Carolyn Calfee, MD, MAS

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
Address1600 Divisadero
San Francisco CA 94115
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoM.A.S. in Clinical Research2009 Graduate Division (Advance Training in Clinical Research)
    University of California, San Francisco Residency School of Medicine
    University of PensylvanniaM.D.1999School of Medicine

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    Collapse Overview
    Carolyn S. Calfee, MD MAS is Associate Professor in Residence of Medicine and Anesthesia at UCSF, where she attends in the intensive care units at Moffitt-Long Hospital. Dr. Calfee received her undergraduate degree from Yale University and her medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. She came to UCSF for residency in Internal Medicine and stayed to complete her chief residency and Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine fellowship. She also completed her Masters in Clinical Research at UCSF in 2009. After research training with Drs. Michael Matthay and Mark Eisner, she joined the faculty of the division in 2007. Dr. Calfee is also a member of UCSF’s Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education and an associate member of the UCSF Cancer Center.

    Dr. Calfee’s primary academic focus is the prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Current research projects include: (1) the role of biomarkers in investigating ALI/ARDS pathogenesis, early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis; (2) the role of cigarette smoke exposure in susceptibility to lung injury; and (3) novel treatments for acute lung injury.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Precision Medicine in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    NIH/NHLBI R35HL140026Jan 16, 2018 - Dec 31, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ARDS Endotypes: Expanded Analysis of Clinical and Biological Phenotypes and Evolution Over Time
    NIH/NHLBI K24HL133390Jul 15, 2016 - Jun 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular Endotypes of ARDS: Identification, Biology, and Differential Response to Therapy
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL131621Mar 15, 2016 - Feb 28, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Improved Models to Inform Tobacco Product Regulation
    NIH/NCI P50CA180890Sep 19, 2013 - Aug 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Acute Lung Injury After Severe Blunt Trauma
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL110969Dec 15, 2011 - Nov 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Impact of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Acute Lung Injury
    NIH/NHLBI K23HL090833Aug 1, 2008 - Jul 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Featured Publications
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    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Calfee C, Delucchi KL, Sinha P, Matthay MA, Hackett J, Shankar-Hari M, McDowell C, Laffey JG, O'Kane CM, McAuley DF. Acute respiratory distress syndrome subphenotypes and differential response to simvastatin: secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2018 Aug 02. PMID: 30078618.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Reilly JP, Zhao Z, Shashaty MGS, Koyama T, Christie JD, Lanken PN, Wang C, Balmes JR, Matthay MA, Calfee C, Ware LB. Low to Moderate Air Pollutant Exposure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after Severe Trauma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Aug 01. PMID: 30067389.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Jabaudon M, Blondonnet R, Pereira B, Cartin-Ceba R, Lichtenstern C, Mauri T, Determann RM, Drabek T, Hubmayr RD, Gajic O, Uhle F, Coppadoro A, Pesenti A, Schultz MJ, Ranieri MV, Brodska H, Mrozek S, Sapin V, Matthay MA, Constantin JM, Calfee C. Plasma sRAGE is independently associated with increased mortality in ARDS: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Intensive Care Med. 2018 Jul 26. PMID: 30051136.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Leligdowicz A, Chun LF, Jauregui A, Vessel K, Liu KD, Calfee C, Matthay MA. Human pulmonary endothelial cell permeability after exposure to LPS-stimulated leukocyte supernatants derived from patients with early sepsis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2018 Jul 19. PMID: 30024307.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Kornblith LZ, Robles AJ, Conroy AS, Hendrickson CM, Calfee C, Fields AT, Callcut RA, Cohen MJ. Perhaps It's Not the Platelet: Ristocetin Uncovers the Potential Role of von Willebrand Factor in Impaired Platelet Aggregation Following Traumatic Brain Injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Jul 05. PMID: 29985231.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Robles AJ, Kornblith LZ, Hendrickson CM, Howard BM, Conroy AS, Moazed F, Calfee C, Cohen MJ, Callcut RA. Health care utilization and the cost of posttraumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome care. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Jul; 85(1):148-154. PMID: 29958249.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Serpa Neto A, Bos LD, Campos PPZA, Hemmes SNT, Bluth T, Calfee C, Ferner M, Güldner A, Hollmann MW, India I, Kiss T, Laufenberg-Feldmann R, Sprung J, Sulemanji D, Unzueta C, Vidal Melo MF, Weingarten TN, Tuip-de Boer AM, Pelosi P, Gama de Abreu M, Schultz MJ. Association between pre-operative biological phenotypes and postoperative pulmonary complications: An unbiased cluster analysis. