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    Philip Norris, MD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentLaboratory Medicine
    Address1001 Potrero Ave
    San Francisco CA 94110
    Phone415-923-5769
    vCardDownload vCard

      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      University of California, BerkeleyB.A.College of Letters and Science1989
      University of California, BerkeleyB.S.College of Engineering1989
      Columbia UinversityM.D.College of Physicians & Surgeons1995
      Duke UniversityInternal Medicine ResidencyDepartment of Medicine1998
      Harvard UniversityInfectious Diseases FellowshipMassachusetts General Hospital2001
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      Infectious Diseases Society of America2009Fellow
      Doris Duke Charitable Foundation2000 - 2005Clinical Scientist Development Award
      P&S Class of 19951999Chairman
      College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University1995Letter of Commendation, Teaching Excellence
      1985National Merit Scholar
      University of California, Berkeley1985 - 1989Chancellor's Scholar
      Bank of America 1985Scholar's Award
      1985California Scholarship Federation Award
      Pacific Gas & Electric Company1985 - 1989James B. Black Award
      University of California, Berkeley1985 - 1989Alumni Association Scholar

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Research Interests:

      Understanding the role CD4+T helper cells play in the body's immune defense against viral infections, such as HIV.

      Understanding acute immune response to West Nile virus and other flavivirus infection.

      Defining the types and mechanisms of immune reactions associated with blood transfusion.


      Collapse ORNG Applications 
      Collapse Websites
      Collapse Featured Publications

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Abdel-Mohsen M, Chavez L, Tandon R, Chew GM, Deng X, Danesh A, Keating S, Lanteri M, Samuels ML, Hoh R, Sacha JB, Norris PJ, Niki T, Shikuma CM, Hirashima M, Deeks SG, Ndhlovu LC, Pillai SK. Human Galectin-9 Is a Potent Mediator of HIV Transcription and Reactivation. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jun; 12(6):e1005677. PMID: 27253379.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Tully DC, Ogilvie CB, Batorsky RE, Bean DJ, Power KA, Ghebremichael M, Bedard HE, Gladden AD, Seese AM, Amero MA, Lane K, McGrath G, Bazner SB, Tinsley J, Lennon NJ, Henn MR, Brumme ZL, Norris PJ, Rosenberg ES, Mayer KH, Jessen H, Kosakovsky Pond SL, Walker BD, Altfeld M, Carlson JM, Allen TM. Differences in the Selection Bottleneck between Modes of Sexual Transmission Influence the Genetic Composition of the HIV-1 Founder Virus. PLoS Pathog. 2016 May; 12(5):e1005619. PMID: 27163788.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Jackman RP, Lee JH, Pei R, Bolgiano D, Lebedeva M, Slichter SJ, Norris PJ. C1q-binding anti-HLA antibodies do not predict platelet transfusion failure in Trial to Reduce Alloimmunization to Platelets study participants. Transfusion. 2016 Jun; 56(6):1442-50. PMID: 27079754.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Chow DC, Kagihara JM, Zhang G, Souza SA, Hodis HN, Li Y, Mitchell BI, Nakamoto BK, Kallianpur KJ, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Kohorn LB, Ndhlovu LC, Shikuma CM. Non-classical monocytes predict progression of carotid artery bifurcation intima-media thickness in HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy. HIV Clin Trials. 2016 May; 17(3):114-22. PMID: 27125366.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Muench MO, Heitman JW, Inglis H, Fomin ME, Marschner S, Goodrich RP, Norris PJ, Jackman RP. Reduced alloimmunization in mice following repeated transfusion with pathogen-reduced platelets. Transfusion. 2016 Jun; 56(6):1419-29. PMID: 27028210.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Baimukanova G, Miyazawa B, Potter DR, Gibb SL, Keating S, Danesh A, Beyer A, Dayter Y, Bruhn R, Muench MO, Cap AP, Norris PJ, Spinella P, Cohen M, Pati S. The effects of 22°C and 4°C storage of platelets on vascular endothelial integrity and function. Transfusion. 2016 Mar; 56 Suppl 1:S52-64. PMID: 27001362.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Bakkour S, Acker JP, Chafets DM, Inglis HC, Norris PJ, Lee TH, Busch MP. Manufacturing method affects mitochondrial DNA release and extracellular vesicle composition in stored red blood cells. Vox Sang. 2016 Jul; 111(1):22-32. PMID: 26918437.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Zungsontiporn N, Tello RR, Zhang G, Mitchell BI, Budoff M, Kallianpur KJ, Nakamoto BK, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Ndhlovu LC, Souza SA, Shikuma CM, Chow DC. Non-Classical Monocytes and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) Correlate with Coronary Artery Calcium Progression in Chronically HIV-1 Infected Adults on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0149143. PMID: 26867220.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Norris PJ, Zhang J, Worlock A, Nair SV, Anastos K, Minkoff HL, Villacres MC, Young M, Greenblatt RM, Desai S, Landay AL, Gange SJ, Nugent CT, Golub ET, Keating SM. Systemic Cytokine Levels Do Not Predict CD4(+) T-Cell Recovery After Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016 Jan; 3(1):ofw025. PMID: 26966697.
