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Corey Raffel, MD, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Neurological Surgery
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Phone415-353-7500
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences


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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Sloan EA, Cooney T, Oberheim Bush NA, Buerki R, Taylor J, Clarke JL, Torkildson J, Kline C, Reddy A, Mueller S, Banerjee A, Butowski N, Chang S, Mummaneni PV, Chou D, Tan L, Theodosopoulos P, McDermott M, Berger M, Raffel C, Gupta N, Sun PP, Li Y, Shah V, Cha S, Braunstein S, Raleigh DR, Samuel D, Scharnhorst D, Fata C, Guo H, Moes G, Kim JYH, Koschmann C, Van Ziffle J, Onodera C, Devine P, Grenert JP, Lee JC, Pekmezci M, Phillips JJ, Tihan T, Bollen AW, Perry A, Solomon DA. Recurrent non-canonical histone H3 mutations in spinal cord diffuse gliomas. Acta Neuropathol. 2019 Sep 12. PMID: 31515627.
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    2. Russell SJ, Babovic-Vuksanovic D, Bexon A, Cattaneo R, Dingli D, Dispenzieri A, Deyle DR, Federspiel MJ, Fielding A, Galanis E, Lacy MQ, Leibovich BC, Liu MC, Muñoz-Alía M, Miest TC, Molina JR, Mueller S, Okuno SH, Packiriswamy N, Peikert T, Raffel C, Van Rhee F, Ungerechts G, Young PR, Zhou Y, Peng KW. Oncolytic Measles Virotherapy and Opposition to Measles Vaccination. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019 Sep; 94(9):1834-1839. PMID: 31235278.
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    3. Ferris SP, Velazquez Vega J, Aboian M, Lee JC, Van Ziffle J, Onodera C, Grenert JP, Saunders T, Chen YY, Banerjee A, Kline CN, Gupta N, Raffel C, Samuel D, Ruiz-Diaz I, Magaki S, Wilson D, Neltner J, Al-Hajri Z, Phillips JJ, Pekmezci M, Bollen AW, Tihan T, Schniederjan M, Cha S, Perry A, Solomon DA. High-grade neuroepithelial tumor with BCOR exon 15 internal tandem duplication-a comprehensive clinical, radiographic, pathologic, and genomic analysis. Brain Pathol. 2019 May 18. PMID: 31104347.
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    4. Lee JC, Mazor T, Lao R, Wan E, Diallo AB, Hill NS, Thangaraj N, Wendelsdorf K, Samuel D, Kline CN, Banerjee A, Auguste K, Raffel C, Gupta N, Berger M, Raleigh DR, Shai A, Phillips JJ, Bollen AW, Tihan T, Perry A, Costello J, Solomon DA. Recurrent KBTBD4 small in-frame insertions and absence of DROSHA deletion or DICER1 mutation differentiate pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) from pineoblastoma. Acta Neuropathol. 2019 May; 137(5):851-854. PMID: 30877433.
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    5. Lal S, Carrera D, Phillips JJ, Weiss WA, Raffel C. An oncolytic measles virus-sensitive Group 3 medulloblastoma model in immune-competent mice. Neuro Oncol. 2018 11 12; 20(12):1606-1615. PMID: 29912438.
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    6. Lee J, Putnam AR, Chesier SH, Banerjee A, Raffel C, Van Ziffle J, Onodera C, Grenert JP, Bastian BC, Perry A, Solomon DA. Oligodendrogliomas, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted, arising during teenage years often lack TERT promoter mutation that is typical of their adult counterparts. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018 09 19; 6(1):95. PMID: 30231927.
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    7. López GY, Van Ziffle J, Onodera C, Grenert JP, Yeh I, Bastian BC, Clarke J, Oberheim Bush NA, Taylor J, Chang S, Butowski N, Banerjee A, Mueller S, Kline C, Torkildson J, Samuel D, Siongco A, Raffel C, Gupta N, Kunwar S, Mummaneni P, Aghi M, Theodosopoulos P, Berger M, Phillips JJ, Pekmezci M, Tihan T, Bollen AW, Perry A, Solomon DA. The genetic landscape of gliomas arising after therapeutic radiation. Acta Neuropathol. 2019 Jan; 137(1):139-150. PMID: 30196423.
