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    Monica Gandhi, MD, MPH

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address1001 Potrero Ave, SFGH 80
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-502-6285

       Biography 
       Education and Training
      University of California, San FranciscoResidency School of Medicine
      Harvard UniversityM.D.School of Medicine1996
       Awards and Honors
      San Francisco General Hospital2012Meg Newman Teaching Award from the Positive Health Practice
      AIDS Research Institute, UCSF2011Sarlo Award for Teaching Excellence
      Global Health Sciences, UCSF2013John L. Ziegler Outstanding Mentoring Award

       Overview 
       Overview
      Monica Gandhi MD, MPH is Professor of Medicine in the Division of HIV/AIDS and has served as medical (clinic) director of the Positive Health Program ("Ward 86") since January 2014. Dr. Gandhi completed her M.D. at Harvard Medical School and then came to UCSF in 1996 for residency training in Internal Medicine. After her residency, Dr. Gandhi completed a fellowship in Infectious Diseases and a postdoctoral fellowship at the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, both at UCSF. She also obtained a Masters in Public Health from Berkeley in 2001 with a focus on Epidemiology and Biostatistics.

      Dr. Gandhi directs the AIDS Consult Service at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) and attends on the inpatient Infectious Diseases consult service. Prior research efforts were focused on HIV/AIDS in U.S. women through the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a large multisite, prospective cohort study established in 1994 to study the natural history, clinical and laboratory findings of HIV in women. Her current research program is on identifying low-cost solutions to measuring antiretroviral levels in resource-poor settings, such as determining drug levels in hair samples. Dr. Gandhi has also participated in research efforts involving adherence measures using hair levels in HIV-infected women and their breastfeeding infants in Africa and India.

      Dr. Gandhi also has an interest at UCSF in HIV education and mentorship. Dr. Gandhi co-directs the "Communicable Diseases of Global Health Importance" course in the Global Health Sciences Masters program, and serves as the Education Director of the HIV/AIDS Division. She also serves as the principal investigator of an R24 mentoring grant from the NIH focused on nurturing early career investigators of diversity in HIV research and the Associate Director for the Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) Mentoring Program.

       Interests
      HIV infection, HIV infection in women, adherence measures, hair concentrations of antiretrovirals, mentoring, education

       ORNG Applications 
       Websites
       In The News
       Featured Presentations
       Faculty Mentoring
       Awarded Grants
       Global Health

