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Philip Ballard

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentPediatrics
Address513 Parnassus Ave
San Francisco CA 94143
Phone415-476-4193
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoResidency School of Medicine

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Proteomic Profile Associated with Chronic Lung Disease of Premature Infants
    NIH/NHLBI R21HL129910Sep 15, 2015 - Jun 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    UCSF Clinical Research Center for Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program
    NIH/NHLBI U01HL101798May 1, 2010 - Apr 30, 2015
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Regulation and role of CEACAM6 in the lung alveolus
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL088193Dec 10, 2007 - Nov 30, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SCOR in Pathobiology of Lung Development
    NIH/NHLBI P50HL056401Sep 1, 1996 - Jul 31, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular Therapy for Cystic Fibrosis
    NIH P30DK047757Sep 30, 1993 - Mar 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Development and Control of Pulmonary alveolar Stability
    NIH P01HL024075Jul 1, 1979 - Dec 31, 2015
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Cellular and molecular biology of lung surfactant
    NIH P01HL019737Dec 1, 1976 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Co-Investigator
    General Clinical Research Center
    NIH M01RR000240Dec 1, 1976 - Sep 29, 2006
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Ballard PL. Commentary on the identity of fibroblast pneumocyte factor: rat vs. human. Pediatr Res. 2017 Jul; 82(1):4-5. PMID: 28355199.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Keller RL, Eichenwald EC, Hibbs AM, Rogers EE, Wai KC, Black DM, Ballard PL, Asselin JM, Truog WE, Merrill JD, Mammel MC, Steinhorn RH, Ryan RM, Durand DJ, Bendel CM, Bendel-Stenzel EM, Courtney SE, Dhanireddy R, Hudak ML, Koch FR, Mayock DE, McKay VJ, Helderman J, Porta NF, Wadhawan R, Palermo L, Ballard RA. The Randomized, Controlled Trial of Late Surfactant: Effects on Respiratory Outcomes at 1-Year Corrected Age. J Pediatr. 2017 Jan 16. PMID: 28100402.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Barrette AM, Roberts JK, Chapin C, Egan EA, Segal MR, Oses-Prieto JA, Chand S, Burlingame AL, Ballard PL. Antiinflammatory Effects of Budesonide in Human Fetal Lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2016 Nov; 55(5):623-632. PMID: 27281349.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Wai KC, Kohn MA, Ballard RA, Truog WE, Black DM, Asselin JM, Ballard PL, Rogers EE, Keller RL. Early Cumulative Supplemental Oxygen Predicts Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in High Risk Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns. J Pediatr. 2016 Oct; 177:97-102.e2. PMID: 27470692; PMCID: PMC5037007 [Available on 10/01/17].
    5. Roberts JK, Stockmann C, Dahl MJ, Albertine KH, Egan E, Lin Z, Reilly CA, Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Ward RM. Pharmacokinetics of Budesonide Administered with Surfactant in Premature Lambs: Implications for Neonatal Clinical Trials. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2016; 11(1):53-61. PMID: 26416605.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Lin SE, Barrette AM, Chapin C, Gonzales LW, Gonzalez RF, Dobbs LG, Ballard PL. Expression of human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 and alveolar progenitor cells in normal and injured lungs of transgenic mice. Physiol Rep. 2015 Dec; 3(12). PMID: 26702074.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Ballard RA, Keller RL, Black DM, Ballard PL, Merrill JD, Eichenwald EC, Truog WE, Mammel MC, Steinhorn RH, Rogers EE, Ryan RM, Durand DJ, Asselin JM, Bendel CM, Bendel-Stenzel EM, Courtney SE, Dhanireddy R, Hudak ML, Koch FR, Mayock DE, McKay VJ, O'Shea TM, Porta NF, Wadhawan R, Palermo L. Randomized Trial of Late Surfactant Treatment in Ventilated Preterm Infants Receiving Inhaled Nitric Oxide. J Pediatr. 2016 Jan; 168:23-29.e4. PMID: 26500107.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Gonzales LW, Gonzalez R, Barrette AM, Wang P, Dobbs L, Ballard PL. Expression of Carcinoembryonic Cell Adhesion Molecule 6 and Alveolar Epithelial Cell Markers in Lungs of Human Infants with Chronic Lung Disease. J Histochem Cytochem. 2015 Dec; 63(12):908-21. PMID: 26374831.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Danhaive O, Chapin C, Horneman H, Cogo PE, Ballard PL. Surface film formation in vitro by infant and therapeutic surfactants: role of surfactant protein B. Pediatr Res. 2015 Feb; 77(2):340-6. PMID: 25360829; PMCID: PMC4391810.
    10. LaFemina MJ, Sutherland KM, Bentley T, Gonzales LW, Allen L, Chapin CJ, Rokkam D, Sweerus KA, Dobbs LG, Ballard PL, Frank JA. Claudin-18 deficiency results in alveolar barrier dysfunction and impaired alveologenesis in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014 Oct; 51(4):550-8. PMID: 24787463; PMCID: PMC4189483.
    11. Ballard PL, Keller RL, Black DM, Durand DJ, Merrill JD, Eichenwald EC, Truog WE, Mammel MC, Steinhorn R, Ryan RM, Courtney SE, Horneman H, Ballard RA. Inhaled nitric oxide increases urinary nitric oxide metabolites and cyclic guanosine monophosphate in premature infants: relationship to pulmonary outcome. Am J Perinatol. 2015 Feb; 32(3):225-32. PMID: 24968129.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Keller RL, Merrill JD, Black DM, Steinhorn RH, Eichenwald EC, Durand DJ, Ryan RM, Truog WE, Courtney SE, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Late administration of surfactant replacement therapy increases surfactant protein-B content: a randomized pilot study. Pediatr Res. 2012 Dec; 72(6):613-9. PMID: 23037875; PMCID: PMC3548137.