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    8. Sankar K, Kyono W, Raffel C, Nicolaides T. Suprasellar Germinoma Presenting with Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: Case Report. Cureus. 2017 Dec 16; 9(12):e1954. PMID: 29487768.
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    9. Lal S, Raffel C. Using Cystine Knot Proteins as a Novel Approach to Retarget Oncolytic Measles Virus. Mol Ther Oncolytics. 2017 Dec 15; 7:57-66. PMID: 29367943.
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    10. Kline CN, Packer RJ, Hwang EI, Raleigh DR, Braunstein S, Raffel C, Bandopadhayay P, Solomon DA, Aboian M, Cha S, Mueller S. Case-based review: pediatric medulloblastoma. Neurooncol Pract. 2017 Sep; 4(3):138-150. PMID: 29692919.
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    11. Quintanilla-Bordás C, Nourbakhsh B, Strober J, Raffel C, Waubant E. Clinical Reasoning: A 16-year-old girl with subacute weakness and sensory loss. Neurology. 2017 06 06; 88(23):e225-e229. PMID: 28583938.
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    12. Kline CN, Joseph NM, Grenert JP, van Ziffle J, Talevich E, Onodera C, Aboian M, Cha S, Raleigh DR, Braunstein S, Torkildson J, Samuel D, Bloomer M, Campomanes AGA, Banerjee A, Butowski N, Raffel C, Tihan T, Bollen AW, Phillips JJ, Korn WM, Yeh I, Bastian BC, Gupta N, Mueller S, Perry A, Nicolaides T, Solomon DA. Targeted next-generation sequencing of pediatric neuro-oncology patients improves diagnosis, identifies pathogenic germline mutations, and directs targeted therapy. Neuro Oncol. 2017 05 01; 19(5):699-709. PMID: 28453743.
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    13. Lal S, Peng KW, Steele MB, Jenks N, Ma H, Kohanbash G, Phillips JJ, Raffel C. Safety Study: Intraventricular Injection of a Modified Oncolytic Measles Virus into Measles-Immune, hCD46-Transgenic, IFNaRko Mice. Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev. 2016 12; 27(4):145-151. PMID: 27604429.
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    14. Hutzen B, Raffel C, Studebaker AW. Advances in the design and development of oncolytic measles viruses. Oncolytic Virother. 2015; 4:109-18. PMID: 27512675.
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    15. Studebaker AW, Hutzen B, Pierson CR, Shaffer TA, Raffel C, Jackson EM. Oncolytic measles virus efficacy in murine xenograft models of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors. Neuro Oncol. 2015 Dec; 17(12):1568-77. PMID: 25838138.
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    16. Ostling L, Raffel C. Complications following preresection shunting in patients with posterior fossa tumors. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2015 Jan; 15(1):1-3. PMID: 25380172.
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    17. Muszynski JA, Nofziger R, Greathouse K, Nateri J, Hanson-Huber L, Steele L, Nicol K, Groner JI, Besner GE, Raffel C, Geyer S, El-Assal O, Hall MW. Innate immune function predicts the development of nosocomial infection in critically injured children. Shock. 2014 Oct; 42(4):313-21. PMID: 24978895.
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    18. Hutzen B, Bid HK, Houghton PJ, Pierson CR, Powell K, Bratasz A, Raffel C, Studebaker AW. Treatment of medulloblastoma with oncolytic measles viruses expressing the angiogenesis inhibitors endostatin and angiostatin. BMC Cancer. 2014 Mar 19; 14:206. PMID: 24646176.
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    19. Raffel C. Cerebellar tonsil position and Chiari malformation. J Neurosurg. 2013 Sep; 119(3):810-1. PMID: 23767894.
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    20. Hutzen B, Pierson CR, Russell SJ, Galanis E, Raffel C, Studebaker AW. Treatment of medulloblastoma using an oncolytic measles virus encoding the thyroidal sodium iodide symporter shows enhanced efficacy with radioiodine. BMC Cancer. 2012 Nov 07; 12:508. PMID: 23134812.