        View in: PubMed
      10. James EA, Gates TJ, LaFond RE, Yamamoto S, Ni C, Mai D, Gersuk VH, O'Brien K, Nguyen QA, Zeitner B, Lanteri MC, Norris PJ, Chaussabel D, Malhotra U, Kwok WW. Neuroinvasive West Nile Infection Elicits Elevated and Atypically Polarized T Cell Responses That Promote a Pathogenic Outcome. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jan; 12(1):e1005375. PMID: 26795118.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Vassallo RR, Norris PJ. Can we "terminate" alloimmune platelet transfusion refractoriness? Transfusion. 2016 Jan; 56(1):19-22. PMID: 26756708.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Zungsontiporn N, Ndhlovu LC, Mitchell BI, Stein JH, Kallianpur KJ, Nakamoto B, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Souza SA, Shikuma CM, Chow DC. Serum amyloid P (SAP) is associated with impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in chronically HIV-1 infected adults on stable antiretroviral therapy. HIV Clin Trials. 2015 Nov; 16(6):228-35. PMID: 26777795.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Spinella PC, Frazier E, Pidcoke HF, Dietzen DJ, Pati S, Gorkun O, Aden JK, Norris PJ, Cap AP. All plasma products are not created equal: Characterizing differences between plasma products. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Jun; 78(6 Suppl 1):S18-25. PMID: 26002258.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Inglis HC, Danesh A, Shah A, Lacroix J, Spinella PC, Norris PJ. Techniques to improve detection and analysis of extracellular vesicles using flow cytometry. Cytometry A. 2015 Nov; 87(11):1052-63. PMID: 25847910.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Inglis H, Norris P, Danesh A. Techniques for the analysis of extracellular vesicles using flow cytometry. J Vis Exp. 2015; (97). PMID: 25867010.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Hansen AL, Kurach JD, Turner TR, Jenkins C, Busch MP, Norris PJ, Dugger J, Tomasulo PA, Devine DV, Acker JP. The effect of processing method on the in vitro characteristics of red blood cell products. Vox Sang. 2015 May; 108(4):350-8. PMID: 25678039.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Clayton KL, Douglas-Vail MB, Rahman AK, Medcalf KE, Xie IY, Chew GM, Tandon R, Lanteri MC, Norris PJ, Deeks SG, Ndhlovu LC, Ostrowski MA. Soluble T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain 3 is shed from CD8+ T cells by the sheddase ADAM10, is increased in plasma during untreated HIV infection, and correlates with HIV disease progression. J Virol. 2015 Apr; 89(7):3723-36. PMID: 25609823; PMCID: PMC4403393.
      18. Toy P, Bacchetti P, Grimes B, Gajic O, Murphy EL, Winters JL, Gropper MA, Hubmayr RD, Matthay MA, Wilson G, Koenigsberg M, Lee DC, Hirschler NV, Lowell CA, Schuller RM, Gandhi MJ, Norris PJ, Mair DC, Sanchez Rosen R, Looney MR. Recipient clinical risk factors predominate in possible transfusion-related acute lung injury. Transfusion. 2015 May; 55(5):947-52. PMID: 25488517; PMCID: PMC4428945 [Available on 05/01/16].
      19. O-Charoen P, Ndhlovu LC, Gangcuangco LM, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Ng RC, Mitchell BI, Shikuma CM, Chow DC. Albuminuria is associated with elevated acute phase reactants and proinflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients receiving suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Dec; 30(12):1185-91. PMID: 25205472; PMCID: PMC4250959 [Available on 12/01/15].
      20. Lanteri MC, Vahidnia F, Tan S, Stapleton JT, Norris PJ, Heitman J, Deng X, Keating SM, Brambilla D, Busch MP, Custer B. Downregulation of Cytokines and Chemokines by GB Virus C After Transmission Via Blood Transfusion in HIV-Positive Blood Recipients. J Infect Dis. 2015 May 15; 211(10):1585-96. PMID: 25425697; PMCID: PMC4481614 [Available on 05/15/16].
      21. Abdel-Mohsen M, Deng X, Danesh A, Liegler T, Jacobs ES, Rauch A, Ledergerber B, Norris PJ, Günthard HF, Wong JK, Pillai SK. Role of microRNA modulation in the interferon-a/ribavirin suppression of HIV-1 in vivo. PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e109220. PMID: 25275557; PMCID: PMC4183579.
      22. Jacobs ES, Persad D, Ran L, Danesh A, Heitman JW, Deng X, Cameron MJ, Kelvin DJ, Norris PJ. A CD4+ T cell antagonist epitope down-regulates activating signaling proteins, up-regulates inhibitory signaling proteins and abrogates HIV-specific T cell function. Retrovirology. 2014; 11:57. PMID: 24996903; PMCID: PMC4227135.
      23. Looney MR, Roubinian N, Gajic O, Gropper MA, Hubmayr RD, Lowell CA, Bacchetti P, Wilson G, Koenigsberg M, Lee DC, Wu P, Grimes B, Norris PJ, Murphy EL, Gandhi MJ, Winters JL, Mair DC, Schuller RM, Hirschler NV, Rosen RS, Matthay MA, Toy P. Prospective study on the clinical course and outcomes in transfusion-related acute lung injury*. Crit Care Med. 2014 Jul; 42(7):1676-87. PMID: 24776608; PMCID: PMC4284060.
      24. Lanteri MC, Lee TH, Wen L, Kaidarova Z, Bravo MD, Kiely NE, Kamel HT, Tobler LH, Norris PJ, Busch MP. West Nile virus nucleic acid persistence in whole blood months after clearance in plasma: implication for transfusion and transplantation safety. Transfusion. 2014 Dec; 54(12):3232-41. PMID: 24965017; PMCID: PMC4268370 [Available on 12/01/15].
