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    Monica Gandhi, MD, MPH

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address1001 Potrero Ave
    San Francisco CA 94110
    Phone415-476-4082
    vCardDownload vCard

      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      University of California, San FranciscoID fellowshipSchool of Medicine1999
      University of California, San FranciscoResidency School of Medicine1996
      Harvard UniversityM.D.School of Medicine1996
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      San Francisco General Hospital2012Meg Newman Teaching Award from the Positive Health Practice
      AIDS Research Institute, UCSF2011Sarlo Award for Teaching Excellence
      Global Health Sciences, UCSF2013John L. Ziegler Outstanding Mentoring Award
      UCSF2016Vince Pons Award for Teaching in Clinical Infectious Diseases

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Monica Gandhi MD, MPH is Professor of Medicine and Associate Division Chief (Clinical Operations/ Education) of the Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases, and Global Medicine at UCSF/ San Francisco General Hospital. She also serves as the medical director of the HIV Clinic at SFGH ("Ward 86").. Dr. Gandhi completed her M.D. at Harvard Medical School and then came to UCSF in 1996 for residency training in Internal Medicine. After her residency, Dr. Gandhi completed a fellowship in Infectious Diseases and a postdoctoral fellowship at the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, both at UCSF. She also obtained a Masters in Public Health from Berkeley in 2001 with a focus on Epidemiology and Biostatistics.

      Dr. Gandhi directs the AIDS Consult Service at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) and attends on the inpatient Infectious Diseases consult service. Her current research program is on identifying low-cost solutions to measuring antiretroviral levels in resource-poor settings, such as determining drug levels in hair samples. Dr. Gandhi has also participated in research efforts on HIV prevention in women.

      Dr. Gandhi also has an interest at UCSF in HIV education and mentorship. Dr. Gandhi co-directed the "Communicable Diseases of Global Health Importance" course in the Global Health Sciences Masters program from 2008-2015, and serves as the overall Education Director of the HIV, ID and Global Medicine Division. She also served as the principal investigator of an R24 mentoring grant from the NIH focused on nurturing early career investigators of diversity in HIV research, is the co-Director for the Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) Mentoring Program, and is the Chair of the Advisory Board for the UCSF Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health (BIRCWH).

      Collapse Interests
      HIV infection, HIV infection in women, adherence measures, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), hair concentrations of antiretrovirals, mentoring, education

      Collapse ORNG Applications 
      Collapse Websites
      Collapse In The News
      Collapse Featured Presentations
      Collapse Faculty Mentoring
      Collapse Awarded Grants
      Collapse Global Health

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Christopoulos K, Hartogensis W, Glidden DV, Pilcher CD, Gandhi M, Geng EH. The lorenz curve: a novel method for understanding viral load distribution at the population level. AIDS. 2016 Nov 7. PMID: 27831945.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Gandhi M, Johnson M. Creating More Effective Mentors: Mentoring the Mentor. AIDS Behav. 2016 Sep; 20 Suppl 2:294-303. PMID: 27039092.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Gandhi M, Glidden DV, Mayer K, Schechter M, Buchbinder S, Grinsztejn B, Hosek S, Casapia M, Guanira J, Bekker LG, Louie A, Horng H, Benet LZ, Liu A, Grant RM, et al. Association of age, baseline kidney function, and medication exposure with declines in creatinine clearance on pre-exposure prophylaxis: an observational cohort study. Lancet HIV. 2016 Aug 31. PMID: 27658870.
