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Carolyn Calfee, MD, MAS

Title(s)Professor, Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoM.A.S. in Clinical Research2009 Graduate Division (Advance Training in Clinical Research)
    University of California, San Francisco Residency School of Medicine
    University of PensylvanniaM.D.1999School of Medicine

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Carolyn S. Calfee, MD MAS is Associate Professor in Residence of Medicine and Anesthesia at UCSF, where she attends in the intensive care units at Moffitt-Long Hospital. Dr. Calfee received her undergraduate degree from Yale University and her medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. She came to UCSF for residency in Internal Medicine and stayed to complete her chief residency and Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine fellowship. She also completed her Masters in Clinical Research at UCSF in 2009. After research training with Drs. Michael Matthay and Mark Eisner, she joined the faculty of the division in 2007. Dr. Calfee is also a member of UCSF’s Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education and an associate member of the UCSF Cancer Center.

    RESEARCH INTERESTS
    Dr. Calfee’s primary academic focus is the prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Current research projects include: (1) the role of biomarkers in investigating ALI/ARDS pathogenesis, early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis; (2) the role of cigarette smoke exposure in susceptibility to lung injury; and (3) novel treatments for acute lung injury.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Precision Medicine in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    NIH/NHLBI R35HL140026Jan 16, 2018 - Dec 31, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ARDS Endotypes: Expanded Analysis of Clinical and Biological Phenotypes and Evolution Over Time
    NIH/NHLBI K24HL133390Jul 15, 2016 - Jun 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular Endotypes of ARDS: Identification, Biology, and Differential Response to Therapy
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL131621Mar 15, 2016 - Feb 28, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Improved Models to Inform Tobacco Product Regulation
    NIH/NCI P50CA180890Sep 19, 2013 - Aug 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Acute Lung Injury After Severe Blunt Trauma
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL110969Dec 15, 2011 - Nov 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Impact of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Acute Lung Injury
    NIH/NHLBI K23HL090833Aug 1, 2008 - Jul 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Featured Publications
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Papolos AI, Schiller NB, Belzer A, Zhuo H, Gotts JE, Bibby D, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Pulmonary Dead Space Monitoring: Identifying Subjects With ARDS at Risk of Developing Right Ventricular Dysfunction. Respir Care. 2019 May 28. PMID: 31138736.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Quan J, Langelier C, Kuchta A, Batson J, Teyssier N, Lyden A, Caldera S, McGeever A, Dimitrov B, King R, Wilheim J, Murphy M, Ares LP, Travisano KA, Sit R, Amato R, Mumbengegwi DR, Smith JL, Bennett A, Gosling R, Mourani PM, Calfee CS, Neff NF, Chow ED, Kim PS, Greenhouse B, DeRisi JL, Crawford ED. FLASH: a next-generation CRISPR diagnostic for multiplexed detection of antimicrobial resistance sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 2019 May 22. PMID: 31114866.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Reilly JP, Calfee CS, Christie JD. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Phenotypes. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Feb; 40(1):19-30. PMID: 31060085.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Kornblith LZ, Robles AJ, Conroy AS, Redick BJ, Howard BM, Hendrickson CM, Moore S, Nelson MF, Moazed F, Callcut RA, Calfee CS, Cohen MJ. PREDICTORS OF POST-INJURY ARDS: LUNG INJURY PERSISTS IN THE ERA OF HEMOSTATIC RESUSCITATION. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2019 Apr 25. PMID: 31033882.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Zinter MS, Spicer AC, Liu KD, Orwoll BE, Alkhouli MF, Brakeman PR, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Sapru A. Positive Cumulative Fluid Balance Is Associated With Mortality in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the Setting of Acute Kidney Injury. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2019 Apr; 20(4):323-331. PMID: 30672838.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Fielding-Singh V, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. The authors reply. Crit Care Med. 2019 Apr; 47(4):e375-e376. PMID: 30882440.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Fielding-Singh V, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. The authors reply. Crit Care Med. 2019 Apr; 47(4):e380-e381. PMID: 30882446.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Bhatraju PK, Zelnick LR, Herting J, Katz R, Mikacenic C, Kosamo S, Morrell ED, Robinson-Cohen C, Calfee CS, Christie JD, Liu KD, Matthay MA, Hahn WO, Dmyterko V, Slivinski NSJ, Russell JA, Walley KR, Christiani DC, Liles WC, Himmelfarb J, Wurfel MM. Identification of Acute Kidney Injury Subphenotypes with Differing Molecular Signatures and Responses to Vasopressin Therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Apr 01; 199(7):863-872. PMID: 30334632.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Matthay MA, Zhuo H, Gotts JE, Liu KD, Calfee CS. Precision medicine for cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome - Authors' reply. Lancet Respir Med. 2019 Apr; 7(4):e14. PMID: 30926051.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Matthay MA, Zemans RL, Zimmerman GA, Arabi YM, Beitler JR, Mercat A, Herridge M, Randolph AG, Calfee CS. Acute respiratory distress syndrome. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2019 Mar 14; 5(1):18. PMID: 30872586.