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2018 Jun 27. PMID: 29957706.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Hendrickson CM, Gibb SL, Miyazawa BY, Keating SM, Ross E, Conroy AS, Calfee C, Pati S, Cohen MJ. Elevated plasma levels of TIMP-3 are associated with a higher risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome and death following severe isolated traumatic brain injury. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. 2018; 3(1):e000171. PMID: 30023434.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Warren MA, Zhao Z, Koyama T, Bastarache JA, Shaver CM, Semler MW, Rice TW, Matthay MA, Calfee C, Ware LB. Severity scoring of lung oedema on the chest radiograph is associated with clinical outcomes in ARDS. Thorax. 2018 Jun 14. PMID: 29903755.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Gotts JE, Chun LF, Abbott J, Fang X, Takasaki N, Nishimura SL, Springer ML, Schick SF, Calfee C, Matthay MA. Cigarette smoke exposure worsens acute lung injury in antibiotic-treated bacterial pneumonia in mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2018 Mar 15. PMID: 29543040.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Delucchi K, Famous KR, Ware LB, Parsons PE, Thompson BT, Calfee C. Stability of ARDS subphenotypes over time in two randomised controlled trials. Thorax. 2018 Feb 24. PMID: 29477989.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Lefrançais E, Mallavia B, Zhuo H, Calfee C, Looney MR. Maladaptive role of neutrophil extracellular traps in pathogen-induced lung injury. JCI Insight. 2018 Feb 08; 3(3). PMID: 29415887.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Moazed F, Hendrickson C, Nelson M, Conroy A, Cohen MJ, Calfee C. Platelet aggregation after blunt trauma is associated with the acute respiratory distress syndrome and altered by cigarette smoke exposure. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Feb; 84(2):365-371. PMID: 29140951.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Howard BM, Kornblith LZ, Redick BJ, Conroy AS, Nelson MF, Calfee C, Callcut RA, Cohen MJ. Exposing the bidirectional effects of alcohol on coagulation in trauma: Impaired clot formation and decreased fibrinolysis in rotational thromboelastometry. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Jan; 84(1):97-103. PMID: 29267182.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Chun LF, Moazed F, Calfee C, Matthay MA, Gotts JE. Reply to "Letter to the Editor: Pulmonary toxicity of electronic cigarettes: more doubts than certainties". Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017 Nov 01; 313(5):L966-L967. PMID: 29109110.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Howard BM, Kornblith LZ, Christie SA, Conroy AS, Nelson MF, Campion EM, Callcut RA, Calfee C, Lamere BJ, Fadrosh DW, Lynch S, Cohen MJ. Characterizing the gut microbiome in trauma: significant changes in microbial diversity occur early after severe injury. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. 2017; 2(1):e000108. PMID: 29766103.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Panzer AR, Lynch SV, Langelier C, Christie JD, McCauley K, Nelson M, Cheung CK, Benowitz NL, Cohen MJ, Calfee C. Lung Microbiota is Related to Smoking Status and to Development of ARDS in Critically Ill Trauma Patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 Oct 16. PMID: 29035085.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Calfee C, Delucchi K, Famous KR. Reply: Next Step to Understanding Subphenotypes of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 09 15; 196(6):796. PMID: 28406712.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Gotts JE, Abbott J, Fang X, Yanagisawa H, Takasaka N, Nishimura SL, Calfee C, Matthay MA. Cigarette Smoke Exposure Worsens Endotoxin-Induced Lung Injury and Pulmonary Edema in Mice. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Sep 01; 19(9):1033-1039. PMID: 28340238.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Ware LB, Zhao Z, Koyama T, Brown RM, Semler MW, Janz DR, May AK, Fremont RD, Matthay MA, Cohen MJ, Calfee C. Derivation and validation of a two-biomarker panel for diagnosis of ARDS in patients with severe traumatic injuries. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. 2017; 2(1):e000121. PMID: 29766112.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Mehta S, Burns KEA, Machado FR, Fox-Robichaud AE, Cook DJ, Calfee C, Ware LB, Burnham EL, Kissoon N, Marshall JC, Mancebo J, Finfer S, Hartog C, Reinhart K, Maitland K, Stapleton RD, Kwizera A, Amin P, Abroug F, Smith O, Laake JH, Shrestha GS, Herridge MS. Gender Parity in Critical Care Medicine. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 Aug 15; 196(4):425-429. PMID: 28240961.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Zhao Z, Wickersham N, Kangelaris KN, May AK, Bernard GR, Matthay MA, Calfee C, Koyama T, Ware LB. External validation of a biomarker and clinical prediction model for hospital mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2017 Aug; 43(8):1123-1131. PMID: 28593401.