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    Paul Green, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Dentistry
    DepartmentPreventive & Restor Dent Sci
    Address513 Parnassus Ave, Med Sci
    San Francisco CA 94122
    Phone415-476-4902
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      Collapse Overview
      My recent research has focused on mechanisms underlying chronic muscle pain, a very common clinical complaint that is extremely difficult to treat, in large part due to the lack of understanding of underlying mechanisms. I have developed two new animals models of ergonomic muscle pain (vibration and eccentric exercise), which together with inflammatory mediator-induced muscle pain will facilitate our investigation into the cellular mechanisms underlying the critical transition from acute to chronic muscle pain. In collaboration with Drs. Dina, Alvarez and Levine, we have found that the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, that is produced during acute muscle inflammation mediates the production of a chronic-latent hyperalgesic state in which a subsequent exposure to inflammatory mediators produce a markedly prolonged mechanical hyperalgesia (i.e. analogous to transition from acute to chronic muscle pain) (Dina et al., Neuroscience 152:521-25, 2008; Alvarez et al, Eur J Neurosci 32:819-25, 2010). Furthermore, we have discovered that chronic-latent hyperalgesia produced by the inflammogen, carrageenan, is dependent on protein kinase Ce, a second messenger implicated in long-lasting plasticity in cutaneous nociceptors (Dina et al., J Pain 9:457-62, 2008). We have also observed that exposure to vibration produces neuropathic-like changes in the nociceptor (Chen et al., Pain 151:460-6, 2010). Vibration or eccentric exercise induced muscle pain appears to be restricted to one nociceptor phenotype, the isolectin B4-positive nociceptor (Alvarez, et al., Exp Neurol 233:859-65, 2012).
      I have also helped develop animal models of fibromyalgia syndrome and other widespread pain conditions, in the rat. Firstly, rats exposed to unpredictable sound stress develop a delayed onset enhancement and prolongation of cytokine-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in muscle and skin. This unpredictable sound stress model in the rat demonstrates several features (cutaneous, musculoskeletal, and visceral hyperalgesia, as well as anxiety) that are found in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Thus, this model may be used to test hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms and response to therapy in patients with fibromyalgia (Green et al. J Pain 12:811-8, 2011). Secondly, we evaluated activity in nociceptors innervating the gastrocnemius muscle in rats exposed to water avoidance stress. This stressor, which produces mechanical hyperalgesia in skeletal muscle, decreased mechanical threshold of muscle nociceptors and markedly increased the number of action potentials and conduction velocity in nociceptor. Thirdly, we evaluated cutaneous and muscle nociception and activity in muscle nociceptors in an animal model of neonatal stress, limited bedding (NLB), in the rat. NLB treatment produced both mechanical muscle hyperalgesia (and prolonged hyperalgesia to prostaglandin), as well as lower threshold and increased conduction velocity in muscle nociceptors (Green et al., Pain 152:2549-56, 2011).
      As part of my Tobacco-Related Disease Program funded research, I investigated the sexually dimorphic effects of nicotine on key components of inflammation. I observed that in vivo administration of nicotine increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neutrophils from both males and females. However, there is a sexually dimorphic adrenal medulla-dependence in this effect, since after adrenal medullectomy nicotine increases ROS generation in males but inhibits it in females. Chronic nicotine, inhibits ROS production in neutrophils from females, but has no effect in males. Chronic nicotine inhibited macrophage phagocytosis in females, but not males, an effect abolished by adrenal medullectomy, suggesting a dependence on an adrenal medulla factor. Chronic nicotine also markedly enhanced the ability of the inflammatory agent, bradykinin, to increase plasma extravasation component of inflammation, in females but not in males. These results (manuscripts in preparation) show that nicotine significantly affects several aspects of the inflammatory response, and some of these effects of nicotine exhibit sex differences, that may, at least in part, underlie the sex differences in the effects of smoking on chronic diseases.