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Lanspa MJ, Gong MN, Schoenfeld DA, Lee KT, Grissom CK, Hou PC, Serpa-Neto A, Brown SM, Iwashyna TJ, Yealy DM, Hough CL, Brower RG, Calfee CS, Hyzy RC, Matthay MA, Miller RR, Steingrub JS, Thompson BT, Miller CD, Clemmer TP, Hendey GW, Huang DT, Mathews KS, Qadir N, Tidswell M. Prospective Assessment of the Feasibility of a Trial of Low-Tidal Volume Ventilation for Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2019 03; 16(3):356-362. PMID: 30407869.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Sinha P, Calfee CS. Peeking Under the Hood of ARDS Phenotypes: Deeper Insights Into Biological Heterogeneity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Feb 12. PMID: 30753791.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Sinha P, Calfee CS. Phenotypes in acute respiratory distress syndrome: moving towards precision medicine. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2019 Feb; 25(1):12-20. PMID: 30531367.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Sinha P, Calfee CS, Beitler JR, Soni N, Ho K, Matthay MA, Kallet RH. Physiologic Analysis and Clinical Performance of the Ventilatory Ratio in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Feb 01; 199(3):333-341. PMID: 30211618.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Kalantar KL, Moazed F, Christenson SC, Wilson J, Deiss T, Belzer A, Vessel K, Caldera S, Jauregui A, Bolourchi S, DeRisi JL, Calfee CS, Langelier C. Metagenomic comparison of tracheal aspirate and mini-bronchial alveolar lavage for assessment of respiratory microbiota. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2019 Mar 01; 316(3):L578-L584. PMID: 30652494.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Zinter MS, Delucchi KL, Kong MY, Orwoll BE, Spicer AS, Lim MJ, Alkhouli MF, Ratiu AE, McKenzie AV, McQuillen PS, Dvorak CC, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Sapru A. Early Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase Profiles. A Novel Pathway in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Jan 15; 199(2):181-189. PMID: 30114376.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Reilly JP, Zhao Z, Shashaty MGS, Koyama T, Christie JD, Lanken PN, Wang C, Balmes JR, Matthay MA, Calfee CS, Ware LB. Low to Moderate Air Pollutant Exposure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after Severe Trauma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Jan 01; 199(1):62-70. PMID: 30067389.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Langelier C, Kalantar KL, Moazed F, Wilson MR, Crawford ED, Deiss T, Belzer A, Bolourchi S, Caldera S, Fung M, Jauregui A, Malcolm K, Lyden A, Khan L, Vessel K, Quan J, Zinter M, Chiu CY, Chow ED, Wilson J, Miller S, Matthay MA, Pollard KS, Christenson S, Calfee CS, DeRisi JL. Integrating host response and unbiased microbe detection for lower respiratory tract infection diagnosis in critically ill adults. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 12 26; 115(52):E12353-E12362. PMID: 30482864.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Matthay MA, Calfee CS, Zhuo H, Thompson BT, Wilson JG, Levitt JE, Rogers AJ, Gotts JE, Wiener-Kronish JP, Bajwa EK, Donahoe MP, McVerry BJ, Ortiz LA, Exline M, Christman JW, Abbott J, Delucchi KL, Caballero L, McMillan M, McKenna DH, Liu KD. Treatment with allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells for moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (START study): a randomised phase 2a safety trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2019 Feb; 7(2):154-162. PMID: 30455077.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Fielding-Singh V, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Beyond Low Tidal Volume Ventilation: Treatment Adjuncts for Severe Respiratory Failure in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2018 Nov; 46(11):1820-1831. PMID: 30247273.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Kornblith LZ, Robles AJ, Conroy AS, Hendrickson CM, Calfee CS, Fields AT, Callcut RA, Cohen MJ. Perhaps it's not the platelet: Ristocetin uncovers the potential role of von Willebrand factor in impaired platelet aggregation following traumatic brain injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Nov; 85(5):873-880. PMID: 29985231.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Reilly JP, Wang F, Jones TK, Palakshappa JA, Anderson BJ, Shashaty MGS, Dunn TG, Johansson ED, Riley TR, Lim B, Abbott J, Ittner CAG, Cantu E, Lin X, Mikacenic C, Wurfel MM, Christiani DC, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Christie JD, Feng R, Meyer NJ. Plasma angiopoietin-2 as a potential causal marker in sepsis-associated ARDS development: evidence from Mendelian randomization and mediation analysis. Intensive Care Med. 2018 Nov; 44(11):1849-1858. PMID: 30343317.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Sinha P, Delucchi KL, Thompson BT, McAuley DF, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Latent class analysis of ARDS subphenotypes: a secondary analysis of the statins for acutely injured lungs from sepsis (SAILS) study. Intensive Care Med. 2018 Nov; 44(11):1859-1869. PMID: 30291376.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Serpa Neto A, Bos LD, Campos PPZA, Hemmes SNT, Bluth T, Calfee CS, Ferner M, Güldner A, Hollmann MW, India I, Kiss T, Laufenberg-Feldmann R, Sprung J, Sulemanji D, Unzueta C, Vidal Melo MF, Weingarten TN, Tuip-de Boer AM, Pelosi P, Gama de Abreu M, Schultz MJ. Association between pre-operative biological phenotypes and postoperative pulmonary complications: An unbiased cluster analysis. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2018 09; 35(9):702-709. PMID: 29957706.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Moazed F, Chun L, Matthay MA, Calfee CS, Gotts J. Assessment of industry data on pulmonary and immunosuppressive effects of IQOS. Tob Control. 2018 11; 27(Suppl 1):s20-s25. PMID: 30158203.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Chun L, Moazed F, Matthay M, Calfee C, Gotts J. Possible hepatotoxicity of IQOS. Tob Control. 2018 11; 27(Suppl 1):s39-s40. PMID: 30131373.
