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    Sheila Keating, PhD

    TitleiMedris Research Collaborator
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentLaboratory Medicine
    AddressBlood Systems Research Inst
    270 Masonic Avenue
    San Francisco CA 94118
    Phone415-749-6609
    vCardDownload vCard

      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UKPostdoctoral FellowImmunobiology2007
      Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Open University, Centre for Vaccinology and Tropical MedPhDOpen University2006
      Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LAMSPHTropical Medicine1998
      College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MABABiology1995
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      National University Ireland, Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland2005Dorothy Price Medal for Immunology
      CFAR2010Women and HIV Junior Scholar Award
      CHAVI2011Young Investigator

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      For the past 8 years I have been studying clinical diagnostics and biomarkers of immunity and immunopathology. One particular interest of my research is to identify cytokines, chemokines and other biomarkers that may be associated with inflammation. My background in public health and immunology has given me extensive knowledge of immune responses to a variety of diseases. As the Director of the Core Immunology Laboratory, I have focused on biomarker discovery using low volume, high throughput immune assays to measure cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and other biomarkers of immune response or pathology in a number of studies ranging from HIV, HCV, HBV vaccine breakthrough, Chagas, West Nile Virus, cardiovascular disease, neuropathology and many other areas.

      Collapse Interests
      My interests include: HIV, cancer immunology, malaria, HCV, HBV, virus, infectious diseases, cellular immunology, humoral immunity, cytokines, memory immune responses, biomarkers, HIV co-morbidity, HIV associated neurocognitive dysfunction (HAND), cross-sectional HIV incidence, HIV Cure, HCV elimination, vaccines, Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas

      Collapse ORNG Applications 
      Collapse Websites
      Collapse Twitter
      Collapse Featured Publications

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Sharma A, Ma Y, Scherzer R, Wheeler AL, Cohen M, Gustafson DR, Keating SM, Yin MT, Tien PC. Brief Report: Association of Adipokines With Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Dec 1; 73(4):433-437. PMID: 27792683.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Keating SM, Heitman JW, Wu S, Deng X, Stacey AR, Zahn RC, de la Rosa M, Finstad SL, Lifson JD, Piatak M, Gauduin MC, Kessler BM, Ternette N, Carville A, Johnson RP, Desrosiers RC, Letvin NL, Borrow P, Norris PJ, Schmitz JE. Magnitude and Quality of Cytokine and Chemokine Storm during Acute Infection Distinguish Nonprogressive and Progressive Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections of Nonhuman Primates. J Virol. 2016 Nov 15; 90(22):10339-10350. PMID: 27630228.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Gangcuangco LM, Kohorn LB, Chow DC, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Nagamine LS, Ndhlovu LC, Souza SA, Kallianpur KJ, Shikuma CM. High 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with unexpectedly high plasma inflammatory markers in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Oct; 95(43):e5270. PMID: 27787390.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Kassanjee R, Pilcher CD, Busch MP, Murphy G, Facente SN, Keating SM, Mckinney E, Marson K, Price MA, Martin JN, Little SJ, Hecht FM, Kallas EG, Welte A. Viral load criteria and threshold optimization to improve HIV incidence assay characteristics. AIDS. 2016 Sep 24; 30(15):2361-71. PMID: 27454561.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Himes JE, Ho C, Nguyen QN, Amos JD, Xu H, Chan C, Chow SC, Ochsenbauer C, Kaidarova Z, Keating SM, Fouda GG, Permar SR. Characterization of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Variants Anatomically Compartmentalized in Plasma and Milk in Chronically Infected African Green Monkeys. J Virol. 2016 Oct 1; 90(19):8795-808. PMID: 27466415.