      I am also continuing to investigate the influence of sexually dimorphic neuroendocrine pathways on the inflammatory response. Specifically, I have been investigating the effect of sex and sex steroids on role of the sympathoadrenal axis, which is activated by stress, on several components of inflammation viz. plasma protein extravasation, leukocyte recruitment, phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation. Since the adrenal medulla is a principal organ of the stress response, I have been assessing the effect of activation of stress axes by different forms of stress stimuli on the inflammatory response. This research has important implications since stress exacerbates signs and symptoms of inflammatory diseases in humans and in animal models. I have shown that both the duration and severity of stress differentially affects the inflammatory response, probably by differential activation of the stress axes. I have shown that there is a striking sexual dimorphism in the effect of stress on plasma extravasation in that non-habituating stress markedly enhances plasma protein extravasation in female rats (Green & Levine, Eur. J. Pharmacol, 2005). In my recent studies on leukocyte recruitment, I have shown that stress markedly enhanced neutrophil recruitment in male rats, but not in females (Barker et al., Br. J. Pharmcol. 2005). This effect is dependent on sex steroids and on an intact sympathoadrenal system. I have also studied the effect of sympathoadrenal modulation on human leukocyte function in has been investigated, in collaboration with colleagues. These studies have shown that there is a marked sexual dimorphism in ß2-adrenergic receptor binding (the receptor that binds the principal adrenal medulla-derived stress hormone, epinephrine) as well as in ß-adrenergic-stimulated non-directed locomotion (chemokinesis) (de Coupade et al., Br. J. Pharmacol. 2004). I have also shown the important role played by ß2-adrenergic receptors in leukocyte migration by employing ß2-adrenergic receptor knock-out mice (de Coupade et al., J. Neuroimmunol. 2005).


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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Ferrari LF, Bogen O, Green P, Levine JD. Contribution of Piezo2 to Endothelium-Dependent Pain. Mol Pain. 2015 Jan; 11. PMID: 27655920.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Niwa M, Aoki H, Hirata A, Tomita H, Green PG, Hara A. Retinal Cell Degeneration in Animal Models. Int J Mol Sci. 2015; 17(1). PMID: 26784179.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Ferrari LF, Levine JD, Green PG. Mechanisms mediating nitroglycerin-induced delayed-onset hyperalgesia in the rat. Neuroscience. 2016 Mar 11; 317:121-9. PMID: 26779834.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Ferrari LF, Bogen O, Green P, Levine JD. Contribution of Piezo2 to endothelium-dependent pain. Mol Pain. 2015; 11(1):65. PMID: 26497944; PMCID: PMC4619430.
      5. Green PG, Alvarez P, Levine JD. Topical Tetrodotoxin Attenuates Photophobia Induced by Corneal Injury in the Rat. J Pain. 2015 Sep; 16(9):881-6. PMID: 26086898; PMCID: PMC4664153 [Available on 09/01/16].
      6. Alvarez P, Levine JD, Green PG. Neonatal handling (resilience) attenuates water-avoidance stress induced enhancement of chronic mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2015 Mar 30; 591:207-11. PMID: 25637700.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Joseph EK, Green PG, Ferrari LF, Levine JD. Homocysteine-induced attenuation of vascular endothelium-dependent hyperalgesia in the rat. Neuroscience. 2015 Jan 22; 284:678-84. PMID: 25451284; PMCID: PMC4267916 [Available on 01/22/16].
      8. Joseph EK, Green PG, Levine JD. ATP release mechanisms of endothelial cell-mediated stimulus-dependent hyperalgesia. J Pain. 2014 Jul; 15(7):771-7. PMID: 24793242; PMCID: PMC4264525.
      9. Chen X, Green PG, Levine JD. Does the antihyperalgesic disruptor of endothelial cells, octoxynol-9, alter nociceptor function? J Neurophysiol. 2014 Jul 15; 112(2):463-6. PMID: 24790171; PMCID: PMC4064416.
      10. Alvarez P, Green PG, Levine JD. Role for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the induction of chronic muscle pain in the rat. Pain. 2014 Jun; 155(6):1161-7. PMID: 24637038; PMCID: PMC4303347.