    13. Chapin C, Bailey NA, Gonzales LW, Lee JW, Gonzalez RF, Ballard PL. Distribution and surfactant association of carcinoembryonic cell adhesion molecule 6 in human lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012 Jan 15; 302(2):L216-25. PMID: 22037359; PMCID: PMC3349363.
    14. Heine VM, Griveau A, Chapin C, Ballard PL, Chen JK, Rowitch DH. A small-molecule smoothened agonist prevents glucocorticoid-induced neonatal cerebellar injury. Sci Transl Med. 2011 Oct 19; 3(105):105ra104. PMID: 22013124; PMCID: PMC3694585.
    15. Merrill JD, Ballard PL, Courtney SE, Durand DJ, Hamvas A, Hibbs AM, Lu KW, Ryan RM, Reynolds AM, Spence K, Steinhorn RH, Truog WE, Eichenwald EC, Ballard RA. Pilot trial of late booster doses of surfactant for ventilated premature infants. J Perinatol. 2011 Sep; 31(9):599-606. PMID: 21311500.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Golombek SG, Truog WE, Ballard RA, Ballard PL. Re: 'The use of iNO in the newborn period: results from the European iNO registry'. Acta Paediatr. 2010 Sep; 99(9):1283. PMID: 20456263.
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    17. Gonzalez RF, Allen L, Gonzales L, Ballard PL, Dobbs LG. HTII-280, a biomarker specific to the apical plasma membrane of human lung alveolar type II cells. J Histochem Cytochem. 2010 Oct; 58(10):891-901. PMID: 20566753; PMCID: PMC2942742.
    18. Ballard PL, Lee JW, Fang X, Chapin C, Allen L, Segal MR, Fischer H, Illek B, Gonzales LW, Kolla V, Matthay MA. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010 Jul; 299(1):L36-50. PMID: 20382749; PMCID: PMC2904098.
    19. Walsh MC, Hibbs AM, Martin CR, Cnaan A, Keller RL, Vittinghoff E, Martin RJ, Truog WE, Ballard PL, Zadell A, Wadlinger SR, Coburn CE, Ballard RA. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of ventilated preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2010 Apr; 156(4):556-61.e1. PMID: 20138299; PMCID: PMC2843768.
    20. Zupancic JA, Hibbs AM, Palermo L, Truog WE, Cnaan A, Black DM, Ballard PL, Wadlinger SR, Ballard RA. Economic evaluation of inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. Pediatrics. 2009 Nov; 124(5):1325-32. PMID: 19841125.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Posencheg MA, Gow AJ, Truog WE, Ballard RA, Cnaan A, Golombek SG, Ballard PL. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature infants: effect on tracheal aspirate and plasma nitric oxide metabolites. J Perinatol. 2010 Apr; 30(4):275-80. PMID: 19812581; PMCID: PMC2834364.
    22. Kolla V, Gonzales LW, Bailey NA, Wang P, Angampalli S, Godinez MH, Madesh M, Ballard PL. Carcinoembryonic cell adhesion molecule 6 in human lung: regulated expression of a multifunctional type II cell protein. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009 Jun; 296(6):L1019-30. PMID: 19329538; PMCID: PMC2692808.
    23. McCurnin DC, Pierce RA, Willis BC, Chang LY, Yoder BA, Yuhanna IS, Ballard PL, Clyman RI, Waleh N, Maniscalco W, Crapo JD, Grubb PH, Shaul PW. Postnatal estradiol up-regulates lung nitric oxide synthases and improves lung function in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Mar 15; 179(6):492-500. PMID: 19151197; PMCID: PMC2654978.
    24. Davis CW, Gonzales LW, Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Guo C, Gow AJ. Expression of nitric oxide synthases and endogenous NO metabolism in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008 Jul; 43(7):703-9. PMID: 18500734; PMCID: PMC4015107.
    25. Hibbs AM, Walsh MC, Martin RJ, Truog WE, Lorch SA, Alessandrini E, Cnaan A, Palermo L, Wadlinger SR, Coburn CE, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. One-year respiratory outcomes of preterm infants enrolled in the Nitric Oxide (to prevent) Chronic Lung Disease trial. J Pediatr. 2008 Oct; 153(4):525-9. PMID: 18534620; PMCID: PMC2745607.
    26. Ballard PL, Truog WE, Merrill JD, Gow A, Posencheg M, Golombek SG, Parton LA, Luan X, Cnaan A, Ballard RA. Plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress: relationship to lung disease and inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature infants. Pediatrics. 2008 Mar; 121(3):555-61. PMID: 18310205.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Ballard PL, Merrill JD, Truog WE, Godinez RI, Godinez MH, McDevitt TM, Ning Y, Golombek SG, Parton LA, Luan X, Cnaan A, Ballard RA. Surfactant function and composition in premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. Pediatrics. 2007 Aug; 120(2):346-53. PMID: 17671061.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Truog WE, Ballard PL, Norberg M, Golombek S, Savani RC, Merrill JD, Parton LA, Cnaan A, Luan X, Ballard RA. Inflammatory markers and mediators in tracheal fluid of premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. Pediatrics. 2007 Apr; 119(4):670-8. PMID: 17403837.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Fischer H, Gonzales LK, Kolla V, Schwarzer C, Miot F, Illek B, Ballard PL. Developmental regulation of DUOX1 expression and function in human fetal lung epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007 Jun; 292(6):L1506-14. PMID: 17337509.
      View in: PubMed
    30. McDevitt TM, Gonzales LW, Savani RC, Ballard PL. Role of endogenous TGF-beta in glucocorticoid-induced lung type II cell differentiation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007 Jan; 292(1):L249-57. PMID: 16997883.