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Chow WZ, Bon AH, Keating S, Anderios F, Halim HA, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A, Busch MP, Tee KK. Extensive Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 in Incident and Prevalent Infections among Malaysian Blood Donors: Multiple Introductions of HIV-1 Genotypes from Highly Prevalent Countries. PLoS One. 2016; 11(8):e0161853. PMID: 27575746.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Hora B, Keating SM, Chen Y, Sanchez AM, Sabino E, Hunt G, Ledwaba J, Hackett J, Swanson P, Hewlett I, Ragupathy V, Vikram Vemula S, Zeng P, Tee KK, Chow WZ, Ji H, Sandstrom P, Denny TN, Busch MP, Gao F. Genetic Characterization of a Panel of Diverse HIV-1 Isolates at Seven International Sites. PLoS One. 2016; 11(6):e0157340. PMID: 27314585.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Keating SM, Pilcher CD, Busch MP. Editorial Commentary: Timing Is Everything: Shortcomings of Current HIV Diagnostics in the Early Treatment Era. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 15; 63(4):562-4. PMID: 27317798.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Abdel-Mohsen M, Chavez L, Tandon R, Chew GM, Deng X, Danesh A, Keating S, Lanteri M, Samuels ML, Hoh R, Sacha JB, Norris PJ, Niki T, Shikuma CM, Hirashima M, Deeks SG, Ndhlovu LC, Pillai SK. Human Galectin-9 Is a Potent Mediator of HIV Transcription and Reactivation. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jun; 12(6):e1005677. PMID: 27253379.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Frascoli M, Jeanty C, Fleck S, Moradi PW, Keating S, Mattis AN, Tang Q, MacKenzie TC. Heightened Immune Activation in Fetuses with Gastroschisis May Be Blocked by Targeting IL-5. J Immunol. 2016 Jun 15; 196(12):4957-66. PMID: 27183609.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Chow DC, Kagihara JM, Zhang G, Souza SA, Hodis HN, Li Y, Mitchell BI, Nakamoto BK, Kallianpur KJ, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Kohorn LB, Ndhlovu LC, Shikuma CM. Non-classical monocytes predict progression of carotid artery bifurcation intima-media thickness in HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy. HIV Clin Trials. 2016 May; 17(3):114-22. PMID: 27125366.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Baimukanova G, Miyazawa B, Potter DR, Gibb SL, Keating S, Danesh A, Beyer A, Dayter Y, Bruhn R, Muench MO, Cap AP, Norris PJ, Spinella P, Cohen M, Pati S. The effects of 22°C and 4°C storage of platelets on vascular endothelial integrity and function. Transfusion. 2016 Mar; 56 Suppl 1:S52-64. PMID: 27001362.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Chow D, Kohorn L, Souza S, Ndhlovu L, Ando A, Kallianpur KJ, Byron MM, Baumer Y, Keating S, Shikuma C. Atazanavir use and carotid intima media thickness progression in HIV: potential influence of bilirubin. AIDS. 2016 Feb 20; 30(4):672-4. PMID: 26825035.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Zungsontiporn N, Tello RR, Zhang G, Mitchell BI, Budoff M, Kallianpur KJ, Nakamoto BK, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Ndhlovu LC, Souza SA, Shikuma CM, Chow DC. Non-Classical Monocytes and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) Correlate with Coronary Artery Calcium Progression in Chronically HIV-1 Infected Adults on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0149143. PMID: 26867220.
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      15. Norris PJ, Zhang J, Worlock A, Nair SV, Anastos K, Minkoff HL, Villacres MC, Young M, Greenblatt RM, Desai S, Landay AL, Gange SJ, Nugent CT, Golub ET, Keating SM. Systemic Cytokine Levels Do Not Predict CD4(+) T-Cell Recovery After Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016 Jan; 3(1):ofw025. PMID: 26966697.
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      16. Hodowanec A, Williams B, Hanson B, Livak B, Keating S, Lurain N, Adeyemi OM. Soluble CD163 But Not Soluble CD14 Is Associated With Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin G Antibody Levels in Virologically Suppressed HIV+ Individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Dec 15; 70(5):e171-4. PMID: 26569178.
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      17. Jin J, Liss NM, Chen DH, Liao M, Fox JM, Shimak RM, Fong RH, Chafets D, Bakkour S, Keating S, Fomin ME, Muench MO, Sherman MB, Doranz BJ, Diamond MS, Simmons G. Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Block Chikungunya Virus Entry and Release by Targeting an Epitope Critical to Viral Pathogenesis. Cell Rep. 2015 Dec 22; 13(11):2553-64. PMID: 26686638.