        View in: PubMed
      4. John M, Greene M, Hessol NA, Zepf R, Parrott AH, Foreman C, Bourgeois J, Gandhi M, Hare CB. Geriatric Assessments and Association With VACS Index Among HIV-Infected Older Adults in San Francisco. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Aug 15; 72(5):534-41. PMID: 27028497.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Pilcher CD, Ospina-Norvell C, Dasgupta A, Jones D, Hartogensis W, Torres S, Calderon F, Demicco E, Geng E, Gandhi M, Havlir DV, Hatano H. The Effect of Same-Day Observed Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy on HIV Viral Load and Treatment Outcomes in a U.S. Public Health Setting. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Jul 16. PMID: 27434707.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Gerona R, Wen A, Koss C, Bacchetti P, Gandhi M, Metcalfe J. A multi-analyte panel for non-invasive pharmacokinetic monitoring of second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 Jul; 20(7):991-2. PMID: 27287660.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Taylor TN, Munoz-Plaza CE, Goparaju L, Martinez O, Holman S, Minkoff HL, Karpiak SE, Gandhi M, Cohen MH, Golub ET, Levine AM, Adedimeji AA, Gonsalves R, Bryan T, Connors N, Schechter G, Wilson TE. "The Pleasure Is Better as I've Gotten Older": Sexual Health, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Older Women Living With HIV. Arch Sex Behav. 2016 May 24. PMID: 27220311.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Gerona R, Wen A, Chin AT, Koss CA, Bacchetti P, Metcalfe J, Gandhi M. Quantifying Isoniazid Levels in Small Hair Samples: A Novel Method for Assessing Adherence during the Treatment of Latent and Active Tuberculosis. PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155887. PMID: 27191185.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Hickey MD, Omollo D, Salmen CR, Mattah B, Blat C, Ouma GB, Fiorella KJ, Njoroge B, Gandhi M, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Geng EH. Movement between facilities for HIV care among a mobile population in Kenya: transfer, loss to follow-up, and reengagement. AIDS Care. 2016 May 4; 1-8. PMID: 27145451.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Phuphanich M, Rattanamahattana M, Avihingsanon A, Chetchotisakd P, Putcharoen O, Gandhi M, Sohn AH, Imrie J, Phanuphak P, Kerr SJ. A qualitative assessment of barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral adherence in Thai patients. J Virus Erad. 2016; 2(1):22-7. PMID: 27482431.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Salmen CR, Hickey MD, Fiorella KJ, Omollo D, Ouma G, Zoughbie D, Salmen MR, Magerenge R, Tessler R, Campbell H, Geng E, Gandhi M, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. "Wan Kanyakla" (We are together): Community transformations in Kenya following a social network intervention for HIV care. Soc Sci Med. 2015 Dec; 147:332-40. PMID: 26638145.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Patel RC, Onono M, Gandhi M, Blat C, Hagey J, Shade SB, Vittinghoff E, Bukusi EA, Newmann SJ, Cohen CR. Pregnancy rates in HIV-positive women using contraceptives and efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet HIV. 2015 Nov; 2(11):e474-82. PMID: 26520927; PMCID: PMC4632202 [Available on 11/01/16].
      13. Gwadz M, Cleland CM, Applegate E, Belkin M, Gandhi M, Salomon N, Banfield A, Leonard N, Riedel M, Wolfe H, Pickens I, Bolger K, Bowens D, Perlman D, Mildvan D. Behavioral intervention improves treatment outcomes among HIV-infected individuals who have delayed, declined, or discontinued antiretroviral therapy: a randomized controlled trial of a novel intervention. AIDS Behav. 2015 Oct; 19(10):1801-17. PMID: 25835462; PMCID: PMC4567451 [Available on 10/01/16].
      14. Prasitsuebsai W, Kerr SJ, Truong KH, Ananworanich J, Do VC, Nguyen LV, Kurniati N, Kosalaraksa P, Sudjaritruk T, Chokephaibulkit K, Thammajaruk N, Singtoroj T, Teeraananchai S, Horng H, Bacchetti P, Gandhi M, Sohn AH. Using Lopinavir Concentrations in Hair Samples to Assess Treatment Outcomes on Second-Line Regimens Among Asian Children. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2015 Oct; 31(10):1009-14. PMID: 26200586; PMCID: PMC4576945 [Available on 10/01/16].
      15. Hickey MD, Salmen CR, Omollo D, Mattah B, Fiorella KJ, Geng EH, Bacchetti P, Blat C, Ouma GB, Zoughbie D, Tessler RA, Salmen MR, Campbell H, Gandhi M, Shade S, Njoroge B, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Implementation and Operational Research: Pulling the Network Together: Quasiexperimental Trial of a Patient-Defined Support Network Intervention for Promoting Engagement in HIV Care and Medication Adherence on Mfangano Island, Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Aug 1; 69(4):e127-34. PMID: 25984711; PMCID: PMC4485532 [Available on 08/01/16].
