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    Robert Grant, MD, MPH

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address1650 3rd Street
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-734-4810

       Biography 
       Education and Training
      University of California, San Francisco Residency School of Medicine
      University of California, San FranciscoM.D. Medicine1988
      University of California, San FranciscoM.S. Medicine1986

       Overview 
       Overview
      Dr. Grant received in his M.D. degree from the University of California, San Francisco in 1988. Dr. Grant then completed a research fellowship in Molecular Medicine at University of California, San Francisco. After internal medicine, pulmonary subspecialty, and research training at University of California, San Francisco and the Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, he joined the faculty of University of California, San Francisco in 1996. His major academic activities include directing the Gladstone-UCSF Laboratory of Clinical Virology, serving as Associate Director of the UCSF Center for AIDS Research, directing a research laboratory, and clinical practice in the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at San Francisco General Hospital.

      Research Interests

      I have 16 years of experience with HIV-1 related treatment and research, including 13 years of clinical experience caring for persons with AIDS, 2 years experience as a data analyst with the San Francisco Men’s Health Study, 2 years experience as an epidemiologist in Uganda, and 6 years experience in basic science laboratories at the Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology. My overall goal is to understand the biological basis for viral epidemic patterns, including host and viral evolution that underlies transmission between individual hosts and between host species.

      In August of 1997, I became the Director of the Gladstone/UCSF Laboratory of Clinical Virology located at San Francisco General Hospital. The laboratory aims to bridge gaps between basic virology and problems of human health, especially AIDS. The laboratory is investigating (1) the prevalence of viral drug resistance in treated subjects and their sexual partners, (2) the transmissibility of drug resistant variants, (3) the viral fitness and cytopathicity of drug resistant variants, and (4) the role of host-directed therapy for targeting the reservoir of latently infected cells. The epidemic potential of drug resistant HIV-1 has been considered in mathematical models developed based on clinical and public health data from San Francisco. In addition, the laboratory supports a wide number and range of clinical and epidemiologic studies with "state-of-the-art" standardized virology assays.

      The clinical and immunologic consequences of virologic failure of antiretroviral therapy and antiretroviral resistance have become the focus of my active research interest. We have described that the majority of patients who virologically fail antiretroviral therapy have sustained increases in circulating CD4+ T lymphocyte counts. Although partial drug susceptibility maintains viremia below pre-treatment levels accounts in many subjects with drug-selected HIV-1, this does not account for all of the immunologic benefit that persists during therapy. Experiments in the laboratory now focus on the specific virulence and replication fitness of drug resistant HIV-1.


       ORNG Applications 
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       NIH Awarded Grants
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       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Liu A, Glidden DV, Anderson PL, Amico KR, McMahan V, Mehrotra M, Lama JR, MacRae J, Hinojosa JC, Montoya O, Veloso VG, Schechter M, Kallas EG, Chariyalerstak S, Bekker LG, Mayer K, Buchbinder S, Grant R. Patterns and Correlates of PrEP Drug Detection Among MSM and Transgender Women in the Global iPrEx Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Dec 15; 67(5):528-37.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Amico KR, Marcus JL, McMahan V, Liu A, Koester KA, Goicochea P, Anderson PL, Glidden D, Guanira J, Grant R. Study Product Adherence Measurement in the iPrEx Placebo-Controlled Trial: Concordance With Drug Detection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Aug 15; 66(5):530-7.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Miller V, Grant RM. Regulatory Considerations for Antiretroviral Prophylaxis to Prevent HIV Acquisition. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Aug; 96(2):153-5.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Marrazzo JM, Del Rio C, Holtgrave DR, Cohen MS, Kalichman SC, Mayer KH, Montaner JS, Wheeler DP, Grant RM, Grinsztejn B, Kumarasamy N, Shoptaw S, Walensky RP, Dabis F, Sugarman J, Benson CA. HIV Prevention in Clinical Care Settings: 2014 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. JAMA. 2014 Jul 23; 312(4):390-409.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Grant RM, Anderson PL, McMahan V, Liu A, Amico KR, Mehrotra M, Hosek S, Mosquera C, Casapia M, Montoya O, Buchbinder S, Veloso VG, Mayer K, Chariyalertsak S, Bekker LG, Kallas EG, Schechter M, Guanira J, Bushman L, Burns DN, Rooney JF, Glidden DV. Uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis, sexual practices, and HIV incidence in men and transgender women who have sex with men: a cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Sep; 14(9):820-9.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Solomon MM, Mayer KH, Glidden DV, Liu AY, McMahan VM, Guanira JV, Chariyalertsak S, Fernandez T, Grant RM. Syphilis Predicts HIV Incidence Among Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex With Men in a Preexposure Prophylaxis Trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Oct 1; 59(7):1020-6.