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    21. Raffel C. Editorial: glioblastoma subtype. J Neurosurg. 2012 Sep; 117(3):474; discussion 475. PMID: 22725980.
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    22. Studebaker AW, Hutzen B, Pierson CR, Russell SJ, Galanis E, Raffel C. Oncolytic measles virus prolongs survival in a murine model of cerebral spinal fluid-disseminated medulloblastoma. Neuro Oncol. 2012 Apr; 14(4):459-70. PMID: 22307474.
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    23. Raffel C, Rutka JT. Central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors: still a useful classification? Neurosurg Focus. 2011 Jan; 30(1):Introduction. PMID: 21194277.
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    24. Hnojciková M, Nickels KC, Wetjen NM, Buchhalter JR, Raffel C, Wirrell EC. EEG and neuroimaging studies in young children having epilepsy surgery. Pediatr Neurol. 2010 Nov; 43(5):335-40. PMID: 20933177.
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    25. Peruzzi P, Corbitt RJ, Raffel C. Magnetic resonance imaging versus ultrasonography for the in utero evaluation of central nervous system anomalies. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010 Oct; 6(4):340-5. PMID: 20887106.
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    26. Gill K, Zachary B, Williams C, Raffel C, Boue D, Barson W. Recurrent meningitis in a teenager. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 Oct; 29(10):984, 988-9. PMID: 20861759.
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    27. Niazi TN, Klimo P, Anderson RC, Raffel C. Diagnosis and management of arteriovenous malformations in children. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2010 Jul; 21(3):443-56. PMID: 20561494.
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    28. Studebaker AW, Kreofsky CR, Pierson CR, Russell SJ, Galanis E, Raffel C. Treatment of medulloblastoma with a modified measles virus. Neuro Oncol. 2010 Oct; 12(10):1034-42. PMID: 20494960.
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    29. Johnson JN, Hartman TK, Barbaresi W, Raffel C, Colby CE. Developmental outcomes for neonatal dural arteriovenous fistulas. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009 Feb; 3(2):105-9. PMID: 19278308.
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    30. Van Gompel JJ, Worrell GA, Bell ML, Patrick TA, Cascino GD, Raffel C, Marsh WR, Meyer FB. Intracranial electroencephalography with subdural grid electrodes: techniques, complications, and outcomes. Neurosurgery. 2008 Sep; 63(3):498-505; discussion 505-6. PMID: 18812961.
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    31. Myers R, Harvey M, Kaufmann TJ, Greiner SM, Krempski JW, Raffel C, Shelton SE, Soeffker D, Zollman P, Federspiel MJ, Blanco M, Galanis E. Toxicology study of repeat intracerebral administration of a measles virus derivative producing carcinoembryonic antigen in rhesus macaques in support of a phase I/II clinical trial for patients with recurrent gliomas. Hum Gene Ther. 2008 Jul; 19(7):690-8. PMID: 18576918.
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    32. Maher CO, White JB, Scheithauer BW, Raffel C. Recurrence of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor following resection. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2008; 44(4):333-6. PMID: 18552517.
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    33. Foy AB, Giannini C, Raffel C. Allergic reaction to a bovine dural substitute following spinal cord untethering. Case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008 Feb; 1(2):167-9. PMID: 18352792.
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    34. Raffel C. Pediatric brain abscesses. Neurosurg Focus. 2008; 24(6):E5. PMID: 18518750.
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    35. Kalina P, Morris J, Raffel C. Spinal epidural hematoma in an infant as the initial presentation of severe hemophilia. Emerg Radiol. 2008 Jul; 15(4):281-4. PMID: 17876619.
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    36. Amador N, Scheithauer BW, Giannini C, Raffel C. Acute cerebellitis presenting as tumor. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg. 2007 Jul; 107(1 Suppl):57-61. PMID: 17644922.
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    37. White JB, Raffel C, Blackwell RE. A case of infertility in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2007; 43(2):146-8. PMID: 17337930.