      16. Baxi SM, Greenblatt RM, Bacchetti P, Jin C, French AL, Keller MJ, Augenbraun MH, Gange SJ, Liu C, Mack WJ, Gandhi M. Nevirapine Concentration in Hair Samples Is a Strong Predictor of Virologic Suppression in a Prospective Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0129100. PMID: 26053176; PMCID: PMC4460031.
      17. Taylor TN, Weedon J, Golub ET, Karpiak SE, Gandhi M, Cohen MH, Levine AM, Minkoff HL, Adedimeji AA, Goparaju L, Holman S, Wilson TE. Longitudinal Trends in Sexual Behaviors with Advancing Age and Menopause Among Women With and Without HIV-1 Infection. AIDS Behav. 2015 May; 19(5):931-40. PMID: 25245474; PMCID: PMC4370800 [Available on 05/01/16].
      18. Koss CA, Natureeba P, Mwesigwa J, Cohan D, Nzarubara B, Bacchetti P, Horng H, Clark TD, Plenty A, Ruel TD, Achan J, Charlebois ED, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Gandhi M. Hair concentrations of antiretrovirals predict viral suppression in HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding Ugandan women. AIDS. 2015 Apr 24; 29(7):825-30. PMID: 25985404; PMCID: PMC4438773 [Available on 04/24/16].
      19. Gandhi M, Glidden DV, Liu A, Anderson PL, Horng H, Defechereux P, Guanira JV, Grinsztejn B, Chariyalertsak S, Bekker LG, Grant RM. Strong Correlation Between Concentrations of Tenofovir (TFV) Emtricitabine (FTC) in Hair and TFV Diphosphate and FTC Triphosphate in Dried Blood Spots in the iPrEx Open Label Extension: Implications for Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Adherence Monitoring. J Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 1; 212(9):1402-6. PMID: 25895984; PMCID: PMC4601920 [Available on 11/01/16].
      20. Meffert SM, McCulloch CE, Neylan TC, Gandhi M, Lund C. Increase of perceived frequency of neighborhood domestic violence is associated with increase of women's depression symptoms in a nationally representative longitudinal study in South Africa. Soc Sci Med. 2015 Apr; 131:89-97. PMID: 25769107; PMCID: PMC4382311 [Available on 04/01/16].
      21. Cohan D, Natureeba P, Koss CA, Plenty A, Luwedde F, Mwesigwa J, Ades V, Charlebois ED, Gandhi M, Clark TD, Nzarubara B, Achan J, Ruel T, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected pregnant Ugandan women. AIDS. 2015 Jan 14; 29(2):183-91. PMID: 25426808; PMCID: PMC4428759 [Available on 01/14/16].
      22. Baxi SM, Liu A, Bacchetti P, Mutua G, Sanders EJ, Kibengo FM, Haberer JE, Rooney J, Hendrix CW, Anderson PL, Huang Y, Priddy F, Gandhi M. Comparing the novel method of assessing PrEP adherence/exposure using hair samples to other pharmacologic and traditional measures. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Jan 1; 68(1):13-20. PMID: 25296098; PMCID: PMC4262724.
      23. Wadhera P, Evans JL, Stein E, Gandhi M, Couture MC, Sansothy N, Sichan K, Maher L, Kaldor J, Page K, Kaldor J, Kien SP, Page K, Palefsky JM, Saphonn V, Vun MC. Human papillomavirus knowledge, vaccine acceptance, and vaccine series completion among female entertainment and sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: the Young Women's Health Study. Int J STD AIDS. 2015 Oct; 26(12):893-902. PMID: 25505042; PMCID: PMC4506266.
      24. Olds PK, Kiwanuka JP, Nansera D, Huang Y, Bacchetti P, Jin C, Gandhi M, Haberer JE. Assessment of HIV antiretroviral therapy adherence by measuring drug concentrations in hair among children in rural Uganda. AIDS Care. 2015; 27(3):327-32. PMID: 25483955; PMCID: PMC4305465 [Available on 03/01/16].
      25. Gandhi M, Gandhi RT. Single-pill regimens for HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 6; 371(19):1845-6. PMID: 25372099.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Johnson MO, Gandhi M. A mentor training program improves mentoring competency for researchers working with early-career investigators from underrepresented backgrounds. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2015 Aug; 20(3):683-9. PMID: 25274417; PMCID: PMC4383738 [Available on 08/01/16].