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Christie SA, Kornblith LZ, Howard BM, Conroy AS, Kunitake RC, Nelson MF, Hendrickson CM, Calfee C, Callcut RA, Cohen MJ. Characterization of distinct coagulopathic phenotypes in injury: Pathway-specific drivers and implications for individualized treatment. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Jun; 82(6):1055-1062. PMID: 28338598.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Meyer NJ, Calfee C. Novel translational approaches to the search for precision therapies for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med. 2017 06; 5(6):512-523. PMID: 28664850.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Chun LF, Moazed F, Calfee C, Matthay MA, Gotts JE. Pulmonary toxicity of e-cigarettes. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017 Aug 01; 313(2):L193-L206. PMID: 28522559.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Zinter MS, Orwoll BE, Spicer AC, Alkhouli MF, Calfee C, Matthay MA, Sapru A. Incorporating Inflammation into Mortality Risk in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2017 May; 45(5):858-866. PMID: 28248715.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Bos LD, Schouten LR, van Vught LA, Wiewel MA, Ong DSY, Cremer O, Artigas A, Martin-Loeches I, Hoogendijk AJ, van der Poll T, Horn J, Juffermans N, Calfee C, Schultz MJ. Identification and validation of distinct biological phenotypes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome by cluster analysis. Thorax. 2017 10; 72(10):876-883. PMID: 28450529.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Moazed F, Calfee C. The Canary in the Coal Mine Is Coughing: Electronic Cigarettes and Respiratory Symptoms in Adolescents. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 04 15; 195(8):974-976. PMID: 28409686.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Hendrickson CM, Abbott J, Zhuo H, Liu KD, Calfee C, Matthay MA. Higher mini-BAL total protein concentration in early ARDS predicts faster resolution of lung injury measured by more ventilator-free days. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017 May 01; 312(5):L579-L585. PMID: 28213470.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Famous KR, Delucchi K, Ware LB, Kangelaris KN, Liu KD, Thompson BT, Calfee C. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Subphenotypes Respond Differently to Randomized Fluid Management Strategy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 Feb 01; 195(3):331-338. PMID: 27513822.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Bhatraju PK, Mukherjee P, Robinson-Cohen C, O'Keefe GE, Frank AJ, Christie JD, Meyer NJ, Liu KD, Matthay MA, Calfee C, Christiani DC, Himmelfarb J, Wurfel MM. Acute kidney injury subphenotypes based on creatinine trajectory identifies patients at increased risk of death. Crit Care. 2016 11 17; 20(1):372. PMID: 27852290.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Spicer AC, Calfee C, Zinter MS, Khemani RG, Lo VP, Alkhouli MF, Orwoll BE, Graciano AL, Boriosi JP, Howard JP, Flori HR, Matthay MA, Sapru A. A Simple and Robust Bedside Model for Mortality Risk in Pediatric Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Oct; 17(10):907-916. PMID: 27487912.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Luo L, Shaver CM, Zhao Z, Koyama T, Calfee C, Bastarache JA, Ware LB. Clinical Predictors of Hospital Mortality Differ Between Direct and Indirect ARDS. Chest. 2017 04; 151(4):755-763. PMID: 27663180.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Kangelaris KN, Ware LB, Matthay MA, Calfee C. The authors reply. Crit Care Med. 2016 Aug; 44(8):e769-70. PMID: 27428148.
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    35. Kangelaris KN, Ware LB, Matthay MA, Calfee C. The authors reply. Crit Care Med. 2016 Aug; 44(8):e771. PMID: 27428150.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Prescott HC, Calfee C, Thompson BT, Angus DC, Liu VX. Toward Smarter Lumping and Smarter Splitting: Rethinking Strategies for Sepsis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Trial Design. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Jul 15; 194(2):147-55. PMID: 27244481; PMCID: PMC5003218 [Available on 07/15/17].
    37. Calfee C. Opening the Debate on the New Sepsis Definition. Precision Medicine: An Opportunity to Improve Outcomes of Patients with Sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 07 15; 194(2):137-9. PMID: 27167090; PMCID: PMC5003223 [Available on 07/15/17].
    38. Hendrickson CM, Howard BM, Kornblith LZ, Conroy AS, Nelson MF, Zhuo H, Liu KD, Manley GT, Matthay MA, Calfee C, Cohen MJ. The acute respiratory distress syndrome following isolated severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016 06; 80(6):989-97. PMID: 26881489.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Sapru A, Liu KD, Wiemels J, Hansen H, Pawlikowska L, Poon A, Jorgenson E, Witte JS, Calfee C, Ware LB, Matthay MA. Association of common genetic variation in the protein C pathway genes with clinical outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care. 2016 May 23; 20(1):151. PMID: 27215212; PMCID: PMC4876559.
    40. Ware LB, Zhao Z, Koyama T, May AK, Matthay MA, Lurmann FW, Balmes JR, Calfee C. Long-Term Ozone Exposure Increases the Risk of Developing the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 May 15; 193(10):1143-50. PMID: 26681363; PMCID: PMC4872663 [Available on 05/15/17].