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    27. Calfee CS, Delucchi KL, Sinha P, Matthay MA, Hackett J, Shankar-Hari M, McDowell C, Laffey JG, O'Kane CM, McAuley DF. Acute respiratory distress syndrome subphenotypes and differential response to simvastatin: secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2018 09; 6(9):691-698. PMID: 30078618.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Jabaudon M, Blondonnet R, Pereira B, Cartin-Ceba R, Lichtenstern C, Mauri T, Determann RM, Drabek T, Hubmayr RD, Gajic O, Uhle F, Coppadoro A, Pesenti A, Schultz MJ, Ranieri MV, Brodska H, Mrozek S, Sapin V, Matthay MA, Constantin JM, Calfee CS. Plasma sRAGE is independently associated with increased mortality in ARDS: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Intensive Care Med. 2018 Sep; 44(9):1388-1399. PMID: 30051136.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Leligdowicz A, Chun LF, Jauregui A, Vessel K, Liu KD, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Human pulmonary endothelial cell permeability after exposure to LPS-stimulated leukocyte supernatants derived from patients with early sepsis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2018 Nov 01; 315(5):L638-L644. PMID: 30024307.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Robles AJ, Kornblith LZ, Hendrickson CM, Howard BM, Conroy AS, Moazed F, Calfee CS, Cohen MJ, Callcut RA. Health care utilization and the cost of posttraumatic acute respiratory distress syndrome care. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Jul; 85(1):148-154. PMID: 29958249.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Hendrickson CM, Gibb SL, Miyazawa BY, Keating SM, Ross E, Conroy AS, Calfee CS, Pati S, Cohen MJ. Elevated plasma levels of TIMP-3 are associated with a higher risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome and death following severe isolated traumatic brain injury. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. 2018; 3(1):e000171. PMID: 30023434.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Warren MA, Zhao Z, Koyama T, Bastarache JA, Shaver CM, Semler MW, Rice TW, Matthay MA, Calfee CS, Ware LB. Severity scoring of lung oedema on the chest radiograph is associated with clinical outcomes in ARDS. Thorax. 2018 09; 73(9):840-846. PMID: 29903755.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Gotts JE, Chun L, Abbott J, Fang X, Takasaka N, Nishimura SL, Springer ML, Schick SF, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Cigarette smoke exposure worsens acute lung injury in antibiotic-treated bacterial pneumonia in mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2018 Jul 01; 315(1):L25-L40. PMID: 29543040.
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    34. Panzer AR, Lynch SV, Langelier C, Christie JD, McCauley K, Nelson M, Cheung CK, Benowitz NL, Cohen MJ, Calfee CS. Lung Microbiota Is Related to Smoking Status and to Development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Critically Ill Trauma Patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Mar 01; 197(5):621-631. PMID: 29035085.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Delucchi K, Famous KR, Ware LB, Parsons PE, Thompson BT, Calfee CS. Stability of ARDS subphenotypes over time in two randomised controlled trials. Thorax. 2018 05; 73(5):439-445. PMID: 29477989.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Lefrançais E, Mallavia B, Zhuo H, Calfee CS, Looney MR. Maladaptive role of neutrophil extracellular traps in pathogen-induced lung injury. JCI Insight. 2018 Feb 08; 3(3). PMID: 29415887.
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    37. Moazed F, Hendrickson C, Nelson M, Conroy A, Cohen MJ, Calfee CS. Platelet aggregation after blunt trauma is associated with the acute respiratory distress syndrome and altered by cigarette smoke exposure. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 02; 84(2):365-371. PMID: 29140951.
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    38. Howard BM, Kornblith LZ, Redick BJ, Conroy AS, Nelson MF, Calfee CS, Callcut RA, Cohen MJ. Exposing the bidirectional effects of alcohol on coagulation in trauma: Impaired clot formation and decreased fibrinolysis in rotational thromboelastometry. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 01; 84(1):97-103. PMID: 29267182.
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    39. Chun LF, Moazed F, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Gotts JE. Reply to "Letter to the Editor: Pulmonary toxicity of electronic cigarettes: more doubts than certainties". Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017 Nov 01; 313(5):L966-L967. PMID: 29109110.
