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    Monica Gandhi, MD, MPH

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address1001 Potrero Ave, SFGH 80
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-502-6285

       Biography 
       Education and Training
      Institution Degree School or Department Year
      University of California, San FranciscoResidency School of Medicine
      Harvard UniversityM.D.School of Medicine1996
       Awards and Honors
      San Francisco General Hospital2012Meg Newman Teaching Award from the Positive Health Practice
      AIDS Research Institute, UCSF2011Sarlo Award for Teaching Excellence
      Global Health Sciences, UCSF2013John L. Ziegler Outstanding Mentoring Award

       Overview 
       Overview
      Monica Gandhi MD, MPH is Professor of Medicine in the Division of HIV/AIDS and has served as medical (clinic) director of the Positive Health Program ("Ward 86") since January 2014. Dr. Gandhi completed her M.D. at Harvard Medical School and then came to UCSF in 1996 for residency training in Internal Medicine. After her residency, Dr. Gandhi completed a fellowship in Infectious Diseases and a postdoctoral fellowship at the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, both at UCSF. She also obtained a Masters in Public Health from Berkeley in 2001 with a focus on Epidemiology and Biostatistics.

      Dr. Gandhi directs the AIDS Consult Service at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) and attends on the inpatient Infectious Diseases consult service. Prior research efforts were focused on HIV/AIDS in U.S. women through the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a large multisite, prospective cohort study established in 1994 to study the natural history, clinical and laboratory findings of HIV in women. Her current research program is on identifying low-cost solutions to measuring antiretroviral levels in resource-poor settings, such as determining drug levels in hair samples. Dr. Gandhi has also participated in research efforts involving adherence measures using hair levels in HIV-infected women and their breastfeeding infants in Africa and India.

      Dr. Gandhi also has an interest at UCSF in HIV education and mentorship. Dr. Gandhi co-directs the "Communicable Diseases of Global Health Importance" course in the Global Health Sciences Masters program, and serves as the Education Director of the HIV/AIDS Division. She also serves as the principal investigator of an R24 mentoring grant from the NIH focused on nurturing early career investigators of diversity in HIV research and the Associate Director for the Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) Mentoring Program.

       Interests
      HIV infection, HIV infection in women, adherence measures, hair concentrations of antiretrovirals, mentoring, education