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Liegler T, Abdel-Mohsen M, Bentley LG, Atchison R, Schmidt T, Javier J, Mehrotra M, Eden C, Glidden DV, McMahan V, Anderson PL, Li P, Wong JK, Buchbinder S, Guanira JV, Grant RM. HIV-1 Drug Resistance in the iPrEx Preexposure Prophylaxis Trial. J Infect Dis. 2014 Oct 15; 210(8):1217-27.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Solomon MM, Lama JR, Glidden DV, Mulligan K, McMahan V, Liu AY, Guanira JV, Veloso VG, Mayer KH, Chariyalertsak S, Schechter M, Bekker LG, Kallás EG, Burns DN, Grant RM. Changes in renal function associated with oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate use for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. AIDS. 2014 Mar 27; 28(6):851-9.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Marcus JL, Glidden DV, McMahan V, Lama JR, Mayer KH, Liu AY, Montoya-Herrera O, Casapia M, Hoagland B, Grant RM. Daily Oral Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Preexposure Prophylaxis and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 among Men Who Have Sex with Men. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91513.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Buchbinder SP, Glidden DV, Liu AY, McMahan V, Guanira JV, Mayer KH, Goicochea P, Grant RM. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men and transgender women: a secondary analysis of a phase 3 randomised controlled efficacy trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Jun; 14(6):468-75.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Liu AY, Yang Q, Huang Y, Bacchetti P, Anderson PL, Jin C, Goggin K, Stojanovski K, Grant R, Buchbinder SP, Greenblatt RM, Gandhi M. Strong Relationship between Oral Dose and Tenofovir Hair Levels in a Randomized Trial: Hair as a Potential Adherence Measure for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e83736.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Marcus JL, Glidden DV, Mayer KH, Liu AY, Buchbinder SP, Amico KR, McMahan V, Kallas EG, Montoya-Herrera O, Pilotto J, Grant RM. No Evidence of Sexual Risk Compensation in the iPrEx Trial of Daily Oral HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e81997.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Gilmore HJ, Liu A, Koester KA, Amico KR, McMahan V, Goicochea P, Vargas L, Lubensky D, Buchbinder S, Grant R. Participant experiences and facilitators and barriers to pill use among men who have sex with men in the iPrEx pre-exposure prophylaxis trial in San Francisco. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013 Oct; 27(10):560-6.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Grohskopf LA, Chillag KL, Gvetadze R, Liu AY, Thompson M, Mayer KH, Collins BM, Pathak SR, O'hara B, Ackers ML, Rose CE, Grant RM, Paxton LA, Buchbinder SP. Randomized trial of clinical safety of daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate among HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Sep 1; 64(1):79-86.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Baeten JM, Grant R. Use of antiretrovirals for HIV prevention: what do we know and what don't we know? Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2013 Jun; 10(2):142-51.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Vallabhaneni S, McConnell JJ, Loeb L, Hartogensis W, Hecht FM, Grant RM, Pilcher CD. Changes in seroadaptive practices from before to after diagnosis of recent HIV infection among men who have sex with men. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e55397.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Tangmunkongvorakul A, Chariyalertsak S, Amico KR, Saokhieo P, Wannalak V, Sangangamsakun T, Goicochea P, Grant R. Facilitators and barriers to medication adherence in an HIV prevention study among men who have sex with men in the iPrEx study in Chiang Mai, Thailand. AIDS Care. 2013 Aug; 25(8):961-7.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Drennan VM, Rait G, Cole L, Grant R, Iliffe S. The prevalence of incontinence in people with cognitive impairment or dementia living at home: a systematic review. Neurourol Urodyn. 2013 Apr; 32(4):314-24.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Gomez GB, Borquez A, Caceres CF, Segura ER, Grant RM, Garnett GP, Hallett TB. The potential impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men and transwomen in Lima, Peru: a mathematical modelling study. PLoS Med. 2012; 9(10):e1001323.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Anderson PL, Glidden DV, Liu A, Buchbinder S, Lama JR, Guanira JV, McMahan V, Bushman LR, Casapía M, Montoya-Herrera O, Veloso VG, Mayer KH, Chariyalertsak S, Schechter M, Bekker LG, Kallás EG, Grant RM. Emtricitabine-tenofovir concentrations and pre-exposure prophylaxis efficacy in men who have sex with men. Sci Transl Med. 2012 Sep 12; 4(151):151ra125.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Van Damme L, Corneli A, Ahmed K, Agot K, Lombaard J, Kapiga S, Malahleha M, Owino F, Manongi R, Onyango J, Temu L, Monedi MC, Mak'Oketch P, Makanda M, Reblin I, Makatu SE, Saylor L, Kiernan H, Kirkendale S, Wong C, Grant R, Kashuba A, Nanda K, Mandala J, Fransen K, Deese J, Crucitti T, Mastro TD, Taylor D. Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection among African women. N Engl J Med. 2012 Aug 2; 367(5):411-22.
        View in: PubMed
      22. R Amico K, McMahan V, Goicochea P, Vargas L, Marcus JL, Grant RM, Liu A. Supporting study product use and accuracy in self-report in the iPrEx study: next step counseling and neutral assessment. AIDS Behav. 2012 Jul; 16(5):1243-59.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Truong HM, Kellogg TA, McFarland W, Louie B, Klausner JD, Philip SS, Grant RM. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection. PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e25281.
