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    Michael Callaham, MD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentEmergency Medicine
    Address533 Parnassus Ave, UC Hall
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-353-1885
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      Other Positions
      TitleChair, Emergency Medicine


      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      University of California, San Francisco Clinical Fellowship School of Medicine
      University of California, San FranciscoM.D. Medicine1970
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      National Academy of Science2008elected, Institute of Medicine

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      For the first part of my career I did various forms of clinical research including pre-hospital controlled trials on topics such as epinephrine doses and mechanical aids in CPR and ACLS. In recent years I have begun to feel that the traditional RCT approach is too narrowly focused and will never keep up, much less catch up, with the vast majority of medical problems whose treatment is not evidence based, or whose evidence is out of date. Because of my editorial and publishing experience, as well as my experiences as an organizer of a number of Peer Review Congresses (Jama and BMJ), my research interests now have turned to trying to better understand the scientific peer review publication process through research into methods of educating peer reviewers, as well as research into bias and its impact on scientific publication. I am still engaged in this area of research because no effective interventions for improving peer review have yet been identified (contrary to the beliefs of many), and the workings (and thus the remediation) of bias due to conflict of interest are unexplored terrain - at least, unexplored by physicians.


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      Collapse Featured Publications

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Callaham ML. In reply. Ann Emerg Med. 2015 Jul; 66(1):91. PMID: 26097030.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Winker MA, Ferris LE, Aggarwal R, Barbour V, Callaham M, Cress PE, Habibzadeh F, Jawad F, Kumar R, Laine C, Lang T, McGee G, Momen H, Rohrich RJ, Ruiz Mdel C, Sahni P, Wager E. Promoting Global Health: The World Association of Medical Editors Position on Editors' Responsibility. Int J Occup Environ Med. 2015 Jul; 6(3):125-7. PMID: 26174989.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Callaham M. Evidence in support of a back-to-basics approach in out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation vs "advanced" treatment. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Feb; 175(2):205-6. PMID: 25420113.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Callaham ML. Expert opinion: supplementing the gaps in evidence-based medicine. Ann Emerg Med. 2015 Jan; 65(1):61-2. PMID: 25529154.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Schriger DL, Callaham ML, Barrett TW. Annals of Emergency Medicine Journal Club. Measuring and explaining computed tomography use in the United States and Canada: a consideration of health economics and use versus appropriateness, and interpreting potential conflict of interest: answers to the November 2013 Journal Club questions. Ann Emerg Med. 2014 Apr; 63(4):479-89. PMID: 24655448.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Schriger DL, Callaham ML, Barrett TW. Measuring and explaining computed tomography use in the United States and Canada: a consideration of health economics, use versus appropriateness, and interpreting potential conflict of interest: November 2013 Annals of Emergency Medicine Journal Club. Ann Emerg Med. 2013 Nov; 62(5):545-6. PMID: 24161113.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Houry D, Green S, Callaham M. Does mentoring new peer reviewers improve review quality? A randomized trial. BMC Med Educ. 2012; 12:83. PMID: 22928960; PMCID: PMC3494517.
      8. Wong VS, Callaham ML. Medical journal editors lacked familiarity with scientific publication issues despite training and regular exposure. J Clin Epidemiol. 2012 Mar; 65(3):247-52. PMID: 22071342.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Lippert S, Callaham ML, Lo B. Perceptions of conflict of interest disclosures among peer reviewers. PLoS One. 2011; 6(11):e26900. PMID: 22073216; PMCID: PMC3206871.
      10. Callaham ML. Journal performance report for 2010. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Sep; 58(3):223-4. PMID: 21871231.
        View in: PubMed
      11. O'Connor RE, Sama A, Burton JH, Callaham ML, House HR, Jaquis WP, Tibbles PM, Bromley M, Green SM. Procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department: recommendations for physician credentialing, privileging, and practice. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Oct; 58(4):365-70. PMID: 21802778.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Moran GJ, Callaham ML. HIV screening in emergency departments. Editors' introduction. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Jul; 58(1 Suppl 1):S2. PMID: 21684402.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Reynolds TA, Callaham M. A survey of past participants in the Annals of Emergency Medicine editorial board fellowship program. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Feb; 57(2):161-4. PMID: 21251523.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Callaham, M and McCulloch, C. . Annals of Emergency Medicine. Longitudinal trends in the performance of scientific peer reviewers. 2011.