       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Meffert SM, McCulloch CE, Neylan TC, Gandhi M, Lund C. Increase of perceived frequency of neighborhood domestic violence is associated with increase of women's depression symptoms in a nationally representative longitudinal study in South Africa. Soc Sci Med. 2015 Apr; 131:89-97.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Cohan D, Natureeba P, Koss CA, Plenty A, Luwedde F, Mwesigwa J, Ades V, Charlebois ED, Gandhi M, Clark TD, Nzarubara B, Achan J, Ruel T, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected pregnant Ugandan women. AIDS. 2015 Jan 14; 29(2):183-91.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Baxi SM, Liu A, Bacchetti P, Mutua G, Sanders EJ, Kibengo FM, Haberer JE, Rooney J, Hendrix CW, Anderson PL, Huang Y, Priddy F, Gandhi M. Comparing the Novel Method of Assessing PrEP Adherence/Exposure Using Hair Samples to Other Pharmacologic and Traditional Measures. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Jan 1; 68(1):13-20.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Olds PK, Kiwanuka JP, Nansera D, Huang Y, Bacchetti P, Jin C, Gandhi M, Haberer JE. Assessment of HIV antiretroviral therapy adherence by measuring drug concentrations in hair among children in rural Uganda. AIDS Care. 2015 Mar; 27(3):327-32.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Gandhi M, Gandhi RT. Single-pill regimens for HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 6; 371(19):1845-6.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Gandhi M, Gandhi RT. Single-pill combination regimens for treatment of HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jul 17; 371(3):248-59.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Hickey MD, Salmen CR, Tessler RA, Omollo D, Bacchetti P, Magerenge R, Mattah B, Salmen MR, Zoughbie D, Fiorella KJ, Geng E, Njoroge B, Jin C, Huang Y, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Gandhi M. Antiretroviral concentrations in small hair samples as a feasible marker of adherence in rural Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Jul 1; 66(3):311-5.
        View in: PubMed PMC4146734
      8. Scherzer R, Gandhi M, Estrella MM, Tien PC, Deeks SG, Grunfeld C, Peralta CA, Shlipak MG. A chronic kidney disease risk score to determine tenofovir safety in a prospective cohort of HIV-positive male veterans. AIDS. 2014 Jun 1; 28(9):1289-95.
        View in: PubMed PMC4188545
      9. Gandhi M, Fernandez A, Stoff DM, Narahari S, Blank M, Fuchs J, Evans CH, Kahn JS, Johnson MO. Development and implementation of a workshop to enhance the effectiveness of mentors working with diverse mentees in HIV research. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Aug; 30(8):730-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC4118696
      10. Hessol NA, Weber KM, D'Souza G, Burton D, Young M, Milam J, Murchison L, Gandhi M, Cohen MH. Smoking cessation and recidivism in the Women's Interagency Human Immunodeficiency Virus Study. Am J Prev Med. 2014 Jul; 47(1):53-69.
        View in: PubMed PMC4065848
      11. Liu AY, Yang Q, Huang Y, Bacchetti P, Anderson PL, Jin C, Goggin K, Stojanovski K, Grant R, Buchbinder SP, Greenblatt RM, Gandhi M. Strong relationship between oral dose and tenofovir hair levels in a randomized trial: hair as a potential adherence measure for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e83736.
        View in: PubMed PMC3885443
      12. Baxi SM, Greenblatt RM, Bacchetti P, Scherzer R, Minkoff H, Huang Y, Anastos K, Cohen M, Gange SJ, Young M, Shlipak MG, Gandhi M. Common clinical conditions - age, low BMI, ritonavir use, mild renal impairment - affect tenofovir pharmacokinetics in a large cohort of HIV-infected women. AIDS. 2014 Jan 2; 28(1):59-66.
        View in: PubMed PMC3956315
      13. Gandhi M, Yang Q, Bacchetti P, Huang Y. Short communication: A low-cost method for analyzing nevirapine levels in hair as a marker of adherence in resource-limited settings. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Jan; 30(1):25-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC3887402
      14. McFall AM, Dowdy DW, Zelaya CE, Murphy K, Wilson TE, Young MA, Gandhi M, Cohen MH, Golub ET, Althoff KN. Understanding the disparity: predictors of virologic failure in women using highly active antiretroviral therapy vary by race and/or ethnicity. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Nov 1; 64(3):289-98.
        View in: PubMed PMC3816935
      15. Murphy K, Hoover DR, Shi Q, Cohen M, Gandhi M, Golub ET, Gustafson DR, Pearce CL, Young M, Anastos K. Association of self-reported race with AIDS death in continuous HAART users in a cohort of HIV-infected women in the United States. AIDS. 2013 Sep 24; 27(15):2413-23.
        View in: PubMed PMC3815041
      16. Bartelink IH, Savic RM, Mwesigwa J, Achan J, Clark T, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Kamya M, Young SL, Gandhi M, Havlir D, Cohan D, Aweeka F. Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz in food insecure HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women in Tororo, Uganda. J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Feb; 54(2):121-32.
        View in: PubMed PMC3933454
      17. Bartelink IH, Savic R, Mwesigwa J, Achan J, Clark T, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Kamya M, Young SL, Gandhi M, Havlir D, Cohan D, Aweeka F . Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz in malnourished HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women in Tororo, Uganda. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (in press). 2013.
      18. Baxi SM, Greenblatt RM, Bacchetti P, Schwerzer R, Minkoff H, Huang Y, Anastos K, Cohen M, Gange SJ, Young M, Shlipak MS, Gandhi M. Common Clinical Conditions - Age, Low BMI, Ritonavir Use, Mild Renal Impairment - Affect Tenofovir Pharmacokinetics in a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected Women. AIDS (in press). 2013.