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    31. Kolla V, Gonzales LW, Gonzales J, Wang P, Angampalli S, Feinstein SI, Ballard PL. Thyroid transcription factor in differentiating type II cells: regulation, isoforms, and target genes. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007 Feb; 36(2):213-25. PMID: 16960125; PMCID: PMC1899316.
    32. Ballard RA, Truog WE, Cnaan A, Martin RJ, Ballard PL, Merrill JD, Walsh MC, Durand DJ, Mayock DE, Eichenwald EC, Null DR, Hudak ML, Puri AR, Golombek SG, Courtney SE, Stewart DL, Welty SE, Phibbs RH, Hibbs AM, Luan X, Wadlinger SR, Asselin JM, Coburn CE. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jul 27; 355(4):343-53. PMID: 16870913.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Postle AD, Gonzales LW, Bernhard W, Clark GT, Godinez MH, Godinez RI, Ballard PL. Lipidomics of cellular and secreted phospholipids from differentiated human fetal type II alveolar epithelial cells. J Lipid Res. 2006 Jun; 47(6):1322-31. PMID: 16513897.
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    34. Yin Z, Gonzales L, Kolla V, Rath N, Zhang Y, Lu MM, Kimura S, Ballard PL, Beers MF, Epstein JA, Morrisey EE. Hop functions downstream of Nkx2.1 and GATA6 to mediate HDAC-dependent negative regulation of pulmonary gene expression. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006 Aug; 291(2):L191-9. PMID: 16510470.
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    35. Wade KC, Guttentag SH, Gonzales LW, Maschhoff KL, Gonzales J, Kolla V, Singhal S, Ballard PL. Gene induction during differentiation of human pulmonary type II cells in vitro. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006 Jun; 34(6):727-37. PMID: 16474099; PMCID: PMC2644235.
    36. Cheong N, Madesh M, Gonzales LW, Zhao M, Yu K, Ballard PL, Shuman H. Functional and trafficking defects in ATP binding cassette A3 mutants associated with respiratory distress syndrome. J Biol Chem. 2006 Apr 7; 281(14):9791-800. PMID: 16415354.
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    37. Ballard PL, Gonzales LW, Godinez RI, Godinez MH, Savani RC, McCurnin DC, Gibson LL, Yoder BA, Kerecman JD, Grubb PH, Shaul PW. Surfactant composition and function in a primate model of infant chronic lung disease: effects of inhaled nitric oxide. Pediatr Res. 2006 Jan; 59(1):157-62. PMID: 16326985.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Shu W, Guttentag S, Wang Z, Andl T, Ballard P, Lu MM, Piccolo S, Birchmeier W, Whitsett JA, Millar SE, Morrisey EE. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling acts upstream of N-myc, BMP4, and FGF signaling to regulate proximal-distal patterning in the lung. Dev Biol. 2005 Jul 1; 283(1):226-39. PMID: 15907834.
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    39. Koo HC, Davis JM, Li Y, Hatzis D, Opsimos H, Pollack S, Strayer MS, Ballard PL, Kazzaz JA. Effects of transgene expression of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase on pulmonary epithelial cell growth in hyperoxia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005 Apr; 288(4):L718-26. PMID: 15579623.
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    40. Merrill JD, Ballard RA, Cnaan A, Hibbs AM, Godinez RI, Godinez MH, Truog WE, Ballard PL. Dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant in chronically ventilated premature infants. Pediatr Res. 2004 Dec; 56(6):918-26. PMID: 15496605.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Daugherty BL, Mateescu M, Patel AS, Wade K, Kimura S, Gonzales LW, Guttentag S, Ballard PL, Koval M. Developmental regulation of claudin localization by fetal alveolar epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004 Dec; 287(6):L1266-73. PMID: 15347569.
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    42. Ekekezie II, Thibeault DW, Simon SD, Norberg M, Merrill JD, Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Truog WE. Low levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases with a high matrix metalloproteinase-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 ratio are present in tracheal aspirate fluids of infants who develop chronic lung disease. Pediatrics. 2004 Jun; 113(6):1709-14. PMID: 15173495.
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    43. Hamvas A, Nogee LM, White FV, Schuler P, Hackett BP, Huddleston CB, Mendeloff EN, Hsu FF, Wert SE, Gonzales LW, Beers MF, Ballard PL. Progressive lung disease and surfactant dysfunction with a deletion in surfactant protein C gene. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004 Jun; 30(6):771-6. PMID: 14656744.
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    44. Ballard PL, Merrill JD, Godinez RI, Godinez MH, Truog WE, Ballard RA. Surfactant protein profile of pulmonary surfactant in premature infants. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Nov 1; 168(9):1123-8. PMID: 12904326.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Lorch SA, Banks BA, Christie J, Merrill JD, Althaus J, Schmidt K, Ballard PL, Ischiropoulos H, Ballard RA. Plasma 3-nitrotyrosine and outcome in neonates with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia after inhaled nitric oxide. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003 May 1; 34(9):1146-52. PMID: 12706495.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Berry GT, Wu S, Buccafusca R, Ren J, Gonzales LW, Ballard PL, Golden JA, Stevens MJ, Greer JJ. Loss of murine Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter leads to brain myo-inositol depletion and central apnea. J Biol Chem. 2003 May 16; 278(20):18297-302. PMID: 12582158.
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    47. Pepe GJ, Ballard PL, Albrecht ED. Fetal lung maturation in estrogen-deprived baboons. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jan; 88(1):471-7. PMID: 12519892.