      15. Callaham M, McCulloch C. Longitudinal trends in the performance of scientific peer reviewers. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Feb; 57(2):141-8. PMID: 21074894.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Green SM, Callaham ML. Implementation of a journal peer reviewer stratification system based on quality and reliability. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Feb; 57(2):149-152.e4. PMID: 20947204.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Callaham ML. Journal performance report for 2009. Ann Emerg Med. 2010 Sep; 56(3):A25-6. PMID: 20728768.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Yealy DM, Callaham ML. Testing new ideas: is a picture worth a thousand words? Ann Emerg Med. 2009 Sep; 54(3):337-8. PMID: 19695416.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Weber EJ, Showstack JA, Hunt KA, Colby DC, Grimes B, Bacchetti P, Callaham ML. Are the uninsured responsible for the increase in emergency department visits in the United States? Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Aug; 52(2):108-15. PMID: 18407374.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Callaham M, Sahne P, Winker M, Overbeke J, Habibzadeh F, Ferris L. World Association of Medical Editors: support of the Croatian Medical Journal's editorial independence. Croat Med J. 2008 Feb; 49(1):100. PMID: 18293465; PMCID: PMC2269226.
      21. Callaham M. Training of peer reviewers: validation of a 5-point rating scale. PLoS Med. 2007 Apr; 4(4):e166. PMID: 17456001; PMCID: PMC1876423.
      22. Tercier, John, & Callaham, Michael L. . Peer Review: Consensus and Contradiction, a Qualitative Approach. 2007.
      23. Tercier, John, & Callaham, Michael L.(2007). . . A normative model of peer review: qualitative assessment of manuscript reviewers’ attitudes towards peer review. 2007.
      24. Callaham ML, Tercier J. The relationship of previous training and experience of journal peer reviewers to subsequent review quality. PLoS Med. 2007 Jan; 4(1):e40. PMID: 17411314; PMCID: PMC1796627.
      25. Hunt KA, Weber EJ, Showstack JA, Colby DC, Callaham ML. Characteristics of frequent users of emergency departments. Ann Emerg Med. 2006 Jul; 48(1):1-8. PMID: 16781914.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Weber EJ, Showstack JA, Hunt KA, Colby DC, Callaham ML. Does lack of a usual source of care or health insurance increase the likelihood of an emergency department visit? Results of a national population-based study. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Jan; 45(1):4-12. PMID: 15635299.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Callaham ML. Journal updates for 2005. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Jan; 45(1):2-3. PMID: 15635298.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Callaham ML. Journal policy on ethics in scientific publication. Ann Emerg Med. 2003 Jan; 41(1):82-9. PMID: 12514687.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Weber EJ, Silverman RA, Callaham ML, Pollack CV, Woodruff PG, Clark S, Camargo CA. A prospective multicenter study of factors associated with hospital admission among adults with acute asthma. Am J Med. 2002 Oct 1; 113(5):371-8. PMID: 12401531.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Callaham ML, Schriger DL. Effect of structured workshop training on subsequent performance of journal peer reviewers. Ann Emerg Med. 2002 Sep; 40(3):323-8. PMID: 12192358.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Callaham ML. Research into peer review and scientific publication: journals look in the mirror. Ann Emerg Med. 2002 Sep; 40(3):313-6. PMID: 12192356.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Quinn J, Cummings S, Callaham M, Sellers K. Suturing versus conservative management of lacerations of the hand: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2002 Aug 10; 325(7359):299. PMID: 12169503; PMCID: PMC117762.