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    38. Clarke MJ, Foy AB, Wetjen N, Raffel C. Imaging characteristics and growth of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. Neurosurg Focus. 2006 Jan 15; 20(1):E5. PMID: 16459995.
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    39. Maher CO, Cohen-Gadol AA, Raffel C. Pediatric neurosurgery. Prog Neurol Surg. 2006; 19:97-106. PMID: 17033149.
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    40. Cascino GD, Buchhalter JR, Sirven JI, So EL, Drazkowski JF, Zimmerman RS, Raffel C. Peri-ictal SPECT and surgical treatment for intractable epilepsy related to schizencephaly. Neurology. 2004 Dec 28; 63(12):2426-8. PMID: 15623720.
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    41. Raffel C. Medulloblastoma: molecular genetics and animal models. Neoplasia. 2004 Jul-Aug; 6(4):310-22. PMID: 15256053.
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    42. Raffel C. Control of beta-catenin/Tcf-directed transcription in medulloblastoma. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2004 May; 93(445):12-6; discussion 16-7. PMID: 15176713.
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    43. Maher CO, Raffel C. Neurosurgical treatment of brain tumors in children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2004 Apr; 51(2):327-57. PMID: 15062674.
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    44. Jarrar RG, Buchhalter JR, Raffel C. Long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery in patients with tuberous sclerosis. Neurology. 2004 Feb 10; 62(3):479-81. PMID: 14872037.
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    45. Taylor MD, Raffel C, Bayani J, Marrano P, Mainprize TG, Squire J. Advanced cancer genetics in neurosurgical research. Neurosurgery. 2003 Nov; 53(5):1168-78; discussion 1178. PMID: 14580285.
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    46. Cohen-Gadol AA, Koch CA, Raffel C, Spinner RJ. Confirmation of research publications reported by neurological surgery residency applicants. Surg Neurol. 2003 Oct; 60(4):280-3; discussion 283-4. PMID: 14505831.
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    47. Woodruff JM, Scheithauer BW, Kurtkaya-Yapicier O, Raffel C, Amr SS, LaQuaglia MP, Antonescu CR. Congenital and childhood plexiform (multinodular) cellular schwannoma: a troublesome mimic of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003 Oct; 27(10):1321-9. PMID: 14508393.
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    48. Maher CO, Cohen-Gadol AA, Raffel C. Cortical resection for epilepsy in children with linear sebaceous nevus syndrome. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2003 Sep; 39(3):129-35. PMID: 12876391.
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    49. Warnick RE, Raffel C, Glick RP. Neuro-oncology research opportunities in North America: results of a survey by the AANS/CNS section on tumors. J Neurooncol. 2003 Feb; 61(3):197-201. PMID: 12675311.
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    50. Cohen-Gadol AA, Britton JW, Wetjen NM, Marsh WR, Meyer FB, Raffel C. Neurostimulation therapy for epilepsy: current modalities and future directions. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Feb; 78(2):238-48. PMID: 12583536.
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    51. Perry A, Scheithauer BW, Macaulay RJ, Raffel C, Roth KA, Kros JM. Oligodendrogliomas with neurocytic differentiation. A report of 4 cases with diagnostic and histogenetic implications. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2002 Nov; 61(11):947-55. PMID: 12430711.
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    52. Maher CO, Friedman JA, Meyer FB, Lynch JJ, Unni K, Raffel C. Surgical treatment of fibrous dysplasia of the skull in children. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2002 Aug; 37(2):87-92. PMID: 12145517.
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    53. Park K, Buchhalter J, McClelland R, Raffel C. Frequency and significance of acute postoperative seizures following epilepsy surgery in children and adolescents. Epilepsia. 2002 Aug; 43(8):874-81. PMID: 12181006.
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    54. Taylor MD, Liu L, Raffel C, Hui CC, Mainprize TG, Zhang X, Agatep R, Chiappa S, Gao L, Lowrance A, Hao A, Goldstein AM, Stavrou T, Scherer SW, Dura WT, Wainwright B, Squire JA, Rutka JT, Hogg D. Mutations in SUFU predispose to medulloblastoma. Nat Genet. 2002 Jul; 31(3):306-10. PMID: 12068298.