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    48. Gonzales LW, Guttentag SH, Wade KC, Postle AD, Ballard PL. Differentiation of human pulmonary type II cells in vitro by glucocorticoid plus cAMP. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002 Nov; 283(5):L940-51. PMID: 12376347.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Li C, Zhu NL, Tan RC, Ballard PL, Derynck R, Minoo P. Transforming growth factor-beta inhibits pulmonary surfactant protein B gene transcription through SMAD3 interactions with NKX2.1 and HNF-3 transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 11; 277(41):38399-408. PMID: 12161428.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Rosenberg E, Li F, Reisher SR, Wang M, Gonzales LW, Ewing JR, Malek S, Ballard PL, Notarfrancesco K, Shuman H, Feinstein SI. Members of the C/EBP transcription factor family stimulate expression of the human and rat surfactant protein A (SP-A) genes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 May 3; 1575(1-3):82-90. PMID: 12020822.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Mulugeta S, Gray JM, Notarfrancesco KL, Gonzales LW, Koval M, Feinstein SI, Ballard PL, Fisher AB, Shuman H. Identification of LBM180, a lamellar body limiting membrane protein of alveolar type II cells, as the ABC transporter protein ABCA3. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jun 21; 277(25):22147-55. PMID: 11940594.
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    52. Banks BA, Macones G, Cnaan A, Merrill JD, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids are associated with early severe lung disease in preterm neonates. J Perinatol. 2002 Mar; 22(2):101-7. PMID: 11896513.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Strayer M, Savani RC, Gonzales LW, Zaman A, Cui Z, Veszelovszky E, Wood E, Ho YS, Ballard PL. Human surfactant protein B promoter in transgenic mice: temporal, spatial, and stimulus-responsive regulation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002 Mar; 282(3):L394-404. PMID: 11839532.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Bates SR, Gonzales LW, Tao JQ, Rueckert P, Ballard PL, Fisher AB. Recovery of rat type II cell surfactant components during primary cell culture. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002 Feb; 282(2):L267-76. PMID: 11792631.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Gonzales LW, Angampalli S, Guttentag SH, Beers MF, Feinstein SI, Matlapudi A, Ballard PL. Maintenance of differentiated function of the surfactant system in human fetal lung type II epithelial cells cultured on plastic. Pediatr Pathol Mol Med. 2001 Sep-Oct; 20(5):387-412. PMID: 11552739.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Savani RC, Godinez RI, Godinez MH, Wentz E, Zaman A, Cui Z, Pooler PM, Guttentag SH, Beers MF, Gonzales LW, Ballard PL. Respiratory distress after intratracheal bleomycin: selective deficiency of surfactant proteins B and C. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001 Sep; 281(3):L685-96. PMID: 11504697.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Banks BA, Stouffer N, Cnaan A, Ning Y, Merrill JD, Ballard RA, Ballard PL. Association of plasma cortisol and chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2001 Mar; 107(3):494-8. PMID: 11230588.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Kumar AS, Gonzales LW, Ballard PL. Transforming growth factor-beta(1) regulation of surfactant protein B gene expression is mediated by protein kinase-dependent intracellular translocation of thyroid transcription factor-1 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 3. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jun 21; 1492(1):45-55. PMID: 11004479.
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    59. Ballard PL. Scientific rationale for the use of antenatal glucocorticoids to promote fetal development. Pediatr Rev. 2000 May; 1(5):E83-90. PMID: 10790437.
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    60. Beers MF, Hamvas A, Moxley MA, Gonzales LW, Guttentag SH, Solarin KO, Longmore WJ, Nogee LM, Ballard PL. Pulmonary surfactant metabolism in infants lacking surfactant protein B. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000 Mar; 22(3):380-91. PMID: 10696076.
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    61. Tan RC, Ikegami M, Jobe AH, Yao LY, Possmayer F, Ballard PL. Developmental and glucocorticoid regulation of surfactant protein mRNAs in preterm lambs. Am J Physiol. 1999 Dec; 277(6 Pt 1):L1142-8. PMID: 10600884.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Banks BA, Cnaan A, Morgan MA, Parer JT, Merrill JD, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids and outcome of premature neonates. North American Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Sep; 181(3):709-17. PMID: 10486488.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Wagle S, Bui A, Ballard PL, Shuman H, Gonzales J, Gonzales LW. Hormonal regulation and cellular localization of fatty acid synthase in human fetal lung. Am J Physiol. 1999 Aug; 277(2 Pt 1):L381-90. PMID: 10444533.
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    64. Blakey GE, Ballard P, Leahy DE, Rowland M. Development of an assay for the extraction and quantification of nine 5-n-alkyl-5-ethyl barbituric acids in various rat tissues. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1999 Jan; 18(6):927-38. PMID: 9925327.
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    65. Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Ning Y, Cnann A, Boardman C, Pinto-Martin J, Polk D, Phibbs RH, Davis DJ, Mannino FL, Hart M. Plasma thyroid hormones in premature infants: effect of gestational age and antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone treatment. TRH Collaborative Trial Participants. Pediatr Res. 1998 Nov; 44(5):642-9. PMID: 9803444.
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    66. Beers MF, Solarin KO, Guttentag SH, Rosenbloom J, Kormilli A, Gonzales LW, Ballard PL. TGF-beta1 inhibits surfactant component expression and epithelial cell maturation in cultured human fetal lung. Am J Physiol. 1998 Nov; 275(5 Pt 1):L950-60. PMID: 9815113.
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    67. Guttentag SH, Beers MF, Bieler BM, Ballard PL. Surfactant protein B processing in human fetal lung. Am J Physiol. 1998 Sep; 275(3 Pt 1):L559-66. PMID: 9728051.
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    68. Karinch AM, Deiter G, Ballard PL, Floros J. Regulation of expression of human SP-A1 and SP-A2 genes in fetal lung explant culture. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 Jun 16; 1398(2):192-202. PMID: 9689918.
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    69. Banks BA, Ischiropoulos H, McClelland M, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Plasma 3-nitrotyrosine is elevated in premature infants who develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 1998 May; 101(5):870-4. PMID: 9565417.