      33. Callaham M, Wears RL, Weber E. Journal prestige, publication bias, and other characteristics associated with citation of published studies in peer-reviewed journals. JAMA. 2002 Jun 5; 287(21):2847-50. PMID: 12038930.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Weber EJ, Katz PP, Waeckerle JF, Callaham ML. Author perception of peer review: impact of review quality and acceptance on satisfaction. JAMA. 2002 Jun 5; 287(21):2790-3. PMID: 12038913.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Callaham ML, Knopp RK, Gallagher EJ. Effect of written feedback by editors on quality of reviews: two randomized trials. JAMA. 2002 Jun 5; 287(21):2781-3. PMID: 12038910.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Callaham M, Weber E, Wears R. Citation characteristics of research published in Emergency Medicine versus other scientific journals. Ann Emerg Med. 2001 Nov; 38(5):513-7. PMID: 11679862.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Ornato JP, Callaham M. International Guidelines 2000: the story and the science. Ann Emerg Med. 2001 Apr; 37(4 Suppl):S3-4. PMID: 11290964.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Callaham ML, Waeckerle JF. Deciphering the authorship code. Ann Emerg Med. 2001 Apr; 37(4):386-8. PMID: 11275829.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Isaacs E, Callaham ML. Ability of laypersons to estimate short time intervals in cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med. 2000 Feb; 35(2):147-54. PMID: 10650232.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Callaham M. Active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation. N Engl J Med. 1999 Dec 2; 341(23):1770-1. PMID: 10580080.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Callaham ML, Wears RL, Waeckerle JF. Effect of attendance at a training session on peer reviewer quality and performance. Ann Emerg Med. 1998 Sep; 32(3 Pt 1):318-22. PMID: 9737493.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Baxt WG, Waeckerle JF, Berlin JA, Callaham ML. Who reviews the reviewers? Feasibility of using a fictitious manuscript to evaluate peer reviewer performance. Ann Emerg Med. 1998 Sep; 32(3 Pt 1):310-7. PMID: 9737492.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Cho MK, Justice AC, Winker MA, Berlin JA, Waeckerle JF, Callaham ML, Rennie D. Masking author identity in peer review: what factors influence masking success? PEER Investigators. JAMA. 1998 Jul 15; 280(3):243-5. PMID: 9676669.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Callaham ML, Baxt WG, Waeckerle JF, Wears RL. Reliability of editors' subjective quality ratings of peer reviews of manuscripts. JAMA. 1998 Jul 15; 280(3):229-31. PMID: 9676664.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Weber EJ, Callaham ML, Wears RL, Barton C, Young G. Unpublished research from a medical specialty meeting: why investigators fail to publish. JAMA. 1998 Jul 15; 280(3):257-9. PMID: 9676674.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Callaham ML, Wears RL, Weber EJ, Barton C, Young G. Positive-outcome bias and other limitations in the outcome of research abstracts submitted to a scientific meeting. JAMA. 1998 Jul 15; 280(3):254-7. PMID: 9676673.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Callaham ML, Weber E, Young G, Wears R, Barton C. Time to publication of studies was not affected by whether results were positive. BMJ. 1998 May 16; 316(7143):1536. PMID: 9582160; PMCID: PMC1113175.
      48. Callaham M. Panic disorders, hyperventilation, and the dreaded brown paper bag. Ann Emerg Med. 1997 Dec; 30(6):838. PMID: 9398791.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Callaham M. Quantifying the scanty science of prehospital emergency care. Ann Emerg Med. 1997 Dec; 30(6):785-90. PMID: 9398774.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Hsu JW, Madsen CD, Callaham ML. Quality-of-life and formal functional testing of survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest correlates poorly with traditional neurologic outcome scales. Ann Emerg Med. 1996 Dec; 28(6):597-605. PMID: 8953946.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Callaham ML, Waeckerle JF. Medical journals and the science of peer review: raising the standard. Ann Emerg Med. 1996 Jul; 28(1):75-7. PMID: 8669742.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Callaham M, Madsen CD. Relationship of timeliness of paramedic advanced life support interventions to outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest treated by first responders with defibrillators. Ann Emerg Med. 1996 May; 27(5):638-48. PMID: 8629787.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Schwab TM, Callaham ML, Madsen CD, Utecht TA. A randomized clinical trial of active compression-decompression CPR vs standard CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in two cities. JAMA. 1995 Apr 26; 273(16):1261-8. PMID: 7715038.