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Christopher Dowd, MD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentRadiology
Address505 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-353-1863
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoClinical Fellowship Radiology
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    2012US News and World Report Top Doctor
    University of California, San Francisco Department of Dermatology2001Clinical Teacher of the Year
    British Skull Base Society1992Honorary Overseas Member and First Honored Guest, Lecturer
    University of California, San Diego Department of Radiology1987Elliott Lasser Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Christopher Dowd, MD, is a Professor of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Neurological Surgery, Neurology, and Anesthesia and Preoperative Care and Co-Director of Birthmarks and Vascular Anomalies Center at the University of California, San Francisco. He specializes in the diagnosis, management and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases of the brain/spinal cord and of vascular birthmarks. Dr. Dowd earned his medical degree from the University of Virginia, Charlottesville in 1983, and completed his residency in Diagnostic Radiology at the University of California, San Diego, followed by a fellowship in Neuroradiology and Interventional Neuroradiology at UCSF.

    Dr. Dowd’s primary research interests include: endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms endovascular treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasm, endovascular treatment of cutaneous vascular birthmarks, human fetal tracheal balloon occlusion in the treatment of congenital diaphragmatic hernias, endovascular treatment of acute dural sinus thrombosis, endovascular treatment of vein of galen malformations, preoperative tumor embolization, the novel treatment of chemoinfusion for retinoblastomas, and endovascular therapy for brain AVMs and dural carotid-cavernous fistulas.

    Dr. Dowd has served as the Primary Investigator and Co-Investigator of many IRB/CHR approved research projects. He has published 178 articles, written over 300 scientific abstracts, and 58 book chapters dedicated to his research.

    Expertise:
    Neuro Interventional Radiology

    Specialty:
    Neurology, neurosurgery, otolaryngology, child neurology, and pediatric surgery

    Professional Interests:
    Interventional radiology, neurointerventional radiology, neurointerventional surgery, surgical neuroangiography, brain aneurysms, stroke, vein of galen malformations, birthmarks and vascular anomalies

    Education and Training:
    • Medical School: University of Virginia, Charlottesville
    • Internship: Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Newton Lower Falls - Medicine and Surgery
    • Residency: University of California, San Diego - Diagnostic Radiology
    • Fellowship: University of California, San Francisco - Neuroradiology
    • Fellowship: University of California, San Francisco - Interventional Neuroradiology
    • Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (1980)
    • Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) (Certified 1981, Western Albemarle Region, Charlottesville, VA)
    • Advanced Cardiac Life Support (1983, 2010)
    • National Board of Medical Examiners (Certified 1984)
    • California Medical License (1984)
    • American Board of Radiology (Certified 6/11/87)
    • Radiology X-Ray Supervisor and Operator, California Department of Health Services (1987)
    • Massachusetts Medical License (1989)
    • Arizona Medical License (1994)
    • Hawaii Medical License (1995)
    • Nevada Medical License (1995)
    • American Board of Radiology Certificate of Added Qualification in Neuroradiology (1995, 2005)


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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Alexander MD, Halbach VV, Hallam DK, Cooke DL, Ghodke BV, Dowd CF, Amans MR, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Meyers PM. Long-Term Outcomes of Endovascular Treatment of Indirect Carotid Cavernous Fistulae: Superior Efficacy, Safety, and Durability of Transvenous Coiling Over Other Techniques. Neurosurgery. 2018 Nov 10. PMID: 30418600.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Morrison J, Alexander MD, Dowd CF, Cooke DL. Flanking the fenestration: circumferential limb-to-limb stent-assisted coiling of a basilar artery fenestration aneurysm. J Neurointerv Surg. 2018 Mar 21. PMID: 29563213.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Kondapavulur S, Cooke DL, Kao A, Amans MR, Alexander M, Darflinger R, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Damato B, Halbach VV, Matthay KK, Hetts SW. Estimation of intra-arterial chemotherapy distribution to the retina in pediatric retinoblastoma patients using quantitative digital subtraction angiography. Interv Neuroradiol. 2018 Apr; 24(2):214-219. PMID: 29343147.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Ammanuel S, Alexander MD, Damato B, Cooke DL, Halbach VV, Amans MR, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Hetts SW. Improved procedural safety following protocol changes for selective ophthalmic arterial infusion of chemotherapy for treatment of ocular retinoblastoma. Interv Neuroradiol. 