      11. Jänig W, Green PG. Acute inflammation in the joint: its control by the sympathetic nervous system and by neuroendocrine systems. Auton Neurosci. 2014 May; 182:42-54. PMID: 24530113.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Reichling DB, Green PG, Levine JD. The fundamental unit of pain is the cell. Pain. 2013 Dec; 154 Suppl 1. PMID: 24347805.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Gear RW, Bogen O, Ferrari LF, Green PG, Levine JD. NOP receptor mediates anti-analgesia induced by agonist-antagonist opioids. Neuroscience. 2014 Jan 17; 257:139-48. PMID: 24188792; PMCID: PMC3947912.
      14. Reichling DB, Green PG, Levine JD. The fundamental unit of pain is the cell. Pain. 2013 Dec; 154 Suppl 1:S2-9. PMID: 23711480.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Alvarez P, Green PG, Levine JD. Stress in the adult rat exacerbates muscle pain induced by early-life stress. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Nov 1; 74(9):688-95. PMID: 23706525; PMCID: PMC3760993.
      16. Joseph EK, Green PG, Bogen O, Alvarez P, Levine JD. Vascular endothelial cells mediate mechanical stimulation-induced enhancement of endothelin hyperalgesia via activation of P2X2/3 receptors on nociceptors. J Neurosci. 2013 Feb 13; 33(7):2849-59. PMID: 23407944; PMCID: PMC3711399.
      17. Alvarez P, Chen X, Hendrich J, Irwin JC, Green PG, Giudice LC, Levine JD. Ectopic uterine tissue as a chronic pain generator. Neuroscience. 2012 Dec 6; 225:269-82. PMID: 22922120; PMCID: PMC3479308.
      18. Alvarez P, Chen X, Bogen O, Green PG, Levine JD. IB4(+) nociceptors mediate persistent muscle pain induced by GDNF. J Neurophysiol. 2012 Nov; 108(9):2545-53. PMID: 22914655; PMCID: PMC3545184.
      19. Parada CA, Tambeli CH, Green PG, Cairns BE. Primary afferent nociceptor as a target for the relief of pain. Pain Res Treat. 2012; 2012:348043. PMID: 22550578; PMCID: PMC3324912.
      20. Alvarez P, Gear RW, Green PG, Levine JD. IB4-saporin attenuates acute and eliminates chronic muscle pain in the rat. Exp Neurol. 2012 Feb; 233(2):859-65. PMID: 22206923; PMCID: PMC3272112.
      21. Green PG, Chen X, Alvarez P, Ferrari LF, Levine JD. Early-life stress produces muscle hyperalgesia and nociceptor sensitization in the adult rat. Pain. 2011 Nov; 152(11):2549-56. PMID: 21864980; PMCID: PMC3199316.
      22. Chen X, Green PG, Levine JD. Abnormal muscle afferent function in a model of Taxol chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy. J Neurophysiol. 2011 Jul; 106(1):274-9. PMID: 21562188; PMCID: PMC3129739.
      23. Chen X, Green PG, Levine JD. Stress enhances muscle nociceptor activity in the rat. Neuroscience. 2011 Jun 30; 185:166-73. PMID: 21513773; PMCID: PMC3101313.
      24. Green PG, Alvarez P, Gear RW, Mendoza D, Levine JD. Further validation of a model of fibromyalgia syndrome in the rat. J Pain. 2011 Jul; 12(7):811-8. PMID: 21481648; PMCID: PMC3130888.
      25. Dina OA, Levine JD, Green PG. Enhanced cytokine-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in skeletal muscle produced by a novel mechanism in rats exposed to unpredictable sound stress. Eur J Pain. 2011 Sep; 15(8):796-800. PMID: 21419675; PMCID: PMC3123688.
      26. Chen X, Green PG, Levine JD. Neuropathic pain-like alterations in muscle nociceptor function associated with vibration-induced muscle pain. Pain. 2010 Nov; 151(2):460-6. PMID: 20800357; PMCID: PMC2932645.
      27. Alvarez P, Levine JD, Green PG. Eccentric exercise induces chronic alterations in musculoskeletal nociception in the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2010 Sep; 32(5):819-25. PMID: 20726881; PMCID: PMC2974795.