    41. Beitler JR, Goligher EC, Schmidt M, Spieth PM, Zanella A, Martin-Loeches I, Calfee C, Cavalcanti AB. Personalized medicine for ARDS: the 2035 research agenda. Intensive Care Med. 2016 May; 42(5):756-767. PMID: 27040103; PMCID: PMC4850840 [Available on 05/01/17].
    42. Papazian L, Calfee C, Chiumello D, Luyt CE, Meyer NJ, Sekiguchi H, Matthay MA, Meduri GU. Diagnostic workup for ARDS patients. Intensive Care Med. 2016 May; 42(5):674-685. PMID: 27007111.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Monsel A, Calfee C. Focusing on the alveolar epithelium: Alveolar fluid clearance in diffuse versus focal acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med. 2016 Apr; 35(2):75-7. PMID: 26924611.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Moazed F, Burnham EL, Vandivier RW, O'Kane CM, Shyamsundar M, Hamid U, Abbott J, Thickett DR, Matthay MA, McAuley DF, Calfee C. Cigarette smokers have exaggerated alveolar barrier disruption in response to lipopolysaccharide inhalation. Thorax. 2016 12; 71(12):1130-1136. PMID: 26839359.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Diamond JM, Porteous MK, Roberts LJ, Wickersham N, Rushefski M, Kawut SM, Shah RJ, Cantu E, Lederer DJ, Chatterjee S, Lama VN, Bhorade S, Crespo M, McDyer J, Wille K, Orens J, Weinacker A, Arcasoy S, Shah PD, Wilkes DS, Hage C, Palmer SM, Snyder L, Calfee C, Ware LB, Christie JD. The relationship between plasma lipid peroxidation products and primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation is modified by donor smoking and reperfusion hyperoxia. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2016 Apr; 35(4):500-507. PMID: 26856667; PMCID: PMC4821817 [Available on 04/01/17].
    46. Kangelaris KN, Ware LB, Wang CY, Janz DR, Zhuo H, Matthay MA, Calfee C. Timing of Intubation and Clinical Outcomes in Adults With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2016 Jan; 44(1):120-9. PMID: 26474112; PMCID: PMC4774861 [Available on 01/01/17].
    47. Orwoll BE, Spicer AC, Zinter MS, Alkhouli MF, Khemani RG, Flori HR, Neuhaus JM, Calfee C, Matthay MA, Sapru A. Elevated soluble thrombomodulin is associated with organ failure and mortality in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): a prospective observational cohort study. Crit Care. 2015 Dec 14; 19:435. PMID: 26652251; PMCID: PMC4699329.
    48. Zinter MS, Spicer A, Orwoll BO, Alkhouli M, Dvorak CC, Calfee C, Matthay MA, Sapru A. Plasma angiopoietin-2 outperforms other markers of endothelial injury in prognosticating pediatric ARDS mortality. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016 Feb 01; 310(3):L224-31. PMID: 26660787.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Calfee C. ARDS in 2015: new clinical directions, new biological insights. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Dec; 3(12):912-3. PMID: 26679016.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Disayabutr S, Calfee C, Collard HR, Wolters PJ. Interstitial lung diseases in the hospitalized patient. BMC Med. 2015 Sep 25; 13:245. PMID: 26407727; PMCID: PMC4584017.
    51. Hendrickson CM, Dobbins S, Redick BJ, Greenberg MD, Calfee C, Cohen MJ. Misclassification of acute respiratory distress syndrome after traumatic injury: The cost of less rigorous approaches. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Sep; 79(3):417-24. PMID: 26307875; PMCID: PMC4552075.
    52. Calfee C, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Siew ED, Janz DR, Bernard GR, May AK, Jacob P, Havel C, Benowitz NL, Ware LB. Cigarette Smoke Exposure and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2015 Sep; 43(9):1790-7. PMID: 26010690; PMCID: PMC4737582.
    53. Ware LB, Calfee C. Biomarkers of ARDS: what's new? Intensive Care Med. 2016 May; 42(5):797-799. PMID: 26174184.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Calfee C, Janz DR, Bernard GR, May AK, Kangelaris KN, Matthay MA, Ware LB. Distinct molecular phenotypes of direct vs indirect ARDS in single-center and multicenter studies. Chest. 2015 Jun; 147(6):1539-1548. PMID: 26033126; PMCID: PMC4451708.
    55. Howard BM, Kornblith LZ, Hendrickson CM, Redick BJ, Conroy AS, Nelson MF, Callcut RA, Calfee C, Cohen MJ. Differences in degree, differences in kind: characterizing lung injury in trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Apr; 78(4):735-41. PMID: 25742257; PMCID: PMC4624341.