2018 Jan 01; 1591019918755088. PMID: 29436917.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Hirabayashi KE, Kalin-Hajdu E, Bever GJ, Vagefi MR, de Alba Campomanes AG, Cooke DL, Dowd CF, Kersten RC. Normalization of Congenital Venous Stasis Retinopathy Following Sclerotherapy of a Macrocystic Lymphatic Malformation. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2018 Jan/Feb; 34(1):e19-e21. PMID: 28746255.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Alexander MD, Rebhun JM, Hetts SW, Amans MR, Settecase F, Darflinger RJ, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Cooke DL. Technical factors affecting outcomes following endovascular treatment of posterior circulation atherosclerotic lesions. Surg Neurol Int. 2017; 8:284. PMID: 29279801.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Settecase F, McCoy DB, Darflinger R, Alexander MD, Cooke DL, Dowd CF, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Amans MR. Improving mechanical thrombectomy time metrics in the angiography suite: Stroke cart, parallel workflows, and conscious sedation. Interv Neuroradiol. 2018 Apr; 24(2):168-177. PMID: 29145742.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Morrison J, Alexander MD, Dowd CF, Cooke DL. Flanking the fenestration: circumferential limb-to-limb stent-assisted coiling of a basilar artery fenestration aneurysm. BMJ Case Rep. 2017 Oct 13; 2017. PMID: 29030497.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Cooke DL, McCoy DB, Halbach VV, Hetts SW, Amans MR, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Lawson D, Nelson J, Wang CY, Kim H, Werb Z, McCulloch C, Hashimoto T, Su H, Sun Z. Endovascular Biopsy: In Vivo Cerebral Aneurysm Endothelial Cell Sampling and Gene Expression Analysis. Transl Stroke Res. 2018 Feb; 9(1):20-33. PMID: 28900857.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Lum MA, Martin AJ, Alexander MD, McCoy DB, Cooke DL, Lillaney P, Moftakhar P, Amans MR, Settecase F, Nicholson A, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, McDermott MW, Saloner D, Hetts SW. Intra-Arterial MR Perfusion Imaging of Meningiomas: Comparison to Digital Subtraction Angiography and Intravenous MR Perfusion Imaging. PLoS One. 2016; 11(11):e0163554. PMID: 27802268.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Hetts SW, Moftakhar P, Maluste N, Fullerton HJ, Cooke DL, Amans MR, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. Pediatric intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: age-related differences in clinical features, angioarchitecture, and treatment outcomes. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Nov; 18(5):602-610. PMID: 27540826.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Knapp EA, Fink AK, Goss CH, Sewall A, Ostrenga J, Dowd C, Elbert A, Petren KM, Marshall BC. The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry. Design and Methods of a National Observational Disease Registry. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 Jul; 13(7):1173-9. PMID: 27078236.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Settecase F, Nicholson AD, Amans MR, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Cooke DL, Dowd CF, Hetts SW. Onyx embolization of an intraosseous pseudoaneurysm of the middle meningeal artery in a patient with meningiomatosis, McCune-Albright syndrome, and gray platelet syndrome. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Mar; 17(3):324-9. PMID: 26588455.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Narvid J, Amans MR, Cooke DL, Hetts SW, Dillon WP, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Spontaneous retroclival hematoma: a case series. J Neurosurg. 2016 Mar; 124(3):716-9. PMID: 26252463.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Sun Z, Lawson DA, Sinclair E, Wang CY, Lai MD, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Werb Z, Su H, Cooke DL. Endovascular biopsy: Strategy for analyzing gene expression profiles of individual endothelial cells obtained from human vessels?. Biotechnol Rep (Amst). 2015 Sep; 7:157-165. PMID: 26989654.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Koo KS, Dowd CF, Mathes EF, Rosbe KW, Hoffman WY, Frieden IJ, Hess CP. MRI phenotypes of localized intravascular coagulopathy in venous malformations. Pediatr Radiol. 2015 Oct; 45(11):1690-5. PMID: 26143286.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Seymour ZA, Sneed PK, Gupta N, Lawton MT, Molinaro AM, Young W, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, McDermott MW. Volume-staged radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations: an evolving paradigm. J Neurosurg. 2016 Jan; 124(1):163-74. PMID: 26140495.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Patel AS, Schulman JM, Ruben BS, Hoffman WY, Dowd CF, Frieden IJ, Hess CP. Atypical MRI features in soft-tissue arteriovenous malformation: a novel imaging appearance with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Pediatr Radiol. 2015 Sep; 45(10):1515-21. PMID: 25916383; PMCID: PMC4553129.
