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    Susan Fisher, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentOb/Gyn, Reproductive Sciences
    Address35 Medical Center way
    San Fancisco CA 94143
    Phone415-476-5297
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      Our group works in three areas. In the first, we are studying the mechanisms used by the trophoblast cells of the human placenta to invade the uterus during normal pregnancy. Human fetal development depends on the embryo's ability to rapidly gain access to the maternal circulation. The cytotrophoblasts that form the fetal portion of the human placenta have solved this problem by transiently exhibiting certain invasive, tumor-like properties. Our studies show that, in normal pregnancy, cytotrophoblast invasion, both in vivo and in vitro, is accompanied by a dramatic switch in the cells' expression of matrix-degrading metalloproteinases and adhesion molecules. Function-perturbation experiments suggest that cytotrophoblasts carefully regulate their invasive potential by simultaneously expressing a number of molecules that either promote or inhibit invasion. Additionally, we found that cytotrophoblasts that replace the endothelial lining of uterine blood vessels also have the amazing ability to mimic the adhesion phenotype of vascular cells. This phenomenon is likely to be a critical component of normal placentation. What controls this highly unusual differentiation process? Since cytotrophoblasts target large-bore arterioles for invasion, we reasoned that oxygen tension could play a role. Recently, we showed that oxygen controls whether cells proliferate or exit the cell cycle and differentiate; Eph/ephrin family members, transmembrane ligands and receptors, pattern invasion in terms of arterial bias. Finally, we use information about molecular aspects of cytotrophoblast function in normal pregnancy to search for defects that are associated with pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia (e.g., dangerously high blood pressure). For example, our work shows that this pregnancy complication is characterized by specific aberrations in trophoblast secretion of vasculogenic/angiogenic substances.

      In parallel, our lab has begun studying the earliest stages of human development using human embryonic stem cells as a model system. Our work to date has focused on deriving additional lines using feeders formed from human placental cells. We recently made the surprising discovery that the cells exhibit apical-basal type polarization. Currently we are investigating how this highly specialized phenomenon is related to pluripotency. Our recently funded CIRM comprehensive grant is focused on constructing a fate map of the human embryo.

      Finally, we are using mass spectrometry-based approaches for proteome analyses. Three projects are under way. The first is compilation of an initial draft of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals as a first step in using this body fluid for diagnosis of common diseases. The second is an analysis of the primary proteome and protein complexes of the soil organism Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The goal of the third and newest project is to formulate novel methods that enable robust mass spectrometry-based platforms for the discovery of biomarkers in body fluid for the early detection of tumors.


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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Hassis ME, Niles RK, Braten MN, Albertolle ME, Ewa Witkowska H, Hubel CA, Fisher SJ, Williams KE. Evaluating the effects of preanalytical variables on the stability of the human plasma proteome. Anal Biochem. 2015 Jun 1; 478:14-22.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Williams KE, Miroshnychenko O, Johansen EB, Niles RK, Sundaram R, Kannan K, Albertolle M, Zhou Y, Prasad N, Drake PM, Giudice LC, Hall SC, Witkowska HE, Buck Louis GM, Fisher SJ. Urine, peritoneal fluid and omental fat proteomes of reproductive age women: Endometriosis-related changes and associations with endocrine disrupting chemicals. J Proteomics. 2015 Jan 15; 113:194-205.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Romero R, Dey SK, Fisher SJ. Preterm labor: one syndrome, many causes. Science. 2014 Aug 15; 345(6198):760-5.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Zawadzka AM, Schilling B, Cusack MP, Sahu AK, Drake P, Fisher SJ, Benz CC, Gibson BW. Phosphoprotein secretome of tumor cells as a source of candidates for breast cancer biomarkers in plasma. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014 Apr; 13(4):1034-49.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Zhou Y, Gormley MJ, Hunkapiller NM, Kapidzic M, Stolyarov Y, Feng V, Nishida M, Drake PM, Bianco K, Wang F, McMaster MT, Fisher SJ. Reversal of gene dysregulation in cultured cytotrophoblasts reveals possible causes of preeclampsia. J Clin Invest. 2013 Jul 1; 123(7):2862-72.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Hromatka BS, Ngeleza S, Adibi JJ, Niles RK, Tshefu AK, Fisher SJ. Histopathologies, immunolocalization, and a glycan binding screen provide insights into Plasmodium falciparum interactions with the human placenta. Biol Reprod. 2013 Jun; 88(6):154.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Co EC, Gormley M, Kapidzic M, Rosen DB, Scott MA, Stolp HA, McMaster M, Lanier LL, Bárcena A, Fisher SJ. Maternal decidual macrophages inhibit NK cell killing of invasive cytotrophoblasts during human pregnancy. Biol Reprod. 2013 Jun; 88(6):155.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Bartlett JA, Albertolle ME, Wohlford-Lenane C, Pezzulo AA, Zabner J, Niles RK, Fisher SJ, McCray PB, Williams KE. Protein composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and airway surface liquid from newborn pigs. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013 Aug 1; 305(3):L256-66.