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    40. Howard BM, Kornblith LZ, Christie SA, Conroy AS, Nelson MF, Campion EM, Callcut RA, Calfee CS, Lamere BJ, Fadrosh DW, Lynch S, Cohen MJ. Characterizing the gut microbiome in trauma: significant changes in microbial diversity occur early after severe injury. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. 2017; 2(1):e000108. PMID: 29766103.
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    41. Calfee CS, Delucchi K, Famous KR. Reply: Next Step to Understanding Subphenotypes of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 09 15; 196(6):796. PMID: 28406712.
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    42. Gotts JE, Abbott J, Fang X, Yanagisawa H, Takasaka N, Nishimura SL, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Cigarette Smoke Exposure Worsens Endotoxin-Induced Lung Injury and Pulmonary Edema in Mice. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Sep 01; 19(9):1033-1039. PMID: 28340238.
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    43. Ware LB, Zhao Z, Koyama T, Brown RM, Semler MW, Janz DR, May AK, Fremont RD, Matthay MA, Cohen MJ, Calfee CS. Derivation and validation of a two-biomarker panel for diagnosis of ARDS in patients with severe traumatic injuries. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. 2017; 2(1):e000121. PMID: 29766112.
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    44. Mehta S, Burns KEA, Machado FR, Fox-Robichaud AE, Cook DJ, Calfee CS, Ware LB, Burnham EL, Kissoon N, Marshall JC, Mancebo J, Finfer S, Hartog C, Reinhart K, Maitland K, Stapleton RD, Kwizera A, Amin P, Abroug F, Smith O, Laake JH, Shrestha GS, Herridge MS. Gender Parity in Critical Care Medicine. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 08 15; 196(4):425-429. PMID: 28240961.
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    45. Zhao Z, Wickersham N, Kangelaris KN, May AK, Bernard GR, Matthay MA, Calfee CS, Koyama T, Ware LB. External validation of a biomarker and clinical prediction model for hospital mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2017 Aug; 43(8):1123-1131. PMID: 28593401.
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    46. Christie SA, Kornblith LZ, Howard BM, Conroy AS, Kunitake RC, Nelson MF, Hendrickson CM, Calfee CS, Callcut RA, Cohen MJ. Characterization of distinct coagulopathic phenotypes in injury: Pathway-specific drivers and implications for individualized treatment. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 06; 82(6):1055-1062. PMID: 28338598.
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    47. Meyer NJ, Calfee CS. Novel translational approaches to the search for precision therapies for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med. 2017 06; 5(6):512-523. PMID: 28664850.
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    48. Chun LF, Moazed F, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Gotts JE. Pulmonary toxicity of e-cigarettes. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017 08 01; 313(2):L193-L206. PMID: 28522559.
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    49. Zinter MS, Orwoll BE, Spicer AC, Alkhouli MF, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Sapru A. Incorporating Inflammation into Mortality Risk in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2017 May; 45(5):858-866. PMID: 28248715.
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    50. Bos LD, Schouten LR, van Vught LA, Wiewel MA, Ong DSY, Cremer O, Artigas A, Martin-Loeches I, Hoogendijk AJ, van der Poll T, Horn J, Juffermans N, Calfee CS, Schultz MJ. Identification and validation of distinct biological phenotypes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome by cluster analysis. Thorax. 2017 10; 72(10):876-883. PMID: 28450529.
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    51. Moazed F, Calfee CS. The Canary in the Coal Mine Is Coughing: Electronic Cigarettes and Respiratory Symptoms in Adolescents. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 04 15; 195(8):974-976. PMID: 28409686.
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    52. Hendrickson CM, Abbott J, Zhuo H, Liu KD, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Higher mini-BAL total protein concentration in early ARDS predicts faster resolution of lung injury measured by more ventilator-free days. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017 05 01; 312(5):L579-L585. PMID: 28213470.
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    53. Famous KR, Delucchi K, Ware LB, Kangelaris KN, Liu KD, Thompson BT, Calfee CS. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Subphenotypes Respond Differently to Randomized Fluid Management Strategy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 02 01; 195(3):331-338. PMID: 27513822.
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    54. Bhatraju PK, Mukherjee P, Robinson-Cohen C, O'Keefe GE, Frank AJ, Christie JD, Meyer NJ, Liu KD, Matthay MA, Calfee CS, Christiani DC, Himmelfarb J, Wurfel MM. Acute kidney injury subphenotypes based on creatinine trajectory identifies patients at increased risk of death. Crit Care. 2016 11 17; 20(1):372. PMID: 27852290.
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    55. Spicer AC, Calfee CS, Zinter MS, Khemani RG, Lo VP, Alkhouli MF, Orwoll BE, Graciano AL, Boriosi JP, Howard JP, Flori HR, Matthay MA, Sapru A. A Simple and Robust Bedside Model for Mortality Risk in Pediatric Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 10; 17(10):907-916. PMID: 27487912.