      25. Tandon R, Chew GM, Byron MM, Borrow P, Niki T, Hirashima M, Barbour JD, Norris PJ, Lanteri MC, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Ndhlovu LC. Galectin-9 is rapidly released during acute HIV-1 infection and remains sustained at high levels despite viral suppression even in elite controllers. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Jul; 30(7):654-64. PMID: 24786365; PMCID: PMC4077009.
      26. Lanteri MC, Diamond MS, Law JP, Chew GM, Wu S, Inglis HC, Wong D, Busch MP, Norris PJ, Ndhlovu LC. Increased frequency of Tim-3 expressing T cells is associated with symptomatic West Nile virus infection. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e92134. PMID: 24642562; PMCID: PMC3958446.
      27. Landay A, Golub ET, Desai S, Zhang J, Winkelman V, Anastos K, Durkin H, Young M, Villacres MC, Greenblatt RM, Norris PJ, Busch MP. HIV RNA levels in plasma and cervical-vaginal lavage fluid in elite controllers and HAART recipients. AIDS. 2014 Mar 13; 28(5):739-43. PMID: 24326356; PMCID: PMC4160049.
      28. Shikuma CM, Chow DC, Gangcuangco LM, Zhang G, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Seto TB, Parikh N, Kallianpur KJ, Nakamoto BK, Nagamine LS, Ndhlovu LC, Barbour JD. Monocytes expand with immune dysregulation and is associated with insulin resistance in older individuals with chronic HIV. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e90330. PMID: 24587328; PMCID: PMC3937368.
      29. Danesh A, Inglis HC, Jackman RP, Wu S, Deng X, Muench MO, Heitman JW, Norris PJ. Exosomes from red blood cell units bind to monocytes and induce proinflammatory cytokines, boosting T-cell responses in vitro. Blood. 2014 Jan 30; 123(5):687-96. PMID: 24335232; PMCID: PMC3907755.
      30. Barbour JD, Jalbert EC, Chow DC, Gangcuangco LM, Norris PJ, Keating SM, Heitman J, Nagamine L, Seto T, Ndhlovu LC, Nakamoto BK, Hodis HN, Parikh NI, Shikuma CM. Reduced CD14 expression on classical monocytes and vascular endothelial adhesion markers independently associate with carotid artery intima media thickness in chronically HIV-1 infected adults on virologically suppressive anti-retroviral therapy. Atherosclerosis. 2014 Jan; 232(1):52-8. PMID: 24401216; PMCID: PMC3919042.
      31. Keating SM, Heitman JD, Wu S, Deng X, Stramer SL, Kuhns MC, Mullen C, Norris PJ, Busch MP. Cytokine and chemokine responses in the acute phase of hepatitis B virus replication in naive and previously vaccinated blood and plasma donors. J Infect Dis. 2014 Mar; 209(6):845-54. PMID: 24158960.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Jalbert E, Crawford TQ, D'Antoni ML, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Nakamoto BK, Seto T, Parikh NI, Shikuma CM, Ndhlovu LC, Barbour JD. IL-1? enriched monocytes mount massive IL-6 responses to common inflammatory triggers among chronically HIV-1 infected adults on stable anti-retroviral therapy at risk for cardiovascular disease. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e75500. PMID: 24086545; PMCID: PMC3783392.
      33. Shikuma CM, Barbour JD, Ndhlovu LC, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Budoff M, Parikh N, Seto T, Gangcuangco LM, Ogata-Arakaki D, Chow D. Plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-a levels predict the presence of coronary artery calcium in HIV-infected individuals independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Feb; 30(2):142-6. PMID: 23984974; PMCID: PMC3910454.
      34. Sparrow RL, Sran A, Healey G, Veale MF, Norris PJ. In vitro measures of membrane changes reveal differences between red blood cells stored in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol and AS-1 additive solutions: a paired study. Transfusion. 2014 Mar; 54(3):560-8. PMID: 23869602; PMCID: PMC4173075.
      35. Jackman RP, Deng X, Bolgiano D, Utter GH, Schechterly C, Lebedeva M, Operskalski E, Luban NL, Alter H, Busch MP, Slichter SJ, Norris PJ. Leukoreduction and ultraviolet treatment reduce both the magnitude and the duration of the HLA antibody response. Transfusion. 2014 Mar; 54(3):672-80. PMID: 23808544; PMCID: PMC3825847.
      36. Fleck S, Bautista G, Keating SM, Lee TH, Keller RL, Moon-Grady AJ, Gonzales K, Norris PJ, Busch MP, Kim CJ, Romero R, Lee H, Miniati D, MacKenzie TC. Fetal production of growth factors and inflammatory mediators predicts pulmonary hypertension in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatr Res. 2013 Sep; 74(3):290-8. PMID: 23770923; PMCID: PMC4164304.
      37. Parrinello CM, Landay AL, Hodis HN, Gange SJ, Norris PJ, Young M, Anastos K, Tien PC, Xue X, Lazar J, Benning L, Tracy RP, Kaplan RC. Treatment-related changes in serum lipids and inflammation: clinical relevance remains unclear. Analyses from the Women's Interagency HIV study. AIDS. 2013 Jun 1; 27(9):1516-9. PMID: 23435295; PMCID: PMC3909663.
      38. Jackman RP, Muench MO, Heitman JW, Inglis HC, Law JP, Marschner S, Goodrich RP, Norris PJ. Immune modulation and lack of alloimmunization following transfusion with pathogen-reduced platelets in mice. Transfusion. 2013 Nov; 53(11):2697-709. PMID: 23451715.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Batista MD, Tincati C, Milush JM, Ho EL, Ndhlovu LC, York VA, Kallas EG, Kalil J, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Chang D, Unemori P, Leslie KS, Maurer T, Liao W, Nixon DF. CD57 expression and cytokine production by T cells in lesional and unaffected skin from patients with psoriasis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e52144. PMID: 23468834; PMCID: PMC3585296.