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    70. Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Cnaan A, Pinto-Martin J, Davis DJ, Padbury JF, Phibbs RH, Parer JT, Hart MC, Mannino FL, Sawai SK. Antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone to prevent lung disease in preterm infants. North American Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1998 Feb 19; 338(8):493-8. PMID: 9468465.
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    71. Strayer MS, Guttentag SH, Ballard PL. Targeting type II and Clara cells for adenovirus-mediated gene transfer using the surfactant protein B promoter. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1998 Jan; 18(1):1-11. PMID: 9448040.
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    72. Ballard PL, Ning Y, Polk D, Ikegami M, Jobe AH. Glucocorticoid regulation of surfactant components in immature lambs. Am J Physiol. 1997 Nov; 273(5 Pt 1):L1048-57. PMID: 9374734.
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    73. Solarin KO, Ballard PL, Guttentag SH, Lomax CA, Beers MF. Expression and glucocorticoid regulation of surfactant protein C in human fetal lung. Pediatr Res. 1997 Sep; 42(3):356-64. PMID: 9284277.
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    74. Kumar AS, Venkatesh VC, Planer BC, Feinstein SI, Ballard PL. Phorbol ester down-regulation of lung surfactant protein B gene expression by cytoplasmic trapping of thyroid transcription factor-1 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 3. J Biol Chem. 1997 Aug 15; 272(33):20764-73. PMID: 9252399.
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    75. Planer BC, Ning Y, Kumar SA, Ballard PL. Transcriptional regulation of surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-B by phorbol ester. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 Aug 7; 1353(2):171-9. PMID: 9294011.
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    76. Lisby DA, Ballard PL, Fox WW, Wolfson MR, Shaffer TH, Gonzales LW. Enhanced distribution of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to lung parenchyma by perfluorochemical liquid. Hum Gene Ther. 1997 May 20; 8(8):919-28. PMID: 9195214.
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    77. Jobe AH, Ikegami M, Padbury J, Polk DH, Korirnilli A, Gonzales LW, Ballard PL. Combined effects of fetal beta agonist stimulation and glucocorticoids on lung function of preterm lambs. Biol Neonate. 1997; 72(5):305-13. PMID: 9395841.
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    78. Dulkerian SJ, Gonzales LW, Ning Y, Ballard PL. Regulation of surfactant protein D in human fetal lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1996 Dec; 15(6):781-6. PMID: 8969273.
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    79. Ballard RA, Ballard PL. Antenatal hormone therapy for improving the outcome of the preterm infant. J Perinatol. 1996 Sep-Oct; 16(5):390-6. PMID: 8915940.
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    80. Ballard PL, Ertsey R, Gonzales LW, Gonzales J. Transcriptional regulation of human pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C by glucocorticoids. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1996 Jun; 14(6):599-607. PMID: 8652188.
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    81. Ballard PL. Neonatal respiratory disease due to surfactant protein B deficiency. J Perinatol. 1996 Mar-Apr; 16(2 Pt 2 Su):S28-34. PMID: 8732546.
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    82. Ballard PL, Nogee LM, Beers MF, Ballard RA, Planer BC, Polk L, deMello DE, Moxley MA, Longmore WJ. Partial deficiency of surfactant protein B in an infant with chronic lung disease. Pediatrics. 1995 Dec; 96(6):1046-52. PMID: 7491219.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Beers MF, Shuman H, Liley HG, Floros J, Gonzales LW, Yue N, Ballard PL. Surfactant protein B in human fetal lung: developmental and glucocorticoid regulation. Pediatr Res. 1995 Nov; 38(5):668-75. PMID: 8552432.
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    84. Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Scientific basis and therapeutic regimens for use of antenatal glucocorticoids. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Jul; 173(1):254-62. PMID: 7631700.
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    85. Chinoy MR, Gonzales LW, Ballard PL, Fisher AB, Eckenhoff RG. Elemental composition of lamellar bodies from fetal and adult human lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1995 Jul; 13(1):99-108. PMID: 7598943.
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    86. Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Cnaan A, Pinto-Martin J. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone for prevention of neonatal respiratory disease. Lancet. 1995 Jun 17; 345(8964):1572. PMID: 7791458.
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    87. Ballard PL, Zepeda ML, Schwartz M, Lopez N, Wilson JM. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to human fetal lung ex vivo. Am J Physiol. 1995 May; 268(5 Pt 1):L839-45. PMID: 7762686.
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    88. Venkatesh VC, Planer BC, Schwartz M, Vanderbilt JN, White RT, Ballard PL. Characterization of the promoter of human pulmonary surfactant protein B gene. Am J Physiol. 1995 Apr; 268(4 Pt 1):L674-82. PMID: 7733308.
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    89. Gonzales LW, Ballard PL, Gonzales J. Glucocorticoid and cAMP increase fatty acid synthetase mRNA in human fetal lung explants. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Nov 17; 1215(1-2):49-58. PMID: 7948007.
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    90. Sharma A, Gonzales LW, Ballard PL. Hormonal regulation of cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase in human fetal lung. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Nov 3; 1170(3):237-44. PMID: 8218341.
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    91. Froh D, Gonzales LW, Ballard PL. Secretion of surfactant protein A and phosphatidylcholine from type II cells of human fetal lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1993 May; 8(5):556-61. PMID: 8481236.
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    92. Iannuzzi DM, Ertsey R, Ballard PL. Biphasic glucocorticoid regulation of pulmonary SP-A: characterization of inhibitory process. Am J Physiol. 1993 Mar; 264(3 Pt 1):L236-44. PMID: 8460712.
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    93. Venkatesh VC, Iannuzzi DM, Ertsey R, Ballard PL. Differential glucocorticoid regulation of the pulmonary hydrophobic surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1993 Feb; 8(2):222-8. PMID: 8427712.
