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    Philip Starr

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentNeurological Surgery
    Address505 Parnassus Ave, Moffitt
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-502-2885

       Biography 
       Education and Training
      Institution Degree School or Department Year
      Harvard UniversityM.D.School of Medicine1989
       Awards and Honors
      2013finalist, Israeli B.R.A.I.N. prize in neurotechnology
      2005Dolores Cakebread Endowed Chair in Neurological Surgery

       Overview 
       Overview
      Dr. Starr is Professor of Neurological Surgery and holds the Dolores Cakebread Endowed Chair in Neurological Surgery. His clinical interests are in functional neurosurgery, especially in the use of implanted devices to improve brain function. He is co-director, with Dr. Jill Ostrem, of the UCSF Surgical Movement Disorders clinic, a multidisciplinary clinic serving a large population of patients with Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, and tremor. In 2013, this clinic was designated as a Bachman-Strauss Center of Excellence in the treatment of movement disorders, one of four such Centers of Excellence in the United States. Dr. Starr directs an NIH-funded laboratory devoted to analyzing how movement disorders affect the network function of the brain, understanding the central mechanisms of therapeutic neurostimulation, and improving the effectiveness of neurostimulion.

      Dr. Starr and colleagues pioneered the use of electrocorticography (direct brain recording using an implanted cortical electrode) as a tool to understand Parkinson’s disease and dystonia. In 2013, this effort culminated in the first implant of a chronic multi-site (cortex and basal ganglia) brain recording device in a patient with Parkinson’s disease, as part of a ten patient study of a novel, totally implantable bidirectional neural interface. With Dr. Paul Larson and Dr. Alastair Martin, he has developed a new approach to improve the accuracy of delivery of devices and drugs to deep brain targets using interventional MRI, in conjunction with a skull mounted aiming device and a dedicated software system (Clearpoint system, MRI interventions).

       Interests
      Parkinson's disease, dystonia, deep brain stimulation, basal ganglia physiology, electrocorticography

       ORNG Applications 
       Featured Publications
       Websites
       In The News
       Awarded Grants
       More Info

       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Starr PA, Markun LC, Larson PS, Volz MM, Martin AJ, Ostrem JL. Interventional MRI-guided deep brain stimulation in pediatric dystonia: first experience with the ClearPoint system. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Oct; 14(4):400-8.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Starr PA. Dr. Roy bakay and the modern era of neurosurgical mentorship. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2014; 92(4):201-2.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Ivan ME, Yarlagadda J, Saxena AP, Martin AJ, Starr PA, Sootsman WK, Larson PS. Brain shift during bur hole-based procedures using interventional MRI. J Neurosurg. 2014 Jul; 121(1):149-60.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Ryapolova-Webb E, Afshar P, Stanslaski S, Denison T, de Hemptinne C, Bankiewicz K, Starr PA. Chronic cortical and electromyographic recordings from a fully implantable device: preclinical experience in a nonhuman primate. J Neural Eng. 2014 Feb; 11(1):016009.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Ostrem JL, Markun LC, Glass GA, Racine CA, Volz MM, Heath SL, de Hemptinne C, Starr PA. Effect of frequency on subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in primary dystonia. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014 Apr; 20(4):432-8.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Rowland NC, Miller KJ, Starr PA. Three-Dimensional Accuracy of ECOG Strip Electrode Localization Using Coregistration of Preoperative MRI and Intraoperative Fluoroscopy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2014; 92(1):8-16.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Mills KA, Starr PA, Ostrem JL. Neuromodulation for dystonia: target and patient selection. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2014 Jan; 25(1):59-75.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Starr PA, Ostrem JL. Commentary on "Adaptive deep brain stimulation in advanced Parkinson disease". Ann Neurol. 2013 Sep; 74(3):447-8.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Witt JL, Moro E, Ash RS, Hamani C, Starr PA, Lozano AM, Hodaie M, Poon YY, Markun LC, Ostrem JL. Predictive factors of outcome in primary cervical dystonia following pallidal deep brain stimulation. Mov Disord. 2013 Sep; 28(10):1451-5.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Shimamoto SA, Ryapolova-Webb ES, Ostrem JL, Galifianakis NB, Miller KJ, Starr PA. Subthalamic nucleus neurons are synchronized to primary motor cortex local field potentials in Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci. 2013 Apr 24; 33(17):7220-33.