       ORNG Applications 
       Websites
       In The News
       Featured Presentations
       Faculty Mentoring
       NIH Grants Awarded
       Global Health
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       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Hickey MD, Salmen CR, Tessler RA, Omollo D, Bacchetti P, Magerenge R, Mattah B, Salmen MR, Zoughbie D, Fiorella KJ, Geng E, Njoroge B, Jin C, Huang Y, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Gandhi M. Antiretroviral concentrations in small hair samples as a feasible marker of adherence in rural kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Jul 1; 66(3):311-5.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Scherzer R, Gandhi M, Estrella MM, Tien PC, Deeks SG, Grunfeld C, Peralta CA, Shlipak MG. A chronic kidney disease risk score to determine tenofovir safety in a prospective cohort of HIV-positive male veterans. AIDS. 2014 Jun 1; 28(9):1289-95.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Gandhi M, Fernandez A, Stoff DM, Narahari S, Blank M, Fuchs J, Evans CH, Kahn JS, Johnson MO. Development and Implementation of a Workshop to Enhance the Effectiveness of Mentors Working with Diverse Mentees in HIV Research. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Aug; 30(8):730-7.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Hessol NA, Weber KM, D'Souza G, Burton D, Young M, Milam J, Murchison L, Gandhi M, Cohen MH. Smoking Cessation and Recidivism in the Women's Interagency Human Immunodeficiency Virus Study. Am J Prev Med. 2014 Jul; 47(1):53-69.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Liu AY, Yang Q, Huang Y, Bacchetti P, Anderson PL, Jin C, Goggin K, Stojanovski K, Grant R, Buchbinder SP, Greenblatt RM, Gandhi M. Strong Relationship between Oral Dose and Tenofovir Hair Levels in a Randomized Trial: Hair as a Potential Adherence Measure for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e83736.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Baxi SM, Greenblatt RM, Bacchetti P, Scherzer R, Minkoff H, Huang Y, Anastos K, Cohen M, Gange SJ, Young M, Shlipak MG, Gandhi M. Common clinical conditions - age, low BMI, ritonavir use, mild renal impairment - affect tenofovir pharmacokinetics in a large cohort of HIV-infected women. AIDS. 2014 Jan 2; 28(1):59-66.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Gandhi M, Yang Q, Bacchetti P, Huang Y. Short communication: a low-cost method for analyzing nevirapine levels in hair as a marker of adherence in resource-limited settings. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Jan; 30(1):25-8.
        View in: PubMed
      8. McFall AM, Dowdy DW, Zelaya CE, Murphy K, Wilson TE, Young MA, Gandhi M, Cohen MH, Golub ET, Althoff KN. Understanding the disparity: predictors of virologic failure in women using highly active antiretroviral therapy vary by race and/or ethnicity. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Nov 1; 64(3):289-98.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Murphy K, Hoover DR, Shi Q, Cohen M, Gandhi M, Golub ET, Gustafson DR, Pearce CL, Young M, Anastos K. Association of self-reported race with AIDS death in continuous HAART users in a cohort of HIV-infected women in the United States. AIDS. 2013 Sep 24; 27(15):2413-23.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Bartelink IH, Savic R, Mwesigwa J, Achan J, Clark T, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Kamya M, Young SL, Gandhi M, Havlir D, Cohan D, Aweeka F . Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz in malnourished HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women in Tororo, Uganda. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (in press). 2013.
      11. Baxi SM, Greenblatt RM, Bacchetti P, Schwerzer R, Minkoff H, Huang Y, Anastos K, Cohen M, Gange SJ, Young M, Shlipak MS, Gandhi M. Common Clinical Conditions - Age, Low BMI, Ritonavir Use, Mild Renal Impairment - Affect Tenofovir Pharmacokinetics in a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected Women. AIDS (in press). 2013.
      12. Gandhi M, Mwesigwa J, Aweeka F, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel TD, Huang Y, Clark T, Ades V, Natureeba P, Luwedde FA, Achan J, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D. Hair and Plasma Data Show that Lopinavir, Ritonavir and Efavirenz All Transfer from Mother to Infant in Utero, but only Efavirenz Transfers via Breastfeeding. JAIDS Aug 63(5): 578-584. 2013.
      13. Gandhi M, Mwesigwa J, Aweeka F, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel TD, Huang Y, Clark T, Ades V, Natureeba P, Luwedde FA, Achan J, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D. Hair and plasma data show that lopinavir, ritonavir, and efavirenz all transfer from mother to infant in utero, but only efavirenz transfers via breastfeeding. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Aug 15; 63(5):578-84.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Koita K, Novotny J, Kunene S, Zulu Z, Ntshalintshali N, Gandhi M, Gosling R. Targeting imported malaria through social networks: a potential strategy for malaria elimination in Swaziland. Malar J. 2013; 12(1):219.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Oboho I, Abraham AG, Benning L, Anastos K, Sharma A, Young M, Burian P, Gandhi M, Cohen M, Szczech L. Tenofovir use and urinary biomarkers among HIV-infected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Apr 1; 62(4):388-95.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Baxi S and Gandhi M. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. An Incidental Abscess in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. 2012; 6(20):405-406.