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      18. Zungsontiporn N, Ndhlovu LC, Mitchell BI, Stein JH, Kallianpur KJ, Nakamoto B, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Souza SA, Shikuma CM, Chow DC. Serum amyloid P (SAP) is associated with impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in chronically HIV-1 infected adults on stable antiretroviral therapy. HIV Clin Trials. 2015 Nov; 16(6):228-35. PMID: 26777795.
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      19. Zungsontiporn N, Ndhlovu LC, Mitchell BI, Stein JH, Kallianpur KJ, Nakamoto B, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Souza SA, Shikuma CM, Chow DC. Serum amyloid P (SAP) is associated with impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in chronically HIV-1 infected adults on stable antiretroviral therapy. HIV Clin Trials. 2015 Nov; 16(6):228-235. PMID: 26356593.
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      20. Williams B, Livak B, Bahk M, Keating SM, Adeyemi OM. Short Communication: SCD14 and SCD163 Levels Are Correlated with VACS Index Scores: Initial Data from the Blunted Immune Recovery in CORE Patients with HIV (BIRCH) Cohort. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2016 Feb; 32(2):144-7. PMID: 26366931.
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      21. Keating SM, Deng X, Fernandes F, Cunha-Neto E, Ribeiro AL, Adesina B, Beyer AI, Contestable P, Custer B, Busch MP, Sabino EC. Inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers are differentially expressed in clinical stages of Chagas disease. Int J Cardiol. 2015 Nov 15; 199:451-9. PMID: 26277551.
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      22. Potter DR, Baimukanova G, Keating SM, Deng X, Chu JA, Gibb SL, Peng Z, Muench MO, Fomin ME, Spinella PC, Kozar R, Pati S. Fresh frozen plasma and spray-dried plasma mitigate pulmonary vascular permeability and inflammation in hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Jun; 78(6 Suppl 1):S7-S17. PMID: 26002267.
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      23. Ragin AB, Wu Y, Gao Y, Keating S, Du H, Sammet C, Kettering CS, Epstein LG. Brain alterations within the first 100 days of HIV infection. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2015 Jan; 2(1):12-21. PMID: 25642430; PMCID: PMC4301670.
      24. O-Charoen P, Ndhlovu LC, Gangcuangco LM, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Ng RC, Mitchell BI, Shikuma CM, Chow DC. Albuminuria is associated with elevated acute phase reactants and proinflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients receiving suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Dec; 30(12):1185-91. PMID: 25205472; PMCID: PMC4250959 [Available on 12/01/15].
      25. Lanteri MC, Vahidnia F, Tan S, Stapleton JT, Norris PJ, Heitman J, Deng X, Keating SM, Brambilla D, Busch MP, Custer B. Downregulation of Cytokines and Chemokines by GB Virus C After Transmission Via Blood Transfusion in HIV-Positive Blood Recipients. J Infect Dis. 2015 May 15; 211(10):1585-96. PMID: 25425697; PMCID: PMC4481614 [Available on 05/15/16].
      26. Kassanjee R, Pilcher CD, Keating SM, Facente SN, McKinney E, Price MA, Martin JN, Little S, Hecht FM, Kallas EG, Welte A, Busch MP, Murphy G. Independent assessment of candidate HIV incidence assays on specimens in the CEPHIA repository. AIDS. 2014 Oct 23; 28(16):2439-49. PMID: 25144218; PMCID: PMC4210690.
      27. Kwan M, Hazan A, Zhang J, Jones RL, Harris LK, Whittle W, Keating S, Dunk CE, Lye SJ. Dynamic changes in maternal decidual leukocyte populations from first to second trimester gestation. Placenta. 2014 Dec; 35(12):1027-34. PMID: 25449030.