        View in: PubMed
      11. de Hemptinne C, Ryapolova-Webb ES, Air EL, Garcia PA, Miller KJ, Ojemann JG, Ostrem JL, Galifianakis NB, Starr PA. Exaggerated phase-amplitude coupling in the primary motor cortex in Parkinson disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 19; 110(12):4780-5.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Silvestrini MT, Yin D, Coppes VG, Mann P, Martin AJ, Larson PS, Starr PA, Gupta N, Panter SS, Desai TA, Lim DA. Radially branched deployment for more efficient cell transplantation at the scale of the human brain. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2013; 91(2):92-103.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Starr PA. Deep brain stimulation for other tremors, myoclonus, and chorea. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013; 116:209-15.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Ostrem JL, Galifianakis NB, Markun LC, Grace JK, Martin AJ, Starr PA, Larson PS. Clinical outcomes of PD patients having bilateral STN DBS using high-field interventional MR-imaging for lead placement. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013 Jun; 115(6):708-12.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Mills KA, Scherzer R, Starr PA, Ostrem JL. Weight change after globus pallidus internus or subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2012; 90(6):386-93.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Markun LC, Starr PA, Air EL, Marks WJ, Volz MM, Ostrem JL. Shorter disease duration correlates with improved long-term deep brain stimulation outcomes in young-onset DYT1 dystonia. Neurosurgery. 2012 Aug; 71(2):325-30.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Weaver FM, Follett KA, Stern M, Luo P, Harris CL, Hur K, Marks WJ, Rothlind J, Sagher O, Moy C, Pahwa R, Burchiel K, Hogarth P, Lai EC, Duda JE, Holloway K, Samii A, Horn S, Bronstein JM, Stoner G, Starr PA, Simpson R, Baltuch G, De Salles A, Huang GD, Reda DJ. Randomized trial of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson disease: thirty-six-month outcomes. Neurology. 2012 Jul 3; 79(1):55-65.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Air EL, Ryapolova-Webb E, de Hemptinne C, Ostrem JL, Galifianakis NB, Larson PS, Chang EF, Starr PA. Acute effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation and thalamotomy on sensorimotor cortex local field potentials in essential tremor. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012 Nov; 123(11):2232-8.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Maniyar FH, Starr P, Goadsby PJ. Paroxysmal sneezing after hypothalamic deep brain stimulation for cluster headache. Cephalalgia. 2012 Jun; 32(8):641-4.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Mittermeyer G, Christine CW, Rosenbluth KH, Baker SL, Starr P, Larson P, Kaplan PL, Forsayeth J, Aminoff MJ, Bankiewicz KS. Long-term evaluation of a phase 1 study of AADC gene therapy for Parkinson's disease. Hum Gene Ther. 2012 Apr; 23(4):377-81.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Larson PS, Starr PA, Bates G, Tansey L, Richardson RM, Martin AJ. An optimized system for interventional magnetic resonance imaging-guided stereotactic surgery: preliminary evaluation of targeting accuracy. Neurosurgery. 2012 Mar; 70(1 Suppl Operative):95-103; discussion 103.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Crowell AL, Ryapolova-Webb ES, Ostrem JL, Galifianakis NB, Shimamoto S, Lim DA, Starr PA. Oscillations in sensorimotor cortex in movement disorders: an electrocorticography study. Brain. 2012 Feb; 135(Pt 2):615-30.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Air EL, Ostrem JL, Sanger TD, Starr PA. Deep brain stimulation in children: experience and technical pearls. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2011 Dec; 8(6):566-74.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Vitek JL, Delong MR, Starr PA, Hariz MI, Metman LV. Intraoperative neurophysiology in DBS for dystonia. Mov Disord. 2011 Jun; 26 Suppl 1:S31-6.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Starr PA, Bejjani P, Lozano AM, Metman LV, Hariz MI. Stereotactic techniques and perioperative management of DBS in dystonia. Mov Disord. 2011 Jun; 26 Suppl 1:S23-30.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Richardson RM, Kells AP, Martin AJ, Larson PS, Starr PA, Piferi PG, Bates G, Tansey L, Rosenbluth KH, Bringas JR, Berger MS, Bankiewicz KS. Novel platform for MRI-guided convection-enhanced delivery of therapeutics: preclinical validation in nonhuman primate brain. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2011; 89(3):141-51.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Ostrem JL, Racine CA, Glass GA, Grace JK, Volz MM, Heath SL, Starr PA. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in primary cervical dystonia. Neurology. 2011 Mar 8; 76(10):870-8.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Isaias IU, Volkmann J, Kupsch A, Burgunder JM, Ostrem JL, Alterman RL, Mehdorn HM, Schönecker T, Krauss JK, Starr P, Reese R, Kühn AA, Schüpbach WM, Tagliati M. Factors predicting protracted improvement after pallidal DBS for primary dystonia: the role of age and disease duration. J Neurol. 