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Christopher Dowd, MD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentRadiology
Address505 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-353-1863
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoClinical Fellowship Radiology
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    2012US News and World Report Top Doctor
    University of California, San Francisco Department of Dermatology2001Clinical Teacher of the Year
    British Skull Base Society1992Honorary Overseas Member and First Honored Guest, Lecturer
    University of California, San Diego Department of Radiology1987Elliott Lasser Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Christopher Dowd, MD, is a Clinical Instructor of Radiology, Neurological Surgery, Neurology, Anesthesia and Perioperative, Senior Staff of Interventional Neuroradiologist, and the Clinical Director of Interventional Neuroradiology in Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging at the University of California, San Francisco. He specializes in the diagnosis, management and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases of the brain/spinal cord and of vascular birthmarks. Dr. Dowd earned his medical degree from the University of Virginia, Charlottesville in 1983, and completed his residency in Diagnostic Radiology at the University of California, San Diego, followed by a fellowship in Neuroradiology and Interventional Neuroradiology at UCSF.

    Dr. Dowd’s primary research interests include: endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms endovascular treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasm, endovascular treatment of cutaneous vascular birthmarks, human fetal tracheal balloon occlusion in the treatment of congenital diaphragmatic hernias, endovascular treatment of acute dural sinus thrombosis, endovascular treatment of vein of galen malformations, preoperative tumor embolization, the novel treatment of chemoinfusion for retinoblastomas, and endovascular therapy for brain AVMs and dural carotid-cavernous fistulas.

    Dr. Dowd has served as the Primary Investigator and Co-Investigator of many IRB/CHR approved research projects. He has published 178 articles, written over 300 scientific abstracts, and 58 book chapters dedicated to his research.

    Expertise:
    Neuro Interventional Radiology

    Specialty:
    Neurology, neurosurgery, otolaryngology, child neurology, and pediatric surgery

    Professional Interests:
    Interventional radiology, neurointerventional radiology, neurointerventional surgery, surgical neuroangiography, brain aneurysms, stroke, vein of galen malformations, birthmarks and vascular anomalies

    Education and Training:
    • Medical School: University of Virginia, Charlottesville
    • Internship: Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Newton Lower Falls - Medicine and Surgery
    • Residency: University of California, San Diego - Diagnostic Radiology
    • Fellowship: University of California, San Francisco - Neuroradiology
    • Fellowship: University of California, San Francisco - Interventional Neuroradiology
    • Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (1980)
    • Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) (Certified 1981, Western Albemarle Region, Charlottesville, VA)
    • Advanced Cardiac Life Support (1983, 2010)
    • National Board of Medical Examiners (Certified 1984)
    • California Medical License (1984)
    • American Board of Radiology (Certified 6/11/87)
    • Radiology X-Ray Supervisor and Operator, California Department of Health Services (1987)
    • Massachusetts Medical License (1989)
    • Arizona Medical License (1994)
    • Hawaii Medical License (1995)
    • Nevada Medical License (1995)
    • American Board of Radiology Certificate of Added Qualification in Neuroradiology (1995, 2005)


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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Cooke DL, McCoy DB, Halbach VV, Hetts SW, Amans MR, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Lawson D, Nelson J, Wang CY, Kim H, Werb Z, McCulloch C, Hashimoto T, Su H, Sun Z. Endovascular Biopsy: In Vivo Cerebral Aneurysm Endothelial Cell Sampling and Gene Expression Analysis. Transl Stroke Res. 2017 Sep 13. PMID: 28900857.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Hirabayashi KE, Kalin-Hajdu E, Bever GJ, Vagefi MR, de Alba Campomanes AG, Cooke DL, Dowd C, Kersten RC. Normalization of Congenital Venous Stasis Retinopathy Following Sclerotherapy of a Macrocystic Lymphatic Malformation. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017 Jul 25. PMID: 28746255.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Settecase F, McCoy DB, Darflinger R, Alexander MD, Cooke DL, Dowd C, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Amans MR. Improving mechanical thrombectomy time metrics in the angiography suite: Stroke cart, parallel workflows, and conscious sedation. Interv Neuroradiol. 2017 Jan 01; 1591019917742326. PMID: 29145742.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Lum MA, Martin AJ, Alexander MD, McCoy DB, Cooke DL, Lillaney P, Moftakhar P, Amans MR, Settecase F, Nicholson A, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, McDermott MW, Saloner D, Hetts SW. Intra-Arterial MR Perfusion Imaging of Meningiomas: Comparison to Digital Subtraction Angiography and Intravenous MR Perfusion Imaging. PLoS One. 2016; 11(11):e0163554. PMID: 27802268.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Alexander MD, Nicholson AD, Darflinger RJ, Settecase F, Cooke DL, Dowd C, Amans MR, Higashida RT, Hetts SW, Halbach VV. Effects on vessel measurement accuracy and subsequent occlusion after calcium channel blocker infusion during treatment of cerebral aneurysms with the Pipeline embolization device. Interv Neuroradiol. 2017 Feb; 23(1):47-51. PMID: 27798327.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Hetts SW, Moftakhar P, Maluste N, Fullerton HJ, Cooke DL, Amans MR, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. Pediatric intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: age-related differences in clinical features, angioarchitecture, and treatment outcomes. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Nov; 18(5):602-610. PMID: 27540826.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Settecase F, Nicholson AD, Amans MR, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Cooke DL, Dowd C, Hetts SW. Onyx embolization of an intraosseous pseudoaneurysm of the middle meningeal artery in a patient with meningiomatosis, McCune-Albright syndrome, and gray platelet syndrome. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Mar; 17(3):324-9. PMID: 26588455.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Settecase F, Hetts SW, Nicholson AD, Amans MR, Cooke DL, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. Superselective Intra-Arterial Ethanol Sclerotherapy of Feeding Artery and Nidal Aneurysms in Ruptured Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2016 Apr; 37(4):692-7. PMID: 26564434.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Narvid J, Amans MR, Cooke DL, Hetts SW, Dillon WP, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Spontaneous retroclival hematoma: a case series. J Neurosurg. 2016 Mar; 124(3):716-9. PMID: 26252463.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Sun Z, Lawson DA, Sinclair E, Wang CY, Lai MD, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Werb Z, Su H, Cooke DL. Endovascular biopsy: Strategy for analyzing gene expression profiles of individual endothelial cells obtained from human vessels?. Biotechnol Rep (Amst). 2015 Sep; 7:157-165. PMID: 26989654.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Hetts SW, Tsai T, Cooke DL, Amans MR, Settecase F, Moftakhar P, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Halbach VV. Progressive versus Nonprogressive Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Characteristics and Outcomes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2015 Oct; 36(10):1912-9. PMID: 26206813.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Koo KS, Dowd C, Mathes EF, Rosbe KW, Hoffman WY, Frieden IJ, Hess CP. MRI phenotypes of localized intravascular coagulopathy in venous malformations. Pediatr Radiol. 2015 Oct; 45(11):1690-5. PMID: 26143286.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Seymour ZA, Sneed PK, Gupta N, Lawton MT, Molinaro AM, Young W, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, McDermott MW. Volume-staged radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations: an evolving paradigm. J Neurosurg. 2016 Jan; 124(1):163-74. PMID: 26140495.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Patel AS, Schulman JM, Ruben BS, Hoffman WY, Dowd C, Frieden IJ, Hess CP. Atypical MRI features in soft-tissue arteriovenous malformation: a novel imaging appearance with radiologic-pathologic correlation. Pediatr Radiol. 2015 Sep; 45(10):1515-21. PMID: 25916383; PMCID: PMC4553129.