    56. Kangelaris KN, Prakash A, Liu KD, Aouizerat B, Woodruff PG, Erle DJ, Rogers A, Seeley EJ, Chu J, Liu T, Osterberg-Deiss T, Zhuo H, Matthay MA, Calfee C. Increased expression of neutrophil-related genes in patients with early sepsis-induced ARDS. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015 Jun 01; 308(11):L1102-13. PMID: 25795726; PMCID: PMC4451399.
    57. Sapru A, Calfee C, Liu KD, Kangelaris K, Hansen H, Pawlikowska L, Ware LB, Alkhouli MF, Abbott J, Matthay MA. Erratum to: plasma soluble thrombomodulin levels are associated with mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2015 Mar; 41(3):574. PMID: 25708422.
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    58. Sapru A, Calfee C, Liu KD, Kangelaris K, Hansen H, Pawlikowska L, Ware LB, Alkhouli MF, Abbott J, Abbot J, Matthay MA. Plasma soluble thrombomodulin levels are associated with mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2015 Mar; 41(3):470-8. PMID: 25643902; PMCID: PMC4500527.
    59. Moazed F, Calfee C. Clearing the air. Smoking and incident asthma in adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan 15; 191(2):123-4. PMID: 25590151; PMCID: PMC4347441.
    60. Wilson JG, Liu KD, Zhuo H, Caballero L, McMillan M, Fang X, Cosgrove K, Vojnik R, Calfee C, Lee JW, Rogers AJ, Levitt J, Wiener-Kronish J, Bajwa EK, Leavitt A, McKenna D, Thompson BT, Matthay MA. Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells for treatment of ARDS: a phase 1 clinical trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Jan; 3(1):24-32. PMID: 25529339; PMCID: PMC4297579.
    61. Ware LB, Bastarache JA, Calfee C. ARDS: new mechanistic insights, new therapeutic directions. Clin Chest Med. 2014 Dec; 35(4):xv-xvi. PMID: 25453428.
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    62. Moazed F, Calfee C. Environmental risk factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Clin Chest Med. 2014 Dec; 35(4):625-37. PMID: 25453414; PMCID: PMC4255333.
    63. Hsieh SJ, Zhuo H, Benowitz NL, Thompson BT, Liu KD, Matthay MA, Calfee C. Prevalence and impact of active and passive cigarette smoking in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2014 Sep; 42(9):2058-68. PMID: 24942512; PMCID: PMC4134734.
    64. Ware LB, Lee JW, Wickersham N, Nguyen J, Matthay MA, Calfee C. Donor smoking is associated with pulmonary edema, inflammation and epithelial dysfunction in ex vivo human donor lungs. Am J Transplant. 2014 Oct; 14(10):2295-302. PMID: 25146497; PMCID: PMC4169304.
    65. Krupa A, Fol M, Rahman M, Stokes KY, Florence JM, Leskov IL, Khoretonenko MV, Matthay MA, Liu KD, Calfee C, Tvinnereim A, Rosenfield GR, Kurdowska AK. Silencing Bruton's tyrosine kinase in alveolar neutrophils protects mice from LPS/immune complex-induced acute lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014 Sep 15; 307(6):L435-48. PMID: 25085625; PMCID: PMC4166786.
    66. Liu KD, Wilson JG, Zhuo H, Caballero L, McMillan ML, Fang X, Cosgrove K, Calfee C, Lee JW, Kangelaris KN, Gotts JE, Rogers AJ, Levitt JE, Wiener-Kronish JP, Delucchi KL, Leavitt AD, McKenna DH, Thompson BT, Matthay MA. Design and implementation of the START (STem cells for ARDS Treatment) trial, a phase 1/2 trial of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells for the treatment of moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ann Intensive Care. 2014; 4:22. PMID: 25593740; PMCID: PMC4273700.
    67. Moseson EM, Zhuo H, Chu J, Stein JC, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Liu KD, Calfee C. Intensive care unit scoring systems outperform emergency department scoring systems for mortality prediction in critically ill patients: a prospective cohort study. J Intensive Care. 2014; 2:40. PMID: 25960880; PMCID: PMC4424730.
    68. Shyamsundar M, McAuley DF, Ingram RJ, Gibson DS, O'Kane D, McKeown ST, Edwards A, Taggart C, Elborn JS, Calfee C, Matthay MA, O'Kane CM. Keratinocyte growth factor promotes epithelial survival and resolution in a human model of lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jun 15; 189(12):1520-9. PMID: 24716610; PMCID: PMC4226011.
    69. Calfee C, Delucchi K, Parsons PE, Thompson BT, Ware LB, Matthay MA. Subphenotypes in acute respiratory distress syndrome: latent class analysis of data from two randomised controlled trials. Lancet Respir Med. 2014 Aug; 2(8):611-20. PMID: 24853585; PMCID: PMC4154544.