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    94. Ballard P, Ballard RA, Creasy RK, Padbury J, Polk DH, Bracken M, Moya FR, Gross I. Plasma thyroid hormones and prolactin in premature infants and their mothers after prenatal treatment with thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Pediatr Res. 1992 Dec; 32(6):673-8. PMID: 1287557.
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    95. Duffy DM, Ballard P, Goldfien A, Roberts JM. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate increases beta-adrenergic receptor concentration in cultured human fetal lung explants and type II cells. Endocrinology. 1992 Aug; 131(2):841-6. PMID: 1379164.
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    96. Ballard RA, Ballard P, Creasy RK, Padbury J, Polk DH, Bracken M, Moya FR, Gross I. Respiratory disease in very-low-birthweight infants after prenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone and glucocorticoid. TRH Study Group. Lancet. 1992 Feb 29; 339(8792):510-5. PMID: 1346877.
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    97. Ballard P, Gonzales LW, Williams MC, Roberts JM, Jacobs MM. Differentiation of type II cells during explant culture of human fetal lung is accelerated by endogenous prostanoids and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate. Endocrinology. 1991 Jun; 128(6):2916-24. PMID: 1709859.
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    98. Venkatesh VC, Ballard P. Glucocorticoids and gene expression. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1991 Apr; 4(4):301-3. PMID: 2015096.
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    99. Odom MW, Ertsey R, Ballard P. Hormonally regulated proteins in cultured human fetal lung: analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Am J Physiol. 1990 Oct; 259(4 Pt 1):L283-93. PMID: 1699432.
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    100. Davis DJ, Jacobs MM, Ballard P, Gonzales LK, Roberts JM. Beta-adrenergic receptors and cAMP response increase during explant culture of human fetal lung: partial inhibition by dexamethasone. Pediatr Res. 1990 Sep; 28(3):190-5. PMID: 2172899.
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    101. Froh D, Ballard P, Williams MC, Gonzales J, Goerke J, Odom MW, Gonzales LW. Lamellar bodies of cultured human fetal lung: content of surfactant protein A (SP-A), surface film formation and structural transformation in vitro. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Apr 9; 1052(1):78-89. PMID: 2322594.
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    102. Ballard P, Liley HG, Gonzales LW, Odom MW, Ammann AJ, Benson B, White RT, Williams MC. Interferon-gamma and synthesis of surfactant components by cultured human fetal lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1990 Feb; 2(2):137-43. PMID: 2106332.
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    103. Gonzales LW, Ertsey R, Ballard P, Froh D, Goerke J, Gonzales J. Glucocorticoid stimulation of fatty acid synthesis in explants of human fetal lung. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990 Jan 16; 1042(1):1-12. PMID: 2297514.
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    104. Ballard P. Hormonal control of lung maturation. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989 Nov; 3(3):723-53. PMID: 2698153.
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    105. Wallen LD, Murai DT, Clyman RI, Lee CH, Mauray FE, Ballard P, Kitterman JA. Meclofenamate does not affect lung development in fetal sheep. J Dev Physiol. 1989 Aug; 12(2):109-15. PMID: 2621337.
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    106. Ballard P. Hormonal regulation of pulmonary surfactant. Endocr Rev. 1989 May; 10(2):165-81. PMID: 2666118.
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    107. Liley HG, White RT, Warr RG, Benson BJ, Hawgood S, Ballard P. Regulation of messenger RNAs for the hydrophobic surfactant proteins in human lung. J Clin Invest. 1989 Apr; 83(4):1191-7. PMID: 2539393; PMCID: PMC303806.
    108. Liley HG, White RT, Benson BJ, Ballard P. Glucocorticoids both stimulate and inhibit production of pulmonary surfactant protein A in fetal human lung. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Dec; 85(23):9096-100. PMID: 3194412; PMCID: PMC282670.
    109. Liley HG, Ertsey R, Gonzales LW, Odom MW, Hawgood S, Dobbs LG, Ballard PL. Synthesis of surfactant components by cultured type II cells from human lung. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988 Jul 1; 961(1):86-95. PMID: 3382694.
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    110. Warr RG, Hawgood S, Buckley DI, Crisp TM, Schilling J, Benson BJ, Ballard PL, Clements JA, White RT. Low molecular weight human pulmonary surfactant protein (SP5): isolation, characterization, and cDNA and amino acid sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Nov; 84(22):7915-9. PMID: 3479771; PMCID: PMC299446.
    111. Liley HG, Hawgood S, Wellenstein GA, Benson B, White RT, Ballard PL. Surfactant protein of molecular weight 28,000-36,000 in cultured human fetal lung: cellular localization and effect of dexamethasone. Mol Endocrinol. 1987 Mar; 1(3):205-15. PMID: 3331167.
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    112. Davis DJ, Dattel BJ, Ballard PL, Roberts JM. Beta-adrenergic receptors and cyclic adenosine monophosphate generation in human fetal lung. Pediatr Res. 1987 Feb; 21(2):142-7. PMID: 3029657.
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    113. Ballard PL. Glucocorticoid regulation of lung maturation. Mead Johnson Symp Perinat Dev Med. 1987; (30):22-7. PMID: 3333415.
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    114. Ballard PL, Hawgood S, Liley H, Wellenstein G, Gonzales LW, Benson B, Cordell B, White RT. Regulation of pulmonary surfactant apoprotein SP 28-36 gene in fetal human lung. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Dec; 83(24):9527-31. PMID: 3467323; PMCID: PMC387173.
    115. Ballard PL, Ertsey R, Gonzales LK, Liley HG, Williams MC. Isolation and characterization of differentiated alveolar type II cells from fetal human lung. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986 Sep 4; 883(2):335-44. PMID: 3527277.