      40. Jackman RP, Deng X, Bolgiano D, Lebedeva M, Heitman JW, Busch MP, Slichter SJ, Norris PJ. Low-level HLA antibodies do not predict platelet transfusion failure in TRAP study participants. Blood. 2013 Apr 18; 121(16):3261-6; quiz 3299. PMID: 23393051; PMCID: PMC3630837.
      41. Gandhi MJ, Carrick DM, Jenkins S, De Goey S, Ploeger NA, Wilson GA, Lee JH, Winters JL, Stubbs JR, Toy P, Norris PJ. Lot-to-lot variability in HLA antibody screening using a multiplexed bead-based assay. Transfusion. 2013 Sep; 53(9):1940-7. PMID: 23305156; PMCID: PMC3626740.
      42. Ramos HJ, Lanteri MC, Blahnik G, Negash A, Suthar MS, Brassil MM, Sodhi K, Treuting PM, Busch MP, Norris PJ, Gale M. IL-1ß signaling promotes CNS-intrinsic immune control of West Nile virus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2012; 8(11):e1003039. PMID: 23209411; PMCID: PMC3510243.
      43. Parrinello CM, Landay AL, Hodis HN, Gange SJ, Norris PJ, Young M, Anastos K, Tien PC, Xue X, Lazar J, Benning L, Tracy RP, Kaplan RC. Association of subclinical atherosclerosis with lipid levels amongst antiretroviral-treated and untreated HIV-infected women in the Women's Interagency HIV study. Atherosclerosis. 2012 Dec; 225(2):408-11. PMID: 23089369; PMCID: PMC3696584.
      44. Keating SM, Hanson D, Lebedeva M, Laeyendecker O, Ali-Napo NL, Owen SM, Stramer SL, Moore RD, Norris PJ, Busch MP. Lower-sensitivity and avidity modifications of the vitros anti-HIV 1+2 assay for detection of recent HIV infections and incidence estimation. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Dec; 50(12):3968-76. PMID: 23035182; PMCID: PMC3503010.
      45. Kaplan RC, Landay AL, Hodis HN, Gange SJ, Norris PJ, Young M, Anastos K, Tien PC, Xue X, Lazar J, Parrinello CM, Benning L, Tracy RP. Potential cardiovascular disease risk markers among HIV-infected women initiating antiretroviral treatment. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Aug 1; 60(4):359-68. PMID: 22592585; PMCID: PMC3400505.
      46. Keating SM, Jacobs ES, Norris PJ. Soluble mediators of inflammation in HIV and their implications for therapeutics and vaccine development. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2012 Aug-Oct; 23(4-5):193-206. PMID: 22743035; PMCID: PMC3418433.
      47. Selvarajah S, Keating S, Heitman J, Lu K, Simmons G, Norris PJ, Operskalski E, Mosley JW, Busch MP. Detection of host immune responses in acute phase sera of spontaneous resolution versus persistent hepatitis C virus infection. J Gen Virol. 2012 Aug; 93(Pt 8):1673-9. PMID: 22535775; PMCID: PMC3541758.
      48. Reesink HW, Lee J, Keller A, Dennington P, Pink J, Holdsworth R, Schennach H, Goldman M, Petraszko T, Sun J, Meng Y, Qian K, Rehacek V, Turek P, Krusius T, Juvonen E, Tiberghien P, Legrand D, Semana G, Muller JY, Bux J, Reil A, Lin CK, Daly H, McSweeney E, Porretti L, Greppi N, Rebulla P, Okazaki H, Sánchez-Guerrero SA, Baptista-González HA, Martínez-Murillo C, Guerra-Márquez A, Rodriguez-Moyado H, Middelburg RA, Wiersum-Osselton JC, Brand A, van Tilburg C, Dinesh D, Dagger J, Dunn P, Brojer E, Letowska M, Maslanka K, Lachert E, Uhrynowska M, Zhiburt E, Palfi M, Berlin G, Frey BM, Puig Rovira L, Muñiz-Diaz E, Castro E, Chapman C, Green A, Massey E, Win N, Williamson L, Silliman CC, Chaffin DJ, Ambruso DR, Blumberg N, Tomasulo P, Land KJ, Norris PJ, Illoh OC, Davey RJ, Benjamin RJ, Eder AF, McLaughlin L, Kleinman S, Panzer S. Measures to prevent transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Vox Sang. 2012 Oct; 103(3):231-59. PMID: 22519920.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Jackman RP, Utter GH, Muench MO, Heitman JW, Munz MM, Jackman RW, Biswas HH, Rivers RM, Tobler LH, Busch MP, Norris PJ. Distinct roles of trauma and transfusion in induction of immune modulation after injury. Transfusion. 2012 Dec; 52(12):2533-50. PMID: 22452342; PMCID: PMC3392528.
      50. Stramer SL, Collins C, Nugent T, Wang X, Fuschino M, Heitman JW, Law J, Krysztof DE, Kiely N, Todd D, Vermeulen NM, Harrington K, Kamel H, Kelvin DJ, Busch MP, St George K, Hewlett IK, Linnen JM, Norris PJ. Sensitive detection assays for influenza RNA do not reveal viremia in US blood donors. J Infect Dis. 2012 Mar 15; 205(6):886-94. PMID: 22293429; PMCID: PMC3282565.