      28. Dina OA, Joseph EK, Levine JD, Green PG. Mechanisms mediating vibration-induced chronic musculoskeletal pain analyzed in the rat. J Pain. 2010 Apr; 11(4):369-77. PMID: 19962353; PMCID: PMC2847637.
      29. Khasar SG, Dina OA, Green PG, Levine JD. Sound stress-induced long-term enhancement of mechanical hyperalgesia in rats is maintained by sympathoadrenal catecholamines. J Pain. 2009 Oct; 10(10):1073-7. PMID: 19576859; PMCID: PMC2757466.
      30. Brown AS, Levine JD, Green PG. Sexual dimorphism in the effect of sound stress on neutrophil function. J Neuroimmunol. 2008 Dec 15; 205(1-2):25-31. PMID: 18838177.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Dina OA, Khasar SG, Alessandri-Haber N, Bogen O, Chen X, Green PG, Reichling DB, Messing RO, Levine JD. Neurotoxic catecholamine metabolite in nociceptors contributes to painful peripheral neuropathy. Eur J Neurosci. 2008 Sep; 28(6):1180-90. PMID: 18783367; PMCID: PMC2746092.
      32. Khasar SG, Burkham J, Dina OA, Brown AS, Bogen O, Alessandri-Haber N, Green PG, Reichling DB, Levine JD. Stress induces a switch of intracellular signaling in sensory neurons in a model of generalized pain. J Neurosci. 2008 May 28; 28(22):5721-30. PMID: 18509033; PMCID: PMC2518401.
      33. Dina OA, Levine JD, Green PG. Muscle inflammation induces a protein kinase Cepsilon-dependent chronic-latent muscle pain. J Pain. 2008 May; 9(5):457-62. PMID: 18342576; PMCID: PMC2424185.
      34. Dina OA, Green PG, Levine JD. Role of interleukin-6 in chronic muscle hyperalgesic priming. Neuroscience. 2008 Mar 18; 152(2):521-5. PMID: 18280048; PMCID: PMC2336107.
      35. Dina OA, Khasar SG, Alessandri-Haber N, Green PG, Messing RO, Levine JD. Alcohol-induced stress in painful alcoholic neuropathy. Eur J Neurosci. 2008 Jan; 27(1):83-92. PMID: 18093169.
        View in: PubMed
      36. de Coupade C, Brown AS, Dazin PF, Levine JD, Green PG. beta(2)-Adrenergic receptor-dependent sexual dimorphism for murine leukocyte migration. J Neuroimmunol. 2007 May; 186(1-2):54-62. PMID: 17442405; PMCID: PMC1994158.
      37. Summer GJ, Puntillo KA, Miaskowski C, Green PG, Levine JD. Burn injury pain: the continuing challenge. J Pain. 2007 Jul; 8(7):533-48. PMID: 17434800.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Summer GJ, Puntillo KA, Miaskowski C, Dina OA, Green PG, Levine JD. TrkA and PKC-epsilon in thermal burn-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat. J Pain. 2006 Dec; 7(12):884-91. PMID: 17157774.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Levine JD, Khasar SG, Green PG. Neurogenic inflammation and arthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Jun; 1069:155-67. PMID: 16855143.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Barker LA, Dazin PF, Levine JD, Green PG. Sympathoadrenal-dependent sexually dimorphic effect of nonhabituating stress on in vivo neutrophil recruitment in the rat. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Aug; 145(7):872-9. PMID: 15912135; PMCID: PMC1576213.
      41. Khasar SG, Green PG, Levine JD. Repeated sound stress enhances inflammatory pain in the rat. Pain. 2005 Jul; 116(1-2):79-86. PMID: 15936144.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Khasar SG, Dina OA, Green PG, Levine JD. Estrogen regulates adrenal medullary function producing sexual dimorphism in nociceptive threshold and beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated hyperalgesia in the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Jun; 21(12):3379-86. PMID: 16026475.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Green PG. Gastrin-releasing peptide, substance P and cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005; 7(3):111-3. PMID: 15899059; PMCID: PMC1174968.