2011 Aug; 258(8):1469-76.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Shahlaie K, Larson PS, Starr PA. Intraoperative computed tomography for deep brain stimulation surgery: technique and accuracy assessment. Neurosurgery. 2011 Mar; 68(1 Suppl Operative):114-24; discussion 124.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Richardson RM, Kells AP, Rosenbluth KH, Salegio EA, Fiandaca MS, Larson PS, Starr PA, Martin AJ, Lonser RR, Federoff HJ, Forsayeth JR, Bankiewicz KS. Interventional MRI-guided putaminal delivery of AAV2-GDNF for a planned clinical trial in Parkinson's disease. Mol Ther. 2011 Jun; 19(6):1048-57.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Chang EF, Cheng JS, Richardson RM, Lee C, Starr PA, Larson PS. Incidence and management of venous air embolisms during awake deep brain stimulation surgery in a large clinical series. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2011; 89(2):76-82.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Fiandaca MS, Salegio EA, Yin D, Richardson RM, Valles FE, Larson PS, Starr PA, Lonser RR, Bankiewicz KS. Human/nonhuman primate AC-PC ratio--considerations for translational brain measurements. J Neurosci Methods. 2011 Mar 15; 196(1):124-30.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Valles F, Fiandaca MS, Eberling JL, Starr PA, Larson PS, Christine CW, Forsayeth J, Richardson RM, Su X, Aminoff MJ, Bankiewicz KS. Qualitative imaging of adeno-associated virus serotype 2-human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase gene therapy in a phase I study for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Neurosurgery. 2010 Nov; 67(5):1377-85.
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      34. Kang GA, Heath S, Rothlind J, Starr PA. Long-term follow-up of pallidal deep brain stimulation in two cases of Huntington's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011 Mar; 82(3):272-7.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Marks WJ, Bartus RT, Siffert J, Davis CS, Lozano A, Boulis N, Vitek J, Stacy M, Turner D, Verhagen L, Bakay R, Watts R, Guthrie B, Jankovic J, Simpson R, Tagliati M, Alterman R, Stern M, Baltuch G, Starr PA, Larson PS, Ostrem JL, Nutt J, Kieburtz K, Kordower JH, Olanow CW. Gene delivery of AAV2-neurturin for Parkinson's disease: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2010 Dec; 9(12):1164-72.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Richardson RM, Freed CR, Shimamoto SA, Starr PA. Pallidal neuronal discharge in Parkinson's disease following intraputamenal fetal mesencephalic allograft. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011 Mar; 82(3):266-71.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Chan V, Starr PA, Turner RS. Bursts and oscillations as independent properties of neural activity in the parkinsonian globus pallidus internus. Neurobiol Dis. 2011 Jan; 41(1):2-10.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Chang EF, Schrock LE, Starr PA, Ostrem JL. Long-term benefit sustained after bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with refractory tardive dystonia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2010; 88(5):304-10.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Follett KA, Weaver FM, Stern M, Hur K, Harris CL, Luo P, Marks WJ, Rothlind J, Sagher O, Moy C, Pahwa R, Burchiel K, Hogarth P, Lai EC, Duda JE, Holloway K, Samii A, Horn S, Bronstein JM, Stoner G, Starr PA, Simpson R, Baltuch G, De Salles A, Huang GD, Reda DJ. Pallidal versus subthalamic deep-brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 3; 362(22):2077-91.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Starr PA, Martin AJ, Ostrem JL, Talke P, Levesque N, Larson PS. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulator placement using high-field interventional magnetic resonance imaging and a skull-mounted aiming device: technique and application accuracy. J Neurosurg. 2010 Mar; 112(3):479-90.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Upadhyaya CD, Starr PA, Mummaneni PV. Spinal deformity and Parkinson disease: a treatment algorithm. Neurosurg Focus. 2010 Mar; 28(3):E5.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Ostrem JL, Christine CW, Glass GA, Schrock LE, Starr PA. Pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulation in a patient with primary progressive freezing gait disorder. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2010; 88(1):51-5.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Schrock LE, Ostrem JL, Turner RS, Shimamoto SA, Starr PA. The subthalamic nucleus in primary dystonia: single-unit discharge characteristics. J Neurophysiol. 2009 Dec; 102(6):3740-52.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Shimamoto SA, Larson PS, Ostrem JL, Glass GA, Turner RS, Starr PA. Physiological identification of the human pedunculopontine nucleus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010 Jan; 81(1):80-6.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Christine CW, Starr PA, Larson PS, Eberling JL, Jagust WJ, Hawkins RA, VanBrocklin HF, Wright JF, Bankiewicz KS, Aminoff MJ. Safety and tolerability of putaminal AADC gene therapy for Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2009 Nov 17; 73(20):1662-9.