      51. Eriksson EM, Milush JM, Ho EL, Batista MD, Holditch SJ, Keh CE, Norris PJ, Keating SM, Deeks SG, Hunt PW, Martin JN, Rosenberg MG, Hecht FM, Nixon DF. Expansion of CD8+ T cells lacking Sema4D/CD100 during HIV-1 infection identifies a subset of T cells with decreased functional capacity. Blood. 2012 Jan 19; 119(3):745-55. PMID: 22134167; PMCID: PMC3265199.
      52. Toy P, Gajic O, Bacchetti P, Looney MR, Gropper MA, Hubmayr R, Lowell CA, Norris PJ, Murphy EL, Weiskopf RB, Wilson G, Koenigsberg M, Lee D, Schuller R, Wu P, Grimes B, Gandhi MJ, Winters JL, Mair D, Hirschler N, Sanchez Rosen R, Matthay MA. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: incidence and risk factors. Blood. 2012 Feb 16; 119(7):1757-67. PMID: 22117051; PMCID: PMC3286351.
      53. Keating SM, Golub ET, Nowicki M, Young M, Anastos K, Crystal H, Cohen MH, Zhang J, Greenblatt RM, Desai S, Wu S, Landay AL, Gange SJ, Norris PJ. The effect of HIV infection and HAART on inflammatory biomarkers in a population-based cohort of women. AIDS. 2011 Sep 24; 25(15):1823-32. PMID: 21572306; PMCID: PMC3314300.
      54. Hecht FM, Wellman R, Busch MP, Pilcher CD, Norris PJ, Margolick JB, Collier AC, Little SJ, Markowitz M, Routy JP, Holte S. Identifying the early post-HIV antibody seroconversion period. J Infect Dis. 2011 Aug 15; 204(4):526-33. PMID: 21791654; PMCID: PMC3144168.
      55. Lanteri MC, Kaidarova Z, Peterson T, Cate S, Custer B, Wu S, Agapova M, Law JP, Bielawny T, Plummer F, Tobler LH, Loeb M, Busch MP, Bramson J, Luo M, Norris PJ. Association between HLA class I and class II alleles and the outcome of West Nile virus infection: an exploratory study. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e22948. PMID: 21829673; PMCID: PMC3148246.
      56. Breen EC, Reynolds SM, Cox C, Jacobson LP, Magpantay L, Mulder CB, Dibben O, Margolick JB, Bream JH, Sambrano E, Martínez-Maza O, Sinclair E, Borrow P, Landay AL, Rinaldo CR, Norris PJ. Multisite comparison of high-sensitivity multiplex cytokine assays. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011 Aug; 18(8):1229-42. PMID: 21697338; PMCID: PMC3147360.
      57. Gay C, Dibben O, Anderson JA, Stacey A, Mayo AJ, Norris PJ, Kuruc JD, Salazar-Gonzalez JF, Li H, Keele BF, Hicks C, Margolis D, Ferrari G, Haynes B, Swanstrom R, Shaw GM, Hahn BH, Eron JJ, Borrow P, Cohen MS. Cross-sectional detection of acute HIV infection: timing of transmission, inflammation and antiretroviral therapy. PLoS One. 2011; 6(5):e19617. PMID: 21573003; PMCID: PMC3091862.
      58. Letvin NL, Rao SS, Montefiori DC, Seaman MS, Sun Y, Lim SY, Yeh WW, Asmal M, Gelman RS, Shen L, Whitney JB, Seoighe C, Lacerda M, Keating S, Norris PJ, Hudgens MG, Gilbert PB, Buzby AP, Mach LV, Zhang J, Balachandran H, Shaw GM, Schmidt SD, Todd JP, Dodson A, Mascola JR, Nabel GJ. Immune and Genetic Correlates of Vaccine Protection Against Mucosal Infection by SIV in Monkeys. Sci Transl Med. 2011 May 4; 3(81):81ra36. PMID: 21543722; PMCID: PMC3718279.
      59. Lanteri MC, Assal A, Norris PJ, Busch MP. [West Nile virus - I. conquest of the West]. Med Sci (Paris). 2011 Apr; 27(4):375-81. PMID: 21524401.
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      60. Lanteri MC, Diamond MS, Norris PJ, Busch MP. [West Nile virus. II. Immunopathophysiology in humans]. Med Sci (Paris). 2011 Apr; 27(4):382-6. PMID: 21524402.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Spinella PC, Sparrow RL, Hess JR, Norris PJ. Properties of stored red blood cells: understanding immune and vascular reactivity. Transfusion. 2011 Apr; 51(4):894-900. PMID: 21496052; PMCID: PMC3081134.
      62. Carrick DM, Norris PJ, Endres RO, Pandey S, Kleinman SH, Wright D, Sun Y, Busch MP. Establishing assay cutoffs for HLA antibody screening of apheresis donors. Transfusion. 2011 Oct; 51(10):2092-101. PMID: 21332726; PMCID: PMC3108003.
      63. Hunt PW, Landay AL, Sinclair E, Martinson JA, Hatano H, Emu B, Norris PJ, Busch MP, Martin JN, Brooks C, McCune JM, Deeks SG. A low T regulatory cell response may contribute to both viral control and generalized immune activation in HIV controllers. PLoS One. 2011; 6(1):e15924. PMID: 21305005; PMCID: PMC3031543.
      64. Jackman RP, Utter GH, Heitman JW, Hirschkorn DF, Law JP, Gefter N, Busch MP, Norris PJ. Effects of blood sample age at time of separation on measured cytokine concentrations in human plasma. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011 Feb; 18(2):318-26. PMID: 21159926; PMCID: PMC3067358.