    19. Alexander MD, Rebhun JM, Hetts SW, Kim AS, Nelson J, Kim H, Amans MR, Settecase F, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Cooke DL. Lesion location, stability, and pretreatment management: factors affecting outcomes of endovascular treatment for vertebrobasilar atherosclerosis. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016 May; 8(5):466-70. PMID: 25795438.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Cooke DL, Bauer D, Sun Z, Stillson C, Nelson J, Barry D, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Su H, Saeed MM. Endovascular biopsy: Technical feasibility of novel endothelial cell harvesting devices assessed in a rabbit aneurysm model. Interv Neuroradiol. 2015 Feb; 21(1):120-8. PMID: 25934786.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Moftakhar P, Cooke DL, Fullerton HJ, Ko NU, Amans MR, Narvid JA, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Hetts SW. Extent of collateralization predicting symptomatic cerebral vasospasm among pediatric patients: correlations among angiography, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, and clinical findings. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2015 Mar; 15(3):282-90. PMID: 25555113.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Sun Z, Su H, Long B, Sinclair E, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Cooke DL. Endothelial cell high-enrichment from endovascular biopsy sample by laser capture microdissection and fluorescence activated cell sorting. J Biotechnol. 2014 Dec 20; 192 Pt A:34-9. PMID: 25450638; PMCID: PMC4654108.
    23. Nguyen JT, Koerper MA, Hess CP, Dowd CF, Hoffman WY, Dickman M, Frieden IJ. Aspirin therapy in venous malformation: a retrospective cohort study of benefits, side effects, and patient experiences. Pediatr Dermatol. 2014 Sep-Oct; 31(5):556-60. PMID: 25040175.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Cooke DL, Stout CE, Kim WT, Kansagra AP, Yu JP, Gu A, Jewell NP, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Cerebral arterial fenestrations. Interv Neuroradiol. 2014 May-Jun; 20(3):261-74. PMID: 24976087; PMCID: PMC4178766.
    25. Chow ML, Cooke DL, Fullerton HJ, Amans MR, Narvid J, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Hetts SW. Radiological and clinical features of vein of Galen malformations. J Neurointerv Surg. 2015 Jun; 7(6):443-8. PMID: 24789593.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Amans MR, Cooke DL, Vella M, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hetts SW. Contrast staining on CT after DSA in ischemic stroke patients progresses to infarction and rarely hemorrhages. Interv Neuroradiol. 2014 Jan-Feb; 20(1):106-15. PMID: 24556308; PMCID: PMC3971133.
    27. Potts MB, Shah JK, Molinaro AM, Blevins LS, Tyrrell JB, Kunwar S, Dowd CF, Hetts SW, Aghi MK. Cavernous and inferior petrosal sinus sampling and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in the preoperative evaluation of Cushing's disease. J Neurooncol. 2014 Feb; 116(3):593-600. PMID: 24398617.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Cooke DL, Stout CE, Kim WT, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Gould RG. Radiation dose reduction in intra-arterial chemotherapy infusion for intraocular retinoblastoma. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Dec; 6(10):785-9. PMID: 24385553.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Amans MR, Stout C, Fox C, Narvid J, Hetts SW, Cooke DL, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, McSwain H, Halbach VV. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Nov; 6(9):e46. PMID: 24353327.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Cooke DL, Su H, Sun Z, Guo Y, Guo D, Saeed MM, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Young WL, Halbach VV. Endovascular biopsy: evaluating the feasibility of harvesting endothelial cells using detachable coils. Interv Neuroradiol. 2013 Dec; 19(4):399-408. PMID: 24355142; PMCID: PMC3902737.