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Richardson RM, Ostrem JL, Starr PA. Surgical repositioning of misplaced subthalamic electrodes in Parkinson's disease: location of effective and ineffective leads. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2009; 87(5):297-303.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Sillay KA, Sani S, Starr PA. Deep brain stimulation for medically intractable cluster headache. Neurobiol Dis. 2010 Jun; 38(3):361-8.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Martin AJ, Starr PA, Larson PS. Software requirements for interventional MR in restorative and functional neurosurgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2009 Apr; 20(2):179-86.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Starr PA, Martin AJ, Larson PS. Implantation of deep brain stimulator electrodes using interventional MRI. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2009 Apr; 20(2):193-203.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Sani S, Shimamoto S, Turner RS, Levesque N, Starr PA. Microelectrode recording in the posterior hypothalamic region in humans. Neurosurgery. 2009 Mar; 64(3 Suppl):ons161-7; discussion ons167-9.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Christine CW, Langston JW, Turner RS, Starr PA. The neurophysiology and effect of deep brain stimulation in a patient with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced parkinsonism. J Neurosurg. 2009 Feb; 110(2):234-8.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Berman BD, Starr PA, Marks WJ, Ostrem JL. Induction of bradykinesia with pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with cranial-cervical dystonia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2009; 87(1):37-44.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Martin AJ, Larson PS, Ostrem JL, Starr PA. Interventional magnetic resonance guidance of deep brain stimulator implantation for Parkinson disease. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2009 Jan; 19(4):213-21.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Sani S, Ostrem JL, Shimamoto S, Levesque N, Starr PA. Single unit "pauser" characteristics of the globus pallidus pars externa distinguish primary dystonia from secondary dystonia and Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 2009 Apr; 216(2):295-9.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Starr PA. DBS and dopamine. Comment on "Does dopamine still have a leading role in advanced Parkinson's disease after subthalamic stimulation?" (Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2008;86: 184-186). Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2008; 86(3):188.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Eberling JL, Jagust WJ, Christine CW, Starr P, Larson P, Bankiewicz KS, Aminoff MJ. Results from a phase I safety trial of hAADC gene therapy for Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2008 May 20; 70(21):1980-3.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Marks WJ, Ostrem JL, Verhagen L, Starr PA, Larson PS, Bakay RA, Taylor R, Cahn-Weiner DA, Stoessl AJ, Olanow CW, Bartus RT. Safety and tolerability of intraputaminal delivery of CERE-120 (adeno-associated virus serotype 2-neurturin) to patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease: an open-label, phase I trial. Lancet Neurol. 2008 May; 7(5):400-8.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Ostrem JL, Starr PA. Treatment of dystonia with deep brain stimulation. Neurotherapeutics. 2008 Apr; 5(2):320-30.
        View in: PubMed
      59. Martin AJ, Hall WA, Roark C, Starr PA, Larson PS, Truwit CL. Minimally invasive precision brain access using prospective stereotaxy and a trajectory guide. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008 Apr; 27(4):737-43.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Starr PA, Kang GA, Heath S, Shimamoto S, Turner RS. Pallidal neuronal discharge in Huntington's disease: support for selective loss of striatal cells originating the indirect pathway. Exp Neurol. 2008 May; 211(1):227-33.
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      61. Sillay KA, Larson PS, Starr PA. Deep brain stimulator hardware-related infections: incidence and management in a large series. Neurosurgery. 2008 Feb; 62(2):360-6; discussion 366-7.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Papavassiliou E, Rau G, Heath S, Abosch A, Barbaro NM, Larson PS, Lamborn K, Starr PA. Thalamic deep brain stimulation for essential tremor: relation of lead location to outcome. Neurosurgery. 2008 Feb; 62 Suppl 2:884-94.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Larson PS, Richardson RM, Starr PA, Martin AJ. Magnetic resonance imaging of implanted deep brain stimulators: experience in a large series. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2008; 86(2):92-100.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Chang EF, Turner RS, Ostrem JL, Davis VR, Starr PA. Neuronal responses to passive movement in the globus pallidus internus in primary dystonia. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Dec; 98(6):3696-707.