    15. Alexander MD, Rebhun JM, Hetts SW, Kim AS, Nelson J, Kim H, Amans MR, Settecase F, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Cooke DL. Lesion location, stability, and pretreatment management: factors affecting outcomes of endovascular treatment for vertebrobasilar atherosclerosis. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016 May; 8(5):466-70. PMID: 25795438.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Cooke DL, Bauer D, Sun Z, Stillson C, Nelson J, Barry D, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Su H, Saeed MM. Endovascular biopsy: Technical feasibility of novel endothelial cell harvesting devices assessed in a rabbit aneurysm model. Interv Neuroradiol. 2015 Feb; 21(1):120-8. PMID: 25934786; PMCID: PMC4757193.
    17. Alexander MD, Cooke DL, Nelson J, Guo DE, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Lawton MT, Kim H, Hetts SW. Association between Venous Angioarchitectural Features of Sporadic Brain Arteriovenous Malformations and Intracranial Hemorrhage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2015 May; 36(5):949-52. PMID: 25634722; PMCID: PMC4433780.
    18. Moftakhar P, Cooke DL, Fullerton HJ, Ko NU, Amans MR, Narvid JA, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Hetts SW. Extent of collateralization predicting symptomatic cerebral vasospasm among pediatric patients: correlations among angiography, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, and clinical findings. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2015 Mar; 15(3):282-90. PMID: 25555113.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Sun Z, Su H, Long B, Sinclair E, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Cooke DL. Endothelial cell high-enrichment from endovascular biopsy sample by laser capture microdissection and fluorescence activated cell sorting. J Biotechnol. 2014 Dec 20; 192 Pt A:34-9. PMID: 25450638; PMCID: PMC4654108.
    20. Alexander MD, Cooke DL, Meyers PM, Amans MR, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hetts SW. Lesion stability characteristics outperform degree of stenosis in predicting outcomes following stenting for symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016 Jan; 8(1):19-23. PMID: 25416828.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Nguyen JT, Koerper MA, Hess CP, Dowd C, Hoffman WY, Dickman M, Frieden IJ. Aspirin therapy in venous malformation: a retrospective cohort study of benefits, side effects, and patient experiences. Pediatr Dermatol. 2014 Sep-Oct; 31(5):556-60. PMID: 25040175.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Cooke DL, Stout CE, Kim WT, Kansagra AP, Yu JP, Gu A, Jewell NP, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Cerebral arterial fenestrations. Interv Neuroradiol. 2014 May-Jun; 20(3):261-74. PMID: 24976087; PMCID: PMC4178766.
    23. Chow ML, Cooke DL, Fullerton HJ, Amans MR, Narvid J, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Hetts SW. Radiological and clinical features of vein of Galen malformations. J Neurointerv Surg. 2015 Jun; 7(6):443-8. PMID: 24789593.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Alexander MD, Meyers PM, English JD, Stradford TR, Sung S, Smith WS, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Cooke DL, Hetts SW. Symptom differences and pretreatment asymptomatic interval affect outcomes of stenting for intracranial atherosclerotic disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 Jun; 35(6):1157-62. PMID: 24676000.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Hetts SW, Cooke DL, Nelson J, Gupta N, Fullerton H, Amans MR, Narvid JA, Moftakhar P, McSwain H, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Lawton MT, Kim H. Influence of patient age on angioarchitecture of brain arteriovenous malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 Jul; 35(7):1376-80. PMID: 24627452; PMCID: PMC4102659.
    26. Amans MR, Cooke DL, Vella M, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hetts SW. Contrast staining on CT after DSA in ischemic stroke patients progresses to infarction and rarely hemorrhages. Interv Neuroradiol. 2014 Jan-Feb; 20(1):106-15. PMID: 24556308; PMCID: PMC3971133.