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      24. Liu AY, Vittinghoff E, Sellmeyer DE, Irvin R, Mulligan K, Mayer K, Thompson M, Grant R, Pathak S, O'Hara B, Gvetadze R, Chillag K, Grohskopf L, Buchbinder SP. Bone mineral density in HIV-negative men participating in a tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis randomized clinical trial in San Francisco. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23688.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Jain V, Sucupira MC, Bacchetti P, Hartogensis W, Diaz RS, Kallas EG, Janini LM, Liegler T, Pilcher CD, Grant RM, Cortes R, Deeks SG, Hecht FM. Differential persistence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance mutation classes. J Infect Dis. 2011 Apr 15; 203(8):1174-81.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Jain V, Liegler T, Vittinghoff E, Hartogensis W, Bacchetti P, Poole L, Loeb L, Pilcher CD, Grant RM, Deeks SG, Hecht FM. Transmitted drug resistance in persons with acute/early HIV-1 in San Francisco, 2002-2009. PLoS One. 2010; 5(12):e15510.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Anderson PL, Kiser JJ, Gardner EM, Rower JE, Meditz A, Grant RM. Pharmacological considerations for tenofovir and emtricitabine to prevent HIV infection. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011 Feb; 66(2):240-50.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, McMahan V, Liu AY, Vargas L, Goicochea P, Casapía M, Guanira-Carranza JV, Ramirez-Cardich ME, Montoya-Herrera O, Fernández T, Veloso VG, Buchbinder SP, Chariyalertsak S, Schechter M, Bekker LG, Mayer KH, Kallás EG, Amico KR, Mulligan K, Bushman LR, Hance RJ, Ganoza C, Defechereux P, Postle B, Wang F, McConnell JJ, Zheng JH, Lee J, Rooney JF, Jaffe HS, Martinez AI, Burns DN, Glidden DV. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 30; 363(27):2587-99.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Burrell E, Mark D, Grant R, Wood R, Bekker LG. Sexual risk behaviours and HIV-1 prevalence among urban men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa. Sex Health. 2010 Jun; 7(2):149-53.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Grant RM. Antiretroviral agents used by HIV-uninfected persons for prevention: pre- and postexposure prophylaxis. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 May 15; 50 Suppl 3:S96-101.
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      31. Hecht FM, Hartogensis W, Bragg L, Bacchetti P, Atchison R, Grant R, Barbour J, Deeks SG. HIV RNA level in early infection is predicted by viral load in the transmission source. AIDS. 2010 Apr 24; 24(7):941-5.
        View in: PubMed
      32. McConnell JJ, Bragg L, Shiboski S, Grant RM. Sexual seroadaptation: lessons for prevention and sex research from a cohort of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. PLoS One. 2010; 5(1):e8831.
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      33. Cardenas VA, Meyerhoff DJ, Studholme C, Kornak J, Rothlind J, Lampiris H, Neuhaus J, Grant RM, Chao LL, Truran D, Weiner MW. Evidence for ongoing brain injury in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients treated with antiretroviral therapy. J Neurovirol. 2009 Jul; 15(4):324-33.
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      34. Truong HM, Kellogg T, Schwarcz S, Delgado V, Grant RM, Louie B, Ngo H, McFarland W. Frequent international travel by men who have sex with men recently diagnosed with HIV-1: potential for transmission of primary HIV-1 drug resistance. J Travel Med. 2008 Nov-Dec; 15(6):454-6.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Willberg CB, McConnell JJ, Eriksson EM, Bragg LA, York VA, Liegler TJ, Hecht FM, Grant RM, Nixon DF. Immunity to HIV-1 is influenced by continued natural exposure to exogenous virus. PLoS Pathog. 2008 Oct; 4(10):e1000185.
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      36. Erickson AL, Willberg CB, McMahan V, Liu A, Buchbinder SP, Grohskopf LA, Grant RM, Nixon DF. Potentially exposed but uninfected individuals produce cytotoxic and polyfunctional human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses which can be defined to the epitope level. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008 Nov; 15(11):1745-8.
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      37. Grant RM, Hamer D, Hope T, Johnston R, Lange J, Lederman MM, Lieberman J, Miller CJ, Moore JP, Mosier DE, Richman DD, Schooley RT, Springer MS, Veazey RS, Wainberg MA. Whither or wither microbicides? Science. 2008 Jul 25; 321(5888):532-4.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Bourara K, Liegler TJ, Grant RM. Target cell APOBEC3C can induce limited G-to-A mutation in HIV-1. PLoS Pathog. 2007 Oct 26; 3(10):1477-85.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Grant RM. Research in situ. Nat Methods. 2007 Nov; 4(11):887-90.
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      40. Peterson L, Taylor D, Roddy R, Belai G, Phillips P, Nanda K, Grant R, Clarke EE, Doh AS, Ridzon R, Jaffe HS, Cates W. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for prevention of HIV infection in women: a phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS Clin Trials. 2007; 2(5):e27.
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      41. Colfax GN, Vittinghoff E, Grant R, Lum P, Spotts G, Hecht FM. Frequent methamphetamine use is associated with primary non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance. AIDS. 2007 Jan 11; 21(2):239-41.
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      42. Abrams DI, Shade SB, Couey P, McCune JM, Lo J, Bacchetti P, Chang B, Epling L, Liegler T, Grant RM. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) effects on HIV replication and host immunity: a randomized placebo-controlled study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 Jan; 23(1):77-85.