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    55. Phuong LK, Schoeberl KA, Raffel C. Natural history of tethered cord in patients with meningomyelocele. Neurosurgery. 2002 May; 50(5):989-93; discussion 993-5. PMID: 11950401.
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    56. Ramin KD, Raffel C, Breckle RJ, Ogburn PL, Friedman JD, Ramsey PS. Chronology of neurological manifestations of prenatally diagnosed open neural tube defects. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2002 Feb; 11(2):89-92. PMID: 12375549.
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    57. Friedman JA, Lynch JJ, Buckner JC, Scheithauer BW, Raffel C. Management of malignant pineal germ cell tumors with residual mature teratoma. Neurosurgery. 2001 Mar; 48(3):518-22; discussion 522-3. PMID: 11270541.
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    58. Gilhuis HJ, Anderl KL, Boerman RH, Jeuken JM, James CD, Raffel C, Scheithauer BW, Jenkins RB. Comparative genomic hybridization of medulloblastomas and clinical relevance: eleven new cases and a review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2000 Dec; 102(4):203-209. PMID: 11154805.
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    59. Biegel JA, Fogelgren B, Zhou JY, James CD, Janss AJ, Allen JC, Zagzag D, Raffel C, Rorke LB. Mutations of the INI1 rhabdoid tumor suppressor gene in medulloblastomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. Clin Cancer Res. 2000 Jul; 6(7):2759-63. PMID: 10914721.
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    60. Maher CO, Raffel C. Early vasculopathy following radiation in a child with medulloblastoma. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2000 May; 32(5):255-8. PMID: 10965272.
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    61. Zurawel RH, Allen C, Wechsler-Reya R, Scott MP, Raffel C. Evidence that haploinsufficiency of Ptch leads to medulloblastoma in mice. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000 May; 28(1):77-81. PMID: 10738305.
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    62. Rosenberg SA, Blaese RM, Brenner MK, Deisseroth AB, Ledley FD, Lotze MT, Wilson JM, Nabel GJ, Cornetta K, Economou JS, Freeman SM, Riddell SR, Brenner M, Oldfield E, Gansbacher B, Dunbar C, Walker RE, Schuening FG, Roth JA, Crystal RG, Welsh MJ, Culver K, Heslop HE, Simons J, Wilmott RW, Boucher RC, Siegler HF, Barranger JA, Karlsson S, Kohn D, Galpin JE, Raffel C, Hesdorffer C, Ilan J, Cassileth P, O'Shaughnessy J, Kun LE, Das TK, Wong-Staal F, Sobol RE, Haubrich R, Sznol M, Rubin J, Sorcher EJ, Rosenblatt J, Walker R, Brigham K, Vogelzang N, Hersh E, Eck SL. Human gene marker/therapy clinical protocols. Hum Gene Ther. 2000 Apr 10; 11(6):919-79. PMID: 10779168.
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    63. Packer RJ, Raffel C, Villablanca JG, Tonn JC, Burdach SE, Burger K, LaFond D, McComb JG, Cogen PH, Vezina G, Kapcala LP. Treatment of progressive or recurrent pediatric malignant supratentorial brain tumors with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene vector-producer cells followed by intravenous ganciclovir administration. J Neurosurg. 2000 Feb; 92(2):249-54. PMID: 10659011.
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    64. Zurawel RH, Allen C, Chiappa S, Cato W, Biegel J, Cogen P, de Sauvage F, Raffel C. Analysis of PTCH/SMO/SHH pathway genes in medulloblastoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000 Jan; 27(1):44-51. PMID: 10564585.
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    65. Raffel C, Frederick L, O'Fallon JR, Atherton-Skaff P, Perry A, Jenkins RB, James CD. Analysis of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene alterations in pediatric malignant astrocytomas reveals reduced survival for patients with PTEN mutations. Clin Cancer Res. 1999 Dec; 5(12):4085-90. PMID: 10632344.
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    66. Chiappa SA, Chin LS, Zurawel RH, Raffel C. Neurotrophins and Trk receptors in primitive neuroectodermal tumor cell lines. Neurosurgery. 1999 Nov; 45(5):1148-54; discussion 1154-5. PMID: 10549931.