    27. McDougall CG, Johnston SC, Gholkar A, Barnwell SL, Vazquez Suarez JC, Massó Romero J, Chaloupka JC, Bonafe A, Wakhloo AK, Tampieri D, Dowd C, Fox AJ, Imm SJ, Carroll K, Turk AS. Bioactive versus bare platinum coils in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms: the MAPS (Matrix and Platinum Science) trial. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 May; 35(5):935-42. PMID: 24481333.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Potts MB, Shah JK, Molinaro AM, Blevins LS, Tyrrell JB, Kunwar S, Dowd C, Hetts SW, Aghi MK. Cavernous and inferior petrosal sinus sampling and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in the preoperative evaluation of Cushing's disease. J Neurooncol. 2014 Feb; 116(3):593-600. PMID: 24398617.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Cooke DL, Stout CE, Kim WT, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Gould RG. Radiation dose reduction in intra-arterial chemotherapy infusion for intraocular retinoblastoma. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Dec; 6(10):785-9. PMID: 24385553.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Amans MR, Stout C, Fox C, Narvid J, Hetts SW, Cooke DL, Higashida RT, Dowd C, McSwain H, Halbach VV. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Nov; 6(9):e46. PMID: 24353327.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Cooke DL, Su H, Sun Z, Guo Y, Guo D, Saeed MM, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Young WL, Halbach VV. Endovascular biopsy: evaluating the feasibility of harvesting endothelial cells using detachable coils. Interv Neuroradiol. 2013 Dec; 19(4):399-408. PMID: 24355142; PMCID: PMC3902737.
    32. Amans MR, Stout C, Fox C, Narvid J, Hetts SW, Cooke DL, Higashida RT, Dowd C, McSwain H, Halbach VV. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation. BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Nov 29; 2013. PMID: 24293535; PMCID: PMC3847515.
    33. Hetts SW, Turk A, English JD, Dowd C, Mocco J, Prestigiacomo C, Nesbit G, Ge SG, Jin JN, Carroll K, Murayama Y, Gholkar A, Barnwell S, Lopes D, Johnston SC, McDougall C. Stent-assisted coiling versus coiling alone in unruptured intracranial aneurysms in the matrix and platinum science trial: safety, efficacy, and mid-term outcomes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 Apr; 35(4):698-705. PMID: 24184523.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Losey AD, Lillaney P, Martin AJ, Halbach VV, Cooke DL, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Saloner DA, Wilson MW, Saeed M, Hetts SW. Safety of retained microcatheters: an evaluation of radiofrequency heating in endovascular microcatheters with nitinol, tungsten, and polyetheretherketone braiding at 1.5 T and 3 T. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 May; 6(4):314-9. PMID: 23685793; PMCID: PMC3796159.
    35. Vogel SA, Hess CP, Dowd C, Hoffman WY, Kane AJ, Rajaii R, Frieden IJ. Early versus later presentations of venous malformations: where and why? Pediatr Dermatol. 2013 Sep-Oct; 30(5):534-40. PMID: 23679583.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Kansagra AP, Cooke DL, English JD, Sincic RM, Amans MR, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hetts SW. Current trends in endovascular management of traumatic cerebrovascular injury. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Jan; 6(1):47-50. PMID: 23322749.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Moftakhar P, English JD, Cooke DL, Kim WT, Stout C, Smith WS, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Hetts SW. Density of thrombus on admission CT predicts revascularization efficacy in large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2013 Jan; 44(1):243-5. PMID: 23111438.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Hetts SW, Keenan K, Fullerton HJ, Young WL, English JD, Gupta N, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Halbach VV. Pediatric intracranial nongalenic pial arteriovenous fistulas: clinical features, angioarchitecture, and outcomes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012 Oct; 33(9):1710-9. PMID: 22766672.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Cooke DL, Meisel KM, Kim WT, Stout CE, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Higashida RT. Serial angiographic appearance of segmental arterial mediolysis manifesting as vertebral, internal mammary and intra-abdominal visceral artery aneurysms in a patient presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and review of the literature. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013 Sep 01; 5(5):478-82. PMID: 22693248.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Hetts SW, Moftakhar P, English JD, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Douglas VC, Halbach VV. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas and intrathecal venous drainage: correlation between digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical findings. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 May; 16(5):433-40. PMID: 22324803.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Tatum J, Farid H, Cooke D, Fullerton H, Smith W, Higashida R, Halbach VV, Dowd C. Mechanical embolectomy for treatment of large vessel acute ischemic stroke in children. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013 Mar; 5(2):128-34. PMID: 22307540.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Hetts SW, English JD, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Scanlon JT, Halbach VV. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms: new and enlarging aneurysms after index aneurysm treatment or observation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Dec; 32(11):2017-22. PMID: 22081674.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Bharatha A, Faughnan ME, Kim H, Pourmohamad T, Krings T, Bayrak-Toydemir P, Pawlikowska L, McCulloch CE, Lawton MT, Dowd C, Young WL, Terbrugge KG. Brain arteriovenous malformation multiplicity predicts the diagnosis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: quantitative assessment. Stroke. 2012 Jan; 43(1):72-8. PMID: 22034007; PMCID: PMC3727386.
    44. Alexander MD, Hetts SW, Young WL, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Higashida RT, English JD. Supernova hemorrhage: obliterative hemorrhage of brain arteriovenous malformations following ? knife radiosurgery. J Neurointerv Surg. 2012 Sep; 4(5):364-7. PMID: 21990534.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Cooke D, Farid H, Kim W, Dowd C, Higashida R, Halbach V. Zygomatico-orbital intra-arterial melphalan infusion for intraocular retinoblastoma. J Neurointerv Surg. 2012 Jul; 4(4):e16. PMID: 21990490.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Cooke D, Tatum J, Farid H, Dowd C, Higashida R, Halbach V. Transvenous embolization of a pediatric pial arteriovenous fistula. J Neurointerv Surg. 2012 Jul; 4(4):e14. PMID: 21990498.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Adler F, Gupta N, Hess CP, Dowd C, Dillon WP. Intraosseous CSF fistula in a patient with Gorham disease resulting in intracranial hypotension. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Dec; 32(11):E198-200. PMID: 21659480.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Waldron JS, Sughrue ME, Hetts SW, Wilson SP, Mills SA, McDermott MW, Dowd C, Parsa AT. Embolization of skull base meningiomas and feeding vessels arising from the internal carotid circulation. Neurosurgery. 2011 Jan; 68(1):162-9; discussion 169. PMID: 21150761.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Martin AJ, Hetts SW, Dillon WP, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Dowd C, Lawton MT, Saloner D. MR imaging of partially thrombosed cerebral aneurysms: characteristics and evolution. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Feb; 32(2):346-51. PMID: 21087941; PMCID: PMC3542832.