      27. Gandhi M, Gandhi RT. Single-pill combination regimens for treatment of HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jul 17; 371(3):248-59. PMID: 25014689.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Hickey MD, Salmen CR, Tessler RA, Omollo D, Bacchetti P, Magerenge R, Mattah B, Salmen MR, Zoughbie D, Fiorella KJ, Geng E, Njoroge B, Jin C, Huang Y, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Gandhi M. Antiretroviral concentrations in small hair samples as a feasible marker of adherence in rural Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Jul 1; 66(3):311-5. PMID: 24694932; PMCID: PMC4146734.
      29. Scherzer R, Gandhi M, Estrella MM, Tien PC, Deeks SG, Grunfeld C, Peralta CA, Shlipak MG. A chronic kidney disease risk score to determine tenofovir safety in a prospective cohort of HIV-positive male veterans. AIDS. 2014 Jun 1; 28(9):1289-95. PMID: 24922479; PMCID: PMC4188545.
      30. Gandhi M, Fernandez A, Stoff DM, Narahari S, Blank M, Fuchs J, Evans CH, Kahn JS, Johnson MO. Development and implementation of a workshop to enhance the effectiveness of mentors working with diverse mentees in HIV research. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Aug; 30(8):730-7. PMID: 24735004; PMCID: PMC4118696.
      31. Hessol NA, Weber KM, D'Souza G, Burton D, Young M, Milam J, Murchison L, Gandhi M, Cohen MH. Smoking cessation and recidivism in the Women's Interagency Human Immunodeficiency Virus Study. Am J Prev Med. 2014 Jul; 47(1):53-69. PMID: 24746376; PMCID: PMC4065848.
      32. Liu AY, Yang Q, Huang Y, Bacchetti P, Anderson PL, Jin C, Goggin K, Stojanovski K, Grant R, Buchbinder SP, Greenblatt RM, Gandhi M. Strong relationship between oral dose and tenofovir hair levels in a randomized trial: hair as a potential adherence measure for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e83736. PMID: 24421901; PMCID: PMC3885443.
      33. Baxi SM, Greenblatt RM, Bacchetti P, Scherzer R, Minkoff H, Huang Y, Anastos K, Cohen M, Gange SJ, Young M, Shlipak MG, Gandhi M. Common clinical conditions - age, low BMI, ritonavir use, mild renal impairment - affect tenofovir pharmacokinetics in a large cohort of HIV-infected women. AIDS. 2014 Jan 2; 28(1):59-66. PMID: 24275255; PMCID: PMC3956315.
      34. Gandhi M, Yang Q, Bacchetti P, Huang Y. Short communication: A low-cost method for analyzing nevirapine levels in hair as a marker of adherence in resource-limited settings. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Jan; 30(1):25-8. PMID: 24164410; PMCID: PMC3887402.
      35. McFall AM, Dowdy DW, Zelaya CE, Murphy K, Wilson TE, Young MA, Gandhi M, Cohen MH, Golub ET, Althoff KN. Understanding the disparity: predictors of virologic failure in women using highly active antiretroviral therapy vary by race and/or ethnicity. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Nov 1; 64(3):289-98. PMID: 23797695; PMCID: PMC3816935.
      36. Murphy K, Hoover DR, Shi Q, Cohen M, Gandhi M, Golub ET, Gustafson DR, Pearce CL, Young M, Anastos K. Association of self-reported race with AIDS death in continuous HAART users in a cohort of HIV-infected women in the United States. AIDS. 2013 Sep 24; 27(15):2413-23. PMID: 24037210; PMCID: PMC3815041.
      37. Bartelink IH, Savic RM, Mwesigwa J, Achan J, Clark T, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Kamya M, Young SL, Gandhi M, Havlir D, Cohan D, Aweeka F. Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz in food insecure HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women in Tororo, Uganda. J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Feb; 54(2):121-32. PMID: 24038035; PMCID: PMC3933454.