      44. Green PG, Levine JD. Sexual dimorphism in the effect of nonhabituating stress on neurogenic plasma extravasation. Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Jan; 21(2):486-92. PMID: 15673447.
        View in: PubMed
      45. de Coupade C, Gear RW, Dazin PF, Sroussi HY, Green PG, Levine JD. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor regulation of human neutrophil function is sexually dimorphic. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Dec; 143(8):1033-41. PMID: 15477226; PMCID: PMC1575953.
      46. Miao FJ, Green PG, Benowitz N, Levine JD. Central terminals of nociceptors are targets for nicotine suppression of inflammation. Neuroscience. 2004; 123(3):777-84. PMID: 14706790.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Miao FJ, Green PG, Levine JD. Mechanosensitive duodenal afferents contribute to vagal modulation of inflammation in the rat. J Physiol. 2004 Jan 1; 554(Pt 1):227-35. PMID: 14678504; PMCID: PMC1664747.
      48. Miao FJ, Green P, Benowitz N, Levine JD. Vagal modulation of spinal nicotine-induced inhibition of the inflammatory response mediated by descending antinociceptive controls. Neuropharmacology. 2003 Oct; 45(5):605-11. PMID: 12941374.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Khasar SG, Miao FJ, Gear RW, Green PG, Levine JD. Vagal modulation of bradykinin-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in the female rat. J Pain. 2003 Jun; 4(5):278-83. PMID: 14622697.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Khasar SG, Green PG, Gear RW, Isenberg W, Levine JD. Gonadal hormones do not account for sexual dimorphism in vagal modulation of nociception in the rat. J Pain. 2003 May; 4(4):190-6. PMID: 14622703.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Strausbaugh HJ, Green PG, Dallman MF, Levine JD. Repeated, non-habituating stress suppresses inflammatory plasma extravasation by a novel, sympathoadrenal dependent mechanism. Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Feb; 17(4):805-12. PMID: 12603270.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Khasar SG, Green PG, Miao FJ, Levine JD. Vagal modulation of nociception is mediated by adrenomedullary epinephrine in the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Feb; 17(4):909-15. PMID: 12603283.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Khasar SG, Reichling DB, Green PG, Isenberg WM, Levine JD. Fasting is a physiological stimulus of vagus-mediated enhancement of nociception in the female rat. Neuroscience. 2003; 119(1):215-21. PMID: 12763082.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Khasar SG, Miao FJ, Gear RW, Green PG, Isenberg WM, Levine JD. Sympathetic-independent bradykinin mechanical hyperalgesia induced by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in the rat. J Pain. 2002 Oct; 3(5):369-76. PMID: 14622740.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Schmidt BL, Tambeli CH, Barletta J, Luo L, Green P, Levine JD, Gear RW. Altered nucleus accumbens circuitry mediates pain-induced antinociception in morphine-tolerant rats. J Neurosci. 2002 Aug 1; 22(15):6773-80. PMID: 12151557.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Jasmin L, Tien D, Weinshenker D, Palmiter RD, Green PG, Janni G, Ohara PT. The NK1 receptor mediates both the hyperalgesia and the resistance to morphine in mice lacking noradrenaline. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jan 22; 99(2):1029-34. PMID: 11805341; PMCID: PMC117425.
      57. Green PG, Dahlqvist SR, Isenberg WM, Miao FJ, Levine JD. Role of adrenal medulla in development of sexual dimorphism in inflammation. Eur J Neurosci. 2001 Nov; 14(9):1436-44. PMID: 11722605.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Khasar SG, Isenberg WM, Miao FJ, Gear RW, Green PG, Levine JD. Gender and gonadal hormone effects on vagal modulation of tonic nociception. J Pain. 2001 Apr; 2(2):91-100. PMID: 14622830.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Taylor BK, Peterson MA, Roderick RE, Tate J, Green PG, Levine JO, Basbaum AI. Opioid inhibition of formalin-induced changes in plasma extravasation and local blood flow in rats. Pain. 2000 Feb; 84(2-3):263-70. PMID: 10666531.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Lo EJ, Green PG, Miao FJ, Relchling DB, Levine JD. Bradykinin-induced neurogenic migration of neutrophils into the rat knee joint. Neuroreport. 1999 Dec 16; 10(18):3821-4. PMID: 10716216.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Strausbaugh HJ, Green PG, Lo E, Tangemann K, Reichling DB, Rosen SD, Levine JD. Painful stimulation suppresses joint inflammation by inducing shedding of L-selectin from neutrophils. Nat Med. 1999 Sep; 5(9):1057-61. PMID: 10470085.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Khasar SG, Lin YH, Martin A, Dadgar J, McMahon T, Wang D, Hundle B, Aley KO, Isenberg W, McCarter G, Green PG, Hodge CW, Levine JD, Messing RO. A novel nociceptor signaling pathway revealed in protein kinase C epsilon mutant mice. Neuron. 1999 Sep; 24(1):253-60. PMID: 10677042.