    50. Rosbe KW, Hess CP, Dowd C, Frieden IJ. Masseteric venous malformations: diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Dec; 143(6):779-83. PMID: 21109077.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Antonietti L, Sheth SA, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Lawton MT, English JD, Hetts SW. Long-term outcome in the repair of spinal cord perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Nov; 31(10):1824-30. PMID: 20813874.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Hess CP, Fullerton HJ, Metry DW, Drolet BA, Siegel DH, Auguste KI, Gupta N, Haggstrom AN, Dowd C, Frieden IJ, Barkovich AJ. Cervical and intracranial arterial anomalies in 70 patients with PHACE syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Nov; 31(10):1980-6. PMID: 20705698.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Jun P, Ko NU, English JD, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Hetts SW. Endovascular treatment of medically refractory cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Nov; 31(10):1911-6. PMID: 20616179; PMCID: PMC4067264.
    54. Brown A, Bechtel C, Bill J, Liu H, Liu J, McDonald D, Pai S, Radhamohan A, Renslow R, Thayer B, Yohe S, Dowd C. Increasing parvovirus filter throughput of monoclonal antibodies using ion exchange membrane adsorptive pre-filtration. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2010 Jul 01; 106(4):627-37. PMID: 20229510.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Oka H, Pogrel MA, Dowd C, Lee JS. Treatment of arteriovenous malformation of the mandible with resection and immediate reconstruction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010 Mar; 68(3):658-63. PMID: 19931964.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Waldron JS, Hetts SW, Armstrong-Wells J, Dowd C, Fullerton HJ, Gupta N, Lawton MT. Multiple intracranial aneurysms and moyamoya disease associated with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: surgical considerations. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009 Nov; 4(5):439-44. PMID: 19877776.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Potter CA, Armstrong-Wells J, Fullerton HJ, Young WL, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Hetts SW. Neonatal giant pial arteriovenous malformation: genesis or rapid enlargement in the third trimester. J Neurointerv Surg. 2009 Dec; 1(2):151-3. PMID: 20625463.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Hetts SW, Narvid J, Sanai N, Lawton MT, Gupta N, Fullerton HJ, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. Intracranial aneurysms in childhood: 27-year single-institution experience. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009 Aug; 30(7):1315-24. PMID: 19357386.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Lawton MT, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Sanai N, Malek JY, Dowd C. Combined microsurgical and endovascular management of complex intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jun; 62(6 Suppl 3):1503-15. PMID: 18695569.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Chen Y, Zhu W, Bollen AW, Lawton MT, Barbaro NM, Dowd C, Hashimoto T, Yang GY, Young WL. Evidence of inflammatory cell involvement in brain arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jun; 62(6):1340-9; discussion 1349-50. PMID: 18825001; PMCID: PMC2582017.
    61. Narvid J, Hetts SW, Larsen D, Neuhaus J, Singh TP, McSwain H, Lawton MT, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae: clinical features and long-term results. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jan; 62(1):159-66; discussion 166-7. PMID: 18300903.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Acosta FL, Sanai N, Chi JH, Dowd C, Chin C, Tihan T, Chou D, Weinstein PR, Ames CP. Comprehensive management of symptomatic and aggressive vertebral hemangiomas. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2008 Jan; 19(1):17-29. PMID: 18156044.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Johnston SC, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Duckwiler GR, Gress DR. Predictors of rehemorrhage after treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms: the Cerebral Aneurysm Rerupture After Treatment (CARAT) study. Stroke. 2008 Jan; 39(1):120-5. PMID: 18048860.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Martin AJ, Cha S, Higashida RT, Cullen SP, Halbach V, Dowd C, McDermott MW, Saloner DA. Assessment of vasculature of meningiomas and the effects of embolization with intra-arterial MR perfusion imaging: a feasibility study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007 Oct; 28(9):1771-7. PMID: 17885240.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Dispensa BP, Saloner DA, Acevedo-Bolton G, Achrol AS, Jou LD, McCulloch CE, Johnston SC, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Ko NU, Lawton MT, Martin AJ, Quinnine N, Young WL. Estimation of fusiform intracranial aneurysm growth by serial magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007 Jul; 26(1):177-83. PMID: 17659544.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Du R, Keyoung HM, Dowd C, Young WL, Lawton MT. The effects of diffuseness and deep perforating artery supply on outcomes after microsurgical resection of brain arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 2007 Apr; 60(4):638-46; discussion 646-8. PMID: 17415200.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Hetts SW, Narvid J, Singh T, Meagher S, Corcoran K, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Association between lumbar epidural injection and development of acute paraparesis in patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007 Mar; 28(3):581-3. PMID: 17353341.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Acosta FL, Dowd C, Chin C, Tihan T, Ames CP, Weinstein PR. Current treatment strategies and outcomes in the management of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas. Neurosurgery. 2006 Feb; 58(2):287-95; discussion 287-95. PMID: 16462482.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Caragine LP, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Higashida RT. Intraorbital arteriovenous fistulae of the ophthalmic veins treated by transvenous endovascular occlusion: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2006 Feb; 58(1 Suppl):ONS-E170; discussion ONS-E170. PMID: 16462623.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Du R, Dowd C, Johnston SC, Young WL, Lawton MT. Interobserver variability in grading of brain arteriovenous malformations using the Spetzler-Martin system. Neurosurgery. 2005 Oct; 57(4):668-75; discussion 668-75. PMID: 16239878.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Juravsky L, Meagher S. Initial clinical experience with a new self-expanding nitinol stent for the treatment of intracranial cerebral aneurysms: the Cordis Enterprise stent. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Aug; 26(7):1751-6. PMID: 16091525.
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    72. Yu W, Smith WS, Singh V, Ko NU, Cullen SP, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Higashida RT. Long-term outcome of endovascular stenting for symptomatic basilar artery stenosis. Neurology. 2005 Mar 22; 64(6):1055-7. PMID: 15781826.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Martin AJ, Saloner DA, Roberts TP, Roberts H, Weber OM, Dillon W, Cullen S, Halbach V, Dowd C, Higashida RT. Carotid stent delivery in an XMR suite: immediate assessment of the physiologic impact of extracranial revascularization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Mar; 26(3):531-7. PMID: 15760861.