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    116. McDonald JV, Gonzales LW, Ballard P, Pitha J, Roberts JM. Lung beta-adrenoreceptor blockade affects perinatal surfactant release but not lung water. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1986 May; 60(5):1727-33. PMID: 3011728.
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    117. Hümmelink R, Ballard PL. Endogenous corticoids and lung development in the fetal rabbit. Endocrinology. 1986 Apr; 118(4):1622-9. PMID: 3948795.
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    118. Gonzales LW, Ballard PL, Ertsey R, Williams MC. Glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones stimulate biochemical and morphological differentiation of human fetal lung in organ culture. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Apr; 62(4):678-91. PMID: 3949950.
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    119. Ballard P. Hormones and lung maturation. Monogr Endocrinol. 1986; 28:1-354. PMID: 2869406.
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    120. Durand DJ, Clyman RI, Heymann MA, Clements JA, Mauray F, Kitterman J, Ballard P. Effects of a protein-free, synthetic surfactant on survival and pulmonary function in preterm lambs. J Pediatr. 1985 Nov; 107(5):775-80. PMID: 3840530.
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    121. Ballard PL. Combined hormonal treatment and lung maturation. Semin Perinatol. 1984 Oct; 8(4):283-92. PMID: 6093266.
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    122. Ballard PL, Hovey ML, Gonzales LK. Thyroid hormone stimulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in cultured fetal rabbit lung. J Clin Invest. 1984 Sep; 74(3):898-905. PMID: 6470145; PMCID: PMC425245.
    123. Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Gonzales LK, Huemmelink R, Wilson CM, Gross I. Corticosteroid binding by fetal rat and rabbit lung in organ culture. J Steroid Biochem. 1984 Aug; 21(2):117-26. PMID: 6482426.
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    124. Ballard PL, Klein AH, Fisher DA. Thyroid hormones and plasma corticosteroid binding globulin capacity in fetal and newborn lambs. Endocrinology. 1983 Oct; 113(4):1197-200. PMID: 6617569.
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    125. Gross I, Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Jones CT, Wilson CM. Corticosteroid stimulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in cultured fetal rabbit lung: evidence for de novo protein synthesis mediated by glucocorticoid receptors. Endocrinology. 1983 Mar; 112(3):829-37. PMID: 6822213.
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    126. Ballard PL. Mode of action of glucocorticoids on lung maturation. Curr Probl Clin Biochem. 1983; 13:35-46. PMID: 6317290.
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    127. Ballard PL. Hormones and receptors in developing lung. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1983; 140:103-17. PMID: 6143323.
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    128. Ballard PL, Liggins GC. Glucocorticoid activity in cord serum: comparison of hydrocortisone and betamethasone regimens. J Pediatr. 1982 Sep; 101(3):468-70. PMID: 7108674.
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    129. Gonzales LW, Ballard PL. Nuclear 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine receptors in rabbit lung: characterization and developmental changes. Endocrinology. 1982 Aug; 111(2):542-52. PMID: 6284483.
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    130. Ballard PL, Kitterman JA, Bland RD, Clyman RI, Gluckman PD, Platzker AC, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM. Ontogeny and regulation of corticosteroid binding globulin capacity in plasma of fetal and newborn lambs. Endocrinology. 1982 Feb; 110(2):359-66. PMID: 7056203.
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    131. Kitterman JA, Liggins GC, Clements JA, Campos G, Lee CH, Ballard PL. Inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis, tracheal fluid, and surfactant in fetal lambs. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1981 Dec; 51(6):1562-7. PMID: 6895630.
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    132. Clyman RI, Mauray F, Roman C, Heymann MA, Ballard PL, Rudolph AM, Payne B. Effects of antenatal glucocorticoid administration on ductus arteriosus of preterm lambs. Am J Physiol. 1981 Sep; 241(3):H415-20. PMID: 6945055.
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    133. Gonzales LW, Ballard PL. Identification and characterization of nuclear 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-binding sites in fetal human lung. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1981 Jul; 53(1):21-8. PMID: 6263937.
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    134. Clyman RI, Ballard PL, Sniderman S, Ballard RA, Roth R, Heymann MA, Granberg JP. Prenatal administration of betamethasone for prevention of patient ductus arteriosus. J Pediatr. 1981 Jan; 98(1):123-6. PMID: 7452388.
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    135. Cheng JB, Goldfien A, Ballard PL, Roberts JM. Glucocorticoids increase pulmonary beta-adrenergic receptors in fetal rabbit. Endocrinology. 1980 Nov; 107(5):1646-8. PMID: 6253272.
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    136. Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Granberg JP, Sniderman S, Gluckman PD, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM. Fetal sex and prenatal betamethasone therapy. J Pediatr. 1980 Sep; 97(3):451-4. PMID: 7411310.
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    137. Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Glucocorticoids in prevention of respiratory distress syndrome. Hosp Pract. 1980 Sep; 15(9):81-7. PMID: 6997179.
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    138. Ballard PL, Benson BJ, Brehier A, Carter JP, Kriz BM, Jorgensen EC. Transplacental stimulation of lung development in the fetal rabbit by 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine. J Clin Invest. 1980 Jun; 65(6):1407-17. PMID: 7410548; PMCID: PMC371479.
    139. Ballard PL, Gluckman PD, Liggins GC, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM. Steroid and growth hormone levels in premature infants after prenatal betamethasone therapy to prevent respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatr Res. 1980 Feb; 14(2):122-7. PMID: 6444710.
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    140. Ballard PL. Hormonal influences during fetal lung development. Ciba Found Symp. 1980; 78:251-74. PMID: 6907082.
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    141. Kitterman JA, Ballard P, Clements JA, Mescher EJ, Tooley WH. Tracheal fluid in fetal lambs: spontaneous decrease prior to birth. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1979 Nov; 47(5):985-9. PMID: 41832.