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      28. Henrich TJ, Hanhauser E, Marty FM, Sirignano MN, Keating S, Lee TH, Robles YP, Davis BT, Li JZ, Heisey A, Hill AL, Busch MP, Armand P, Soiffer RJ, Altfeld M, Kuritzkes DR. Antiretroviral-free HIV-1 remission and viral rebound after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: report of 2 cases. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Sep 2; 161(5):319-27. PMID: 25047577; PMCID: PMC4236912.
      29. Shikuma CM, Chow DC, Gangcuangco LM, Zhang G, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Seto TB, Parikh N, Kallianpur KJ, Nakamoto BK, Nagamine LS, Ndhlovu LC, Barbour JD. Monocytes expand with immune dysregulation and is associated with insulin resistance in older individuals with chronic HIV. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e90330. PMID: 24587328; PMCID: PMC3937368.
      30. Sanchez AM, DeMarco CT, Hora B, Keinonen S, Chen Y, Brinkley C, Stone M, Tobler L, Keating S, Schito M, Busch MP, Gao F, Denny TN. Development of a contemporary globally diverse HIV viral panel by the EQAPOL program. J Immunol Methods. 2014 Jul; 409:117-30. PMID: 24447533; PMCID: PMC4104154.
      31. Pilcher CD, Louie B, Facente S, Keating S, Hackett J, Vallari A, Hall C, Dowling T, Busch MP, Klausner JD, Hecht FM, Liska S, Pandori MW. Performance of rapid point-of-care and laboratory tests for acute and established HIV infection in San Francisco. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e80629. PMID: 24349007; PMCID: PMC3861178.
      32. Barbour JD, Jalbert EC, Chow DC, Gangcuangco LM, Norris PJ, Keating SM, Heitman J, Nagamine L, Seto T, Ndhlovu LC, Nakamoto BK, Hodis HN, Parikh NI, Shikuma CM. Reduced CD14 expression on classical monocytes and vascular endothelial adhesion markers independently associate with carotid artery intima media thickness in chronically HIV-1 infected adults on virologically suppressive anti-retroviral therapy. Atherosclerosis. 2014 Jan; 232(1):52-8. PMID: 24401216; PMCID: PMC3919042.
      33. Keating SM, Heitman JD, Wu S, Deng X, Stramer SL, Kuhns MC, Mullen C, Norris PJ, Busch MP. Cytokine and chemokine responses in the acute phase of hepatitis B virus replication in naive and previously vaccinated blood and plasma donors. J Infect Dis. 2014 Mar; 209(6):845-54. PMID: 24158960.
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      34. Curtis KA, Longosz AF, Kennedy MS, Keating S, Heitman J, Laeyendecker O, Owen SM. Inter-laboratory assessment of a prototype multiplex kit for determination of recent HIV-1 infection. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77765. PMID: 24147075; PMCID: PMC3798393.
      35. Jalbert E, Crawford TQ, D'Antoni ML, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Nakamoto BK, Seto T, Parikh NI, Shikuma CM, Ndhlovu LC, Barbour JD. IL-1? enriched monocytes mount massive IL-6 responses to common inflammatory triggers among chronically HIV-1 infected adults on stable anti-retroviral therapy at risk for cardiovascular disease. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e75500. PMID: 24086545; PMCID: PMC3783392.
      36. Shikuma CM, Barbour JD, Ndhlovu LC, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Budoff M, Parikh N, Seto T, Gangcuangco LM, Ogata-Arakaki D, Chow D. Plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-a levels predict the presence of coronary artery calcium in HIV-infected individuals independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Feb; 30(2):142-6. PMID: 23984974; PMCID: PMC3910454.
      37. Porat S, Fitzgerald B, Wright E, Keating S, Kingdom JC. Placental hyperinflation and the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Sep; 42(3):315-21. PMID: 23288860.
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      38. Li S, Wu Y, Keating SM, Du H, Sammet CL, Zadikoff C, Mahadevia R, Epstein LG, Ragin AB. Matrix metalloproteinase levels in early HIV infection and relation to in vivo brain status. J Neurovirol. 2013 Oct; 19(5):452-60. PMID: 23979706; PMCID: PMC3819028.