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    76. Smith WS, Dowd C, Johnston SC, Ko NU, DeArmond SJ, Dillon WP, Setty D, Lawton MT, Young WL, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. Neurotoxicity of intra-arterial papaverine preserved with chlorobutanol used for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2004 Nov; 35(11):2518-22. PMID: 15472097.
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    77. Liu C, Lo JC, Dowd C, Wilson CB, Kunwar S, Aron DC, Tyrrell JB. Cavernous and inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the evaluation of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004 Oct; 61(4):478-86. PMID: 15473881.
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    78. Gurney TA, Dowd C, Murr AH. Embolization for the treatment of idiopathic posterior epistaxis. Am J Rhinol. 2004 Sep-Oct; 18(5):335-9. PMID: 15586807.
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    79. Mathes EF, Haggstrom AN, Dowd C, Hoffman WY, Frieden IJ. Clinical characteristics and management of vascular anomalies: findings of a multidisciplinary vascular anomalies clinic. Arch Dermatol. 2004 Aug; 140(8):979-83. PMID: 15313815.
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    80. Kim EJ, Halim AX, Dowd C, Lawton MT, Singh V, Bennett J, Young WL. The relationship of coexisting extranidal aneurysms to intracranial hemorrhage in patients harboring brain arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 2004 Jun; 54(6):1349-57; discussion 1357-8. PMID: 15157291.
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    81. Ng PP, Higashida RT, Cullen SP, Malek R, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Intraarterial thrombolysis trials in acute ischemic stroke. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004 Jan; 15(1 Pt 2):S77-85. PMID: 15101517.
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    82. Josephson SA, Dillon WP, Dowd C, Malek R, Lawton MT, Smith WS. Continuous bleeding from a basilar terminus aneurysm imaged with CT angiography and conventional angiography. Neurocrit Care. 2004; 1(1):103-6. PMID: 16174904.
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    83. Caragine LP, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Ng PP, Higashida RT. Parallel venous channel as the recipient pouch in transverse/sigmoid sinus dural fistulae. Neurosurgery. 2003 Dec; 53(6):1261-6; discussion 1266-7. PMID: 14633292.
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    84. Fullerton HJ, Aminoff AR, Ferriero DM, Gupta N, Dowd C. Neurodevelopmental outcome after endovascular treatment of vein of Galen malformations. Neurology. 2003 Nov 25; 61(10):1386-90. PMID: 14638960.
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    85. Metry DW, Dowd C, Barkovich AJ, Frieden IJ. Facial hemangioma and cerebral corticovascular dysplasia: a syndrome associated with epilepsy. Neurology. 2003 Nov 25; 61(10):1461; author reply 1461. PMID: 14638990.
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    86. Ng PP, Higashida RT, Cullen S, Malek R, Halbach VV, Dowd C. Endovascular strategies for carotid cavernous and intracerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Oct 15; 15(4):ECP1. PMID: 15344900.
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    87. Dowd C, Halbach VV, Higashida RT. Meningiomas: the role of preoperative angiography and embolization. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Jul 15; 15(1):E10. PMID: 15355012.
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    88. Ng PP, Halbach VV, Quinn R, Balousek P, Caragine LP, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Wilson C. Endovascular treatment for dural arteriovenous fistulae of the superior petrosal sinus. Neurosurgery. 2003 Jul; 53(1):25-32; discussion 32-3. PMID: 12823870.
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    89. Ng PP, Halbach VV, Caragine LP, Dowd C, Higashida RT. Guglielmi detachable coil extraction: suction generated by pusher-wire withdrawal after coil detachment within an intracranial aneurysm. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003 May; 24(5):982-4. PMID: 12748107.
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    90. Hashimoto T, Wen G, Lawton MT, Boudreau NJ, Bollen AW, Yang GY, Barbaro NM, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Young WL. Abnormal expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in brain arteriovenous malformations. Stroke. 2003 Apr; 34(4):925-31. PMID: 12649522.
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    91. Lawton MT, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Sanai N, Malek JY, Dowd C. Combined microsurgical and endovascular management of complex intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 2003 Feb; 52(2):263-74; discussion 274-5. PMID: 12535354.
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    92. Bernstein R, Dowd C, Gress DR. Rapidly reversible dementia. Lancet. 2003 Feb 01; 361(9355):392. PMID: 12573378.
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    93. Jones JJ, Brunaud L, Dowd C, Duh QY, Morita E, Clark OH. Accuracy of selective venous sampling for intact parathyroid hormone in difficult patients with recurrent or persistent hyperparathyroidism. Surgery. 2002 Dec; 132(6):944-50; discussion 950-1. PMID: 12490840.
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    94. Gress DR, Smith WS, Dowd C, Van Halbach V, Finley RJ, Higashida RT. Angioplasty for intracranial symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischemia. Neurosurgery. 2002 Jul; 51(1):23-7; discussion 27-9. PMID: 12182423.
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    95. Meyers PM, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Lempert TE, Malek AM, Phatouros CC, Lefler JE, Higashida RT. Dural carotid cavernous fistula: definitive endovascular management and long-term follow-up. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002 Jul; 134(1):85-92. PMID: 12095813.
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    96. Caragine LP, Halbach VV, Ng PP, Dowd C. Vascular myelopathies-vascular malformations of the spinal cord: presentation and endovascular surgical management. Semin Neurol. 2002 Jun; 22(2):123-32. PMID: 12524557.
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    97. Ng PP, Caragine LP, Dowd C. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: an emerging therapy for vertebral compression fractures. Semin Neurol. 2002 Jun; 22(2):149-56. PMID: 12524560.
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    98. Singh V, Gress DR, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Johnston SC. The learning curve for coil embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2002 May; 23(5):768-71. PMID: 12006274.
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    99. Halim AX, Singh V, Johnston SC, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Lawton MT, Gress DR, McCulloch CE, Young WL. Characteristics of brain arteriovenous malformations with coexisting aneurysms: a comparison of two referral centers. Stroke. 2002 Mar; 33(3):675-9. PMID: 11872886.