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    56. Luo L, Shaver CM, Zhao Z, Koyama T, Calfee CS, Bastarache JA, Ware LB. Clinical Predictors of Hospital Mortality Differ Between Direct and Indirect ARDS. Chest. 2017 04; 151(4):755-763. PMID: 27663180.
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    57. Kangelaris KN, Ware LB, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. The authors reply. Crit Care Med. 2016 08; 44(8):e769-70. PMID: 27428148.
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    58. Kangelaris KN, Ware LB, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. The authors reply. Crit Care Med. 2016 08; 44(8):e771. PMID: 27428150.
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    59. Prescott HC, Calfee CS, Thompson BT, Angus DC, Liu VX. Toward Smarter Lumping and Smarter Splitting: Rethinking Strategies for Sepsis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Trial Design. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 07 15; 194(2):147-55. PMID: 27244481.
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    60. Calfee CS. Opening the Debate on the New Sepsis Definition. Precision Medicine: An Opportunity to Improve Outcomes of Patients with Sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 07 15; 194(2):137-9. PMID: 27167090.
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    61. Hendrickson CM, Howard BM, Kornblith LZ, Conroy AS, Nelson MF, Zhuo H, Liu KD, Manley GT, Matthay MA, Calfee CS, Cohen MJ. The acute respiratory distress syndrome following isolated severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016 06; 80(6):989-97. PMID: 26881489.
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    62. Sapru A, Liu KD, Wiemels J, Hansen H, Pawlikowska L, Poon A, Jorgenson E, Witte JS, Calfee CS, Ware LB, Matthay MA. Association of common genetic variation in the protein C pathway genes with clinical outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care. 2016 May 23; 20(1):151. PMID: 27215212; PMCID: PMC4876559.
    63. Ware LB, Zhao Z, Koyama T, May AK, Matthay MA, Lurmann FW, Balmes JR, Calfee CS. Long-Term Ozone Exposure Increases the Risk of Developing the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 May 15; 193(10):1143-50. PMID: 26681363; PMCID: PMC4872663 [Available on 05/15/17].
    64. Beitler JR, Goligher EC, Schmidt M, Spieth PM, Zanella A, Martin-Loeches I, Calfee CS, Cavalcanti AB. Personalized medicine for ARDS: the 2035 research agenda. Intensive Care Med. 2016 May; 42(5):756-767. PMID: 27040103; PMCID: PMC4850840 [Available on 05/01/17].
    65. Papazian L, Calfee CS, Chiumello D, Luyt CE, Meyer NJ, Sekiguchi H, Matthay MA, Meduri GU. Diagnostic workup for ARDS patients. Intensive Care Med. 2016 May; 42(5):674-685. PMID: 27007111.
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    66. Monsel A, Calfee CS. Focusing on the alveolar epithelium: Alveolar fluid clearance in diffuse versus focal acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med. 2016 Apr; 35(2):75-7. PMID: 26924611.
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    67. Moazed F, Burnham EL, Vandivier RW, O'Kane CM, Shyamsundar M, Hamid U, Abbott J, Thickett DR, Matthay MA, McAuley DF, Calfee CS. Cigarette smokers have exaggerated alveolar barrier disruption in response to lipopolysaccharide inhalation. Thorax. 2016 12; 71(12):1130-1136. PMID: 26839359.
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    68. Diamond JM, Porteous MK, Roberts LJ, Wickersham N, Rushefski M, Kawut SM, Shah RJ, Cantu E, Lederer DJ, Chatterjee S, Lama VN, Bhorade S, Crespo M, McDyer J, Wille K, Orens J, Weinacker A, Arcasoy S, Shah PD, Wilkes DS, Hage C, Palmer SM, Snyder L, Calfee CS, Ware LB, Christie JD. The relationship between plasma lipid peroxidation products and primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation is modified by donor smoking and reperfusion hyperoxia. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2016 Apr; 35(4):500-507. PMID: 26856667.
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    69. Kangelaris KN, Ware LB, Wang CY, Janz DR, Zhuo H, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Timing of Intubation and Clinical Outcomes in Adults With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2016 Jan; 44(1):120-9. PMID: 26474112.
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    70. Orwoll BE, Spicer AC, Zinter MS, Alkhouli MF, Khemani RG, Flori HR, Neuhaus JM, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Sapru A. Elevated soluble thrombomodulin is associated with organ failure and mortality in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): a prospective observational cohort study. Crit Care. 2015 Dec 14; 19:435. PMID: 26652251.
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    71. Zinter MS, Spicer A, Orwoll BO, Alkhouli M, Dvorak CC, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Sapru A. Plasma angiopoietin-2 outperforms other markers of endothelial injury in prognosticating pediatric ARDS mortality. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016 Feb 01; 310(3):L224-31. PMID: 26660787.
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    72. Calfee CS. ARDS in 2015: new clinical directions, new biological insights. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Dec; 3(12):912-3. PMID: 26679016.
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    73. Disayabutr S, Calfee CS, Collard HR, Wolters PJ. Interstitial lung diseases in the hospitalized patient. BMC Med. 2015 Sep 25; 13:245. PMID: 26407727; PMCID: PMC4584017.