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      63. Green PG, Dahlqvist SR, Isenberg WM, Strausbaugh HJ, Miao FJ, Levine JD. Sex steroid regulation of the inflammatory response: sympathoadrenal dependence in the female rat. J Neurosci. 1999 May 15; 19(10):4082-9. PMID: 10234036.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Green PG, Strausbaugh HJ, Levine JD. Annexin I is a local mediator in neural-endocrine feedback control of inflammation. J Neurophysiol. 1998 Dec; 80(6):3120-6. PMID: 9862910.
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      65. Green PG, Miao FJ, Strausbaugh H, Heller P, Janig W, Levine JD. Endocrine and vagal controls of sympathetically dependent neurogenic inflammation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 May 1; 840:282-8. PMID: 9629256.
        View in: PubMed
      66. Miao FJ, Jänig W, Green PG, Levine JD. Inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation produced by noxious cutaneous and visceral stimuli and its modulation by vagal activity. J Neurophysiol. 1997 Sep; 78(3):1285-92. PMID: 9310420.
        View in: PubMed
      67. Green PG, Jänig W, Levine JD. Negative feedback neuroendocrine control of inflammatory response in the rat is dependent on the sympathetic postganglionic neuron. J Neurosci. 1997 May 1; 17(9):3234-8. PMID: 9157197.
        View in: PubMed
      68. Miao FJ, Jänig W, Green PG, Levine JD. Inhibition of bradykinin-induced synovial plasma extravasation produced by intrathecal nicotine is mediated by the hypothalamopituitary adrenal axis. J Neurophysiol. 1996 Nov; 76(5):2813-21. PMID: 8930234.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Miao FJ, Khasar SG, Green PG, Levine JD. Tachyphylaxis develops to bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Apr 19; 208(2):143-5. PMID: 8859910.
        View in: PubMed
      70. Miao FJ, Green PG, Coderre TJ, Jänig W, Levine JD. Sympathetic-dependence in bradykinin-induced synovial plasma extravasation is dose-related. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Mar 1; 205(3):165-8. PMID: 8852584.
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      71. Aley KO, Green PG, Levine JD. Opioid and adenosine peripheral antinociception are subject to tolerance and withdrawal. J Neurosci. 1995 Dec; 15(12):8031-8. PMID: 8613740.
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      72. Pierce PA, Xie GX, Peroutka SJ, Green PG, Levine JD. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-induced synovial plasma extravasation is mediated via 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptors on sympathetic efferent terminals. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Oct; 275(1):502-8. PMID: 7562592.
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      73. Khasar SG, Wang JF, Taiwo YO, Heller PH, Green PG, Levine JD. Mu-opioid agonist enhancement of prostaglandin-induced hyperalgesia in the rat: a G-protein beta gamma subunit-mediated effect? Neuroscience. 1995 Jul; 67(1):189-95. PMID: 7477899.
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      74. Green PG, Miao FJ, Jänig W, Levine JD. Negative feedback neuroendocrine control of the inflammatory response in rats. J Neurosci. 1995 Jun; 15(6):4678-86. PMID: 7790932.
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      75. Khasar SG, Green PG, Chou B, Levine JD. Peripheral nociceptive effects of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonists in the rat. Neuroscience. 1995 May; 66(2):427-32. PMID: 7477883.