        View in: PubMed PMC3743012
      9. Abbatiello SE, Mani DR, Schilling B, Maclean B, Zimmerman LJ, Feng X, Cusack MP, Sedransk N, Hall SC, Addona T, Allen S, Dodder NG, Ghosh M, Held JM, Hedrick V, Inerowicz HD, Jackson A, Keshishian H, Kim JW, Lyssand JS, Riley CP, Rudnick P, Sadowski P, Shaddox K, Smith D, Tomazela D, Wahlander A, Waldemarson S, Whitwell CA, You J, Zhang S, Kinsinger CR, Mesri M, Rodriguez H, Borchers CH, Buck C, Fisher SJ, Gibson BW, Liebler D, Maccoss M, Neubert TA, Paulovich A, Regnier F, Skates SJ, Tempst P, Wang M, Carr SA. Design, implementation and multisite evaluation of a system suitability protocol for the quantitative assessment of instrument performance in liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring-MS (LC-MRM-MS). Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013 Sep; 12(9):2623-39.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Fisher SJ, Giudice LC. Retrospective. Robert G. Edwards (1925-2013). Science. 2013 May 17; 340(6134):825.
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      11. Genbacev O, Lamb JD, Prakobphol A, Donne M, McMaster MT, Fisher SJ. Human trophoblast progenitors: where do they reside? Semin Reprod Med. 2013 Jan; 31(1):56-61.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Drake P, Schilling B, Gibson B, Fisher S. Elucidation of N-glycosites within human plasma glycoproteins for cancer biomarker discovery. Methods Mol Biol. 2013; 951:307-22.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Hromatka BS, Drake PM, Kapidzic M, Stolp H, Goldfien GA, Shih IeM, Fisher SJ. Polysialic acid enhances the migration and invasion of human cytotrophoblasts. Glycobiology. 2013 May; 23(5):593-602.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Walian PJ, Allen S, Shatsky M, Zeng L, Szakal ED, Liu H, Hall SC, Fisher SJ, Lam BR, Singer ME, Geller JT, Brenner SE, Chandonia JM, Hazen TC, Witkowska HE, Biggin MD, Jap BK. High-throughput isolation and characterization of untagged membrane protein complexes: outer membrane complexes of Desulfovibrio vulgaris. J Proteome Res. 2012 Dec 7; 11(12):5720-35.
        View in: PubMed PMC3516867
      15. Drake PM, Schilling B, Niles RK, Prakobphol A, Li B, Jung K, Cho W, Braten M, Inerowicz HD, Williams K, Albertolle M, Held JM, Iacovides D, Sorensen DJ, Griffith OL, Johansen E, Zawadzka AM, Cusack MP, Allen S, Gormley M, Hall SC, Witkowska HE, Gray JW, Regnier F, Gibson BW, Fisher SJ. Lectin chromatography/mass spectrometry discovery workflow identifies putative biomarkers of aggressive breast cancers. J Proteome Res. 2012 Apr 6; 11(4):2508-20.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Aghajanova L, Shen S, Rojas AM, Fisher SJ, Irwin JC, Giudice LC. Comparative transcriptome analysis of human trophectoderm and embryonic stem cell-derived trophoblasts reveal key participants in early implantation. Biol Reprod. 2012 Jan; 86(1):1-21.
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      17. Witkowska HE, Hall SC, Fisher SJ. Breaking the bottleneck in the protein biomarker pipeline. Clin Chem. 2012 Feb; 58(2):321-3.
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      18. Fisher SJ, Giudice LC. SGK1: a fine balancing act for human pregnancy. Nat Med. 2011; 17(11):1348-9.