    74. Hendrickson CM, Dobbins S, Redick BJ, Greenberg MD, Calfee CS, Cohen MJ. Misclassification of acute respiratory distress syndrome after traumatic injury: The cost of less rigorous approaches. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Sep; 79(3):417-24. PMID: 26307875.
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    75. Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Siew ED, Janz DR, Bernard GR, May AK, Jacob P, Havel C, Benowitz NL, Ware LB. Cigarette Smoke Exposure and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2015 Sep; 43(9):1790-7. PMID: 26010690; PMCID: PMC4737582.
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    77. Calfee CS, Janz DR, Bernard GR, May AK, Kangelaris KN, Matthay MA, Ware LB. Distinct molecular phenotypes of direct vs indirect ARDS in single-center and multicenter studies. Chest. 2015 Jun; 147(6):1539-1548. PMID: 26033126; PMCID: PMC4451708.
    78. Howard BM, Kornblith LZ, Hendrickson CM, Redick BJ, Conroy AS, Nelson MF, Callcut RA, Calfee CS, Cohen MJ. Differences in degree, differences in kind: characterizing lung injury in trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Apr; 78(4):735-41. PMID: 25742257; PMCID: PMC4624341.
    79. Kangelaris KN, Prakash A, Liu KD, Aouizerat B, Woodruff PG, Erle DJ, Rogers A, Seeley EJ, Chu J, Liu T, Osterberg-Deiss T, Zhuo H, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Increased expression of neutrophil-related genes in patients with early sepsis-induced ARDS. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015 Jun 01; 308(11):L1102-13. PMID: 25795726.
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    80. Sapru A, Calfee CS, Liu KD, Kangelaris K, Hansen H, Pawlikowska L, Ware LB, Alkhouli MF, Abbott J, Matthay MA. Erratum to: plasma soluble thrombomodulin levels are associated with mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2015 Mar; 41(3):574. PMID: 25708422.
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    81. Sapru A, Calfee CS, Liu KD, Kangelaris K, Hansen H, Pawlikowska L, Ware LB, Alkhouli MF, Abbott J, Abbot J, Matthay MA. Plasma soluble thrombomodulin levels are associated with mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2015 Mar; 41(3):470-8. PMID: 25643902.
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    82. Moazed F, Calfee CS. Clearing the air. Smoking and incident asthma in adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan 15; 191(2):123-4. PMID: 25590151; PMCID: PMC4347441.
    83. Wilson JG, Liu KD, Zhuo H, Caballero L, McMillan M, Fang X, Cosgrove K, Vojnik R, Calfee CS, Lee JW, Rogers AJ, Levitt J, Wiener-Kronish J, Bajwa EK, Leavitt A, McKenna D, Thompson BT, Matthay MA. Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells for treatment of ARDS: a phase 1 clinical trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Jan; 3(1):24-32. PMID: 25529339.
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    84. Ware LB, Bastarache JA, Calfee CS. ARDS: new mechanistic insights, new therapeutic directions. Clin Chest Med. 2014 Dec; 35(4):xv-xvi. PMID: 25453428.
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    87. Ware LB, Lee JW, Wickersham N, Nguyen J, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Donor smoking is associated with pulmonary edema, inflammation and epithelial dysfunction in ex vivo human donor lungs. Am J Transplant. 2014 Oct; 14(10):2295-302. PMID: 25146497; PMCID: PMC4169304.
    88. Krupa A, Fol M, Rahman M, Stokes KY, Florence JM, Leskov IL, Khoretonenko MV, Matthay MA, Liu KD, Calfee CS, Tvinnereim A, Rosenfield GR, Kurdowska AK. Silencing Bruton's tyrosine kinase in alveolar neutrophils protects mice from LPS/immune complex-induced acute lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014 Sep 15; 307(6):L435-48. PMID: 25085625; PMCID: PMC4166786.
    89. Liu KD, Wilson JG, Zhuo H, Caballero L, McMillan ML, Fang X, Cosgrove K, Calfee CS, Lee JW, Kangelaris KN, Gotts JE, Rogers AJ, Levitt JE, Wiener-Kronish JP, Delucchi KL, Leavitt AD, McKenna DH, Thompson BT, Matthay MA. Design and implementation of the START (STem cells for ARDS Treatment) trial, a phase 1/2 trial of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells for the treatment of moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ann Intensive Care. 2014; 4:22. PMID: 25593740.
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    90. Moseson EM, Zhuo H, Chu J, Stein JC, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Liu KD, Calfee CS. Intensive care unit scoring systems outperform emergency department scoring systems for mortality prediction in critically ill patients: a prospective cohort study. J Intensive Care. 2014; 2:40. PMID: 25960880.
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    91. Shyamsundar M, McAuley DF, Ingram RJ, Gibson DS, O'Kane D, McKeown ST, Edwards A, Taggart C, Elborn JS, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, O'Kane CM. Keratinocyte growth factor promotes epithelial survival and resolution in a human model of lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jun 15; 189(12):1520-9. PMID: 24716610; PMCID: PMC4226011.