    70. Wong HR, Liu KD, Kangelaris KN, Lahni P, Calfee C. Performance of interleukin-27 as a sepsis diagnostic biomarker in critically ill adults. J Crit Care. 2014 Oct; 29(5):718-22. PMID: 24848949; PMCID: PMC4141017.
    71. Kangelaris KN, Calfee C, May AK, Zhuo H, Matthay MA, Ware LB. Is there still a role for the lung injury score in the era of the Berlin definition ARDS? Ann Intensive Care. 2014 Feb 18; 4(1):4. PMID: 24533450; PMCID: PMC3931496.
    72. Kornblith LZ, Kutcher ME, Redick BJ, Calfee C, Vilardi RF, Cohen MJ. Fibrinogen and platelet contributions to clot formation: implications for trauma resuscitation and thromboprophylaxis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Feb; 76(2):255-6; discussion 262-3. PMID: 24458031; PMCID: PMC4238905.
    73. Wang CY, Calfee C, Paul DW, Janz DR, May AK, Zhuo H, Bernard GR, Matthay MA, Ware LB, Kangelaris KN. One-year mortality and predictors of death among hospital survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2014 Mar; 40(3):388-96. PMID: 24435201; PMCID: PMC3943651.
    74. Shyamsundar M, McAuley DF, Shields MO, MacSweeney R, Duffy MJ, Johnston JR, McGuigan J, Backman JT, Calfee C, Matthay MM, Griffiths MJ, McDowell C, Elborn SJ, O'Kane CM. Effect of simvastatin on physiological and biological outcomes in patients undergoing esophagectomy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2014 Jan; 259(1):26-31. PMID: 23817506.
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    75. Kallet RH, Zhuo H, Liu KD, Calfee C, Matthay MA. The association between physiologic dead-space fraction and mortality in subjects with ARDS enrolled in a prospective multi-center clinical trial. Respir Care. 2014 Nov; 59(11):1611-8. PMID: 24381187; PMCID: PMC4077995.
    76. Ware LB, Koyama T, Zhao Z, Janz DR, Wickersham N, Bernard GR, May AK, Calfee C, Matthay MA. Biomarkers of lung epithelial injury and inflammation distinguish severe sepsis patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care. 2013 Oct 24; 17(5):R253. PMID: 24156650; PMCID: PMC4056313.
    77. Brown LM, Calfee C, Howard JP, Craig TR, Matthay MA, McAuley DF. Comparison of thermodilution measured extravascular lung water with chest radiographic assessment of pulmonary oedema in patients with acute lung injury. Ann Intensive Care. 2013 Aug 11; 3(1):25. PMID: 23937970; PMCID: PMC3846630.
    78. Levitt JE, Calfee C, Goldstein BA, Vojnik R, Matthay MA. Early acute lung injury: criteria for identifying lung injury prior to the need for positive pressure ventilation*. Crit Care Med. 2013 Aug; 41(8):1929-37. PMID: 23782966; PMCID: PMC3748809.
    79. Agrawal A, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Stein J, Chu JC, Imp BM, Cortez A, Abbott J, Liu KD, Calfee C. Plasma angiopoietin-2 predicts the onset of acute lung injury in critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 01; 187(7):736-42. PMID: 23328529; PMCID: PMC3678110.
    80. Spicer A, Calfee C. Fixing the leak: targeting the vascular endothelium in sepsis. Crit Care. 2012 Nov 21; 16(6):177. PMID: 23171759; PMCID: PMC3672578.
    81. Calfee C, Pugin J. The search for diagnostic markers in sepsis: many miles yet to go. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Jul 01; 186(1):2-4. PMID: 22753680; PMCID: PMC3400993.
    82. Rackley CR, Levitt JE, Zhuo H, Matthay MA, Calfee C. Clinical evidence of early acute lung injury often precedes the diagnosis of ALI. J Intensive Care Med. 2013 Jul-Aug; 28(4):241-6. PMID: 22733725; PMCID: PMC3482421.
    83. Calfee C, Gallagher D, Abbott J, Thompson BT, Matthay MA. Plasma angiopoietin-2 in clinical acute lung injury: prognostic and pathogenetic significance. Crit Care Med. 2012 Jun; 40(6):1731-7. PMID: 22610178; PMCID: PMC3601049.
    84. Ware LB, Neyrinck A, O'Neal HR, Lee JW, Landeck M, Johnson E, Calfee C, Matthay MA. Comparison of chest radiograph scoring to lung weight as a quantitative index of pulmonary edema in organ donors. Clin Transplant. 2012 Sep-Oct; 26(5):665-71. PMID: 22324977; PMCID: PMC3642873.
    85. Cohen MJ, Call M, Nelson M, Calfee C, Esmon CT, Brohi K, Pittet JF. Critical role of activated protein C in early coagulopathy and later organ failure, infection and death in trauma patients. Ann Surg. 2012 Feb; 255(2):379-85. PMID: 22133894; PMCID: PMC3549308.