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      19. Bárcena A, Muench MO, Kapidzic M, Gormley M, Goldfien GA, Fisher SJ. Human placenta and chorion: potential additional sources of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. Transfusion. 2011 Nov; 51 Suppl 4:94S-105S.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Genbacev O, Donne M, Kapidzic M, Gormley M, Lamb J, Gilmore J, Larocque N, Goldfien G, Zdravkovic T, McMaster MT, Fisher SJ. Establishment of human trophoblast progenitor cell lines from the chorion. Stem Cells. 2011 Sep; 29(9):1427-36.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Liu H, Yang L, Khainovski N, Dong M, Hall SC, Fisher SJ, Biggin MD, Jin J, Witkowska HE. Automated iterative MS/MS acquisition: a tool for improving efficiency of protein identification using a LC-MALDI MS workflow. Anal Chem. 2011 Aug 15; 83(16):6286-93.
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      22. Hunkapiller NM, Gasperowicz M, Kapidzic M, Plaks V, Maltepe E, Kitajewski J, Cross JC, Fisher SJ. A role for Notch signaling in trophoblast endovascular invasion and in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Development. 2011 Jul; 138(14):2987-98.
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      23. Schanz A, Winn VD, Fisher SJ, Blumenstein M, Heiss C, Hess AP, Kruessel JS, Mcmaster M, North RA. Pre-eclampsia is associated with elevated CXCL12 levels in placental syncytiotrophoblasts and maternal blood. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011 Jul; 157(1):32-7.
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      24. Krtolica A, Larocque N, Genbacev O, Ilic D, Coppe JP, Patil CK, Zdravkovic T, McMaster M, Campisi J, Fisher SJ. GROa regulates human embryonic stem cell self-renewal or adoption of a neuronal fate. Differentiation. 2011 Apr; 81(4):222-32.
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      25. Marchand M, Horcajadas JA, Esteban FJ, McElroy SL, Fisher SJ, Giudice LC. Transcriptomic signature of trophoblast differentiation in a human embryonic stem cell model. Biol Reprod. 2011 Jun; 84(6):1258-71.
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      26. Winn VD, Gormley M, Fisher SJ. The Impact of Preeclampsia on Gene Expression at the Maternal-Fetal Interface. Pregnancy Hypertens. 2011 Jan 1; 1(1):100-108.
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      27. Roberts RM, Fisher SJ. Trophoblast stem cells. Biol Reprod. 2011 Mar; 84(3):412-21.
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      28. Drake PM, Schilling B, Niles RK, Braten M, Johansen E, Liu H, Lerch M, Sorensen DJ, Li B, Allen S, Hall SC, Witkowska HE, Regnier FE, Gibson BW, Fisher SJ. A lectin affinity workflow targeting glycosite-specific, cancer-related carbohydrate structures in trypsin-digested human plasma. Anal Biochem. 2011 Jan 1; 408(1):71-85.
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      29. Maltepe E, Bakardjiev AI, Fisher SJ. The placenta: transcriptional, epigenetic, and physiological integration during development. J Clin Invest. 2010 Apr; 120(4):1016-25.
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      30. Lo B, Parham L, Cedars M, Fisher S, Gates E, Giudice L, Halme DG, Hershon W, Kriegstein A, Rao R, Roberts C, Wagner R. Research ethics. NIH guidelines for stem cell research and gamete donors. Science. 2010 Feb 19; 327(5968):962-3.
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      31. Tabb DL, Vega-Montoto L, Rudnick PA, Variyath AM, Ham AJ, Bunk DM, Kilpatrick LE, Billheimer DD, Blackman RK, Cardasis HL, Carr SA, Clauser KR, Jaffe JD, Kowalski KA, Neubert TA, Regnier FE, Schilling B, Tegeler TJ, Wang M, Wang P, Whiteaker JR, Zimmerman LJ, Fisher SJ, Gibson BW, Kinsinger CR, Mesri M, Rodriguez H, Stein SE, Tempst P, Paulovich AG, Liebler DC, Spiegelman C. Repeatability and reproducibility in proteomic identifications by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2010 Feb 5; 9(2):761-76.
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      32. Lo B, Parham L, Alvarez-Buylla A, Cedars M, Conklin B, Fisher S, Gates E, Giudice L, Halme DG, Hershon W, Kriegstein A, Kwok PY, Wagner R. Cloning mice and men: prohibiting the use of iPS cells for human reproductive cloning. Cell Stem Cell. 2010 Jan 8; 6(1):16-20.