      17. Geng EH, Hare CB, Kahn JO, Jain V, Van Nunnery T, Christopoulos KA, Deeks SG, Gandhi M, Havlir DV. The effect of a "universal antiretroviral therapy" recommendation on HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected patients entering care with a CD4 count greater than 500/┬ÁL in a public health setting. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Dec; 55(12):1690-7.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Gandhi M, Greenblatt RM, Bacchetti P, Jin C, Huang Y, Anastos K, Cohen M, Dehovitz JA, Sharp GB, Gange SJ, Liu C, Hanson SC, Aouizerat B. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in CYP2B6 leads to >3-fold increases in efavirenz concentrations in plasma and hair among HIV-infected women. J Infect Dis. 2012 Nov; 206(9):1453-61.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Brady CJ, Villanti AC, Gandhi M, Friedman DS, Keay L. Visual function after correction of distance refractive error with ready-made and custom spectacles: a randomized clinical trial. Ophthalmology. 2012 Oct; 119(10):2014-20.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Merenstein D, Wang C, Gandhi M, Robison E, Levine AM, Schwartz RM, Weber KM, Liu C. An investigation of the possible interaction between the use of Vitamin C and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence and effectiveness in treated HIV+ women. Complement Ther Med. 2012 Aug; 20(4):222-7.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Liu C, Wang C, Robison E, Levine AM, Gandhi M, Schwartz R, Weber KM, Merenstein D. Short-term garlic supplementation and highly active antiretroviral treatment adherence, CD4+ cell counts, and human immunodeficiency virus viral load. Altern Ther Health Med. 2012 Jan-Feb; 18(1):18-22.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Geng EH, Kahn JS, Chang OC, Hare CB, Christopoulos KA, Jones D, Petersen ML, Deeks SG, Havlir DV, Gandhi M. The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnosis to antiretroviral initiation in routine clinical practice: a case study of diffusion, dissemination, and implementation. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Nov; 53(10):1008-14.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Huang Y, Yang Q, Yoon K, Lei Y, Shi R, Gee W, Lin ET, Greenblatt RM, Gandhi M. Microanalysis of the antiretroviral nevirapine in human hair from HIV-infected patients by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 Oct; 401(6):1923-33.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Chandy S, Singh G, Heylen E, Gandhi M, Ekstrand ML. Treatment switching in South Indian patients on HAART: what are the predictors and consequences? AIDS Care. 2011 May; 23(5):569-77.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Ikediobi O, Aouizerat B, Xiao Y, Gandhi M, Gebhardt S, Warnich L. Analysis of pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African populations. Hum Genomics. 2011 May; 5(4):265-82.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Gandhi M, Ameli N, Bacchetti P, Anastos K, Gange SJ, Minkoff H, Young M, Milam J, Cohen MH, Sharp GB, Huang Y, Greenblatt RM. Atazanavir concentration in hair is the strongest predictor of outcomes on antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May; 52(10):1267-75.
        View in: PubMed
      27. van Zyl GU, van Mens TE, McIlleron H, Zeier M, Nachega JB, Decloedt E, Malavazzi C, Smith P, Huang Y, van der Merwe L, Gandhi M, Maartens G. Low lopinavir plasma or hair concentrations explain second-line protease inhibitor failures in a resource-limited setting. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Apr; 56(4):333-9.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Brady CJ, Keay L, Villanti A, Ali FS, Gandhi M, Massof RW, Friedman DS. Validation of a visual function and quality of life instrument in an urban Indian population with uncorrected refractive error using Rasch analysis. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Oct; 17(5):282-91.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Keay L, Gandhi M, Brady C, Ali FS, Mathur U, Munoz B, Friedman DS. A randomized clinical trial to evaluate ready-made spectacles in an adult population in India. Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Jun; 39(3):877-88.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Liu C, Yang Y, Gange SJ, Weber K, Sharp GB, Wilson TE, Levine A, Robison E, Goparaju L, Gandhi M, Ganhdi M, Merenstein D. Disclosure of complementary and alternative medicine use to health care providers among HIV-infected women. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009 Nov; 23(11):965-71.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Iobst S, Gandhi M. The feminization of an epidemic. Women and HIV in the United States. Posit Aware. 2009 Jul-Aug; 20(4):34-9.