    86. Christie JD, Wurfel MM, Feng R, O'Keefe GE, Bradfield J, Ware LB, Christiani DC, Calfee C, Cohen MJ, Matthay M, Meyer NJ, Kim C, Li M, Akey J, Barnes KC, Sevransky J, Lanken PN, May AK, Aplenc R, Maloney JP, Hakonarson H. Genome wide association identifies PPFIA1 as a candidate gene for acute lung injury risk following major trauma. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e28268. PMID: 22295056; PMCID: PMC3266233.
    87. Kangelaris KN, Sapru A, Calfee C, Liu KD, Pawlikowska L, Witte JS, Vittinghoff E, Zhuo H, Auerbach AD, Ziv E, Matthay MA. The association between a Darc gene polymorphism and clinical outcomes in African American patients with acute lung injury. Chest. 2012 May; 141(5):1160-1169. PMID: 22207676; PMCID: PMC3342784.
    88. Brown LM, Calfee C, Matthay MA, Brower RG, Thompson BT, Checkley W. A simple classification model for hospital mortality in patients with acute lung injury managed with lung protective ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2011 Dec; 39(12):2645-51. PMID: 21725235; PMCID: PMC3227537.
    89. Zhang M, Hsu R, Hsu CY, Kordesch K, Nicasio E, Cortez A, McAlpine I, Brady S, Zhuo H, Kangelaris KN, Stein J, Calfee C, Liu KD. FGF-23 and PTH levels in patients with acute kidney injury: A cross-sectional case series study. Ann Intensive Care. 2011 Jun 14; 1(1):21. PMID: 21906363; PMCID: PMC3224491.
    90. Calfee C, Ware LB, Glidden DV, Eisner MD, Parsons PE, Thompson BT, Matthay MA. Use of risk reclassification with multiple biomarkers improves mortality prediction in acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2011 Apr; 39(4):711-7. PMID: 21283009; PMCID: PMC3260884.
    91. Calfee C, Matthay MA, Eisner MD, Benowitz N, Call M, Pittet JF, Cohen MJ. Active and passive cigarette smoking and acute lung injury after severe blunt trauma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Jun 15; 183(12):1660-5. PMID: 21471091; PMCID: PMC3136993.
    92. Meyer NJ, Li M, Feng R, Bradfield J, Gallop R, Bellamy S, Fuchs BD, Lanken PN, Albelda SM, Rushefski M, Aplenc R, Abramova H, Atochina-Vasserman EN, Beers MF, Calfee C, Cohen MJ, Pittet JF, Christiani DC, O'Keefe GE, Ware LB, May AK, Wurfel MM, Hakonarson H, Christie JD. ANGPT2 genetic variant is associated with trauma-associated acute lung injury and altered plasma angiopoietin-2 isoform ratio. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 May 15; 183(10):1344-53. PMID: 21257790; PMCID: PMC3114062.
    93. Hsieh SJ, Ware LB, Eisner MD, Yu L, Jacob P, Havel C, Goniewicz ML, Matthay MA, Benowitz NL, Calfee C. Biomarkers increase detection of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2011 Jan; 39(1):40-5. PMID: 20935560; PMCID: PMC3148017.
    94. Matthay MA, Thompson BT, Read EJ, McKenna DH, Liu KD, Calfee C, Lee JW. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells for severe acute lung injury. Chest. 2010 Oct; 138(4):965-72. PMID: 20923800; PMCID: PMC2951759.
    95. Diaz JV, Brower R, Calfee C, Matthay MA. Therapeutic strategies for severe acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2010 Aug; 38(8):1644-50. PMID: 20562704; PMCID: PMC4526259.
    96. Cohen MJ, Carles M, Brohi K, Calfee C, Rahn P, Call MS, Chesebro BB, West MA, Pittet JF. Early release of soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproducts after severe trauma in humans. J Trauma. 2010 Jun; 68(6):1273-8. PMID: 20539169; PMCID: PMC3531976.
    97. Calfee C, Thompson BT, Parsons PE, Ware LB, Matthay MA, Wong HR. Plasma interleukin-8 is not an effective risk stratification tool for adults with vasopressor-dependent septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2010 Jun; 38(6):1436-41. PMID: 20386309; PMCID: PMC3348116.
    98. Fremont RD, Koyama T, Calfee C, Wu W, Dossett LA, Bossert FR, Mitchell D, Wickersham N, Bernard GR, Matthay MA, May AK, Ware LB. Acute lung injury in patients with traumatic injuries: utility of a panel of biomarkers for diagnosis and pathogenesis. J Trauma. 2010 May; 68(5):1121-7. PMID: 20038857; PMCID: PMC3347639.