      38. Bartelink IH, Savic R, Mwesigwa J, Achan J, Clark T, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Kamya M, Young SL, Gandhi M, Havlir D, Cohan D, Aweeka F . . Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz in malnourished HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women in Tororo, Uganda. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (in press). 2013.
      39. Baxi SM, Greenblatt RM, Bacchetti P, Schwerzer R, Minkoff H, Huang Y, Anastos K, Cohen M, Gange SJ, Young M, Shlipak MS, Gandhi M. . Common Clinical Conditions - Age, Low BMI, Ritonavir Use, Mild Renal Impairment - Affect Tenofovir Pharmacokinetics in a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected Women. AIDS (in press). 2013.
      40. Gandhi M, Mwesigwa J, Aweeka F, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel TD, Huang Y, Clark T, Ades V, Natureeba P, Luwedde FA, Achan J, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D. . Hair and Plasma Data Show that Lopinavir, Ritonavir and Efavirenz All Transfer from Mother to Infant in Utero, but only Efavirenz Transfers via Breastfeeding. JAIDS Aug 63(5): 578-584. 2013.
      41. Gandhi M, Mwesigwa J, Aweeka F, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel TD, Huang Y, Clark T, Ades V, Natureeba P, Luwedde FA, Achan J, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D. Hair and plasma data show that lopinavir, ritonavir, and efavirenz all transfer from mother to infant in utero, but only efavirenz transfers via breastfeeding. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Aug 15; 63(5):578-84. PMID: 24135775; PMCID: PMC3800282.
      42. Koita K, Novotny J, Kunene S, Zulu Z, Ntshalintshali N, Gandhi M, Gosling R. Targeting imported malaria through social networks: a potential strategy for malaria elimination in Swaziland. Malar J. 2013; 12:219. PMID: 23805843; PMCID: PMC3710236.
      43. Oboho I, Abraham AG, Benning L, Anastos K, Sharma A, Young M, Burian P, Gandhi M, Cohen M, Szczech L. Tenofovir use and urinary biomarkers among HIV-infected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Apr 1; 62(4):388-95. PMID: 23254151; PMCID: PMC3692572.
      44. Baxi S and Gandhi M. . Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. An Incidental Abscess in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. 2012; 6(20):405-406.
      45. Geng EH, Hare CB, Kahn JO, Jain V, Van Nunnery T, Christopoulos KA, Deeks SG, Gandhi M, Havlir DV. The effect of a "universal antiretroviral therapy" recommendation on HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected patients entering care with a CD4 count greater than 500/┬ÁL in a public health setting. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Dec; 55(12):1690-7. PMID: 22955429; PMCID: PMC3501330.
      46. Gandhi M, Greenblatt RM, Bacchetti P, Jin C, Huang Y, Anastos K, Cohen M, Dehovitz JA, Sharp GB, Gange SJ, Liu C, Hanson SC, Aouizerat B. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in CYP2B6 leads to >3-fold increases in efavirenz concentrations in plasma and hair among HIV-infected women. J Infect Dis. 2012 Nov; 206(9):1453-61. PMID: 22927450; PMCID: PMC3466997.
      47. Brady CJ, Villanti AC, Gandhi M, Friedman DS, Keay L. Visual function after correction of distance refractive error with ready-made and custom spectacles: a randomized clinical trial. Ophthalmology. 2012 Oct; 119(10):2014-20. PMID: 22705346.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Merenstein D, Wang C, Gandhi M, Robison E, Levine AM, Schwartz RM, Weber KM, Liu C. An investigation of the possible interaction between the use of Vitamin C and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence and effectiveness in treated HIV+ women. Complement Ther Med. 2012 Aug; 20(4):222-7. PMID: 22579434; PMCID: PMC3351689.
      49. Liu C, Wang C, Robison E, Levine AM, Gandhi M, Schwartz R, Weber KM, Merenstein D. Short-term garlic supplementation and highly active antiretroviral treatment adherence, CD4+ cell counts, and human immunodeficiency virus viral load. Altern Ther Health Med. 2012 Jan-Feb; 18(1):18-22. PMID: 22516847; PMCID: PMC3376904.