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    67. Lee CC, Ward HA, Sharbrough FW, Meyer FB, Marsh WR, Raffel C, So EL, Cascino GD, Shin C, Xu Y, Riederer SJ, Jack CR. Assessment of functional MR imaging in neurosurgical planning. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999 Sep; 20(8):1511-9. PMID: 10512239.
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    68. Raffel C. Molecular biology of the primitive neuroectodermal tumor: a review. Neurosurg Focus. 1999 Aug 15; 7(2):e2. PMID: 16918231.
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    69. Smith JS, Tachibana I, Allen C, Chiappa SA, Lee HK, McIver B, Jenkins RB, Raffel C. Cloning of a human ortholog (RPH3AL) of (RNO)Rph3al from a candidate 17p13.3 medulloblastoma tumor suppressor locus. Genomics. 1999 Jul 01; 59(1):97-101. PMID: 10395805.
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    70. Buckner JC, Peethambaram PP, Smithson WA, Groover RV, Schomberg PJ, Kimmel DW, Raffel C, O'Fallon JR, Neglia J, Shaw EG. Phase II trial of primary chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose radiation for CNS germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Mar; 17(3):933-40. PMID: 10071287.
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    71. Zurawel RH, Chiappa SA, Allen C, Raffel C. Sporadic medulloblastomas contain oncogenic beta-catenin mutations. Cancer Res. 1998 Mar 01; 58(5):896-9. PMID: 9500446.
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    72. Galanis E, Buckner JC, Schomberg PJ, Hammack JE, Raffel C, Scheithauer BW. Effective chemotherapy for advanced CNS embryonal tumors in adults. J Clin Oncol. 1997 Aug; 15(8):2939-44. PMID: 9256138.
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    73. Sloan GM, Wells KC, Raffel C, McComb JG. Surgical treatment of craniosynostosis: outcome analysis of 250 consecutive patients. Pediatrics. 1997 Jul; 100(1):E2. PMID: 9200376.
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    74. Yamamoto Y, Mendel E, Raffel C. Acrylic cranioplasty with alginate molding: technical note. Neurosurgery. 1997 Jul; 41(1):305-6; discussion 306-9. PMID: 9218324.
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    75. Raffel C. Recombinant DNA technology. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1997 Apr; 26(4):170-9. PMID: 9436826.
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    76. Biegel JA, Janss AJ, Raffel C, Sutton L, Rorke LB, Harper JM, Phillips PC. Prognostic significance of chromosome 17p deletions in childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors (medulloblastomas) of the central nervous system. Clin Cancer Res. 1997 Mar; 3(3):473-8. PMID: 9815707.
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    77. Raffel C, Jenkins RB, Frederick L, Hebrink D, Alderete B, Fults DW, James CD. Sporadic medulloblastomas contain PTCH mutations. Cancer Res. 1997 Mar 01; 57(5):842-5. PMID: 9041183.
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    78. Haataja L, Raffel C, Ledbetter DH, Tanigami A, Petersen D, Heisterkamp N, Groffen J. Deletion within the D17S34 locus in a primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Cancer Res. 1997 Jan 01; 57(1):32-4. PMID: 8988035.
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    79. Miller JH, Khonsary A, Raffel C. The scintigraphic appearance of childhood moyamoya disease on cerebral perfusion imaging. Pediatr Radiol. 1996 Dec; 26(12):833-8. PMID: 8929293.
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    80. Chin LS, Yung WK, Raffel C. Two primitive neuroectodermal tumor cell lines require an activated insulin-like growth factor I receptor for growth in vitro. Neurosurgery. 1996 Dec; 39(6):1183-90. PMID: 8938773.
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    81. Schievink WI, Puumala MR, Meyer FB, Raffel C, Katzmann JA, Parisi JE. Giant intracranial aneurysm and fibromuscular dysplasia in an adolescent with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. J Neurosurg. 1996 Sep; 85(3):503-6. PMID: 8751640.