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    100. Vates GE, Wang KC, Bonovich D, Dowd C, Lawton MT. Bow hunter stroke caused by cervical disc herniation. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2002 Jan; 96(1 Suppl):90-3. PMID: 11795720.
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    101. Singh V, Meyers PM, Halbach VH, Gress DR, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Smith WS. Dural arteriovenous fistula associated with prothrombin gene mutation. J Neuroimaging. 2001 Jul; 11(3):319-21. PMID: 11462303.
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    102. Metry DW, Dowd C, Barkovich AJ, Frieden IJ. The many faces of PHACE syndrome. J Pediatr. 2001 Jul; 139(1):117-23. PMID: 11445804.
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    103. Atkinson RP, Awad IA, Batjer HH, Dowd C, Furlan A, Giannotta SL, Gomez CR, Gress D, Hademenos G, Halbach V, Hemphill JC, Higashida RT, Hopkins LN, Horowitz MB, Johnston SC, Lawton MW, McDermott MW, Malek AM, Mohr JP, Qureshi AI, Riina H, Smith WS, Pile-Spellman J, Spetzler RF, Tomsick TA, Young WL. Reporting terminology for brain arteriovenous malformation clinical and radiographic features for use in clinical trials. Stroke. 2001 Jun; 32(6):1430-42. PMID: 11387510.
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    104. Dowd C, Phatouros CC, Malek AM, Lempert TE, Meyers PM, Halbach VV, Higashida RT. Embolization of non-ruptured aneurysms. Interv Neuroradiol. 1999 Nov; 5 Suppl 1:93-6. PMID: 20670547.
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    105. Meyers PM, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Lempert TE, Lefler JE, Malek AM, Phatouros CC, Higashida RT. Endovascular treatment of a ruptured dual aperture cavernous aneurysm. J Neuroimaging. 2001 Jan; 11(1):71-5. PMID: 11198534.
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    106. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Phatouros CC, Lempert TE, Meyers PM, Smith WS, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Stent angioplasty for cervical carotid artery stenosis in high-risk symptomatic NASCET-ineligible patients. Stroke. 2000 Dec; 31(12):3029-33. PMID: 11108767.
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    107. Shin EJ, Lalwani AK, Dowd C. Role of angiography in the evaluation of patients with pulsatile tinnitus. Laryngoscope. 2000 Nov; 110(11):1916-20. PMID: 11081610.
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    108. Chiba T, Albanese CT, Farmer DL, Dowd C, Filly RA, Machin GA, Harrison M. Balloon tracheal occlusion for congenital diaphragmatic hernia: experimental studies. J Pediatr Surg. 2000 Nov; 35(11):1566-70. PMID: 11083424.
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    109. Phatouros CC, Lefler JE, Higashida RT, Meyers PM, Malek AM, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Primary stenting for high-grade basilar artery stenosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000 Oct; 21(9):1744-9. PMID: 11039359.
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    110. Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Meyers PM, Lempert TE, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Carotid artery stent placement for atherosclerotic disease: rationale, technique, and current status. Radiology. 2000 Oct; 217(1):26-41. PMID: 11012420.
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    111. Meyers PM, Higashida RT, Phatouros CC, Malek AM, Lempert TE, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after percutaneous transluminal stenting of the craniocervical arteries. Neurosurgery. 2000 Aug; 47(2):335-43; discussion 343-5. PMID: 10942006.
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    112. Meyers PM, Halbach VV, Malek AM, Phatouros CC, Dowd C, Lawton MT, Lempert TE, Higashida RT. Endovascular treatment of cerebral artery aneurysms during pregnancy: report of three cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000 Aug; 21(7):1306-11. PMID: 10954284.
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    113. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Phatouros CC, Lempert TE, Meyers PM, Smith WS, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Endovascular management of extracranial carotid artery dissection achieved using stent angioplasty. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000 Aug; 21(7):1280-92. PMID: 10954281.
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    114. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Phatouros C, Lempert T, Meyers P, Dowd C, Halbach VV. 820 Treatment of Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease Using Stent-Supported Angioplasty: A Series of 24 Patients. Neurosurgery. 2000 Aug 01; 47(2):534. PMID: 28201645.
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    115. Phatouros CC, Sasaki TY, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Meyers PM, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Stent-supported coil embolization: the treatment of fusiform and wide-neck aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms. Neurosurgery. 2000 Jul; 47(1):107-13; discussion 113-5. PMID: 10917353.
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    116. Johnston SC, Wilson CB, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd C, McDermott MW, Applebury CB, Farley TL, Gress DR. Endovascular and surgical treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms: comparison of risks. Ann Neurol. 2000 Jul; 48(1):11-9. PMID: 10894211.
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    117. Meyers PM, Halbach VV, Phatouros CP, Dowd C, Malek AM, Lempert TE, Lefler JE, Higashida RT. Hemorrhagic complications in vein of Galen malformations. Ann Neurol. 2000 Jun; 47(6):748-55. PMID: 10852540.
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    118. Malek AM, Halbach VV, Phatouros CC, Lempert TE, Meyers PM, Dowd C, Higashida RT. Balloon-assist technique for endovascular coil embolization of geometrically difficult intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 2000 Jun; 46(6):1397-406; discussion 1406-7. PMID: 10834645.
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    119. Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Meyers PM, Lefler JE, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Endovascular treatment of noncarotid extracranial cerebrovascular disease. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2000 Apr; 11(2):331-50. PMID: 10733849.
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    120. Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Meyers PM, Lempert TE, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Endovascular stenting for carotid artery stenosis: preliminary experience using the shape-memory- alloy-recoverable-technology (SMART) stent. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000 Apr; 21(4):732-8. PMID: 10782787.
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    121. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Phatouros CC, Lempert TE, Meyers PM, Smith WS, Stoney R. Patient presentation, angiographic features, and treatment of strangulation-induced bilateral dissection of the cervical internal carotid artery. Report of three cases. J Neurosurg. 2000 Mar; 92(3):481-7. PMID: 10701540.