    31. Amans MR, Stout C, Fox C, Narvid J, Hetts SW, Cooke DL, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, McSwain H, Halbach VV. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation. BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Nov 29; 2013. PMID: 24293535; PMCID: PMC3847515.
    32. Losey AD, Lillaney P, Martin AJ, Halbach VV, Cooke DL, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Saloner DA, Wilson MW, Saeed M, Hetts SW. Safety of retained microcatheters: an evaluation of radiofrequency heating in endovascular microcatheters with nitinol, tungsten, and polyetheretherketone braiding at 1.5 T and 3 T. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 May; 6(4):314-9. PMID: 23685793; PMCID: PMC3796159.
    33. Vogel SA, Hess CP, Dowd CF, Hoffman WY, Kane AJ, Rajaii R, Frieden IJ. Early versus later presentations of venous malformations: where and why? Pediatr Dermatol. 2013 Sep-Oct; 30(5):534-40. PMID: 23679583.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Kansagra AP, Cooke DL, English JD, Sincic RM, Amans MR, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hetts SW. Current trends in endovascular management of traumatic cerebrovascular injury. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Jan; 6(1):47-50. PMID: 23322749.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Moftakhar P, English JD, Cooke DL, Kim WT, Stout C, Smith WS, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Hetts SW. Density of thrombus on admission CT predicts revascularization efficacy in large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2013 Jan; 44(1):243-5. PMID: 23111438.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Cooke DL, Meisel KM, Kim WT, Stout CE, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Serial angiographic appearance of segmental arterial mediolysis manifesting as vertebral, internal mammary and intra-abdominal visceral artery aneurysms in a patient presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and review of the literature. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013 Sep 01; 5(5):478-82. PMID: 22693248.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Hetts SW, Moftakhar P, English JD, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Douglas VC, Halbach VV. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas and intrathecal venous drainage: correlation between digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical findings. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 May; 16(5):433-40. PMID: 22324803.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Tatum J, Farid H, Cooke D, Fullerton H, Smith W, Higashida R, Halbach VV, Dowd C. Mechanical embolectomy for treatment of large vessel acute ischemic stroke in children. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013 Mar; 5(2):128-34. PMID: 22307540.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Bharatha A, Faughnan ME, Kim H, Pourmohamad T, Krings T, Bayrak-Toydemir P, Pawlikowska L, McCulloch CE, Lawton MT, Dowd CF, Young WL, Terbrugge KG. Brain arteriovenous malformation multiplicity predicts the diagnosis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: quantitative assessment. Stroke. 2012 Jan; 43(1):72-8. PMID: 22034007; PMCID: PMC3727386.
    40. Alexander MD, Hetts SW, Young WL, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, English JD. Supernova hemorrhage: obliterative hemorrhage of brain arteriovenous malformations following ? knife radiosurgery. J Neurointerv Surg. 2012 Sep; 4(5):364-7. PMID: 21990534.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Cooke D, Farid H, Kim W, Dowd C, Higashida R, Halbach V. Zygomatico-orbital intra-arterial melphalan infusion for intraocular retinoblastoma. J Neurointerv Surg. 2012 Jul; 4(4):e16. PMID: 21990490.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Cooke D, Tatum J, Farid H, Dowd C, Higashida R, Halbach V. Transvenous embolization of a pediatric pial arteriovenous fistula. J Neurointerv Surg. 2012 Jul; 4(4):e14. PMID: 21990498.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Waldron JS, Sughrue ME, Hetts SW, Wilson SP, Mills SA, McDermott MW, Dowd CF, Parsa AT. Embolization of skull base meningiomas and feeding vessels arising from the internal carotid circulation. Neurosurgery. 2011 Jan; 68(1):162-9; discussion 169. PMID: 21150761.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Rosbe KW, Hess CP, Dowd CF, Frieden IJ. Masseteric venous malformations: diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Dec; 143(6):779-83. PMID: 21109077.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Brown A, Bechtel C, Bill J, Liu H, Liu J, McDonald D, Pai S, Radhamohan A, Renslow R, Thayer B, Yohe S, Dowd C. Increasing parvovirus filter throughput of monoclonal antibodies using ion exchange membrane adsorptive pre-filtration. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2010 Jul 01; 106(4):627-37. PMID: 20229510.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Brown A, Bill J, Tully T, Radhamohan A, Dowd C. Overloading ion-exchange membranes as a purification step for monoclonal antibodies. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2010 Jun 11; 56(2):59-70. PMID: 20497123; PMCID: PMC2891000.