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      33. Regnier FE, Skates SJ, Mesri M, Rodriguez H, Tezak Z, Kondratovich MV, Alterman MA, Levin JD, Roscoe D, Reilly E, Callaghan J, Kelm K, Brown D, Philip R, Carr SA, Liebler DC, Fisher SJ, Tempst P, Hiltke T, Kessler LG, Kinsinger CR, Ransohoff DF, Mansfield E, Anderson NL. Protein-based multiplex assays: mock presubmissions to the US Food and Drug Administration. Clin Chem. 2010 Feb; 56(2):165-71.
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      34. Rodriguez H, Tezak Z, Mesri M, Carr SA, Liebler DC, Fisher SJ, Tempst P, Hiltke T, Kessler LG, Kinsinger CR, Philip R, Ransohoff DF, Skates SJ, Regnier FE, Anderson NL, Mansfield E. Analytical validation of protein-based multiplex assays: a workshop report by the NCI-FDA interagency oncology task force on molecular diagnostics. Clin Chem. 2010 Feb; 56(2):237-43.
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      35. Drake PM, Cho W, Li B, Prakobphol A, Johansen E, Anderson NL, Regnier FE, Gibson BW, Fisher SJ. Sweetening the pot: adding glycosylation to the biomarker discovery equation. Clin Chem. 2010 Feb; 56(2):223-36.
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      36. Ilic D, Giritharan G, Zdravkovic T, Caceres E, Genbacev O, Fisher SJ, Krtolica A. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines from biopsied blastomeres on human feeders with minimal exposure to xenomaterials. Stem Cells Dev. 2009 Nov; 18(9):1343-50.
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      37. Paulovich AG, Billheimer D, Ham AJ, Vega-Montoto L, Rudnick PA, Tabb DL, Wang P, Blackman RK, Bunk DM, Cardasis HL, Clauser KR, Kinsinger CR, Schilling B, Tegeler TJ, Variyath AM, Wang M, Whiteaker JR, Zimmerman LJ, Fenyo D, Carr SA, Fisher SJ, Gibson BW, Mesri M, Neubert TA, Regnier FE, Rodriguez H, Spiegelman C, Stein SE, Tempst P, Liebler DC. Interlaboratory study characterizing a yeast performance standard for benchmarking LC-MS platform performance. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010 Feb; 9(2):242-54.
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      38. Rudnick PA, Clauser KR, Kilpatrick LE, Tchekhovskoi DV, Neta P, Blonder N, Billheimer DD, Blackman RK, Bunk DM, Cardasis HL, Ham AJ, Jaffe JD, Kinsinger CR, Mesri M, Neubert TA, Schilling B, Tabb DL, Tegeler TJ, Vega-Montoto L, Variyath AM, Wang M, Wang P, Whiteaker JR, Zimmerman LJ, Carr SA, Fisher SJ, Gibson BW, Paulovich AG, Regnier FE, Rodriguez H, Spiegelman C, Tempst P, Liebler DC, Stein SE. Performance metrics for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry systems in proteomics analyses. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010 Feb; 9(2):225-41.
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      39. Johansen E, Schilling B, Lerch M, Niles RK, Liu H, Li B, Allen S, Hall SC, Witkowska HE, Regnier FE, Gibson BW, Fisher SJ, Drake PM. A lectin HPLC method to enrich selectively-glycosylated peptides from complex biological samples. J Vis Exp. 2009; (32).
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      40. Addona TA, Abbatiello SE, Schilling B, Skates SJ, Mani DR, Bunk DM, Spiegelman CH, Zimmerman LJ, Ham AJ, Keshishian H, Hall SC, Allen S, Blackman RK, Borchers CH, Buck C, Cardasis HL, Cusack MP, Dodder NG, Gibson BW, Held JM, Hiltke T, Jackson A, Johansen EB, Kinsinger CR, Li J, Mesri M, Neubert TA, Niles RK, Pulsipher TC, Ransohoff D, Rodriguez H, Rudnick PA, Smith D, Tabb DL, Tegeler TJ, Variyath AM, Vega-Montoto LJ, Wahlander A, Waldemarson S, Wang M, Whiteaker JR, Zhao L, Anderson NL, Fisher SJ, Liebler DC, Paulovich AG, Regnier FE, Tempst P, Carr SA. Multi-site assessment of the precision and reproducibility of multiple reaction monitoring-based measurements of proteins in plasma. Nat Biotechnol. 2009 Jul; 27(7):633-41.
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      41. Zhou J, Su P, Wang L, Chen J, Zimmermann M, Genbacev O, Afonja O, Horne MC, Tanaka T, Duan E, Fisher SJ, Liao J, Chen J, Wang F. mTOR supports long-term self-renewal and suppresses mesoderm and endoderm activities of human embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 12; 106(19):7840-5.