      65. Carrick DM, Johnson B, Kleinman SH, Vorhaben R, Chance SC, Lee JH, Roback JD, Pandey S, Sun Y, Busch MP, Norris PJ. Agreement among HLA antibody detection assays is higher in ever-pregnant donors and improved using a consensus cutoff. Transfusion. 2011 May; 51(5):1105-16. PMID: 21087285; PMCID: PMC3089710.
      66. Gottschall JL, Triulzi DJ, Curtis B, Kakaiya RM, Busch MP, Norris PJ, Glynn SA, Carrick D, Wright DJ, Kleinman S. The frequency and specificity of human neutrophil antigen antibodies in a blood donor population. Transfusion. 2011 Apr; 51(4):820-7. PMID: 20977484; PMCID: PMC3583295.
      67. Hatano H, Delwart EL, Norris PJ, Lee TH, Neilands TB, Kelley CF, Hunt PW, Hoh R, Linnen JM, Martin JN, Busch MP, Deeks SG. Evidence of persistent low-level viremia in long-term HAART-suppressed, HIV-infected individuals. AIDS. 2010 Oct 23; 24(16):2535-9. PMID: 20651585; PMCID: PMC2954261.
      68. Lopez-Vergès S, Milush JM, Pandey S, York VA, Arakawa-Hoyt J, Pircher H, Norris PJ, Nixon DF, Lanier LL. CD57 defines a functionally distinct population of mature NK cells in the human CD56dimCD16+ NK-cell subset. Blood. 2010 Nov 11; 116(19):3865-74. PMID: 20733159; PMCID: PMC2981540.
      69. Devine DV, Reesink HW, Panzer S, Irving DO, Körmöczi GF, Mayr WR, Blais Y, Zhu Y, Qian K, Zhu Z, Greinacher A, Grazzini G, Pupella S, Catalano L, Vaglio S, Liumbruno GM, Smeenk JW, Josemans EA, Briët E, Letowska M, Lachert E, Antoniewicz-Papis J, Brojer E, Gulliksson H, Scott M, Williamson L, Prowse C, AuBuchon JP, López JA, Hoffman P, Busch MP, Norris PJ, Tomasulo P, Dodd RY. Research and development. Vox Sang. 2010 Nov; 99(4):382-401. PMID: 20726958.
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      70. Liu J, Keele BF, Li H, Keating S, Norris PJ, Carville A, Mansfield KG, Tomaras GD, Haynes BF, Kolodkin-Gal D, Letvin NL, Hahn BH, Shaw GM, Barouch DH. Low-dose mucosal simian immunodeficiency virus infection restricts early replication kinetics and transmitted virus variants in rhesus monkeys. J Virol. 2010 Oct; 84(19):10406-12. PMID: 20686016; PMCID: PMC2937794.
      71. Owen RE, Heitman JW, Hirschkorn DF, Lanteri MC, Biswas HH, Martin JN, Krone MR, Deeks SG, Norris PJ. HIV+ elite controllers have low HIV-specific T-cell activation yet maintain strong, polyfunctional T-cell responses. AIDS. 2010 May 15; 24(8):1095-105. PMID: 20400885; PMCID: PMC2972651.
      72. Ronquillo RE, Desai SN, Norris PJ, Golub ET, Greenblatt RM, Gange SJ, Landay AL. Elevated caspase-3 expression and T-cell activation in elite suppressors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 May 1; 54(1):110-1. PMID: 20418727; PMCID: PMC3228601.
      73. Endres RO, Kleinman SH, Carrick DM, Steele WR, Wright DJ, Norris PJ, Triulzi D, Kakaiya R, Busch MP. Identification of specificities of antibodies against human leukocyte antigens in blood donors. Transfusion. 2010 Aug; 50(8):1749-60. PMID: 20158682; PMCID: PMC3061817.
      74. Kakaiya RM, Triulzi DJ, Wright DJ, Steele WR, Kleinman SH, Busch MP, Norris PJ, Hillyer CD, Gottschall JL, Rios JA, Carey P, Glynn SA. Prevalence of HLA antibodies in remotely transfused or alloexposed volunteer blood donors. Transfusion. 2010 Jun; 50(6):1328-34. PMID: 20070615; PMCID: PMC2891258.
      75. Ndhlovu LC, Leal FE, Eccles-James IG, Jha AR, Lanteri M, Norris PJ, Barbour JD, Wachter DJ, Andersson J, Taskén K, Torheim EA, Aandahl EM, Kallas EG, Nixon DF. A novel human CD4+ T-cell inducer subset with potent immunostimulatory properties. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Jan; 40(1):134-41. PMID: 19877008; PMCID: PMC2902274.
      76. Norris PJ, Hirschkorn DF, DeVita DA, Lee TH, Murphy EL. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 infection drives spontaneous proliferation of natural killer cells. Virulence. 2010 Jan-Feb; 1(1):19-28. PMID: 20640055.
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      77. Law JP, Hirschkorn DF, Owen RE, Biswas HH, Norris PJ, Lanteri MC. The importance of Foxp3 antibody and fixation/permeabilization buffer combinations in identifying CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Cytometry A. 2009 Dec; 75(12):1040-50. PMID: 19845018; PMCID: PMC2862733.
      78. Khurana S, Norris PJ, Busch MP, Haynes BF, Park S, Sasono P, Mlisana K, Salim AK, Hecht FM, Mulenga J, Chomba E, Hunter E, Allen S, Nemo G, Rodriguez-Chavez IR, Margolick JB, Golding H. HIV-Selectest enzyme immunoassay and rapid test: ability to detect seroconversion following HIV-1 infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Jan; 48(1):281-5. PMID: 19906903; PMCID: PMC2812287.