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    142. Gluckman PD, Ballard P, Kaplan SL, Liggins GC, Grumbach MM. Prolactin in umbilical cord blood and the respiratory distress syndrome. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1979 Jul; 34(7):497-9. PMID: 157449.
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    143. Ballard RA, Ballard P, Granberg JP, Sniderman S. Prenatal administration of betamethasone for prevention of respiratory distress syndrome. J Pediatr. 1979 Jan; 94(1):97-101. PMID: 758436.
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    144. Ballard P. Glucocorticoids and differentiation. Monogr Endocrinol. 1979; 12:493-515. PMID: 386090.
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    145. Ballard P, Ballard RA. Corticosteroids and respiratory distress syndrome: status 1979. Pediatrics. 1979 Jan; 63(1):163-5. PMID: 440794.
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    146. Gluckman PD, Ballard P, Kaplan SL, Liggins GC, Grumbach MM. Prolactin in umbilical cord blood and the respiratory distress syndrome. J Pediatr. 1978 Dec; 93(6):1011-4. PMID: 152807.
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    147. Lindenberg JA, Brehier A, Ballard P. Triiodothyronine nuclear binding in fetal and adult rabbit lung and cultured lung cells. Endocrinology. 1978 Nov; 103(5):1725-31. PMID: 218786.
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    148. Ballard P, Gluckman PD, Brehier A, Kitterman JA, Kaplan SL, Rudolph AM, Grumbach MM. Failure to detect an effect of prolactin on pulmonary surfactant and adrenal steroids in fetal sheep and rabbits. J Clin Invest. 1978 Oct; 62(4):879-83. PMID: 581289; PMCID: PMC371840.
    149. Ballard P, Mason RJ, Douglas WH. Glucocorticoid binding by isolated lung cells. Endocrinology. 1978 May; 102(5):1570-5. PMID: 744039.
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    150. Ballard P. Hormonal regulation of surfactant in fetal life. Mead Johnson Symp Perinat Dev Med. 1978; (14):25-39. PMID: 43929.
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    151. Ballard P. Glucocorticoid receptors in the lung. Fed Proc. 1977 Dec; 36(13):2660-5. PMID: 411688.
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    152. Ballard P. Betamethasone and cortisol in prevention of respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977 Oct 15; 129(4):475. PMID: 578659.
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    153. Brehier A, Benson BJ, Williams MC, Mason RJ, Ballard P. Corticosteroid induction of phosphatidic acid phosphatase in fetal rabbit lung. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1977 Aug 8; 77(3):883-90. PMID: 197950.
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    154. Ballard P, Benson BJ, Brehier A. Glucocorticoid effects in the fetal lung. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1977 Jun; 115(6 Pt 2):29-36. PMID: 577381.
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    155. Gikas EG, King RJ, Mescher EJ, Platzker AC, Kitterman JA, Ballard P, Benson BJ, Tooley WH, Clements JA. Radioimmunoassay of pulmonary surface-active material in the tracheal fluid of the fetal lamb. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1977 Apr; 115(4):587-93. PMID: 576778.
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    156. Granberg JP, Ballard PL. The role of sulfhydryl groups in the binding of glucocorticoids by cytoplasmic receptors of lung and other mammalian tissues. Endocrinology. 1977 Apr; 100(4):1160-8. PMID: 402260.
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    157. Ballard RA, Ballard P. Use of prenatal glucocorticoid therapy to prevent respiratory distress syndrome. A supporting view. Am J Dis Child. 1976 Sep; 130(9):982-7. PMID: 961661.
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    158. Mescher EJ, Platzker AC, Ballard P, Kitterman JA, Clements JA, Tooley WH. Ontogeny of tracheal fluid, pulmonary surfactant, and plasma corticoids in the fetal lamb. J Appl Physiol. 1975 Dec; 39(6):1017-21. PMID: 2573.
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    159. Ballard P, Granberg P, Ballard RA. Glucocorticoid levels in maternal and cord serum after prenatal betamethasone therapy to prevent respiratory distress syndrome. J Clin Invest. 1975 Dec; 56(6):1548-54. PMID: 1202085; PMCID: PMC333133.
    160. Ballard P, Carter JP, Graham BS, Baxter JD. A radioreceptor assay for evaluation of the plasma glucocorticoid activity of natural and synthetic steroids in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1975 Aug; 41(2):290-304. PMID: 169279.
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    161. Henning SJ, Ballard P, Kretchmer N. A study of the cytoplasmic receptors for glucocorticoids in intestine of pre- and postweanling rats. J Biol Chem. 1975 Mar 25; 250(6):2073-9. PMID: 163821.
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    162. Ballard PL, Baxter JD, Higgins SJ, Rousseau GG, Tomkins GM. General presence of glucocorticoid receptors in mammalian tissues. Endocrinology. 1974 Apr; 94(4):998-1002. PMID: 4362047.
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    163. Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Cytoplasmic receptor for glucocorticoids in lung of the human fetus and neonate. J Clin Invest. 1974 Feb; 53(2):477-86. PMID: 11344561; PMCID: PMC301490.
    164. Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Glucocorticoid receptors and the role of glucocorticoids in fetal lung development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1972 Sep; 69(9):2668-72. PMID: 4506789; PMCID: PMC427012.
    165. Ballard PL, Tomkins GM. Glucocorticoid-induced alteration of the surface membrane of cultured hepatoma cells. J Cell Biol. 1970 Oct; 47(1):222-34. PMID: 4327515; PMCID: PMC2108404.
    166. Ballard PL, Tomkins GM. Hormone induced modification of the cell surface. Nature. 1969 Oct 25; 224(5217):344-5. PMID: 4390498.
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