    47. Oka H, Pogrel MA, Dowd CF, Lee JS. Treatment of arteriovenous malformation of the mandible with resection and immediate reconstruction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010 Mar; 68(3):658-63. PMID: 19931964.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Waldron JS, Hetts SW, Armstrong-Wells J, Dowd CF, Fullerton HJ, Gupta N, Lawton MT. Multiple intracranial aneurysms and moyamoya disease associated with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: surgical considerations. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009 Nov; 4(5):439-44. PMID: 19877776.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Chen Y, Zhu W, Bollen AW, Lawton MT, Barbaro NM, Dowd CF, Hashimoto T, Yang GY, Young WL. Evidence of inflammatory cell involvement in brain arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jun; 62(6):1340-9; discussion 1349-50. PMID: 18825001; PMCID: PMC2582017.
    50. Lawton MT, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Sanai N, Malek JY, Dowd CF. Combined microsurgical and endovascular management of complex intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jun; 62(6 Suppl 3):1503-15. PMID: 18695569.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Narvid J, Hetts SW, Larsen D, Neuhaus J, Singh TP, McSwain H, Lawton MT, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae: clinical features and long-term results. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jan; 62(1):159-66; discussion 166-7. PMID: 18300903.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Acosta FL, Sanai N, Chi JH, Dowd CF, Chin C, Tihan T, Chou D, Weinstein PR, Ames CP. Comprehensive management of symptomatic and aggressive vertebral hemangiomas. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2008 Jan; 19(1):17-29. PMID: 18156044.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Johnston SC, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Duckwiler GR, Gress DR. Predictors of rehemorrhage after treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms: the Cerebral Aneurysm Rerupture After Treatment (CARAT) study. Stroke. 2008 Jan; 39(1):120-5. PMID: 18048860.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Dispensa BP, Saloner DA, Acevedo-Bolton G, Achrol AS, Jou LD, McCulloch CE, Johnston SC, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Ko NU, Lawton MT, Martin AJ, Quinnine N, Young WL. Estimation of fusiform intracranial aneurysm growth by serial magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007 Jul; 26(1):177-83. PMID: 17659544.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Du R, Keyoung HM, Dowd CF, Young WL, Lawton MT. The effects of diffuseness and deep perforating artery supply on outcomes after microsurgical resection of brain arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 2007 Apr; 60(4):638-46; discussion 646-8. PMID: 17415200.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Acosta FL, Dowd CF, Chin C, Tihan T, Ames CP, Weinstein PR. Current treatment strategies and outcomes in the management of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas. Neurosurgery. 2006 Feb; 58(2):287-95; discussion 287-95. PMID: 16462482.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Caragine LP, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Intraorbital arteriovenous fistulae of the ophthalmic veins treated by transvenous endovascular occlusion: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2006 Feb; 58(1 Suppl):ONS-E170; discussion ONS-E170. PMID: 16462623.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Du R, Dowd CF, Johnston SC, Young WL, Lawton MT. Interobserver variability in grading of brain arteriovenous malformations using the Spetzler-Martin system. Neurosurgery. 2005 Oct; 57(4):668-75; discussion 668-75. PMID: 16239878.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Juravsky L, Meagher S. Initial clinical experience with a new self-expanding nitinol stent for the treatment of intracranial cerebral aneurysms: the Cordis Enterprise stent. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Aug; 26(7):1751-6. PMID: 16091525.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Martin AJ, Saloner DA, Roberts TP, Roberts H, Weber OM, Dillon W, Cullen S, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Carotid stent delivery in an XMR suite: immediate assessment of the physiologic impact of extracranial revascularization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Mar; 26(3):531-7. PMID: 15760861.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Du R, McDermott MW, Dowd CF, Young WL, Lawton MT. Neurosurgery at the crossroads: integrated multidisciplinary management of 449 patients with brain arteriovenous malformations. Clin Neurosurg. 2005; 52:177-91. PMID: 16626069.