      79. Beal AM, Anikeeva N, Varma R, Cameron TO, Vasiliver-Shamis G, Norris PJ, Dustin ML, Sykulev Y. Kinetics of early T cell receptor signaling regulate the pathway of lytic granule delivery to the secretory domain. Immunity. 2009 Oct 16; 31(4):632-42. PMID: 19833088; PMCID: PMC2778196.
      80. Lanteri MC, O'Brien KM, Purtha WE, Cameron MJ, Lund JM, Owen RE, Heitman JW, Custer B, Hirschkorn DF, Tobler LH, Kiely N, Prince HE, Ndhlovu LC, Nixon DF, Kamel HT, Kelvin DJ, Busch MP, Rudensky AY, Diamond MS, Norris PJ. Tregs control the development of symptomatic West Nile virus infection in humans and mice. J Clin Invest. 2009 Nov; 119(11):3266-77. PMID: 19855131.
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      81. Jackman RP, Heitman JW, Marschner S, Goodrich RP, Norris PJ. Understanding loss of donor white blood cell immunogenicity after pathogen reduction: mechanisms of action in ultraviolet illumination and riboflavin treatment. Transfusion. 2009 Dec; 49(12):2686-99. PMID: 19682337; PMCID: PMC2865145.
      82. Triulzi DJ, Kleinman S, Kakaiya RM, Busch MP, Norris PJ, Steele WR, Glynn SA, Hillyer CD, Carey P, Gottschall JL, Murphy EL, Rios JA, Ness PM, Wright DJ, Carrick D, Schreiber GB. The effect of previous pregnancy and transfusion on HLA alloimmunization in blood donors: implications for a transfusion-related acute lung injury risk reduction strategy. Transfusion. 2009 Sep; 49(9):1825-35. PMID: 19453983; PMCID: PMC2841001.
      83. Stacey AR, Norris PJ, Qin L, Haygreen EA, Taylor E, Heitman J, Lebedeva M, DeCamp A, Li D, Grove D, Self SG, Borrow P. Induction of a striking systemic cytokine cascade prior to peak viremia in acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, in contrast to more modest and delayed responses in acute hepatitis B and C virus infections. J Virol. 2009 Apr; 83(8):3719-33. PMID: 19176632; PMCID: PMC2663284.
      84. Norris PJ, Lee JH, Carrick DM, Gottschall JL, Lebedeva M, de Castro BR, Kleinman SH, Busch MP. Long-term in vitro reactivity for human leukocyte antigen antibodies and comparison of detection using serum versus plasma. Transfusion. 2009 Feb; 49(2):243-51. PMID: 18980615; PMCID: PMC3058293.
      85. Hatano H, Delwart EL, Norris PJ, Lee TH, Dunn-Williams J, Hunt PW, Hoh R, Stramer SL, Linnen JM, McCune JM, Martin JN, Busch MP, Deeks SG. Evidence for persistent low-level viremia in individuals who control human immunodeficiency virus in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. J Virol. 2009 Jan; 83(1):329-35. PMID: 18945778; PMCID: PMC2612329.
      86. Tobler LH, Cameron MJ, Lanteri MC, Prince HE, Danesh A, Persad D, Lanciotti RS, Norris PJ, Kelvin DJ, Busch MP. Interferon and interferon-induced chemokine expression is associated with control of acute viremia in West Nile virus-infected blood donors. J Infect Dis. 2008 Oct 1; 198(7):979-83. PMID: 18729779.
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      87. Beal AM, Anikeeva N, Varma R, Cameron TO, Norris PJ, Dustin ML, Sykulev Y. Protein kinase C theta regulates stability of the peripheral adhesion ring junction and contributes to the sensitivity of target cell lysis by CTL. J Immunol. 2008 Oct 1; 181(7):4815-24. PMID: 18802085; PMCID: PMC2748977.
      88. Busch MP, Kleinman SH, Tobler LH, Kamel HT, Norris PJ, Walsh I, Matud JL, Prince HE, Lanciotti RS, Wright DJ, Linnen JM, Caglioti S. Virus and antibody dynamics in acute west nile virus infection. J Infect Dis. 2008 Oct 1; 198(7):984-93. PMID: 18729783.
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      89. Ndhlovu LC, Chapman JM, Jha AR, Snyder-Cappione JE, Pagán M, Leal FE, Boland BS, Norris PJ, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF. Suppression of HIV-1 plasma viral load below detection preserves IL-17 producing T cells in HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2008 May 11; 22(8):990-2. PMID: 18453860; PMCID: PMC2850608.
      90. Lanteri MC, Heitman JW, Owen RE, Busch T, Gefter N, Kiely N, Kamel HT, Tobler LH, Busch MP, Norris PJ. Comprehensive analysis of west nile virus-specific T cell responses in humans. J Infect Dis. 2008 May 1; 197(9):1296-306. PMID: 18422442.
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      91. Tang S, Zhao J, Storhoff JJ, Norris PJ, Little RF, Yarchoan R, Stramer SL, Patno T, Domanus M, Dhar A, Mirkin CA, Hewlett IK. Nanoparticle-Based biobarcode amplification assay (BCA) for sensitive and early detection of human immunodeficiency type 1 capsid (p24) antigen. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Oct 1; 46(2):231-7. PMID: 17693896.
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      92. Owen RE, Sinclair E, Emu B, Heitman JW, Hirschkorn DF, Epling CL, Tan QX, Custer B, Harris JM, Jacobson MA, McCune JM, Martin JN, Hecht FM, Deeks SG, Norris PJ. Loss of T cell responses following long-term cryopreservation. J Immunol Methods. 2007 Sep 30; 326(1-2):93-115. PMID: 17707394; PMCID: PMC2065759.