    99. Collard HR, Calfee C, Wolters PJ, Song JW, Hong SB, Brady S, Ishizaka A, Jones KD, King TE, Matthay MA, Kim DS. Plasma biomarker profiles in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010 Jul; 299(1):L3-7. PMID: 20418386; PMCID: PMC2904092.
    100. Calfee C, Matthay MA. Clinical immunology: Culprits with evolutionary ties. Nature. 2010 Mar 04; 464(7285):41-2. PMID: 20203598; PMCID: PMC2857339.
    101. Cohen MJ, Brohi K, Calfee C, Rahn P, Chesebro BB, Christiaans SC, Carles M, Howard M, Pittet JF. Early release of high mobility group box nuclear protein 1 after severe trauma in humans: role of injury severity and tissue hypoperfusion. Crit Care. 2009; 13(6):R174. PMID: 19887013; PMCID: PMC2811903.
    102. Ware LB, Fremont RD, Bastarache JA, Calfee C, Matthay MA. Determining the aetiology of pulmonary oedema by the oedema fluid-to-plasma protein ratio. Eur Respir J. 2010 Feb; 35(2):331-7. PMID: 19741024; PMCID: PMC2819058.
    103. Suratt BT, Eisner MD, Calfee C, Allard JB, Whittaker LA, Engelken DT, Petty JM, Trimarchi T, Gauthier L, Parsons PE. Plasma granulocyte colony-stimulating factor levels correlate with clinical outcomes in patients with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2009 Apr; 37(4):1322-8. PMID: 19242319; PMCID: PMC2827851.
    104. Levitt JE, Bedi H, Calfee C, Gould MK, Matthay MA. Identification of early acute lung injury at initial evaluation in an acute care setting prior to the onset of respiratory failure. Chest. 2009 Apr; 135(4):936-943. PMID: 19188549; PMCID: PMC2758305.
    105. Kropski JA, Fremont RD, Calfee C, Ware LB. Clara cell protein (CC16), a marker of lung epithelial injury, is decreased in plasma and pulmonary edema fluid from patients with acute lung injury. Chest. 2009 Jun; 135(6):1440-1447. PMID: 19188556; PMCID: PMC2716712.
    106. Briot R, Frank JA, Uchida T, Lee JW, Calfee C, Matthay MA. Elevated levels of the receptor for advanced glycation end products, a marker of alveolar epithelial type I cell injury, predict impaired alveolar fluid clearance in isolated perfused human lungs. Chest. 2009 Feb; 135(2):269-275. PMID: 19017890; PMCID: PMC2714162.
    107. Calfee C, Eisner MD, Parsons PE, Thompson BT, Conner ER, Matthay MA, Ware LB. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and clinical outcomes in patients with acute lung injury. Intensive Care Med. 2009 Feb; 35(2):248-57. PMID: 18670758; PMCID: PMC2790376.
    108. Calfee C, Ware LB, Eisner MD, Parsons PE, Thompson BT, Wickersham N, Matthay MA. Plasma receptor for advanced glycation end products and clinical outcomes in acute lung injury. Thorax. 2008 Dec; 63(12):1083-9. PMID: 18566109; PMCID: PMC2764528.
    109. Matthay MA, Calfee C. Aerosolized beta-adrenergic agonist therapy reduces pulmonary edema following lung surgery. Chest. 2008 Apr; 133(4):833-5. PMID: 18398109.
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    111. Calfee C, Ware LB. Biomarkers of lung injury in primary graft dysfunction following lung transplantation. Biomark Med. 2007 Aug; 1(2):285-91. PMID: 20477403.
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    112. Calfee C, Budev MM, Matthay MA, Church G, Brady S, Uchida T, Ishizaka A, Lara A, Ranes JL, deCamp MM, Arroliga AC. Plasma receptor for advanced glycation end-products predicts duration of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation in patients after lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007 Jul; 26(7):675-80. PMID: 17613396; PMCID: PMC2741136.
    113. Calfee C, Matthay MA. Nonventilatory treatments for acute lung injury and ARDS. Chest. 2007 Mar; 131(3):913-920. PMID: 17356114; PMCID: PMC2789489.
    114. Calfee C, Shah SJ, Wolters PJ, Saint S, King TE. Clinical problem-solving. Anchors away. N Engl J Med. 2007 Feb 01; 356(5):504-9. PMID: 17267911.
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    115. Calfee C, Katz PP, Yelin EH, Iribarren C, Eisner MD. The influence of perceived control of asthma on health outcomes. Chest. 2006 Nov; 130(5):1312-8. PMID: 17099005.
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    116. Matthay MA, Calfee C. Therapeutic value of a lung protective ventilation strategy in acute lung injury. Chest. 2005 Nov; 128(5):3089-91. PMID: 16304246.
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