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      76. Khasar SG, Ouseph AK, Chou B, Ho T, Green PG, Levine JD. Is there more than one prostaglandin E receptor subtype mediating hyperalgesia in the rat hindpaw? Neuroscience. 1995 Feb; 64(4):1161-5. PMID: 7753383.
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      77. Khasar SG, Ho T, Green PG, Levine JD. Comparison of prostaglandin E1- and prostaglandin E2-induced hyperalgesia in the rat. Neuroscience. 1994 Sep; 62(2):345-50. PMID: 7830882.
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      78. Green PG, Luo J, Heller PH, Levine JD. Effect of E-type prostaglandins on bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in the knee joint of the rat. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994 Feb 3; 252(2):127-32. PMID: 8157052.
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      79. Green PG, Luo J, Hammond ER, Levine JD. Trypsin enhances sympathetic neuron-dependent plasma extravasation in the rat knee joint. Neurosci Lett. 1993 Aug 6; 158(1):117-9. PMID: 8233065.
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      80. Green PG, Luo J, Heller PH, Levine JD. Further substantiation of a significant role for the sympathetic nervous system in inflammation. Neuroscience. 1993 Aug; 55(4):1037-43. PMID: 8232896.
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      81. Khasar SG, Green PG, Levine JD. Comparison of intradermal and subcutaneous hyperalgesic effects of inflammatory mediators in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1993 Apr 30; 153(2):215-8. PMID: 8100992.
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      82. Green PG, Luo J, Heller PH, Levine JD. Neurogenic and non-neurogenic mechanisms of plasma extravasation in the rat. Neuroscience. 1993 Feb; 52(3):735-43. PMID: 8450970.
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      83. Green PG, Luo J, Heller P, Levine JD. Modulation of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in the rat knee joint by sympathetic co-transmitters. Neuroscience. 1993 Jan; 52(2):451-8. PMID: 8095706.
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      84. Green PG, Basbaum AI, Levine JD. Sensory neuropeptide interactions in the production of plasma extravasation in the rat. Neuroscience. 1992 Oct; 50(3):745-9. PMID: 1279466.
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      85. Green PG, Levine JD. Delta- and kappa-opioid agonists inhibit plasma extravasation induced by bradykinin in the knee joint of the rat. Neuroscience. 1992 Jul; 49(1):129-33. PMID: 1328929.
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      86. Green PG, Basbaum AI, Helms C, Levine JD. Purinergic regulation of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation and adjuvant-induced arthritis in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 May 15; 88(10):4162-5. PMID: 2034661; PMCID: PMC51618.
      87. Bjerknes L, Coderre TJ, Green PG, Basbaum AI, Levine JD. Neutrophils contribute to sympathetic nerve terminal-dependent plasma extravasation in the knee joint of the rat. Neuroscience. 1991; 43(2-3):679-85. PMID: 1922788.
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      88. Green PG, Kitchen I, Crowder M. Interactions between anticholinesterase poisoning and opioid analgesia and locomotion in mice. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1988 Jul-Aug; 10(4):315-9. PMID: 3147363.
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      89. Green PG, Kitchen I. Differential displacement of opioids from plasma protein binding sites by di-isopropylfluorophosphate in the mouse. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1988 Apr; 40(4):292-3. PMID: 2900315.
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      90. Green PG, Lee NM. Dynorphin A-(1-13) attenuates withdrawal in morphine-dependent rats: effect of route of administration. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988 Jan 19; 145(3):267-72. PMID: 2895003.
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      91. Green PG, Kitchen I. Di-isopropylfluorophosphate induced antinociception and its interactions with opioid drugs in the rat. Toxicology. 1986 Dec 15; 42(2-3):275-80. PMID: 2879367.
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      92. Green PG, Kitchen I. Antinociception opioids and the cholinergic system. Prog Neurobiol. 1986; 26(2):119-46. PMID: 3704168.
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      93. Green PG, Kitchen I. Different effects of di-isopropylfluorophosphate on the entry of opioids into mouse brain. Br J Pharmacol. 1985 Mar; 84(3):657-61. PMID: 2859063; PMCID: PMC1987147.
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