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      43. Truong HM, Truong HH, Kellogg T, Klausner JD, Katz MH, Dilley J, Knapper K, Chen S, Prabhu R, Grant RM, Louie B, McFarland W. Increases in sexually transmitted infections and sexual risk behaviour without a concurrent increase in HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in San Francisco: a suggestion of HIV serosorting? Sex Transm Infect. 2006 Dec; 82(6):461-6.
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      44. Stopak KS, Chiu YL, Kropp J, Grant RM, Greene WC. Distinct patterns of cytokine regulation of APOBEC3G expression and activity in primary lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 9; 282(6):3539-46.
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      45. Truong HM, Grant RM, McFarland W, Kellogg T, Kent C, Louie B, Wong E, Klausner JD. Routine surveillance for the detection of acute and recent HIV infections and transmission of antiretroviral resistance. AIDS. 2006 Nov 14; 20(17):2193-7.
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      46. Barbour JD, Hecht FM, Little SJ, Markowitz M, Daar ES, Kelleher AD, Routy JP, Campbell TB, Rosenberg ES, Segal MR, Weidler J, Grant RM. Greater CD4 T-cell gains after one year of antiretroviral therapy are associated with lower HIV-1 pol replication capacity. AIDS. 2006 Oct 24; 20(16):2123-5.
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      47. Zimmerman ES, Sherman MP, Blackett JL, Neidleman JA, Kreis C, Mundt P, Williams SA, Warmerdam M, Kahn J, Hecht FM, Grant RM, de Noronha CM, Weyrich AS, Greene WC, Planelles V. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr induces DNA replication stress in vitro and in vivo. J Virol. 2006 Nov; 80(21):10407-18.
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      48. Grant RM, Wainberg MA. Chemoprophylaxis of HIV infection: moving forward with caution. J Infect Dis. 2006 Oct 1; 194(7):874-6.
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      49. Levy V, Grant RM. Antiretroviral therapy for hepatitis B virus-HIV-coinfected patients: promises and pitfalls. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Oct 1; 43(7):904-10.
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      50. Liu AY, Grant RM, Buchbinder SP. Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV: unproven promise and potential pitfalls. JAMA. 2006 Aug 16; 296(7):863-5.
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      51. Lama JR, Sanchez J, Suarez L, Caballero P, Laguna A, Sanchez JL, Whittington WL, Celum C, Grant RM. Linking HIV and antiretroviral drug resistance surveillance in Peru: a model for a third-generation HIV sentinel surveillance. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Aug 1; 42(4):501-5.
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      52. Sánchez MS, Grant RM, Porco TC, Getz WM. HIV drug-resistant strains as epidemiologic sentinels. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Feb; 12(2):191-7.
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      53. Gange SJ, Schneider MF, Grant RM, Liegler T, French A, Young M, Anastos K, Wilson TE, Ponath C, Greenblatt R. Genotypic resistance and immunologic outcomes among HIV-1-infected women with viral failure. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Jan 1; 41(1):68-74.
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      54. Papasavvas E, Kostman JR, Thiel B, Pistilli M, Mackiewicz A, Foulkes A, Gross R, Jordan KA, Nixon DF, Grant R, Poulin JF, McCune JM, Mounzer K, Montaner LJ. HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell responses in chronically HIV-1 infected blippers on antiretroviral therapy in relation to viral replication following treatment interruption. J Clin Immunol. 2006 Jan; 26(1):40-54.
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      55. Chin-Hong PV, Deeks SG, Liegler T, Hagos E, Krone MR, Grant RM, Martin JN. High-risk sexual behavior in adults with genotypically proven antiretroviral-resistant HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Dec 1; 40(4):463-71.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Roland ME, Neilands TB, Krone MR, Katz MH, Franses K, Grant RM, Busch MP, Hecht FM, Shacklett BL, Kahn JO, Bamberger JD, Coates TJ, Chesney MA, Martin JN. Seroconversion following nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis against HIV. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 15; 41(10):1507-13.
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      57. Grant RM, Buchbinder S, Cates W, Clarke E, Coates T, Cohen MS, Delaney M, Flores G, Goicochea P, Gonsalves G, Harrington M, Lama JR, MacQueen KM, Moore JP, Peterson L, Sanchez J, Thompson M, Wainberg MA. AIDS. Promote HIV chemoprophylaxis research, don't prevent it. Science. 2005 Sep 30; 309(5744):2170-1.
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      58. Hecht FM, Grant RM. Resistance testing in drug-naive HIV-infected patients: is it time? Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 1; 41(9):1324-5.
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      59. Deeks SG, Hoh R, Neilands TB, Liegler T, Aweeka F, Petropoulos CJ, Grant RM, Martin JN. Interruption of treatment with individual therapeutic drug classes in adults with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 1; 192(9):1537-44.
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      60. Neuenburg JK, Furlan S, Bacchetti P, Price RW, Grant RM. Enrichment of activated monocytes in cerebrospinal fluid during antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2005 Sep 2; 19(13):1351-9.
