth factor protects photoreceptors from light-induced degeneration in albino rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1991; 638:341-7. PMID: 1785811.
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      83. Faktorovich EG, Steinberg RH, Yasumura D, Matthes MT, LaVail MM. Photoreceptor degeneration in inherited retinal dystrophy delayed by basic fibroblast growth factor. Nature. 1990 Sep 6; 347(6288):83-6. PMID: 2168521.
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      84. Uehara F, Yasumura D, LaVail MM. Lectin binding of the interphotoreceptor matrix during retinal development in normal and RCS rats. Curr Eye Res. 1990 Jul; 9(7):687-95. PMID: 2209066.
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      85. Uehara F, Matthes MT, Yasumura D, LaVail MM. Light-evoked changes in the interphotoreceptor matrix. Science. 1990 Jun 29; 248(4963):1633-6. PMID: 2194288.
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      86. Uehara F, Yasumura D, LaVail MM. New isolation method of retina and interphotoreceptor matrix. Exp Eye Res. 1989 Aug; 49(2):305-9. PMID: 2767178.
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      87. Porrello K, Yasumura D, LaVail MM. Immunogold localization of chondroitin 6-sulfate in the interphotoreceptor matrix of normal and RCS rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1989 Apr; 30(4):638-51. PMID: 2495257.
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      88. Matthes MT, LaVail MM. Inherited retinal dystrophy in the RCS rat: composition of the outer segment debris zone. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1989; 314:315-30. PMID: 2608665.
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      89. LaVail MM, Gorrin GM. Protection from light damage by ocular pigmentation: analysis using experimental chimeras and translocation mice. Exp Eye Res. 1987 Jun; 44(6):877-89. PMID: 3653278.
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      90. LaVail MM, Gorrin GM, Repaci MA, Yasumura D. Light-induced retinal degeneration in albino mice and rats: strain and species differences. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1987; 247:439-54. PMID: 3685038.
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      91. Lavail MM. A method of embedding selected areas of tissue cultures for electron microscopy. Tex Rep Biol Med. 1968; 26(2):215-22. PMID: 4877377.
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