        View in: PubMed PMC2683106
      42. Niles R, Witkowska HE, Allen S, Hall SC, Fisher SJ, Hardt M. Acid-catalyzed oxygen-18 labeling of peptides. Anal Chem. 2009 Apr 1; 81(7):2804-9.
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      43. Bárcena A, Muench MO, Kapidzic M, Fisher SJ. A new role for the human placenta as a hematopoietic site throughout gestation. Reprod Sci. 2009 Feb; 16(2):178-87.
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      44. Bárcena A, Kapidzic M, Muench MO, Gormley M, Scott MA, Weier JF, Ferlatte C, Fisher SJ. The human placenta is a hematopoietic organ during the embryonic and fetal periods of development. Dev Biol. 2009 Mar 1; 327(1):24-33.
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      45. Winn VD, Gormley M, Paquet AC, Kjaer-Sorensen K, Kramer A, Rumer KK, Haimov-Kochman R, Yeh RF, Overgaard MT, Varki A, Oxvig C, Fisher SJ. Severe preeclampsia-related changes in gene expression at the maternal-fetal interface include sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-6 and pappalysin-2. Endocrinology. 2009 Jan; 150(1):452-62.
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      46. Zdravkovic T, Genbacev O, LaRocque N, McMaster M, Fisher S. Human embryonic stem cells as a model system for studying the effects of smoke exposure on the embryo. Reprod Toxicol. 2008 Oct; 26(2):86-93.
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      47. Denny P, Hagen FK, Hardt M, Liao L, Yan W, Arellanno M, Bassilian S, Bedi GS, Boontheung P, Cociorva D, Delahunty CM, Denny T, Dunsmore J, Faull KF, Gilligan J, Gonzalez-Begne M, Halgand F, Hall SC, Han X, Henson B, Hewel J, Hu S, Jeffrey S, Jiang J, Loo JA, Ogorzalek Loo RR, Malamud D, Melvin JE, Miroshnychenko O, Navazesh M, Niles R, Park SK, Prakobphol A, Ramachandran P, Richert M, Robinson S, Sondej M, Souda P, Sullivan MA, Takashima J, Than S, Wang J, Whitelegge JP, Witkowska HE, Wolinsky L, Xie Y, Xu T, Yu W, Ytterberg J, Wong DT, Yates JR, Fisher SJ. The proteomes of human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland salivas collected as the ductal secretions. J Proteome Res. 2008 May; 7(5):1994-2006.
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      48. Dong M, Yang LL, Williams K, Fisher SJ, Hall SC, Biggin MD, Jin J, Witkowska HE. A "tagless" strategy for identification of stable protein complexes genome-wide by multidimensional orthogonal chromatographic separation and iTRAQ reagent tracking. J Proteome Res. 2008 May; 7(5):1836-49.
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      49. Robinson S, Niles RK, Witkowska HE, Rittenbach KJ, Nichols RJ, Sargent JA, Dixon SE, Prakobphol A, Hall SC, Fisher SJ, Hardt M. A mass spectrometry-based strategy for detecting and characterizing endogenous proteinase activities in complex biological samples. Proteomics. 2008 Feb; 8(3):435-45.
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      50. Lim ST, Chen XL, Lim Y, Hanson DA, Vo TT, Howerton K, Larocque N, Fisher SJ, Schlaepfer DD, Ilic D. Nuclear FAK promotes cell proliferation and survival through FERM-enhanced p53 degradation. Mol Cell. 2008 Jan 18; 29(1):9-22.
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      51. Chung Y, Klimanskaya I, Becker S, Li T, Maserati M, Lu SJ, Zdravkovic T, Ilic D, Genbacev O, Fisher S, Krtolica A, Lanza R. Human embryonic stem cell lines generated without embryo destruction. Cell Stem Cell. 2008 Feb 7; 2(2):113-7.
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      52. Hunkapiller NM, Fisher SJ. Chapter 12. Placental remodeling of the uterine vasculature. Methods Enzymol. 2008; 445:281-302.
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      53. Krtolica A, Genbacev O, Escobedo C, Zdravkovic T, Nordstrom A, Vabuena D, Nath A, Simon C, Mostov K, Fisher SJ. Disruption of apical-basal polarity of human embryonic stem cells enhances hematoendothelial differentiation. Stem Cells. 2007 Sep; 25(9):2215-23.