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    82. Raffel C. Gene therapy for PNET. J Neurooncol. 1996 Jul; 29(1):113-8. PMID: 8817422.
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    83. Raffel C. Molecular biology of pediatric gliomas. J Neurooncol. 1996 May-Jun; 28(2-3):121-8. PMID: 8832457.
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    84. Mendel E, Levy ML, Raffel C, McComb JG, Pikus H, Nelson MD, Ganz W. Surveillance imaging in children with primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Neurosurgery. 1996 Apr; 38(4):692-4; discussion 694-5. PMID: 8692386.
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    85. Snead OC, Chen LS, Mitchell WG, Kongelbeck SR, Raffel C, Gilles FH, Nelson MD. Usefulness of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in pediatric epilepsy surgery. Pediatr Neurol. 1996 Feb; 14(2):98-107. PMID: 8703235.
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    86. Yong WH, Raffel C, von Deimling A, Louis DN. The APC gene in Turcot's syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1995 Aug 24; 333(8):524. PMID: 7662026.
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    87. Raffel C, Ueki K, Harsh GR, Louis DN. The multiple tumor suppressor 1/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2 gene in human central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Neurosurgery. 1995 May; 36(5):971-4; discussion 974-5. PMID: 7791990.
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    88. Yazbak PA, McComb JG, Raffel C. Pediatric traumatic intracranial aneurysms. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1995; 22(1):15-9. PMID: 7888388.
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    89. Tishler DM, Weinberg KI, Hinton DR, Barbaro N, Annett GM, Raffel C. MDR1 gene expression in brain of patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1995 Jan; 36(1):1-6. PMID: 8001500.
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    90. Mendel E, Lese GB, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Nelson MD, Raffel C. Isolated lumbosacral neurenteric cyst with partial sacral agenesis: case report. Neurosurgery. 1994 Dec; 35(6):1159-62; discussion 1162-3. PMID: 7885565.
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    91. Raffel C, Culver K, Kohn D, Nelson M, Siegel S, Gillis F, Link CJ, Villablanca JG, Anderson WF. Gene therapy for the treatment of recurrent pediatric malignant astrocytomas with in vivo tumor transduction with the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene/ganciclovir system. Hum Gene Ther. 1994 Jul; 5(7):863-90. PMID: 7981311.
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    92. Litofsky NS, Hinton D, Raffel C. The lack of a role for p53 in astrocytomas in pediatric patients. Neurosurgery. 1994 Jun; 34(6):967-72; discussion 972-3. PMID: 8084407.
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    93. Medlock MD, McComb JG, Raffel C, Gonzalez-Gomez I. Subcutaneous palisading granuloma of the scalp in childhood. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1994; 21(2):113-6. PMID: 7986741.
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    94. De Clerck YA, Shimada H, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Raffel C. Tumoral invasion in the central nervous system. J Neurooncol. 1994; 18(2):111-21. PMID: 7964974.
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    95. Raffel C, Thomas GA, Tishler DM, Lassoff S, Allen JC. Absence of p53 mutations in childhood central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Neurosurgery. 1993 Aug; 33(2):301-5; discussion 305-6. PMID: 8396224.
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    96. Chin LS, Raffel C, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Giannotta SL, McComb JG. Diffuse arteriovenous malformations: a clinical, radiological, and pathological description. Neurosurgery. 1992 Nov; 31(5):863-8; discussion 868-9. PMID: 1436409.
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    97. Raffel C. Spinal cord compression by epidural tumors in childhood. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1992 Oct; 3(4):925-30. PMID: 1392584.
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    98. Litofsky NS, Raffel C, McComb JG. Management of symptomatic chronic extra-axial fluid collections in pediatric patients. Neurosurgery. 1992 Sep; 31(3):445-50. PMID: 1407427.
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    99. Rabb CH, McComb JG, Raffel C, Kennedy JG. Spinal arachnoid cysts in the pediatric age group: an association with neural tube defects. J Neurosurg. 1992 Sep; 77(3):369-72. PMID: 1506883.