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      61. Klausner JD, Grant RM, Kent CK. Detection of acute HIV infections. N Engl J Med. 2005 Aug 11; 353(6):631-3; author reply 631-3.
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      62. Neuenburg JK, Cho TA, Nilsson A, Bredt BM, Hebert SJ, Grant RM, Price RW. T-cell activation and memory phenotypes in cerebrospinal fluid during HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 May 1; 39(1):16-22.
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      63. Barbour JD, Grant RM. The role of viral fitness in HIV pathogenesis. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2005 Feb; 2(1):29-34.
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      64. Papasavvas E, Kostman JR, Mounzer K, Grant RM, Gross R, Gallo C, Azzoni L, Foulkes A, Thiel B, Pistilli M, Mackiewicz A, Shull J, Montaner LJ. Randomized, controlled trial of therapy interruption in chronic HIV-1 infection. PLoS Med. 2004 Dec; 1(3):e64.
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      65. Sánchez MS, Grant RM, Porco TC, Gross KL, Getz WM. A decrease in drug resistance levels of the HIV epidemic can be bad news. Bull Math Biol. 2005 Jul; 67(4):761-82.
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      66. Neuenburg JK, Sinclair E, Nilsson A, Kreis C, Bacchetti P, Price RW, Grant RM. HIV-producing T cells in cerebrospinal fluid. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Oct 1; 37(2):1237-44.
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      67. Barbour JD, Hecht FM, Wrin T, Liegler TJ, Ramstead CA, Busch MP, Segal MR, Petropoulos CJ, Grant RM. Persistence of primary drug resistance among recently HIV-1 infected adults. AIDS. 2004 Aug 20; 18(12):1683-9.
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      68. Gross KL, Porco TC, Grant RM. HIV-1 superinfection and viral diversity. AIDS. 2004 Jul 23; 18(11):1513-20.
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      69. Reyes-Sandoval A, Fitzgerald JC, Grant R, Roy S, Xiang ZQ, Li Y, Gao GP, Wilson JM, Ertl HC. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific immune responses in primates upon sequential immunization with adenoviral vaccine carriers of human and simian serotypes. J Virol. 2004 Jul; 78(14):7392-9.
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      70. Barbour JD, Hecht FM, Wrin T, Segal MR, Ramstead CA, Liegler TJ, Busch MP, Petropoulos CJ, Hellmann NS, Kahn JO, Grant RM. Higher CD4+ T cell counts associated with low viral pol replication capacity among treatment-naive adults in early HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jul 15; 190(2):251-6.
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      71. Segal MR, Barbour JD, Grant RM. Relating HIV-1 sequence variation to replication capacity via trees and forests. Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol. 2004; 3:Article2; discussion article 7, article 9.
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      72. Angel JB, Hu YW, Kravcik S, Tsui R, Lee KH, Barbour J, Balaskas E, Branson BM, Delwart EL, Grant RM. Virological evaluation of the 'Ottawa case' indicates no evidence for HIV-1 superinfection. AIDS. 2004 Jan 23; 18(2):331-4.
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      73. Porco TC, Martin JN, Page-Shafer KA, Cheng A, Charlebois E, Grant RM, Osmond DH. Decline in HIV infectivity following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2004 Jan 2; 18(1):81-8.
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      74. Tsui R, Herring BL, Barbour JD, Grant RM, Bacchetti P, Kral A, Edlin BR, Delwart EL. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 superinfection was not detected following 215 years of injection drug user exposure. J Virol. 2004 Jan; 78(1):94-103.
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      75. Papasavvas E, Grant RM, Sun J, Mackiewicz A, Pistilli M, Gallo C, Kostman JR, Mounzer K, Shull J, Montaner LJ. Lack of persistent drug-resistant mutations evaluated within and between treatment interruptions in chronically HIV-1-infected patients. AIDS. 2003 Nov 7; 17(16):2337-43.
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      76. Bangsberg DR, Charlebois ED, Grant RM, Holodniy M, Deeks SG, Perry S, Conroy KN, Clark R, Guzman D, Zolopa A, Moss A. High levels of adherence do not prevent accumulation of HIV drug resistance mutations. AIDS. 2003 Sep 5; 17(13):1925-32.
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      77. Murphy EL, Grant RM, Kropp J, Oliveira A, Lee TH, Busch MP. Increased human T-lymphotropic virus type II proviral load following highly active retroviral therapy in HIV-coinfected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003 Aug 15; 33(5):655-6.
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      78. Karlsson AC, Deeks SG, Barbour JD, Heiken BD, Younger SR, Hoh R, Lane M, Sällberg M, Ortiz GM, Demarest JF, Liegler T, Grant RM, Martin JN, Nixon DF. Dual pressure from antiretroviral therapy and cell-mediated immune response on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease gene. J Virol. 2003 Jun; 77(12):6743-52.
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      79. D'Aquila RT, Schapiro JM, Brun-Vézinet F, Clotet B, Conway B, Demeter LM, Grant RM, Johnson VA, Kuritzkes DR, Loveday C, Shafer RW, Richman DD. Drug resistance mutations in HIV-1. Top HIV Med. 2003 May-Jun; 11(3):92-6.