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    93. Wong HR, Liu KD, Kangelaris KN, Lahni P, Calfee CS. Performance of interleukin-27 as a sepsis diagnostic biomarker in critically ill adults. J Crit Care. 2014 Oct; 29(5):718-22. PMID: 24848949; PMCID: PMC4141017.
    94. Kangelaris KN, Calfee CS, May AK, Zhuo H, Matthay MA, Ware LB. Is there still a role for the lung injury score in the era of the Berlin definition ARDS? Ann Intensive Care. 2014 Feb 18; 4(1):4. PMID: 24533450; PMCID: PMC3931496.
    95. Kornblith LZ, Kutcher ME, Redick BJ, Calfee CS, Vilardi RF, Cohen MJ. Fibrinogen and platelet contributions to clot formation: implications for trauma resuscitation and thromboprophylaxis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Feb; 76(2):255-6; discussion 262-3. PMID: 24458031.
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    96. Wang CY, Calfee CS, Paul DW, Janz DR, May AK, Zhuo H, Bernard GR, Matthay MA, Ware LB, Kangelaris KN. One-year mortality and predictors of death among hospital survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2014 Mar; 40(3):388-96. PMID: 24435201; PMCID: PMC3943651.
    97. Shyamsundar M, McAuley DF, Shields MO, MacSweeney R, Duffy MJ, Johnston JR, McGuigan J, Backman JT, Calfee CS, Matthay MM, Griffiths MJ, McDowell C, Elborn SJ, O'Kane CM. Effect of simvastatin on physiological and biological outcomes in patients undergoing esophagectomy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2014 Jan; 259(1):26-31. PMID: 23817506.
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    99. Ware LB, Koyama T, Zhao Z, Janz DR, Wickersham N, Bernard GR, May AK, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Biomarkers of lung epithelial injury and inflammation distinguish severe sepsis patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care. 2013 Oct 24; 17(5):R253. PMID: 24156650; PMCID: PMC4056313.
    100. Brown LM, Calfee CS, Howard JP, Craig TR, Matthay MA, McAuley DF. Comparison of thermodilution measured extravascular lung water with chest radiographic assessment of pulmonary oedema in patients with acute lung injury. Ann Intensive Care. 2013 Aug 11; 3(1):25. PMID: 23937970; PMCID: PMC3846630.
    101. Levitt JE, Calfee CS, Goldstein BA, Vojnik R, Matthay MA. Early acute lung injury: criteria for identifying lung injury prior to the need for positive pressure ventilation*. Crit Care Med. 2013 Aug; 41(8):1929-37. PMID: 23782966; PMCID: PMC3748809.
    102. Agrawal A, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Stein J, Chu JC, Imp BM, Cortez A, Abbott J, Liu KD, Calfee CS. Plasma angiopoietin-2 predicts the onset of acute lung injury in critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 01; 187(7):736-42. PMID: 23328529; PMCID: PMC3678110.
    103. Spicer A, Calfee CS. Fixing the leak: targeting the vascular endothelium in sepsis. Crit Care. 2012 Nov 21; 16(6):177. PMID: 23171759.
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    104. Calfee CS, Pugin J. The search for diagnostic markers in sepsis: many miles yet to go. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Jul 01; 186(1):2-4. PMID: 22753680.
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    105. Rackley CR, Levitt JE, Zhuo H, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Clinical evidence of early acute lung injury often precedes the diagnosis of ALI. J Intensive Care Med. 2013 Jul-Aug; 28(4):241-6. PMID: 22733725; PMCID: PMC3482421.
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    107. Ware LB, Neyrinck A, O'Neal HR, Lee JW, Landeck M, Johnson E, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Comparison of chest radiograph scoring to lung weight as a quantitative index of pulmonary edema in organ donors. Clin Transplant. 2012 Sep-Oct; 26(5):665-71. PMID: 22324977.
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    108. Cohen MJ, Call M, Nelson M, Calfee CS, Esmon CT, Brohi K, Pittet JF. Critical role of activated protein C in early coagulopathy and later organ failure, infection and death in trauma patients. Ann Surg. 2012 Feb; 255(2):379-85. PMID: 22133894.
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    109. Christie JD, Wurfel MM, Feng R, O'Keefe GE, Bradfield J, Ware LB, Christiani DC, Calfee CS, Cohen MJ, Matthay M, Meyer NJ, Kim C, Li M, Akey J, Barnes KC, Sevransky J, Lanken PN, May AK, Aplenc R, Maloney JP, Hakonarson H. Genome wide association identifies PPFIA1 as a candidate gene for acute lung injury risk following major trauma. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e28268. PMID: 22295056; PMCID: PMC3266233.
    110. Kangelaris KN, Sapru A, Calfee CS, Liu KD, Pawlikowska L, Witte JS, Vittinghoff E, Zhuo H, Auerbach AD, Ziv E, Matthay MA. The association between a Darc gene polymorphism and clinical outcomes in African American patients with acute lung injury. Chest. 2012 May; 141(5):1160-1169. PMID: 22207676; PMCID: PMC3342784.