      19. Gandhi M, Mwesigwa J, Aweeka F, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel TD, Huang Y, Clark T, Ades V, Natureeba P, Luwedde FA, Achan J, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D. Hair and Plasma Data Show that Lopinavir, Ritonavir and Efavirenz All Transfer from Mother to Infant in Utero, but only Efavirenz Transfers via Breastfeeding. JAIDS Aug 63(5): 578-584. 2013.
      20. Gandhi M, Mwesigwa J, Aweeka F, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel TD, Huang Y, Clark T, Ades V, Natureeba P, Luwedde FA, Achan J, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D. Hair and plasma data show that lopinavir, ritonavir, and efavirenz all transfer from mother to infant in utero, but only efavirenz transfers via breastfeeding. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Aug 15; 63(5):578-84.
        View in: PubMed PMC3800282
      21. Koita K, Novotny J, Kunene S, Zulu Z, Ntshalintshali N, Gandhi M, Gosling R. Targeting imported malaria through social networks: a potential strategy for malaria elimination in Swaziland. Malar J. 2013; 12:219.
        View in: PubMed PMC3710236
      22. Oboho I, Abraham AG, Benning L, Anastos K, Sharma A, Young M, Burian P, Gandhi M, Cohen M, Szczech L. Tenofovir use and urinary biomarkers among HIV-infected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Apr 1; 62(4):388-95.
        View in: PubMed PMC3692572
      23. Baxi S and Gandhi M. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. An Incidental Abscess in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. 2012; 6(20):405-406.
      24. Geng EH, Hare CB, Kahn JO, Jain V, Van Nunnery T, Christopoulos KA, Deeks SG, Gandhi M, Havlir DV. The effect of a "universal antiretroviral therapy" recommendation on HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected patients entering care with a CD4 count greater than 500/┬ÁL in a public health setting. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Dec; 55(12):1690-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC3501330
      25. Gandhi M, Greenblatt RM, Bacchetti P, Jin C, Huang Y, Anastos K, Cohen M, Dehovitz JA, Sharp GB, Gange SJ, Liu C, Hanson SC, Aouizerat B. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in CYP2B6 leads to >3-fold increases in efavirenz concentrations in plasma and hair among HIV-infected women. J Infect Dis. 2012 Nov; 206(9):1453-61.
        View in: PubMed PMC3466997
      26. Brady CJ, Villanti AC, Gandhi M, Friedman DS, Keay L. Visual function after correction of distance refractive error with ready-made and custom spectacles: a randomized clinical trial. Ophthalmology. 2012 Oct; 119(10):2014-20.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Merenstein D, Wang C, Gandhi M, Robison E, Levine AM, Schwartz RM, Weber KM, Liu C. An investigation of the possible interaction between the use of Vitamin C and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence and effectiveness in treated HIV+ women. Complement Ther Med. 2012 Aug; 20(4):222-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC3351689
      28. Liu C, Wang C, Robison E, Levine AM, Gandhi M, Schwartz R, Weber KM, Merenstein D. Short-term garlic supplementation and highly active antiretroviral treatment adherence, CD4+ cell counts, and human immunodeficiency virus viral load. Altern Ther Health Med. 2012 Jan-Feb; 18(1):18-22.
        View in: PubMed PMC3376904
      29. Geng EH, Kahn JS, Chang OC, Hare CB, Christopoulos KA, Jones D, Petersen ML, Deeks SG, Havlir DV, Gandhi M. The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnosis to antiretroviral initiation in routine clinical practice: a case study of diffusion, dissemination, and implementation. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Nov; 53(10):1008-14.
        View in: PubMed PMC3193829
      30. Huang Y, Yang Q, Yoon K, Lei Y, Shi R, Gee W, Lin ET, Greenblatt RM, Gandhi M. Microanalysis of the antiretroviral nevirapine in human hair from HIV-infected patients by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 Oct; 401(6):1923-33.
        View in: PubMed PMC3477620
      31. Chandy S, Singh G, Heylen E, Gandhi M, Ekstrand ML. Treatment switching in South Indian patients on HAART: what are the predictors and consequences? AIDS Care. 2011 May; 23(5):569-77.
        View in: PubMed PMC3633559
      32. Ikediobi O, Aouizerat B, Xiao Y, Gandhi M, Gebhardt S, Warnich L. Analysis of pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African populations. Hum Genomics. 2011 May; 5(4):265-82.
        View in: PubMed PMC3525241
      33. Gandhi M, Ameli N, Bacchetti P, Anastos K, Gange SJ, Minkoff H, Young M, Milam J, Cohen MH, Sharp GB, Huang Y, Greenblatt RM. Atazanavir concentration in hair is the strongest predictor of outcomes on antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May; 52(10):1267-75.
        View in: PubMed PMC3079399
      34. van Zyl GU, van Mens TE, McIlleron H, Zeier M, Nachega JB, Decloedt E, Malavazzi C, Smith P, Huang Y, van der Merwe L, Gandhi M, Maartens G. Low lopinavir plasma or hair concentrations explain second-line protease inhibitor failures in a resource-limited setting. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Apr; 56(4):333-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC3073814
      35. Brady CJ, Keay L, Villanti A, Ali FS, Gandhi M, Massof RW, Friedman DS. Validation of a visual function and quality of life instrument in an urban Indian population with uncorrected refractive error using Rasch analysis. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Oct; 17(5):282-91.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Keay L, Gandhi M, Brady C, Ali FS, Mathur U, Munoz B, Friedman DS. A randomized clinical trial to evaluate ready-made spectacles in an adult population in India. Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Jun; 39(3):877-88.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Liu C, Yang Y, Gange SJ, Weber K, Sharp GB, Wilson TE, Levine A, Robison E, Goparaju L, Gandhi M, Ganhdi M, Merenstein D. Disclosure of complementary and alternative medicine use to health care providers among HIV-infected women. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009 Nov; 23(11):965-71.