      50. Geng EH, Kahn JS, Chang OC, Hare CB, Christopoulos KA, Jones D, Petersen ML, Deeks SG, Havlir DV, Gandhi M. The effect of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 5164 on the time from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnosis to antiretroviral initiation in routine clinical practice: a case study of diffusion, dissemination, and implementation. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Nov; 53(10):1008-14. PMID: 21960715; PMCID: PMC3193829.
      51. Huang Y, Yang Q, Yoon K, Lei Y, Shi R, Gee W, Lin ET, Greenblatt RM, Gandhi M. Microanalysis of the antiretroviral nevirapine in human hair from HIV-infected patients by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 Oct; 401(6):1923-33. PMID: 21847531; PMCID: PMC3477620.
      52. Ikediobi O, Aouizerat B, Xiao Y, Gandhi M, Gebhardt S, Warnich L. Analysis of pharmacogenetic traits in two distinct South African populations. Hum Genomics. 2011 May; 5(4):265-82. PMID: 21712189; PMCID: PMC3525241.
      53. Gandhi M, Ameli N, Bacchetti P, Anastos K, Gange SJ, Minkoff H, Young M, Milam J, Cohen MH, Sharp GB, Huang Y, Greenblatt RM. Atazanavir concentration in hair is the strongest predictor of outcomes on antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May; 52(10):1267-75. PMID: 21507924; PMCID: PMC3079399.
      54. Chandy S, Singh G, Heylen E, Gandhi M, Ekstrand ML. Treatment switching in South Indian patients on HAART: what are the predictors and consequences? AIDS Care. 2011 May; 23(5):569-77. PMID: 21293988; PMCID: PMC3633559.
      55. van Zyl GU, van Mens TE, McIlleron H, Zeier M, Nachega JB, Decloedt E, Malavazzi C, Smith P, Huang Y, van der Merwe L, Gandhi M, Maartens G. Low lopinavir plasma or hair concentrations explain second-line protease inhibitor failures in a resource-limited setting. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Apr; 56(4):333-9. PMID: 21239995; PMCID: PMC3073814.
      56. Brady CJ, Keay L, Villanti A, Ali FS, Gandhi M, Massof RW, Friedman DS. Validation of a visual function and quality of life instrument in an urban Indian population with uncorrected refractive error using Rasch analysis. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010 Oct; 17(5):282-91. PMID: 20868254.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Keay L, Gandhi M, Brady C, Ali FS, Mathur U, Munoz B, Friedman DS. A randomized clinical trial to evaluate ready-made spectacles in an adult population in India. Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Jun; 39(3):877-88. PMID: 20147300.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Liu C, Yang Y, Gange SJ, Weber K, Sharp GB, Wilson TE, Levine A, Robison E, Goparaju L, Gandhi M, Ganhdi M, Merenstein D. Disclosure of complementary and alternative medicine use to health care providers among HIV-infected women. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009 Nov; 23(11):965-71. PMID: 19821723; PMCID: PMC2801553.
      59. Iobst S, Gandhi M. The feminization of an epidemic. Women and HIV in the United States. Posit Aware. 2009 Jul-Aug; 20(4):34-9. PMID: 19653375.
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      60. Gandhi M, Benet LZ, Bacchetti P, Kalinowski A, Anastos K, Wolfe AR, Young M, Cohen M, Minkoff H, Gange SJ, Greenblatt RM. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor pharmacokinetics in a large unselected cohort of HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Apr 15; 50(5):482-91. PMID: 19408353; PMCID: PMC2700138.
      61. Merenstein D, Schneider MF, Cox C, Schwartz R, Weber K, Robison E, Gandhi M, Richardson J, Plankey MW. Association of child care burden and household composition with adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009 Apr; 23(4):289-96. PMID: 19243274; PMCID: PMC2674283.
      62. Gandhi M, Ameli N, Bacchetti P, Gange SJ, Anastos K, Levine A, Hyman CL, Cohen M, Young M, Huang Y, Greenblatt RM. Protease inhibitor levels in hair strongly predict virologic response to treatment. AIDS. 2009 Feb 20; 23(4):471-8. PMID: 19165084; PMCID: PMC2654235.
      63. Huang Y, Gandhi M, Greenblatt RM, Gee W, Lin ET, Messenkoff N. Sensitive analysis of anti-HIV drugs, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2008 Nov; 22(21):3401-9. PMID: 18837069; PMCID: PMC2669487.