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Miss JC, Kopelnik A, Fisher LA, Tung PP, Banki NM, Lawton MT, Smith WS, Dowd CF, Zaroff JG. Cardiac injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage is independent of the type of aneurysm therapy. Neurosurgery. 2004 Dec; 55(6):1244-50; discussion 1250-1. PMID: 15574206.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Smith WS, Dowd CF, Johnston SC, Ko NU, DeArmond SJ, Dillon WP, Setty D, Lawton MT, Young WL, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. Neurotoxicity of intra-arterial papaverine preserved with chlorobutanol used for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2004 Nov; 35(11):2518-22. PMID: 15472097.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Liu C, Lo JC, Dowd CF, Wilson CB, Kunwar S, Aron DC, Tyrrell JB. Cavernous and inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the evaluation of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004 Oct; 61(4):478-86. PMID: 15473881.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Gurney TA, Dowd CF, Murr AH. Embolization for the treatment of idiopathic posterior epistaxis. Am J Rhinol. 2004 Sep-Oct; 18(5):335-9. PMID: 15586807.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Mathes EF, Haggstrom AN, Dowd C, Hoffman WY, Frieden IJ. Clinical characteristics and management of vascular anomalies: findings of a multidisciplinary vascular anomalies clinic. Arch Dermatol. 2004 Aug; 140(8):979-83. PMID: 15313815.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Kim EJ, Halim AX, Dowd CF, Lawton MT, Singh V, Bennett J, Young WL. The relationship of coexisting extranidal aneurysms to intracranial hemorrhage in patients harboring brain arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 2004 Jun; 54(6):1349-57; discussion 1357-8. PMID: 15157291.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Josephson SA, Dillon WP, Dowd CF, Malek R, Lawton MT, Smith WS. Continuous bleeding from a basilar terminus aneurysm imaged with CT angiography and conventional angiography. Neurocrit Care. 2004; 1(1):103-6. PMID: 16174904.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Ng PP, Higashida RT, Cullen SP, Malek R, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Intraarterial thrombolysis trials in acute ischemic stroke. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004 Jan; 15(1 Pt 2):S77-85. PMID: 15101517.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Caragine LP, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Ng PP, Higashida RT. Parallel venous channel as the recipient pouch in transverse/sigmoid sinus dural fistulae. Neurosurgery. 2003 Dec; 53(6):1261-6; discussion 1266-7. PMID: 14633292.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Metry DW, Dowd CF, Barkovich AJ, Frieden IJ. Facial hemangioma and cerebral corticovascular dysplasia: a syndrome associated with epilepsy. Neurology. 2003 Nov 25; 61(10):1461; author reply 1461. PMID: 14638990.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Ng PP, Higashida RT, Cullen S, Malek R, Halbach VV, Dowd CF. Endovascular strategies for carotid cavernous and intracerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Oct 15; 15(4):ECP1. PMID: 15344900.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT. Meningiomas: the role of preoperative angiography and embolization. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Jul 15; 15(1):E10. PMID: 15355012.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Ng PP, Halbach VV, Quinn R, Balousek P, Caragine LP, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Wilson C. Endovascular treatment for dural arteriovenous fistulae of the superior petrosal sinus. Neurosurgery. 2003 Jul; 53(1):25-32; discussion 32-3. PMID: 12823870.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Ng PP, Halbach VV, Caragine LP, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Guglielmi detachable coil extraction: suction generated by pusher-wire withdrawal after coil detachment within an intracranial aneurysm. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003 May; 24(5):982-4. PMID: 12748107.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Hashimoto T, Wen G, Lawton MT, Boudreau NJ, Bollen AW, Yang GY, Barbaro NM, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Young WL. Abnormal expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in brain arteriovenous malformations. Stroke. 2003 Apr; 34(4):925-31. PMID: 12649522.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Lawton MT, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Sanai N, Malek JY, Dowd CF. Combined microsurgical and endovascular management of complex intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 2003 Feb; 52(2):263-74; discussion 274-5. PMID: 12535354.
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