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    123. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Reilly LM, Smith WS, Kang SM, Gress DR, Meyers PM, Phatouros CC, Halbach VV, Dowd C. Subclavian arteritis and pseudoaneurysm formation secondary to stent infection. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2000 Jan-Feb; 23(1):57-60. PMID: 10656908.
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    125. Malek AM, Halbach VV, Phatouros CC, Meyers PM, Dowd C, Higashida RT. Endovascular treatment of a ruptured intracranial dissecting vertebral aneurysm in a kickboxer. J Trauma. 2000 Jan; 48(1):143-5. PMID: 10647582.
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    126. Phatouros CC, Meyers PM, Dowd C, Halbach VV, Malek AM, Higashida RT. Carotid artery cavernous fistulas. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2000 Jan; 11(1):67-84, viii. PMID: 10565871.
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    127. Phatouros CC, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Lempert TE, Malek AM, Meyers PM, Higashida RT. Acquired pial arteriovenous fistula following cerebral vein thrombosis. Stroke. 1999 Nov; 30(11):2487-90. PMID: 10548689.
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    128. Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Meyers PM, Lempert TE, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Clinical use of stents for carotid artery disease. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 1999 Nov; 39(12):809-27. PMID: 10639807.
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    129. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Phatouros CC, Meyers PM, Dowd C. Tandem intracranial stent deployment for treatment of an iatrogenic, flow-limiting, basilar artery dissection: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 1999 Oct; 45(4):919-24. PMID: 10515491.
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    130. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Phatouros CC, Lempert TE, Meyers PM, Gress DR, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Treatment of posterior circulation ischemia with extracranial percutaneous balloon angioplasty and stent placement. Stroke. 1999 Oct; 30(10):2073-85. PMID: 10512910.
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    131. Malek AM, Halbach VV, Holmes S, Phatouros CC, Meyers PM, Dowd C, Higashida RT. Beating aneurysm sign: angiographic evidence of ruptured aneurysm tamponade by intracranial hemorrhage. Case illustration. J Neurosurg. 1999 Sep; 91(3):517. PMID: 10470834.
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    132. Phatouros CC, Halbach VV, Malek AM, Meyers PM, Dowd C, Higashida RT. Intraventricular contrast medium leakage during ethanol embolization of an arteriovenous malformation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999 Aug; 20(7):1329-32. PMID: 10472994.
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    133. Miyawaki L, Dowd C, Wara W, Goldsmith B, Albright N, Gutin P, Halbach V, Hieshima G, Higashida R, Lulu B, Pitts L, Schell M, Smith V, Weaver K, Wilson C, Larson D. Five year results of LINAC radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations: outcome for large AVMS. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1999 Jul 15; 44(5):1089-106. PMID: 10421543.
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    134. Phatouros CC, Halbach VV, Malek AM, Dowd C, Higashida RT. Simultaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and carotid cavernous fistula after rupture of a paraclinoid aneurysm during balloon-assisted coil embolization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999 Jun-Jul; 20(6):1100-2. PMID: 10445450.
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    135. Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Smith WS, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Embolization of the meningohypophyseal trunk as a cause of diabetes insipidus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999 Jun-Jul; 20(6):1115-8. PMID: 10445454.
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    136. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Phatouros CC, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Treatment of an intracranial aneurysm using a new three-dimensional-shape Guglielmi detachable coil: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 1999 May; 44(5):1142-4; discussion 1144-5. PMID: 10232552.
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    137. Malek AM, Halbach VV, Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Wachhorst S, Lawton MT. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula with an associated feeding artery aneurysm: case report. Neurosurgery. 1999 Apr; 44(4):877-80. PMID: 10201316.
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    138. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Balousek PA, Phatouros CC, Smith WS, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Endovascular recanalization with balloon angioplasty and stenting of an occluded occipital sinus for treatment of intracranial venous hypertension: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 1999 Apr; 44(4):896-901. PMID: 10201320.
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    139. Dowd C, Malek AM, Phatouros CC, Hemphill JC. Application of a rheolytic thrombectomy device in the treatment of dural sinus thrombosis: a new technique. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999 Apr; 20(4):568-70. PMID: 10319961.
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    140. Lempert TE, Malek AM, Halbach VV, Phatouros CC, Dowd C, Higashida RT. Rescue treatment of acute parent vessel thrombosis with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor during GDC coil embolization. Stroke. 1999 Mar; 30(3):693-5. PMID: 10066986.
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    141. Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Smith WS, Mully TW, DeArmond SJ, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Endovascular stenting of an acutely thrombosed basilar artery: technical case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery. 1999 Mar; 44(3):667-73. PMID: 10069607.
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    142. Shah SB, Lalwani AK, Dowd C. Transverse/sigmoid sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas presenting as pulsatile tinnitus. Laryngoscope. 1999 Jan; 109(1):54-8. PMID: 9917041.
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    148. Lempert TE, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Urwin RW, Balousek PA, Hieshima GB. Endovascular treatment of pseudoaneurysms with electrolytically detachable coils. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1998 May; 19(5):907-11. PMID: 9613510.
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    159. Terada T, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Nakai E, Yokote H, Itakura T, Hieshima GB. Transluminal angioplasty for arteriosclerotic disease of the distal vertebral and basilar arteries. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1996 Apr; 60(4):377-81. PMID: 8774399; PMCID: PMC1073887.
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    162. Terada T, Tsuura M, Komai N, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Wilson CB, Hieshima GB. The role of angiogenic factor bFGF in the development of dural AVFs. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1996; 138(7):877-83. PMID: 8869717.
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    163. Teitelbaum GP, Halbach VV, Larsen DW, McDougall CG, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Treatment of massive posterior epistaxis by detachable coil embolization of a cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm. Neuroradiology. 1995 May; 37(4):334-6. PMID: 7666976.
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    167. Higashida RT, Tsai FY, Halbach VV, Barnwell SL, Dowd C, Hieshima GB. Interventional neurovascular techniques in the treatment of stroke--state-of-the-art therapy. J Intern Med. 1995 Jan; 237(1):105-15. PMID: 7830022.