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      80. Grant RM, Kuritzkes DR, Johnson VA, Mellors JW, Sullivan JL, Swanstrom R, D'Aquila RT, Van Gorder M, Holodniy M, Lloyd Jr RM, Reid C, Morgan GF, Winslow DL. Accuracy of the TRUGENE HIV-1 genotyping kit. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Apr; 41(4):1586-93.
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      81. Kuritzkes DR, Grant RM, Feorino P, Griswold M, Hoover M, Young R, Day S, Lloyd Jr RM, Reid C, Morgan GF, Winslow DL. Performance characteristics of the TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Kit and the Opengene DNA Sequencing System. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Apr; 41(4):1594-9.
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      82. Asmuth DM, Kalish LA, Laycock ME, Murphy EL, Mohr BA, Lee TH, Gallarda J, Giachetti C, Dollard SC, van der Horst CM, Grant RM, Busch MP. Absence of HBV and HCV, HTLV-I and -II, and human herpes virus-8 activation after allogeneic RBC transfusion in patients with advanced HIV-1 infection. Transfusion. 2003 Apr; 43(4):451-8.
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      83. Hayden MS, Palacios EH, Grant RM. Real-time quantitation of HIV-1 p24 and SIV p27 using fluorescence-linked antigen quantification assays. AIDS. 2003 Mar 7; 17(4):629-31.
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      84. Deeks SG, Grant RM, Wrin T, Paxinos EE, Liegler T, Hoh R, Martin JN, Petropoulos CJ. Persistence of drug-resistant HIV-1 after a structured treatment interruption and its impact on treatment response. AIDS. 2003 Feb 14; 17(3):361-70.
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      85. Schweighardt B, Ortiz GM, Grant RM, Wellons M, Miralles GD, Kostrikis LG, Bartlett JA, Nixon DF. Emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in patients undergoing structured treatment interruptions. AIDS. 2002 Nov 22; 16(17):2342-4.
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      86. Barbour JD, Wrin T, Grant RM, Martin JN, Segal MR, Petropoulos CJ, Deeks SG. Evolution of phenotypic drug susceptibility and viral replication capacity during long-term virologic failure of protease inhibitor therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. J Virol. 2002 Nov; 76(21):11104-12.
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      87. Neuenburg JK, Brodt HR, Herndier BG, Bickel M, Bacchetti P, Price RW, Grant RM, Schlote W. HIV-related neuropathology, 1985 to 1999: rising prevalence of HIV encephalopathy in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Oct 1; 31(2):171-7.
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      88. Sandberg JK, Fast NM, Palacios EH, Fennelly G, Dobroszycki J, Palumbo P, Wiznia A, Grant RM, Bhardwaj N, Rosenberg MG, Nixon DF. Selective loss of innate CD4(+) V alpha 24 natural killer T cells in human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Virol. 2002 Aug; 76(15):7528-34.
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      89. Grant RM, Hecht FM, Warmerdam M, Liu L, Liegler T, Petropoulos CJ, Hellmann NS, Chesney M, Busch MP, Kahn JO. Time trends in primary HIV-1 drug resistance among recently infected persons. JAMA. 2002 Jul 10; 288(2):181-8.
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      90. Napolitano LA, Lo JC, Gotway MB, Mulligan K, Barbour JD, Schmidt D, Grant RM, Halvorsen RA, Schambelan M, McCune JM. Increased thymic mass and circulating naive CD4 T cells in HIV-1-infected adults treated with growth hormone. AIDS. 2002 May 24; 16(8):1103-11.
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      91. Grant R, Walker M, Hadley D, Barton T, Osborn C. Imaging response to chemotherapy with RMP-7 and carboplatin in malignant glioma: size matters but speed does not. J Neurooncol. 2002 May; 57(3):241-5.
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      92. Keppler OT, Welte FJ, Ngo TA, Chin PS, Patton KS, Tsou CL, Abbey NW, Sharkey ME, Grant RM, You Y, Scarborough JD, Ellmeier W, Littman DR, Stevenson M, Charo IF, Herndier BG, Speck RF, Goldsmith MA. Progress toward a human CD4/CCR5 transgenic rat model for de novo infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Exp Med. 2002 Mar 18; 195(6):719-36.
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      93. Deeks SG, Barbour JD, Grant RM, Martin JN. Duration and predictors of CD4 T-cell gains in patients who continue combination therapy despite detectable plasma viremia. AIDS. 2002 Jan 25; 16(2):201-7.
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      94. Deeks SG, Hoh R, Grant RM, Wrin T, Barbour JD, Narvaez A, Cesar D, Abe K, Hanley MB, Hellmann NS, Petropoulos CJ, McCune JM, Hellerstein MK. CD4+ T cell kinetics and activation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who remain viremic despite long-term treatment with protease inhibitor-based therapy. J Infect Dis. 2002 Feb 1; 185(3):315-23.
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      95. Roland ME, Martin JN, Grant RM, Hellmann NS, Bamberger JD, Katz MH, Chesney M, Franses K, Coates TJ, Kahn JO. Postexposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus infection after sexual or injection drug use exposure: identification and characterization of the source of exposure. J Infect Dis. 2001 Dec 15; 184(12):1608-12.