        View in: PubMed
      65. Ostrem JL, Marks WJ, Volz MM, Heath SL, Starr PA. Pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with cranial-cervical dystonia (Meige syndrome). Mov Disord. 2007 Oct 15; 22(13):1885-91.
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      66. Deogaonkar M, Walter BL, Boulis N, Starr P. Clinical problem solving: finding the target. Neurosurgery. 2007 Oct; 61(4):815-24; discussion 824-5.
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      67. Evidente VG, Lyons MK, Wheeler M, Hillman R, Helepolelei L, Beynen F, Nolte D, Müller U, Starr PA. First case of X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism ("Lubag") to demonstrate a response to bilateral pallidal stimulation. Mov Disord. 2007 Sep 15; 22(12):1790-3.
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      68. Starr PA, Barbaro NM, Raskin NH, Ostrem JL. Chronic stimulation of the posterior hypothalamic region for cluster headache: technique and 1-year results in four patients. J Neurosurg. 2007 Jun; 106(6):999-1005.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Nakamura K, Christine CW, Starr PA, Marks WJ. Effects of unilateral subthalamic and pallidal deep brain stimulation on fine motor functions in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2007 Apr 15; 22(5):619-26.
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      70. Lim DA, Khandhar SM, Heath S, Ostrem JL, Ringel N, Starr P. Multiple target deep brain stimulation for multiple sclerosis related and poststroke Holmes' tremor. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2007; 85(4):144-9.
        View in: PubMed
      71. Rothlind JC, Cockshott RW, Starr PA, Marks WJ. Neuropsychological performance following staged bilateral pallidal or subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2007 Jan; 13(1):68-79.
        View in: PubMed
      72. Starr PA, Turner RS, Rau G, Lindsey N, Heath S, Volz M, Ostrem JL, Marks WJ. Microelectrode-guided implantation of deep brain stimulators into the globus pallidus internus for dystonia: techniques, electrode locations, and outcomes. J Neurosurg. 2006 Apr; 104(4):488-501.
        View in: PubMed
      73. Martin AJ, Larson PS, Ostrem JL, Keith Sootsman W, Talke P, Weber OM, Levesque N, Myers J, Starr PA. Placement of deep brain stimulator electrodes using real-time high-field interventional magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2005 Nov; 54(5):1107-14.
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      74. Holloway KL, Gaede SE, Starr PA, Rosenow JM, Ramakrishnan V, Henderson JM. Frameless stereotaxy using bone fiducial markers for deep brain stimulation. J Neurosurg. 2005 Sep; 103(3):404-13.
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      75. Binder DK, Rau GM, Starr PA. Risk factors for hemorrhage during microelectrode-guided deep brain stimulator implantation for movement disorders. Neurosurgery. 2005 Apr; 56(4):722-32; discussion 722-32.
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      76. Starr PA, Rau GM, Davis V, Marks WJ, Ostrem JL, Simmons D, Lindsey N, Turner RS. Spontaneous pallidal neuronal activity in human dystonia: comparison with Parkinson's disease and normal macaque. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Jun; 93(6):3165-76.
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      77. Starr PA. Surgery for Parkinson's disease: integration of neurology and neurosurgery. Clin Neurosurg. 2005; 52:202-4.
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      78. Starr PA, Turner RS, Rau G, Lindsey N, Heath S, Volz M, Ostrem JL, Marks WJ. Microelectrode-guided implantation of deep brain stimulators into the globus pallidus internus for dystonia: techniques, electrode locations, and outcomes. Neurosurg Focus. 2004 Jul 15; 17(1):E4.
        View in: PubMed
      79. Papavassiliou E, Rau G, Heath S, Abosch A, Barbaro NM, Larson PS, Lamborn K, Starr PA. Thalamic deep brain stimulation for essential tremor: relation of lead location to outcome. Neurosurgery. 2004 May; 54(5):1120-29; discussion 1129-30.
        View in: PubMed
      80. Starr PA, Theodosopoulos PV, Turner R. Surgery of the subthalamic nucleus: use of movement-related neuronal activity for surgical navigation. Neurosurgery. 2003 Nov; 53(5):1146-9; discussion 1149.