      64. Merenstein D, Yang Y, Schneider MF, Goparaju L, Weber K, Sharma A, Levine AM, Sharp GB, Gandhi M, Liu C. Association of complementary and alternative medicine use with highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation. Altern Ther Health Med. 2008 Sep-Oct; 14(5):18-22. PMID: 18780580; PMCID: PMC2651402.
      65. Szczech LA, Golub ET, Springer G, Augenbraun M, Young M, Gandhi M, Gillepsie BS, Anastos K. Highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces urinary albumin excretion in women with HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Jul 1; 48(3):360-1. PMID: 18580338.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Merenstein DJ, Schneider MF, Cox C, Schwartz R, Weber K, Robison E, Gandhi M, Richardson J, Plankey MW. Association between living with children and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Pediatrics. 2008 Apr; 121(4):e787-93. PMID: 18381507; PMCID: PMC2651400.
      67. Golub ET, Benning L, Sharma A, Gandhi M, Cohen MH, Young M, Gange SJ. Patterns, predictors, and consequences of initial regimen type among HIV-infected women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 15; 46(2):305-12. PMID: 18171267.
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      68. Liu C, Lerch V, Weber K, Schneider MF, Sharp GB, Gorapaju L, Sharma A, Levine A, Gandhi M, Merenstein D. Association between complementary and alternative medicine use and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Dec; 13(10):1053-6. PMID: 18166114.
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      69. Riley ED, Gandhi M, Hare C, Cohen J, Hwang S. Poverty, unstable housing, and HIV infection among women living in the United States. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2007 Dec; 4(4):181-6. PMID: 18366949.
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      70. Wilson TE, Feldman J, Vega MY, Gandhi M, Richardson J, Cohen MH, McKaig R, Ostrow D, Robison E, Gange SJ. Acquisition of new sexual partners among women with HIV infection: patterns of disclosure and sexual behavior within new partnerships. AIDS Educ Prev. 2007 Apr; 19(2):151-9. PMID: 17411417.
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      71. Feldman JG, Minkoff H, Schneider MF, Gange SJ, Cohen M, Watts DH, Gandhi M, Mocharnuk RS, Anastos K. Association of cigarette smoking with HIV prognosis among women in the HAART era: a report from the women's interagency HIV study. Am J Public Health. 2006 Jun; 96(6):1060-5. PMID: 16670229; PMCID: PMC1470629.
      72. Gandhi M, Ameli N, Bacchetti P, Sharp GB, French AL, Young M, Gange SJ, Anastos K, Holman S, Levine A, Greenblatt RM. Eligibility criteria for HIV clinical trials and generalizability of results: the gap between published reports and study protocols. AIDS. 2005 Nov 4; 19(16):1885-96. PMID: 16227797.
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      73. Silverberg MJ, Gore ME, French AL, Gandhi M, Glesby MJ, Kovacs A, Wilson TE, Young MA, Gange SJ. Prevalence of clinical symptoms associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 1; 39(5):717-24. PMID: 15356788; PMCID: PMC3118991.
      74. Gandhi M, Koelle D, Ameli N, Bacchetti P, Greenspan J, Navazesh M, Anastos K, Greenblatt RM . . Journal of Dental Research. Salivary shedding of human herpesvirus-8 among HIV-infected women is more frequent at higher CD4 cell counts. 2004; 3(83):639-643.
      75. Gandhi M, Aweeka F, Greenblatt RM, Blaschke TF. Sex differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2004; 44:499-523. PMID: 14744256.
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      76. Gandhi M, Greenblatt RM. Human herpesvirus 8, Kaposi's sarcoma, and associated conditions. Clin Lab Med. 2002 Dec; 22(4):883-910. PMID: 12489286.
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      77. Gandhi M, Greenblatt RM. Hair it is: the long and short of monitoring antiretroviral treatment. Ann Intern Med. 2002 Oct 15; 137(8):696-7. PMID: 12379072.
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      78. Gandhi M, Bacchetti P, Miotti P, Quinn TC, Veronese F, Greenblatt RM. Does patient sex affect human immunodeficiency virus levels? Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Aug 1; 35(3):313-22. PMID: 12115098.
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