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    100. Tishler DM, Raffel C. Development of multidrug resistance in a primitive neuroectodermal tumor cell line. J Neurosurg. 1992 Mar; 76(3):502-6. PMID: 1346631.
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    101. Karnes PS, Tran TN, Cui MY, Raffel C, Gilles FH, Barranger JA, Ying KL. Cytogenetic analysis of 39 pediatric central nervous system tumors. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1992 Mar; 59(1):12-9. PMID: 1313329.
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    102. Tishler DM, Weinberg KI, Sender LS, Nolta JA, Raffel C. Multidrug resistance gene expression in pediatric primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. J Neurosurg. 1992 Mar; 76(3):507-12. PMID: 1346632.
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    103. Raffel C, Kongelbeck SR, Snead OC. Corpus callosotomy for intractable epilepsy in children. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1992; 18(5-6):305-9. PMID: 1476941.
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    104. Schneider JH, Raffel C, McComb JG. Benign cerebellar astrocytomas of childhood. Neurosurgery. 1992 Jan; 30(1):58-62; discussion 62-3. PMID: 1738456.
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    105. Tung H, Raffel C, McComb JG. Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia in children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. J Neurosurg. 1991 Oct; 75(4):541-4. PMID: 1885971.
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    106. Raffel C, Neave VC, Lavine S, McComb JG. Treatment of spinal cord compression by epidural malignancy in childhood. Neurosurgery. 1991 Mar; 28(3):349-52. PMID: 2011215.
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    107. Thomas GA, Raffel C. Loss of heterozygosity on 6q, 16q, and 17p in human central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Cancer Res. 1991 Jan 15; 51(2):639-43. PMID: 1670763.
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    108. Raffel C, Gilles FE, Weinberg KI. Reduction to homozygosity and gene amplification in central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors of childhood. Cancer Res. 1990 Feb 01; 50(3):587-91. PMID: 1967549.
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    109. Raffel C, Litofsky S, McComb JG. Central nervous system malformations and the VATER association. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1990-1991; 16(3):170-3. PMID: 2134010.
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    110. Raffel C, McComb JG, Bodner S, Gilles FE. Benign brain stem lesions in pediatric patients with neurofibromatosis: case reports. Neurosurgery. 1989 Dec; 25(6):959-64. PMID: 2513523.
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    111. Raffel C, Edwards MS, Deen DF. The effect of bromodeoxyuridine and ultraviolet light on 9L rat brain tumor cells. Radiat Res. 1989 Jun; 118(3):409-19. PMID: 2727268.
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    112. Raffel C, Hudgins R, Edwards MS. Symptomatic hydrocephalus: initial findings in brainstem gliomas not detected on computed tomographic scans. Pediatrics. 1988 Nov; 82(5):733-7. PMID: 3186352.
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    113. Raffel C, Deen DF, Edwards MS. Bromodeoxyuridine: a comparison of its photosensitizing and radiosensitizing properties. J Neurosurg. 1988 Sep; 69(3):410-5. PMID: 3404239.
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    114. Raffel C, McComb JG. To shunt or to fenestrate: which is the best surgical treatment for arachnoid cysts in pediatric patients? Neurosurgery. 1988 Sep; 23(3):338-42. PMID: 3226511.
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    115. Raffel C, Boggan JE, Eng LF, Davis RL, Wilson CB. Pituitary adenomas in Cushing's disease: do they arise from the intermediate lobe? Surg Neurol. 1988 Aug; 30(2):125-30. PMID: 2456624.
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    116. Raffel C, Wright DC, Gutin PH, Wilson CB. Cranial chordomas: clinical presentation and results of operative and radiation therapy in twenty-six patients. Neurosurgery. 1985 Nov; 17(5):703-10. PMID: 4069325.
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    117. Andrews BT, Raffel C, Rosegay H. Subarachnoid hemorrhage from a peripheral intracranial aneurysm associated with malignant glioma: report of a case. Neurosurgery. 1985 Oct; 17(4):645-9. PMID: 2997658.
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    118. Raffel C, Edwards MS, Davis RL, Ablin AR. Postirradiation cerebellar glioma. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1985 Feb; 62(2):300-3. PMID: 3855445.
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