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      96. Price RW, Paxinos EE, Grant RM, Drews B, Nilsson A, Hoh R, Hellmann NS, Petropoulos CJ, Deeks SG. Cerebrospinal fluid response to structured treatment interruption after virological failure. AIDS. 2001 Jul 6; 15(10):1251-9.
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      97. Stoddart CA, Liegler TJ, Mammano F, Linquist-Stepps VD, Hayden MS, Deeks SG, Grant RM, Clavel F, McCune JM. Impaired replication of protease inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 in human thymus. Nat Med. 2001 Jun; 7(6):712-8.
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      98. Penn ML, Myers M, Eckstein DA, Liegler TJ, Hayden M, Mammano F, Clavel F, Deeks SG, Grant RM, Goldsmith MA. Primary and recombinant HIV type 1 strains resistant to protease inhibitors are pathogenic in mature human lymphoid tissues. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001 Apr 10; 17(6):517-23.
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      99. Deeks SG, Wrin T, Liegler T, Hoh R, Hayden M, Barbour JD, Hellmann NS, Petropoulos CJ, McCune JM, Hellerstein MK, Grant RM. Virologic and immunologic consequences of discontinuing combination antiretroviral-drug therapy in HIV-infected patients with detectable viremia. N Engl J Med. 2001 Feb 15; 344(7):472-80.
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      100. Napolitano LA, Grant RM, Deeks SG, Schmidt D, De Rosa SC, Herzenberg LA, Herndier BG, Andersson J, McCune JM. Increased production of IL-7 accompanies HIV-1-mediated T-cell depletion: implications for T-cell homeostasis. Nat Med. 2001 Jan; 7(1):73-9.
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      101. Parkin NT, Deeks SG, Wrin MT, Yap J, Grant RM, Lee KH, Heeren D, Hellmanna NS, Petropoulos CJ. Loss of antiretroviral drug susceptibility at low viral load during early virological failure in treatment-experienced patients. AIDS. 2000 Dec 22; 14(18):2877-87.
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      102. Celum CL, Buchbinder SP, Donnell D, Douglas JM, Mayer K, Koblin B, Marmor M, Bozeman S, Grant RM, Flores J, Sheppard HW. Early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the HIV Network for Prevention Trials Vaccine Preparedness Cohort: risk behaviors, symptoms, and early plasma and genital tract virus load. J Infect Dis. 2001 Jan 1; 183(1):23-35.
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      103. Schramm B, Penn ML, Palacios EH, Grant RM, Kirchhoff F, Goldsmith MA. Cytopathicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) in human lymphoid tissue is coreceptor dependent and comparable to that of HIV-1. J Virol. 2000 Oct; 74(20):9594-600.
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      104. Deeks SG, Barbour JD, Martin JN, Swanson MS, Grant RM. Sustained CD4+ T cell response after virologic failure of protease inhibitor-based regimens in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis. 2000 Mar; 181(3):946-53.
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      105. Huang SS, Barbour JD, Deeks SG, Huang JS, Grant RM, Ng VL, McCune JM. Reversal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-associated hematosuppression by effective antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Mar; 30(3):504-10.
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      106. Blower SM, Gershengorn HB, Grant RM. A tale of two futures: HIV and antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco. Science. 2000 Jan 28; 287(5453):650-4.
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      107. Greenblatt RM, Ameli N, Grant RM, Bacchetti P, Taylor RN. Impact of the ovulatory cycle on virologic and immunologic markers in HIV-infected women. J Infect Dis. 2000 Jan; 181(1):82-90.
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      108. Locher CP, Grant RM, Collisson EA, Reyes-Terán G, Elbeik T, Kahn JO, Levy JA. Antibody and cellular immune responses in breakthrough infection subjects after HIV type 1 glycoprotein 120 vaccination. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999 Dec 10; 15(18):1685-9.
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      109. Staprans S, Marlowe N, Glidden D, Novakovic-Agopian T, Grant RM, Heyes M, Aweeka F, Deeks S, Price RW. Time course of cerebrospinal fluid responses to antiretroviral therapy: evidence for variable compartmentalization of infection. AIDS. 1999 Jun 18; 13(9):1051-61.
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      110. Deeks SG, Hellmann NS, Grant RM, Parkin NT, Petropoulos CJ, Becker M, Symonds W, Chesney M, Volberding PA. Novel four-drug salvage treatment regimens after failure of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor-containing regimen: antiviral activity and correlation of baseline phenotypic drug susceptibility with virologic outcome. J Infect Dis. 1999 Jun; 179(6):1375-81.
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      111. Staprans SI, Dailey PJ, Rosenthal A, Horton C, Grant RM, Lerche N, Feinberg MB. Simian immunodeficiency virus disease course is predicted by the extent of virus replication during primary infection. J Virol. 1999 Jun; 73(6):4829-39.
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      112. Deeks SG, Hecht FM, Swanson M, Elbeik T, Loftus R, Cohen PT, Grant RM. HIV RNA and CD4 cell count response to protease inhibitor therapy in an urban AIDS clinic: response to both initial and salvage therapy. AIDS. 1999 Apr 16; 13(6):F35-43.