      93. Likos AM, Kelvin DJ, Cameron CM, Rowe T, Kuehnert MJ, Norris PJ. Influenza viremia and the potential for blood-borne transmission. Transfusion. 2007 Jun; 47(6):1080-8. PMID: 17524100.
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      94. Reed W, Lee TH, Norris PJ, Utter GH, Busch MP. Transfusion-associated microchimerism: a new complication of blood transfusions in severely injured patients. Semin Hematol. 2007 Jan; 44(1):24-31. PMID: 17198844.
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      95. Norris PJ, Pappalardo BL, Custer B, Spotts G, Hecht FM, Busch MP. Elevations in IL-10, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma from the earliest point of HIV Type 1 infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006 Aug; 22(8):757-62. PMID: 16910831; PMCID: PMC2431151.
      96. Williams JG, Tomer KB, Hioe CE, Zolla-Pazner S, Norris PJ. The antigenic determinants on HIV p24 for CD4+ T cell inhibiting antibodies as determined by limited proteolysis, chemical modification, and mass spectrometry. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2006 Nov; 17(11):1560-9. PMID: 16875837.
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      97. Killian MS, Norris PJ, Rawal BD, Lebedeva M, Hecht FM, Levy JA, Busch MP. The effects of early antiretroviral therapy and its discontinuation on the HIV-specific antibody response. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006 Jul; 22(7):640-7. PMID: 16831088.
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      98. Norris PJ, Stone JD, Anikeeva N, Heitman JW, Wilson IC, Hirschkorn DF, Clark MJ, Moffett HF, Cameron TO, Sykulev Y, Stern LJ, Walker BD. Antagonism of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells by C-terminal truncation of a minimum epitope. Mol Immunol. 2006 Mar; 43(9):1349-57. PMID: 16216327; PMCID: PMC2561961.
      99. McEvers K, Elrefaei M, Norris P, Deeks S, Martin J, Lu Y, Cao H. Modified anthrax fusion proteins deliver HIV antigens through MHC Class I and II pathways. Vaccine. 2005 Jul 14; 23(32):4128-35. PMID: 15964481.
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      100. Zavala-Ruiz Z, Strug I, Walker BD, Norris PJ, Stern LJ. A hairpin turn in a class II MHC-bound peptide orients residues outside the binding groove for T cell recognition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Sep 7; 101(36):13279-84. PMID: 15331779; PMCID: PMC516560.
      101. Norris PJ, Moffett HF, Yang OO, Kaufmann DE, Clark MJ, Addo MM, Rosenberg ES. Beyond help: direct effector functions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD4(+) T cells. J Virol. 2004 Aug; 78(16):8844-51. PMID: 15280492; PMCID: PMC479080.
      102. SenGupta D, Norris PJ, Suscovich TJ, Hassan-Zahraee M, Moffett HF, Trocha A, Draenert R, Goulder PJ, Binder RJ, Levey DL, Walker BD, Srivastava PK, Brander C. Heat shock protein-mediated cross-presentation of exogenous HIV antigen on HLA class I and class II. J Immunol. 2004 Aug 1; 173(3):1987-93. PMID: 15265933.
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      103. Kaufmann DE, Bailey PM, Sidney J, Wagner B, Norris PJ, Johnston MN, Cosimi LA, Addo MM, Lichterfeld M, Altfeld M, Frahm N, Brander C, Sette A, Walker BD, Rosenberg ES. Comprehensive analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD4 responses reveals marked immunodominance of gag and nef and the presence of broadly recognized peptides. J Virol. 2004 May; 78(9):4463-77. PMID: 15078927; PMCID: PMC387674.
      104. Norris PJ, Moffett HF, Brander C, Allen TM, O'Sullivan KM, Cosimi LA, Kaufmann DE, Walker BD, Rosenberg ES. Fine specificity and cross-clade reactivity of HIV type 1 Gag-specific CD4+ T cells. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004 Mar; 20(3):315-25. PMID: 15117455; PMCID: PMC2553686.
      105. Cameron TO, Norris PJ, Patel A, Moulon C, Rosenberg ES, Mellins ED, Wedderburn LR, Stern LJ. Labeling antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells with class II MHC oligomers. J Immunol Methods. 2002 Oct 1; 268(1):51-69. PMID: 12213343.
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      106. Norris PJ, Rosenberg ES. CD4(+) T helper cells and the role they play in viral control. J Mol Med (Berl). 2002 Jul; 80(7):397-405. PMID: 12110945.
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      107. Hioe CE, Tuen M, Chien PC, Jones G, Ratto-Kim S, Norris PJ, Moretto WJ, Nixon DF, Gorny MK, Zolla-Pazner S. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 presentation to CD4 T cells by antibodies specific for the CD4 binding domain of gp120. J Virol. 2001 Nov; 75(22):10950-7. PMID: 11602735; PMCID: PMC114675.
      108. Norris PJ, Sumaroka M, Brander C, Moffett HF, Boswell SL, Nguyen T, Sykulev Y, Walker BD, Rosenberg ES. Multiple effector functions mediated by human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD4(+) T-cell clones. J Virol. 2001 Oct; 75(20):9771-9. PMID: 11559810; PMCID: PMC114549.
      109. Norris PJ, Rosenberg ES. Cellular immune response to human immunodeficiency virus. AIDS. 2001 Feb; 15 Suppl 2:S16-21. PMID: 11424972.
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