        View in: PubMed PMC2801553
      38. Iobst S, Gandhi M. The feminization of an epidemic. Women and HIV in the United States. Posit Aware. 2009 Jul-Aug; 20(4):34-9.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Gandhi M, Benet LZ, Bacchetti P, Kalinowski A, Anastos K, Wolfe AR, Young M, Cohen M, Minkoff H, Gange SJ, Greenblatt RM. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor pharmacokinetics in a large unselected cohort of HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Apr 15; 50(5):482-91.
        View in: PubMed PMC2700138
      40. Merenstein D, Schneider MF, Cox C, Schwartz R, Weber K, Robison E, Gandhi M, Richardson J, Plankey MW. Association of child care burden and household composition with adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009 Apr; 23(4):289-96.
        View in: PubMed PMC2674283
      41. Gandhi M, Ameli N, Bacchetti P, Gange SJ, Anastos K, Levine A, Hyman CL, Cohen M, Young M, Huang Y, Greenblatt RM. Protease inhibitor levels in hair strongly predict virologic response to treatment. AIDS. 2009 Feb 20; 23(4):471-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC2654235
      42. Huang Y, Gandhi M, Greenblatt RM, Gee W, Lin ET, Messenkoff N. Sensitive analysis of anti-HIV drugs, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2008 Nov; 22(21):3401-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC2669487
      43. Merenstein D, Yang Y, Schneider MF, Goparaju L, Weber K, Sharma A, Levine AM, Sharp GB, Gandhi M, Liu C. Association of complementary and alternative medicine use with highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation. Altern Ther Health Med. 2008 Sep-Oct; 14(5):18-22.
        View in: PubMed PMC2651402
      44. Szczech LA, Golub ET, Springer G, Augenbraun M, Young M, Gandhi M, Gillepsie BS, Anastos K. Highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces urinary albumin excretion in women with HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Jul 1; 48(3):360-1.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Merenstein DJ, Schneider MF, Cox C, Schwartz R, Weber K, Robison E, Gandhi M, Richardson J, Plankey MW. Association between living with children and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Pediatrics. 2008 Apr; 121(4):e787-93.
        View in: PubMed PMC2651400
      46. Golub ET, Benning L, Sharma A, Gandhi M, Cohen MH, Young M, Gange SJ. Patterns, predictors, and consequences of initial regimen type among HIV-infected women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 15; 46(2):305-12.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Liu C, Lerch V, Weber K, Schneider MF, Sharp GB, Gorapaju L, Sharma A, Levine A, Gandhi M, Merenstein D. Association between complementary and alternative medicine use and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Dec; 13(10):1053-6.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Riley ED, Gandhi M, Hare C, Cohen J, Hwang S. Poverty, unstable housing, and HIV infection among women living in the United States. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2007 Dec; 4(4):181-6.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Wilson TE, Feldman J, Vega MY, Gandhi M, Richardson J, Cohen MH, McKaig R, Ostrow D, Robison E, Gange SJ. Acquisition of new sexual partners among women with HIV infection: patterns of disclosure and sexual behavior within new partnerships. AIDS Educ Prev. 2007 Apr; 19(2):151-9.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Feldman JG, Minkoff H, Schneider MF, Gange SJ, Cohen M, Watts DH, Gandhi M, Mocharnuk RS, Anastos K. Association of cigarette smoking with HIV prognosis among women in the HAART era: a report from the women's interagency HIV study. Am J Public Health. 2006 Jun; 96(6):1060-5.
        View in: PubMed PMC1470629
      51. Gandhi M, Ameli N, Bacchetti P, Sharp GB, French AL, Young M, Gange SJ, Anastos K, Holman S, Levine A, Greenblatt RM. Eligibility criteria for HIV clinical trials and generalizability of results: the gap between published reports and study protocols. AIDS. 2005 Nov 4; 19(16):1885-96.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Silverberg MJ, Gore ME, French AL, Gandhi M, Glesby MJ, Kovacs A, Wilson TE, Young MA, Gange SJ. Prevalence of clinical symptoms associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 1; 39(5):717-24.
        View in: PubMed PMC3118991
      53. Gandhi M, Koelle D, Ameli N, Bacchetti P, Greenspan J, Navazesh M, Anastos K, Greenblatt RM . Journal of Dental Research. Salivary shedding of human herpesvirus-8 among HIV-infected women is more frequent at higher CD4 cell counts. 2004; 3(83):639-643.
      54. Gandhi M, Aweeka F, Greenblatt RM, Blaschke TF. Sex differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2004; 44:499-523.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Gandhi M, Greenblatt RM. Human herpesvirus 8, Kaposi's sarcoma, and associated conditions. Clin Lab Med. 2002 Dec; 22(4):883-910.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Gandhi M, Greenblatt RM. Hair it is: the long and short of monitoring antiretroviral treatment. Ann Intern Med. 2002 Oct 15; 137(8):696-7.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Gandhi M, Bacchetti P, Miotti P, Quinn TC, Veronese F, Greenblatt RM. Does patient sex affect human immunodeficiency virus levels? Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Aug 1; 35(3):313-22.
        View in: PubMed
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