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      54. Zhou Y, Bianco K, Huang L, Nien JK, McMaster M, Romero R, Fisher SJ. Comparative analysis of maternal-fetal interface in preeclampsia and preterm labor. Cell Tissue Res. 2007 Sep; 329(3):559-69.
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      55. Ilic D, Mao-Qiang M, Crumrine D, Dolganov G, Larocque N, Xu P, Demerjian M, Brown BE, Lim ST, Ossovskaya V, Schlaepfer DD, Fisher SJ, Feingold KR, Elias PM, Mauro TM. Focal adhesion kinase controls pH-dependent epidermal barrier homeostasis by regulating actin-directed Na+/H+ exchanger 1 plasma membrane localization. Am J Pathol. 2007 Jun; 170(6):2055-67.
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      56. Winn VD, Haimov-Kochman R, Paquet AC, Yang YJ, Madhusudhan MS, Gormley M, Feng KT, Bernlohr DA, McDonagh S, Pereira L, Sali A, Fisher SJ. Gene expression profiling of the human maternal-fetal interface reveals dramatic changes between midgestation and term. Endocrinology. 2007 Mar; 148(3):1059-79.
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      57. Red-Horse K, Rivera J, Schanz A, Zhou Y, Winn V, Kapidzic M, Maltepe E, Okazaki K, Kochman R, Vo KC, Giudice L, Erlebacher A, McCune JM, Stoddart CA, Fisher SJ. Cytotrophoblast induction of arterial apoptosis and lymphangiogenesis in an in vivo model of human placentation. J Clin Invest. 2006 Oct; 116(10):2643-52.
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      58. Carson DD, Julian J, Lessey BA, Prakobphol A, Fisher SJ. MUC1 is a scaffold for selectin ligands in the human uterus. Front Biosci. 2006; 11:2903-8.
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      59. Zdravkovic T, Genbacev O, Prakobphol A, Cvetkovic M, Schanz A, McMaster M, Fisher SJ. Nicotine downregulates the l-selectin system that mediates cytotrophoblast emigration from cell columns and attachment to the uterine wall. Reprod Toxicol. 2006 Jul; 22(1):69-76.
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      60. Prakobphol A, Genbacev O, Gormley M, Kapidzic M, Fisher SJ. A role for the L-selectin adhesion system in mediating cytotrophoblast emigration from the placenta. Dev Biol. 2006 Oct 1; 298(1):107-17.
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      61. Takamatsu D, Bensing BA, Prakobphol A, Fisher SJ, Sullam PM. Binding of the streptococcal surface glycoproteins GspB and Hsa to human salivary proteins. Infect Immun. 2006 Mar; 74(3):1933-40.
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      62. Haimov-Kochman R, Fisher SJ, Winn VD. Modification of the standard Trizol-based technique improves the integrity of RNA isolated from RNase-rich placental tissue. Clin Chem. 2006 Jan; 52(1):159-60.
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      63. Red-Horse K, Kapidzic M, Zhou Y, Feng KT, Singh H, Fisher SJ. EPHB4 regulates chemokine-evoked trophoblast responses: a mechanism for incorporating the human placenta into the maternal circulation. Development. 2005 Sep; 132(18):4097-106.
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      64. Hardt M, Witkowska HE, Webb S, Thomas LR, Dixon SE, Hall SC, Fisher SJ. Assessing the effects of diurnal variation on the composition of human parotid saliva: quantitative analysis of native peptides using iTRAQ reagents. Anal Chem. 2005 Aug 1; 77(15):4947-54.
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      65. Genbacev-Krtolica O. Highlight for phenols, quinolines, indoles, benzene and 2-cyclopenten-1-ones are oviduct toxicants in cigarette smoke, by Prue Talbot, Karen Riveles, and Ryan Rosa: list of tobacco-smoke constituents that are harmful for reproduction grows--passive smokers may be at risk. Toxicol Sci. 2005 Jul; 86(1):4-5.
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      66. Maltepe E, Krampitz GW, Okazaki KM, Red-Horse K, Mak W, Simon MC, Fisher SJ. Hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent histone deacetylase activity determines stem cell fate in the placenta. Development. 2005 Aug; 132(15):3393-403.
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      67. Genbacev O, Krtolica A, Zdravkovic T, Brunette E, Powell S, Nath A, Caceres E, McMaster M, McDonagh S, Li Y, Mandalam R, Lebkowski J, Fisher SJ. Serum-free derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines on human placental fibroblast feeders. Fertil Steril. 2005 May; 83(5):1517-29.