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      81. Theodosopoulos PV, Marks WJ, Christine C, Starr PA. Locations of movement-related cells in the human subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2003 Jul; 18(7):791-8.
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      82. Binder DK, Rau G, Starr PA. Hemorrhagic complications of microelectrode-guided deep brain stimulation. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2003; 80(1-4):28-31.
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      83. Starr PA, Christine CW, Theodosopoulos PV, Lindsey N, Byrd D, Mosley A, Marks WJ. Implantation of deep brain stimulators into the subthalamic nucleus: technical approach and magnetic resonance imaging-verified lead locations. J Neurosurg. 2002 Aug; 97(2):370-87.
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      84. Starr PA. Placement of deep brain stimulators into the subthalamic nucleus or Globus pallidus internus: technical approach. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2002; 79(3-4):118-45.
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      85. Starr PA, Subramanian T, Bakay RA, Wichmann T. Electrophysiological localization of the substantia nigra in the parkinsonian nonhuman primate. J Neurosurg. 2000 Oct; 93(4):704-10.
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      86. Byrd DL, Marks WJ, Starr PA. Deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson's disease. AORN J. 2000 Sep; 72(3):387-90, 393-408; quiz 409-14, 416-8.
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      87. Reich CA, Hudgins PA, Sheppard SK, Starr PA, Bakay RA. A high-resolution fast spin-echo inversion-recovery sequence for preoperative localization of the internal globus pallidus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000 May; 21(5):928-31.
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      88. Fink JS, Schumacher JM, Ellias SL, Palmer EP, Saint-Hilaire M, Shannon K, Penn R, Starr P, VanHorne C, Kott HS, Dempsey PK, Fischman AJ, Raineri R, Manhart C, Dinsmore J, Isacson O. Porcine xenografts in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease patients: preliminary results. Cell Transplant. 2000 Mar-Apr; 9(2):273-8.
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      89. Wichmann T, Bergman H, Starr PA, Subramanian T, Watts RL, DeLong MR. Comparison of MPTP-induced changes in spontaneous neuronal discharge in the internal pallidal segment and in the substantia nigra pars reticulata in primates. Exp Brain Res. 1999 Apr; 125(4):397-409.
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      90. Starr PA, Vitek JL, DeLong M, Bakay RA. Magnetic resonance imaging-based stereotactic localization of the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus. Neurosurgery. 1999 Feb; 44(2):303-13; discussion 313-4.
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      91. Starr PA, Wichmann T, van Horne C, Bakay RA. Intranigral transplantation of fetal substantia nigra allograft in the hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkey. Cell Transplant. 1999 Jan-Feb; 8(1):37-45.
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      92. Starr PA, Vitek JL, Bakay RA. Ablative surgery and deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. Neurosurgery. 1998 Nov; 43(5):989-1013; discussion 1013-5.
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      93. Starr P. The homeless and the public household. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jun 11; 338(24):1761-3.
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      94. Cohn MC, Hudgins PA, Sheppard SK, Starr PA, Bakay RA. Pre- and postoperative MR evaluation of stereotactic pallidotomy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1998 Jun-Jul; 19(6):1075-80.
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      95. Vitek JL, Bakay RA, Hashimoto T, Kaneoke Y, Mewes K, Zhang JY, Rye D, Starr P, Baron M, Turner R, DeLong MR. Microelectrode-guided pallidotomy: technical approach and its application in medically intractable Parkinson's disease. J Neurosurg. 1998 Jun; 88(6):1027-43.
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      96. Starr PA, Vitek JL, Bakay RA. Deep brain stimulation for movement disorders. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1998 Apr; 9(2):381-402.
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      97. Bakay RA, Starr PA, Vitek JL, DeLong MR. Posterior ventral pallidotomy: techniques and theoretical considerations. Clin Neurosurg. 1997; 44:197-210.
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      98. Apuzzo ML, Stieg PE, Starr P, Schwartz RB, Folkerth RD. Surgery of the Soul's cistern. Neurosurgery. 1996 Nov; 39(5):1022-9.
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      99. Starr PA, Lim F, Grant FD, Trask L, Lang P, Yu L, Geller AI. Long-term persistence of defective HSV-1 vectors in the rat brain is demonstrated by reactivation of vector gene expression. Gene Ther. 1996 Jul; 3(7):615-23.
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