      39. Alencar CS, Sabino EC, Carvalho SM, Leao SC, Carneiro-Proietti AB, Capuani L, Oliveira CL, Carrick D, Birch RJ, Gonçalez TT, Keating S, Swanson PA, Hackett J, Busch MP. HIV genotypes and primary drug resistance among HIV-seropositive blood donors in Brazil: role of infected blood donors as sentinel populations for molecular surveillance of HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Jul 1; 63(3):387-92. PMID: 23507660; PMCID: PMC4136640.
      40. Fleck S, Bautista G, Keating SM, Lee TH, Keller RL, Moon-Grady AJ, Gonzales K, Norris PJ, Busch MP, Kim CJ, Romero R, Lee H, Miniati D, MacKenzie TC. Fetal production of growth factors and inflammatory mediators predicts pulmonary hypertension in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatr Res. 2013 Sep; 74(3):290-8. PMID: 23770923; PMCID: PMC4164304.
      41. Yukl SA, Boritz E, Busch M, Bentsen C, Chun TW, Douek D, Eisele E, Haase A, Ho YC, Hütter G, Justement JS, Keating S, Lee TH, Li P, Murray D, Palmer S, Pilcher C, Pillai S, Price RW, Rothenberger M, Schacker T, Siliciano J, Siliciano R, Sinclair E, Strain M, Wong J, Richman D, Deeks SG. Challenges in detecting HIV persistence during potentially curative interventions: a study of the Berlin patient. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(5):e1003347. PMID: 23671416; PMCID: PMC3649997.
      42. Henrich TJ, Hu Z, Li JZ, Sciaranghella G, Busch MP, Keating SM, Gallien S, Lin NH, Giguel FF, Lavoie L, Ho VT, Armand P, Soiffer RJ, Sagar M, Lacasce AS, Kuritzkes DR. Long-term reduction in peripheral blood HIV type 1 reservoirs following reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation. J Infect Dis. 2013 Jun 1; 207(11):1694-702. PMID: 23460751; PMCID: PMC3636784.
      43. Batista MD, Tincati C, Milush JM, Ho EL, Ndhlovu LC, York VA, Kallas EG, Kalil J, Keating SM, Norris PJ, Chang D, Unemori P, Leslie KS, Maurer T, Liao W, Nixon DF. CD57 expression and cytokine production by T cells in lesional and unaffected skin from patients with psoriasis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e52144. PMID: 23468834; PMCID: PMC3585296.
      44. Keating SM, Hanson D, Lebedeva M, Laeyendecker O, Ali-Napo NL, Owen SM, Stramer SL, Moore RD, Norris PJ, Busch MP. Lower-sensitivity and avidity modifications of the vitros anti-HIV 1+2 assay for detection of recent HIV infections and incidence estimation. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Dec; 50(12):3968-76. PMID: 23035182; PMCID: PMC3503010.
      45. Keating SM, Jacobs ES, Norris PJ. Soluble mediators of inflammation in HIV and their implications for therapeutics and vaccine development. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2012 Aug-Oct; 23(4-5):193-206. PMID: 22743035; PMCID: PMC3418433.
      46. Selvarajah S, Keating S, Heitman J, Lu K, Simmons G, Norris PJ, Operskalski E, Mosley JW, Busch MP. Detection of host immune responses in acute phase sera of spontaneous resolution versus persistent hepatitis C virus infection. J Gen Virol. 2012 Aug; 93(Pt 8):1673-9. PMID: 22535775; PMCID: PMC3541758.
      47. Eriksson EM, Milush JM, Ho EL, Batista MD, Holditch SJ, Keh CE, Norris PJ, Keating SM, Deeks SG, Hunt PW, Martin JN, Rosenberg MG, Hecht FM, Nixon DF. Expansion of CD8+ T cells lacking Sema4D/CD100 during HIV-1 infection identifies a subset of T cells with decreased functional capacity. Blood. 2012 Jan 19; 119(3):745-55. PMID: 22134167; PMCID: PMC3265199.