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      68. Weier JF, Weier HU, Jung CJ, Gormley M, Zhou Y, Chu LW, Genbacev O, Wright AA, Fisher SJ. Human cytotrophoblasts acquire aneuploidies as they differentiate to an invasive phenotype. Dev Biol. 2005 Mar 15; 279(2):420-32.
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      69. Hardt M, Thomas LR, Dixon SE, Newport G, Agabian N, Prakobphol A, Hall SC, Witkowska HE, Fisher SJ. Toward defining the human parotid gland salivary proteome and peptidome: identification and characterization using 2D SDS-PAGE, ultrafiltration, HPLC, and mass spectrometry. Biochemistry. 2005 Mar 1; 44(8):2885-99.
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      70. Prakobphol A, Borén T, Ma W, Zhixiang P, Fisher SJ. Highly glycosylated human salivary molecules present oligosaccharides that mediate adhesion of leukocytes and Helicobacter pylori. Biochemistry. 2005 Feb 15; 44(6):2216-24.
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      71. Simón C, Escobedo C, Valbuena D, Genbacev O, Galan A, Krtolica A, Asensi A, Sánchez E, Esplugues J, Fisher S, Pellicer A. First derivation in Spain of human embryonic stem cell lines: use of long-term cryopreserved embryos and animal-free conditions. Fertil Steril. 2005 Jan; 83(1):246-9.
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      72. McMaster MT, Zhou Y, Fisher SJ. Abnormal placentation and the syndrome of preeclampsia. Semin Nephrol. 2004 Nov; 24(6):540-7.
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      73. Wright A, Zhou Y, Weier JF, Caceres E, Kapidzic M, Tabata T, Kahn M, Nash C, Fisher SJ. Trisomy 21 is associated with variable defects in cytotrophoblast differentiation along the invasive pathway. Am J Med Genet A. 2004 Nov 1; 130A(4):354-64.
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      74. Chénais B, Derjuga A, Massrieh W, Red-Horse K, Bellingard V, Fisher SJ, Blank V. Functional and placental expression analysis of the human NRF3 transcription factor. Mol Endocrinol. 2005 Jan; 19(1):125-37.
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      75. Red-Horse K, Zhou Y, Genbacev O, Prakobphol A, Foulk R, McMaster M, Fisher SJ. Trophoblast differentiation during embryo implantation and formation of the maternal-fetal interface. J Clin Invest. 2004 Sep; 114(6):744-54.
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      76. McDonagh S, Maidji E, Ma W, Chang HT, Fisher S, Pereira L. Viral and bacterial pathogens at the maternal-fetal interface. J Infect Dis. 2004 Aug 15; 190(4):826-34.
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      77. Fisher SJ. The placental problem: linking abnormal cytotrophoblast differentiation to the maternal symptoms of preeclampsia. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2004 Jul 5; 2:53.
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      78. Red-Horse K, Drake PM, Fisher SJ. Human pregnancy: the role of chemokine networks at the fetal-maternal interface. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2004 May; 6(11):1-14.
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      79. Drake PM, Red-Horse K, Fisher SJ. Reciprocal chemokine receptor and ligand expression in the human placenta: implications for cytotrophoblast differentiation. Dev Dyn. 2004 Apr; 229(4):877-85.
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      80. Yamamoto-Tabata T, McDonagh S, Chang HT, Fisher S, Pereira L. Human cytomegalovirus interleukin-10 downregulates metalloproteinase activity and impairs endothelial cell migration and placental cytotrophoblast invasiveness in vitro. J Virol. 2004 Mar; 78(6):2831-40.
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      81. Bakardjiev AI, Stacy BA, Fisher SJ, Portnoy DA. Listeriosis in the pregnant guinea pig: a model of vertical transmission. Infect Immun. 2004 Jan; 72(1):489-97.
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      82. Pereira L, Maidji E, McDonagh S, Genbacev O, Fisher S. Human cytomegalovirus transmission from the uterus to the placenta correlates with the presence of pathogenic bacteria and maternal immunity. J Virol. 2003 Dec; 77(24):13301-14.
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      83. Zhou Y, Bellingard V, Feng KT, McMaster M, Fisher SJ. Human cytotrophoblasts promote endothelial survival and vascular remodeling through secretion of Ang2, PlGF, and VEGF-C. Dev Biol. 2003 Nov 1; 263(1):114-25.