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Gandhi M, Benet LZ, Bacchetti P, Kalinowski A, Anastos K, Wolfe AR, Young M, Cohen M, Minkoff H, Gange SJ, Greenblatt RM. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor pharmacokinetics in a large unselected cohort of HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Apr 15; 50(5):482-91.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Merenstein D, Schneider MF, Cox C, Schwartz R, Weber K, Robison E, Gandhi M, Richardson J, Plankey MW. Association of child care burden and household composition with adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009 Apr; 23(4):289-96.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Gandhi M, Ameli N, Bacchetti P, Gange SJ, Anastos K, Levine A, Hyman CL, Cohen M, Young M, Huang Y, Greenblatt RM. Protease inhibitor levels in hair strongly predict virologic response to treatment. AIDS. 2009 Feb 20; 23(4):471-8.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Huang Y, Gandhi M, Greenblatt RM, Gee W, Lin ET, Messenkoff N. Sensitive analysis of anti-HIV drugs, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2008 Nov; 22(21):3401-9.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Merenstein D, Yang Y, Schneider MF, Goparaju L, Weber K, Sharma A, Levine AM, Sharp GB, Gandhi M, Liu C. Association of complementary and alternative medicine use with highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation. Altern Ther Health Med. 2008 Sep-Oct; 14(5):18-22.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Szczech LA, Golub ET, Springer G, Augenbraun M, Young M, Gandhi M, Gillepsie BS, Anastos K. Highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces urinary albumin excretion in women with HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Jul 1; 48(3):360-1.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Merenstein DJ, Schneider MF, Cox C, Schwartz R, Weber K, Robison E, Gandhi M, Richardson J, Plankey MW. Association between living with children and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Pediatrics. 2008 Apr; 121(4):e787-93.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Golub ET, Benning L, Sharma A, Gandhi M, Cohen MH, Young M, Gange SJ. Patterns, predictors, and consequences of initial regimen type among HIV-infected women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 15; 46(2):305-12.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Liu C, Lerch V, Weber K, Schneider MF, Sharp GB, Gorapaju L, Sharma A, Levine A, Gandhi M, Merenstein D. Association between complementary and alternative medicine use and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Dec; 13(10):1053-6.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Riley ED, Gandhi M, Hare C, Cohen J, Hwang S. Poverty, unstable housing, and HIV infection among women living in the United States. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2007 Dec; 4(4):181-6.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Wilson TE, Feldman J, Vega MY, Gandhi M, Richardson J, Cohen MH, McKaig R, Ostrow D, Robison E, Gange SJ. Acquisition of new sexual partners among women with HIV infection: patterns of disclosure and sexual behavior within new partnerships. AIDS Educ Prev. 2007 Apr; 19(2):151-9.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Feldman JG, Minkoff H, Schneider MF, Gange SJ, Cohen M, Watts DH, Gandhi M, Mocharnuk RS, Anastos K. Association of cigarette smoking with HIV prognosis among women in the HAART era: a report from the women's interagency HIV study. Am J Public Health. 2006 Jun; 96(6):1060-5.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Gandhi M, Ameli N, Bacchetti P, Sharp GB, French AL, Young M, Gange SJ, Anastos K, Holman S, Levine A, Greenblatt RM. Eligibility criteria for HIV clinical trials and generalizability of results: the gap between published reports and study protocols. AIDS. 2005 Nov 4; 19(16):1885-96.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Silverberg MJ, Gore ME, French AL, Gandhi M, Glesby MJ, Kovacs A, Wilson TE, Young MA, Gange SJ. Prevalence of clinical symptoms associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 1; 39(5):717-24.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Gandhi M, Koelle D, Ameli N, Bacchetti P, Greenspan J, Navazesh M, Anastos K, Greenblatt RM . Journal of Dental Research. Salivary shedding of human herpesvirus-8 among HIV-infected women is more frequent at higher CD4 cell counts. 2004; 3(83):639-643.
      47. Gandhi M, Aweeka F, Greenblatt RM, Blaschke TF. Sex differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2004; 44:499-523.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Gandhi M, Greenblatt RM. Human herpesvirus 8, Kaposi's sarcoma, and associated conditions. Clin Lab Med. 2002 Dec; 22(4):883-910.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Gandhi M, Greenblatt RM. Hair it is: the long and short of monitoring antiretroviral treatment. Ann Intern Med. 2002 Oct 15; 137(8):696-7.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Gandhi M, Bacchetti P, Miotti P, Quinn TC, Veronese F, Greenblatt RM. Does patient sex affect human immunodeficiency virus levels? Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Aug 1; 35(3):313-22.
        View in: PubMed
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