      48. Keating SM, Golub ET, Nowicki M, Young M, Anastos K, Crystal H, Cohen MH, Zhang J, Greenblatt RM, Desai S, Wu S, Landay AL, Gange SJ, Norris PJ. The effect of HIV infection and HAART on inflammatory biomarkers in a population-based cohort of women. AIDS. 2011 Sep 24; 25(15):1823-32. PMID: 21572306; PMCID: PMC3314300.
      49. Kassanjee R, Welte A, McWalter TA, Keating SM, Vermeulen M, Stramer SL, Busch MP. Seroconverting blood donors as a resource for characterising and optimising recent infection testing algorithms for incidence estimation. PLoS One. 2011; 6(6):e20027. PMID: 21694760; PMCID: PMC3111407.
      50. Letvin NL, Rao SS, Montefiori DC, Seaman MS, Sun Y, Lim SY, Yeh WW, Asmal M, Gelman RS, Shen L, Whitney JB, Seoighe C, Lacerda M, Keating S, Norris PJ, Hudgens MG, Gilbert PB, Buzby AP, Mach LV, Zhang J, Balachandran H, Shaw GM, Schmidt SD, Todd JP, Dodson A, Mascola JR, Nabel GJ. Immune and Genetic Correlates of Vaccine Protection Against Mucosal Infection by SIV in Monkeys. Sci Transl Med. 2011 May 4; 3(81):81ra36. PMID: 21543722; PMCID: PMC3718279.
      51. Dunachie SJ, Berthoud T, Keating SM, Hill AV, Fletcher HA. MIG and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-ß1 correlate with malaria vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. PLoS One. 2010; 5(9):e12557. PMID: 20838432; PMCID: PMC2933226.
      52. Baxendale HE, Johnson M, Keating SM, Ashton L, Burbidge P, Woodgate S, Southern J, Miller E, Goldblatt D. Circulating pneumococcal specific plasma and memory B cells in the elderly two years after pneumococcal conjugate versus polysaccharide vaccination. Vaccine. 2010 Oct 4; 28(42):6915-22. PMID: 20708698.
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      53. Liu J, Keele BF, Li H, Keating S, Norris PJ, Carville A, Mansfield KG, Tomaras GD, Haynes BF, Kolodkin-Gal D, Letvin NL, Hahn BH, Shaw GM, Barouch DH. Low-dose mucosal simian immunodeficiency virus infection restricts early replication kinetics and transmitted virus variants in rhesus monkeys. J Virol. 2010 Oct; 84(19):10406-12. PMID: 20686016; PMCID: PMC2937794.
      54. Baxendale HE, Keating SM, Johnson M, Southern J, Miller E, Goldblatt D. The early kinetics of circulating pneumococcal-specific memory B cells following pneumococcal conjugate and plain polysaccharide vaccines in the elderly. Vaccine. 2010 Jul 5; 28(30):4763-70. PMID: 20471437.
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      55. Todryk SM, Pathan AA, Keating S, Porter DW, Berthoud T, Thompson F, Klenerman P, Hill AV. The relationship between human effector and memory T cells measured by ex vivo and cultured ELISPOT following recent and distal priming. Immunology. 2009 Sep; 128(1):83-91. PMID: 19689738; PMCID: PMC2747141.
      56. Bejon P, Mwacharo J, Kai O, Todryk S, Keating S, Lowe B, Lang T, Mwangi TW, Gilbert SC, Peshu N, Marsh K, Hill AV. The induction and persistence of T cell IFN-gamma responses after vaccination or natural exposure is suppressed by Plasmodium falciparum. J Immunol. 2007 Sep 15; 179(6):4193-201. PMID: 17785859; PMCID: PMC2658805.
      57. Bejon P, Mwacharo J, Kai O, Mwangi T, Milligan P, Todryk S, Keating S, Lang T, Lowe B, Gikonyo C, Molyneux C, Fegan G, Gilbert SC, Peshu N, Marsh K, Hill AV. A phase 2b randomised trial of the candidate malaria vaccines FP9 ME-TRAP and MVA ME-TRAP among children in Kenya. PLoS Clin Trials. 2006; 1(6):e29. PMID: 17053830; PMCID: PMC1617125.