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      84. Genbacev O, McMaster MT, Zdravkovic T, Fisher SJ. Disruption of oxygen-regulated responses underlies pathological changes in the placentas of women who smoke or who are passively exposed to smoke during pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol. 2003 Sep-Oct; 17(5):509-18.
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      85. Zhou Y, Genbacev O, Fisher SJ. The human placenta remodels the uterus by using a combination of molecules that govern vasculogenesis or leukocyte extravasation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 May; 995:73-83.
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      86. Genbacev OD, Prakobphol A, Foulk RA, Krtolica AR, Ilic D, Singer MS, Yang ZQ, Kiessling LL, Rosen SD, Fisher SJ. Trophoblast L-selectin-mediated adhesion at the maternal-fetal interface. Science. 2003 Jan 17; 299(5605):405-8.
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      87. Taylor RN, Grimwood J, Taylor RS, McMaster MT, Fisher SJ, North RA. Longitudinal serum concentrations of placental growth factor: evidence for abnormal placental angiogenesis in pathologic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Jan; 188(1):177-82.
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      88. Maidji E, Percivalle E, Gerna G, Fisher S, Pereira L. Transmission of human cytomegalovirus from infected uterine microvascular endothelial cells to differentiating/invasive placental cytotrophoblasts. Virology. 2002 Dec 5; 304(1):53-69.
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      89. Drake PM, Red-Horse K, Fisher SJ. Chemokine expression and function at the human maternal-fetal interface. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2002 May; 3(2):159-65.
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      90. Zhou Y, McMaster M, Woo K, Janatpour M, Perry J, Karpanen T, Alitalo K, Damsky C, Fisher SJ. Vascular endothelial growth factor ligands and receptors that regulate human cytotrophoblast survival are dysregulated in severe preeclampsia and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome. Am J Pathol. 2002 Apr; 160(4):1405-23.
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      91. Thomsson KA, Prakobphol A, Leffler H, Reddy MS, Levine MJ, Fisher SJ, Hansson GC. The salivary mucin MG1 (MUC5B) carries a repertoire of unique oligosaccharides that is large and diverse. Glycobiology. 2002 Jan; 12(1):1-14.
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      92. Paul P, Rouas-Freiss N, Moreau P, Cabestre FA, Menier C, Khalil-Daher I, Pangault C, Onno M, Fauchet R, Martinez-Laso J, Morales P, Villena AA, Giacomini P, Natali PG, Frumento G, Ferrara GB, McMaster M, Fisher S, Schust D, Ferrone S, Dausset J, Geraghty D, Carosella ED. HLA-G, -E, -F preworkshop: tools and protocols for analysis of non-classical class I genes transcription and protein expression. Hum Immunol. 2000 Nov; 61(11):1177-95.
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      93. Goldman-Wohl DS, Ariel I, Greenfield C, Hochner-Celnikier D, Cross J, Fisher S, Yagel S. Lack of human leukocyte antigen-G expression in extravillous trophoblasts is associated with pre-eclampsia. Mol Hum Reprod. 2000 Jan; 6(1):88-95.
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      94. Rohde LH, Janatpore MJ, McMaster MT, Fisher S, Zhou Y, Lim KH, French M, Hoke D, Julian J, Carson DD. Complementary expression of HIP, a cell-surface heparan sulfate binding protein, and perlecan at the human fetal-maternal interface. Biol Reprod. 1998 Apr; 58(4):1075-83.
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      95. Azen EA, Amberger E, Fisher S, Prakobphol A, Niece RL. PRB1, PRB2, and PRB4 coded polymorphisms among human salivary concanavalin-A binding, II-1, and Po proline-rich proteins. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Jan; 58(1):143-53.
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      96. Fisher SJ, Damsky CH. Human cytotrophoblast invasion. Semin Cell Biol. 1993 Jun; 4(3):183-8.
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      97. Zhu BC, Fisher SF, Pande H, Calaycay J, Shively JE, Laine RA. Human placental (fetal) fibronectin: increased glycosylation and higher protease resistance than plasma fibronectin. Presence of polylactosamine glycopeptides and properties of a 44-kilodalton chymotryptic collagen-binding domain: difference from human plasma fibronectin. J Biol Chem. 1984 Mar 25; 259(6):3962-70.
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      98. Fisher SJ, Laine RA. Carbohydrate structure of the major glycopeptide from human cold-insoluble globulin. J Supramol Struct. 1979; 11(3):391-9.
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