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      113. Deeks SG, Grant RM. Sustained CD4 responses after virological failure of protease inhibitor-containing therapy. Antivir Ther. 1999; 4 Suppl 3:7-11.
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      114. Kaur A, Grant RM, Means RE, McClure H, Feinberg M, Johnson RP. Diverse host responses and outcomes following simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 infection in sooty mangabeys and rhesus macaques. J Virol. 1998 Dec; 72(12):9597-611.
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      115. Hecht FM, Grant RM, Petropoulos CJ, Dillon B, Chesney MA, Tian H, Hellmann NS, Bandrapalli NI, Digilio L, Branson B, Kahn JO. Sexual transmission of an HIV-1 variant resistant to multiple reverse-transcriptase and protease inhibitors. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jul 30; 339(5):307-11.
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      116. Deeks SG, Grant RM, Beatty GW, Horton C, Detmer J, Eastman S. Activity of a ritonavir plus saquinavir-containing regimen in patients with virologic evidence of indinavir or ritonavir failure. AIDS. 1998 Jul 9; 12(10):F97-102.
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      117. Palacios E, Digilio L, McClure HM, Chen Z, Marx PA, Goldsmith MA, Grant RM. Parallel evolution of CCR5-null phenotypes in humans and in a natural host of simian immunodeficiency virus. Curr Biol. 1998 Jul 30-Aug 13; 8(16):943-6.
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      118. McCune JM, Loftus R, Schmidt DK, Carroll P, Webster D, Swor-Yim LB, Francis IR, Gross BH, Grant RM. High prevalence of thymic tissue in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection. J Clin Invest. 1998 Jun 1; 101(11):2301-8.
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      119. Grant RM, Abrams DI. Not all is dead in HIV-1 graveyard. Lancet. 1998 Jan 31; 351(9099):308-9.
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      120. Grant RM, Piwowar EM, Katongole-Mbidde E, Muzawalu W, Rugera S, Abima J, Stramer SL, Kataaha P, Jackson B. Comparison of saliva and serum for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody testing in Uganda using a rapid recombinant assay. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1996 Nov; 3(6):640-4.
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      121. Chuck S, Grant RM, Katongole-Mbidde E, Conant M, Ganem D. Frequent presence of a novel herpesvirus genome in lesions of human immunodeficiency virus-negative Kaposi's sarcoma. J Infect Dis. 1996 Jan; 173(1):248-51.
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      122. Staprans SI, Hamilton BL, Follansbee SE, Elbeik T, Barbosa P, Grant RM, Feinberg MB. Activation of virus replication after vaccination of HIV-1-infected individuals. J Exp Med. 1995 Dec 1; 182(6):1727-37.
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      123. Tsai CC, Follis KE, Sabo A, Grant R, Bischofberger N. Efficacy of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine treatment against chronic simian immunodeficiency virus infection in macaques. J Infect Dis. 1995 May; 171(5):1338-43.
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      124. Tugume SB, Piwowar EM, Lutalo T, Mugyenyi PN, Grant RM, Mangeni FW, Pattishall K, Katongole-Mbidde E. Hematological reference ranges among healthy Ugandans. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1995 Mar; 2(2):233-5.
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      125. Piwowar EM, Tugume SB, Grant RM, Lutalo T, Pattishall K, Katongole-Mbidde E. beta-2 Microglobulin values among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative, HIV-positive asymptomatic, and HIV-positive symptomatic Ugandans. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1995 Mar; 2(2):236-7.
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      126. Tan M, Klein R, Grant R, Ganem D, Engel J. Cloning and characterization of the RNA polymerase alpha-subunit operon of Chlamydia trachomatis. J Bacteriol. 1993 Nov; 175(22):7150-9.
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      127. Erlich KS, Mills J, Chatis P, Mertz GJ, Busch DF, Follansbee SE, Grant RM, Crumpacker CS. Acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 2; 320(5):293-6.
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      128. Grant R, Hadley DM, Lang D, Condon B, Johnston R, Bone I, Teasdale GM. MRI measurement of syrinx size before and after operation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1987 Dec; 50(12):1685-7.
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      129. Grant RM, Wiley JA, Winkelstein W. Infectivity of the human immunodeficiency virus: estimates from a prospective study of homosexual men. J Infect Dis. 1987 Jul; 156(1):189-93.
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      130. Lang W, Anderson RE, Perkins H, Grant RM, Lyman D, Winkelstein W, Royce R, Levy JA. Clinical, immunologic, and serologic findings in men at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The San Francisco Men's Health Study. JAMA. 1987 Jan 16; 257(3):326-30.
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      131. Winkelstein W, Lyman DM, Padian N, Grant R, Samuel M, Wiley JA, Anderson RE, Lang W, Riggs J, Levy JA. Sexual practices and risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus. The San Francisco Men's Health Study. JAMA. 1987 Jan 16; 257(3):321-5.
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      132. Sandilands GP, Gray K, Cooney A, Browning JD, Grant RM, Anderson JR, Dagg JH, Lucie N. Lymphocytes with T and B cell properties in a lymphoproliferative disorder. Lancet. 1974 May 11; 1(7863):903-4.
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