      58. Dunachie SJ, Walther M, Epstein JE, Keating S, Berthoud T, Andrews L, Andersen RF, Bejon P, Goonetilleke N, Poulton I, Webster DP, Butcher G, Watkins K, Sinden RE, Levine GL, Richie TL, Schneider J, Kaslow D, Gilbert SC, Carucci DJ, Hill AV. A DNA prime-modified vaccinia virus ankara boost vaccine encoding thrombospondin-related adhesion protein but not circumsporozoite protein partially protects healthy malaria-naive adults against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite challenge. Infect Immun. 2006 Oct; 74(10):5933-42. PMID: 16988273; PMCID: PMC1594937.
      59. Bejon P, Keating S, Mwacharo J, Kai OK, Dunachie S, Walther M, Berthoud T, Lang T, Epstein J, Carucci D, Moris P, Cohen J, Gilbert SC, Peshu N, Marsh K, Hill AV. Early gamma interferon and interleukin-2 responses to vaccination predict the late resting memory in malaria-naïve and malaria-exposed individuals. Infect Immun. 2006 Nov; 74(11):6331-8. PMID: 16966412; PMCID: PMC1695504.
      60. Bejon P, Kai OK, Mwacharo J, Keating S, Lang T, Gilbert SC, Peshu N, Marsh K, Hill AV. Alternating vector immunizations encoding pre-erythrocytic malaria antigens enhance memory responses in a malaria endemic area. Eur J Immunol. 2006 Aug; 36(8):2264-72. PMID: 16856208.
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      61. Imoukhuede EB, Berthoud T, Milligan P, Bojang K, Ismaili J, Keating S, Nwakanma D, Keita S, Njie F, Sowe M, Todryk S, Laidlaw SM, Skinner MA, Lang T, Gilbert S, Greenwood BM, Hill AV. Safety and immunogenicity of the malaria candidate vaccines FP9 CS and MVA CS in adult Gambian men. Vaccine. 2006 Oct 30; 24(42-43):6526-33. PMID: 16842888.
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      62. Walther M, Thompson FM, Dunachie S, Keating S, Todryk S, Berthoud T, Andrews L, Andersen RF, Moore A, Gilbert SC, Poulton I, Dubovsky F, Tierney E, Correa S, Huntcooke A, Butcher G, Williams J, Sinden RE, Hill AV. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of prime-boost immunization with recombinant poxvirus FP9 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara encoding the full-length Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. Infect Immun. 2006 May; 74(5):2706-16. PMID: 16622207; PMCID: PMC1459746.
      63. Bejon P, Mwacharo J, Kai OK, Todryk S, Keating S, Lang T, Gilbert SC, Peshu N, Marsh K, Hill AV. Immunogenicity of the candidate malaria vaccines FP9 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara encoding the pre-erythrocytic antigen ME-TRAP in 1-6 year old children in a malaria endemic area. Vaccine. 2006 May 29; 24(22):4709-15. PMID: 16621181.
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      64. Dunachie SJ, Walther M, Vuola JM, Webster DP, Keating SM, Berthoud T, Andrews L, Bejon P, Poulton I, Butcher G, Watkins K, Sinden RE, Leach A, Moris P, Tornieporth N, Schneider J, Dubovsky F, Tierney E, Williams J, Heppner DG, Gilbert SC, Cohen J, Hill AV. A clinical trial of prime-boost immunisation with the candidate malaria vaccines RTS,S/AS02A and MVA-CS. Vaccine. 2006 Apr 5; 24(15):2850-9. PMID: 16434127.
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      65. Keating SM, Bejon P, Berthoud T, Vuola JM, Todryk S, Webster DP, Dunachie SJ, Moorthy VS, McConkey SJ, Gilbert SC, Hill AV. Durable human memory T cells quantifiable by cultured enzyme-linked immunospot assays are induced by heterologous prime boost immunization and correlate with protection against malaria. J Immunol. 2005 Nov 1; 175(9):5675-80. PMID: 16237057.
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