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Lurie KG, Shultz JJ, Callaham ML, Schwab TM, Gisch T, Rector T, Frascone RJ, Long L. Evaluation of active compression-decompression CPR in victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA. 1994 May 11; 271(18):1405-11. PMID: 8176802.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Callaham M, Braun O, Valentine W, Clark DM, Zegans C. Prehospital cardiac arrest treated by urban first-responders: profile of patient response and prediction of outcome by ventricular fibrillation waveform. Ann Emerg Med. 1993 Nov; 22(11):1664-77. PMID: 8214855.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Redberg RF, Tucker KJ, Cohen TJ, Dutton JP, Callaham ML, Schiller NB. Physiology of blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A transesophageal echocardiographic study. Circulation. 1993 Aug; 88(2):534-42. PMID: 8339415.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Callaham M, Madsen CD, Barton CW, Saunders CE, Pointer J. A randomized clinical trial of high-dose epinephrine and norepinephrine vs standard-dose epinephrine in prehospital cardiac arrest. JAMA. 1992 Nov 18; 268(19):2667-72. PMID: 1433686.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Cohen TJ, Tucker KJ, Redberg RF, Lurie KG, Chin MC, Dutton JP, Scheinman MM, Schiller NB, Callaham ML. Active compression-decompression resuscitation: a novel method of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Am Heart J. 1992 Nov; 124(5):1145-50. PMID: 1442479.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Callaham M, Barton C, Matthay M. Effect of epinephrine on the ability of end-tidal carbon dioxide readings to predict initial resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med. 1992 Mar; 20(3):337-43. PMID: 1541094.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Barton C, Callaham M. High-dose epinephrine improves the return of spontaneous circulation rates in human victims of cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med. 1991 Jul; 20(7):722-5. PMID: 2064091.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Callaham M, Barton CW, Kayser S. Potential complications of high-dose epinephrine therapy in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest. JAMA. 1991 Mar 6; 265(9):1117-22. PMID: 1995996.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Barton C, Callaham M. Lack of correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide concentrations and Paco2 in cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med. 1991 Jan; 19(1):108-10. PMID: 1898874.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Lammers RL, Fourré M, Callaham ML, Boone T. Effect of povidone-iodine and saline soaking on bacterial counts in acute, traumatic, contaminated wounds. Ann Emerg Med. 1990 Jun; 19(6):709-14. PMID: 2344090.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Callaham ML. High-dose epinephrine therapy and other advances in treating cardiac arrest. West J Med. 1990 Jun; 152(6):697-703. PMID: 2191503; PMCID: PMC1002429.
      65. Callaham M, Barton C. Prediction of outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation from end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration. Crit Care Med. 1990 Apr; 18(4):358-62. PMID: 2108000.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Callaham M. Measuring exhaled carbon dioxide in cardiac arrest. West J Med. 1989 Jul; 151(1):64-5. PMID: 18750605.
        View in: PubMed
      67. Callaham M. Hypoxic hazards of traditional paper bag rebreathing in hyperventilating patients. Ann Emerg Med. 1989 Jun; 18(6):622-8. PMID: 2499228.
        View in: PubMed
      68. Callaham M. Controversies in antibiotic choices for bite wounds. Ann Emerg Med. 1988 Dec; 17(12):1321-30. PMID: 3057949.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Callaham M, Schumaker H, Pentel P. Phenytoin prophylaxis of cardiotoxicity in experimental amitriptyline poisoning. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Apr; 245(1):216-20. PMID: 3361443.
        View in: PubMed
      70. Callaham M. Inaccuracy and expense of the leukocyte count in making urgent clinical decisions. Ann Emerg Med. 1986 Jul; 15(7):774-81. PMID: 3089081.
        View in: PubMed
      71. Callaham M, Kassel D. Epidemiology of fatal tricyclic antidepressant ingestion: implications for management. Ann Emerg Med. 1985 Jan; 14(1):1-9. PMID: 3964996.
        View in: PubMed
      72. Callaham M. Admission criteria for tricyclic antidepressant ingestion. West J Med. 1982 Nov; 137(5):425-9. PMID: 7179959; PMCID: PMC1274174.
      73. Callaham M. Dog bite wounds. JAMA. 1980 Nov 21; 244(20):2327-8. PMID: 7001059.
        View in: PubMed
      74. Callaham M. Prophylactic antibiotics in common dog bite wounds: a controlled study. Ann Emerg Med. 1980 Aug; 9(8):410-4. PMID: 6902630.
        View in: PubMed
      75. Callaham M. Tricyclic antidepressant overdose. JACEP. 1979 Oct; 8(10):413-25. PMID: 385953.
        View in: PubMed
      76. Callaham ML. Treatment of common dog bites: infection risk factors. JACEP. 1978 Mar; 7(3):83-7. PMID: 633680.
        View in: PubMed
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