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    116. Hsieh SJ, Ware LB, Eisner MD, Yu L, Jacob P, Havel C, Goniewicz ML, Matthay MA, Benowitz NL, Calfee CS. Biomarkers increase detection of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2011 Jan; 39(1):40-5. PMID: 20935560; PMCID: PMC3148017.
    117. Matthay MA, Thompson BT, Read EJ, McKenna DH, Liu KD, Calfee CS, Lee JW. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells for severe acute lung injury. Chest. 2010 Oct; 138(4):965-72. PMID: 20923800.
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    122. Collard HR, Calfee CS, Wolters PJ, Song JW, Hong SB, Brady S, Ishizaka A, Jones KD, King TE, Matthay MA, Kim DS. Plasma biomarker profiles in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010 Jul; 299(1):L3-7. PMID: 20418386; PMCID: PMC2904092.
    123. Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Clinical immunology: Culprits with evolutionary ties. Nature. 2010 Mar 04; 464(7285):41-2. PMID: 20203598; PMCID: PMC2857339.
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    125. Ware LB, Fremont RD, Bastarache JA, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Determining the aetiology of pulmonary oedema by the oedema fluid-to-plasma protein ratio. Eur Respir J. 2010 Feb; 35(2):331-7. PMID: 19741024.
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    126. Suratt BT, Eisner MD, Calfee CS, Allard JB, Whittaker LA, Engelken DT, Petty JM, Trimarchi T, Gauthier L, Parsons PE. Plasma granulocyte colony-stimulating factor levels correlate with clinical outcomes in patients with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med. 2009 Apr; 37(4):1322-8. PMID: 19242319.
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    127. Levitt JE, Bedi H, Calfee CS, Gould MK, Matthay MA. Identification of early acute lung injury at initial evaluation in an acute care setting prior to the onset of respiratory failure. Chest. 2009 Apr; 135(4):936-943. PMID: 19188549; PMCID: PMC2758305.
    128. Kropski JA, Fremont RD, Calfee CS, Ware LB. Clara cell protein (CC16), a marker of lung epithelial injury, is decreased in plasma and pulmonary edema fluid from patients with acute lung injury. Chest. 2009 Jun; 135(6):1440-1447. PMID: 19188556.
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    129. Briot R, Frank JA, Uchida T, Lee JW, Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Elevated levels of the receptor for advanced glycation end products, a marker of alveolar epithelial type I cell injury, predict impaired alveolar fluid clearance in isolated perfused human lungs. Chest. 2009 Feb; 135(2):269-275. PMID: 19017890; PMCID: PMC2714162.
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    131. Calfee CS, Ware LB, Eisner MD, Parsons PE, Thompson BT, Wickersham N, Matthay MA. Plasma receptor for advanced glycation end products and clinical outcomes in acute lung injury. Thorax. 2008 Dec; 63(12):1083-9. PMID: 18566109.
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    132. Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Aerosolized beta-adrenergic agonist therapy reduces pulmonary edema following lung surgery. Chest. 2008 Apr; 133(4):833-5. PMID: 18398109.
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    133. Calfee CS, Eisner MD, Ware LB, Thompson BT, Parsons PE, Wheeler AP, Korpak A, Matthay MA. Trauma-associated lung injury differs clinically and biologically from acute lung injury due to other clinical disorders. Crit Care Med. 2007 Oct; 35(10):2243-50. PMID: 17944012.
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    134. Calfee CS, Ware LB. Biomarkers of lung injury in primary graft dysfunction following lung transplantation. Biomark Med. 2007 Aug; 1(2):285-91. PMID: 20477403.
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    135. Calfee CS, Budev MM, Matthay MA, Church G, Brady S, Uchida T, Ishizaka A, Lara A, Ranes JL, deCamp MM, Arroliga AC. Plasma receptor for advanced glycation end-products predicts duration of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation in patients after lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007 Jul; 26(7):675-80. PMID: 17613396; PMCID: PMC2741136.
    136. Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Nonventilatory treatments for acute lung injury and ARDS. Chest. 2007 Mar; 131(3):913-920. PMID: 17356114; PMCID: PMC2789489.
    137. Calfee CS, Shah SJ, Wolters PJ, Saint S, King TE. Clinical problem-solving. Anchors away. N Engl J Med. 2007 Feb 01; 356(5):504-9. PMID: 17267911.
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    138. Calfee CS, Katz PP, Yelin EH, Iribarren C, Eisner MD. The influence of perceived control of asthma on health outcomes. Chest. 2006 Nov; 130(5):1312-8. PMID: 17099005.
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    139. Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Therapeutic value of a lung protective ventilation strategy in acute lung injury. Chest. 2005 Nov; 128(5):3089-91. PMID: 16304246.
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    140. Calfee CS, Matthay MA. Recent advances in mechanical ventilation. Am J Med. 2005 Jun; 118(6):584-91. PMID: 15922687.
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