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    168. Teitelbaum GP, Halbach VV, Fraser KW, Larsen DW, McDougall CG, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Hieshima GB. Direct-puncture coil embolization of maxillofacial high-flow vascular malformations. Laryngoscope. 1994 Nov; 104(11 Pt 1):1397-400. PMID: 7968172.
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    169. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Tsai FY, Dowd C, Hieshima GB. Interventional neurovascular techniques for cerebral revascularization in the treatment of stroke. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994 Oct; 163(4):793-800. PMID: 8092013.
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    170. Perrott DH, Schmidt B, Dowd C, Kaban LB. Treatment of a high-flow arteriovenous malformation by direct puncture and coil embolization. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1994 Oct; 52(10):1083-6. PMID: 8089799.
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    171. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Barnwell SL, Dowd C, Hieshima GB. Thrombolytic therapy in acute stroke. J Endovasc Surg. 1994 Sep; 1:4-15. PMID: 9234100.
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    172. Rodriquez JM, Tezelman S, Siperstein AE, Duh QY, Higgins C, Morita E, Dowd C, Clark OH. Localization procedures in patients with persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Arch Surg. 1994 Aug; 129(8):870-5. PMID: 8048861.
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    173. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Hieshima GB. Intracranial aneurysms. Evolution and future role of endovascular techniques. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1994 Jul; 5(3):413-25. PMID: 8086795.
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    174. Teitelbaum GP, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Larsen DW, McDougall CG, Dowd C, Hieshima GB. Flow-directed use of electrolytically detachable platinum embolization coils. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1994 May-Jun; 5(3):453-6. PMID: 8054745.
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    175. Smith TP, Higashida RT, Barnwell SL, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Fraser KW, Teitelbaum GP, Hieshima GB. Treatment of dural sinus thrombosis by urokinase infusion. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1994 May; 15(5):801-7. PMID: 8059645.
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    176. Terada T, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Tsuura M, Komai N, Wilson CB, Hieshima GB. Development of acquired arteriovenous fistulas in rats due to venous hypertension. J Neurosurg. 1994 May; 80(5):884-9. PMID: 8169629.
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    177. Damiano TR, Truwit CL, Dowd C, Symonds DL, Portela L, Dreisbach J. Posterior fossa venous angiomas with drainage through the brain stem. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1994 Apr; 15(4):643-52. PMID: 8010264.
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    178. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Barnwell SL, Fraser KW, Smith TP, Teitelbaum GP, Hieshima GB. The efficacy of endosaccular aneurysm occlusion in alleviating neurological deficits produced by mass effect. J Neurosurg. 1994 Apr; 80(4):659-66. PMID: 8151344.
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    179. Fraser KW, Halbach VV, Teitelbaum GP, Smith TP, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Wilson CB, Hieshima GB. Endovascular platinum coil embolization of incompletely surgically clipped cerebral aneurysms. Surg Neurol. 1994 Jan; 41(1):4-8. PMID: 8310385.
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    180. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Fraser KW, Edwards MS, Barnwell SL. Treatment of giant intradural (perimedullary) arteriovenous fistulas. Neurosurgery. 1993 Dec; 33(6):972-9; discussion 979-80. PMID: 8134010.
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    181. Higashida RT, Tsai FY, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Hieshima GB. Cerebral percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Heart Dis Stroke. 1993 Nov-Dec; 2(6):497-502. PMID: 8137057.
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    182. Smith TP, Koci T, Mehringer CM, Tsai FY, Fraser KW, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Hieshima GB. Transarterial embolization of vertebral hemangioma. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1993 Sep-Oct; 4(5):681-5. PMID: 8219564.
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    183. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Fraser KW, Smith TP, Teitelbaum GP, Wilson CB, Hieshima GB. Endovascular treatment of vertebral artery dissections and pseudoaneurysms. J Neurosurg. 1993 Aug; 79(2):183-91. PMID: 8331398.
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    184. Lalwani AK, Dowd C, Halbach VV. Grading venous restrictive disease in patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas of the transverse/sigmoid sinus. J Neurosurg. 1993 Jul; 79(1):11-5. PMID: 8315446.
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    185. Smith TP, Graves VB, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Fraser KW, Dowd C, Hieshima GB. Microcatheter retrieval device for intravascular foreign body removal. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1993 Jul-Aug; 14(4):809-11. PMID: 8352149.
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    186. Baker LL, Dillon WP, Hieshima GB, Dowd C, Frieden IJ. Hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck: MR characterization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1993 Mar-Apr; 14(2):307-14. PMID: 8456703.
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    187. Higashida RT, Tsai FY, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Smith T, Fraser K, Hieshima GB. Transluminal angioplasty for atherosclerotic disease of the vertebral and basilar arteries. J Neurosurg. 1993 Feb; 78(2):192-8. PMID: 8421202.
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    188. Dowd C, Dillon WP, Barbaro NM, Laxer KD. Intractable complex partial seizure: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with pathology and electroencephalography. Epilepsy Res Suppl. 1992; 5:101-10. PMID: 1418438.
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    189. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Dormandy B, Bell J, Hieshima GB. Intravascular balloon dilatation therapy for intracranial arterial vasospasm: patient selection, technique, and clinical results. Neurosurg Rev. 1992; 15(2):89-95. PMID: 1386147.
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    190. Dowd C, Halbach VV, Barnwell SL, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Particulate embolization of the anterior choroidal artery in the treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1991 Nov-Dec; 12(6):1055-61. PMID: 1763725.
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    191. Dowd C, Dillon WP, Barbaro NM, Laxer KD. Magnetic resonance imaging of intractable complex partial seizures: pathologic and electroencephalographic correlation. Epilepsia. 1991 Jul-Aug; 32(4):454-9. PMID: 1868803.
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    192. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Barnwell SL, Dowd C, Hieshima GB. Transarterial platinum coil embolization of carotid-cavernous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1991 May-Jun; 12(3):429-33. PMID: 2058488.
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    193. Barnwell SL, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Wilson CB. Multiple dural arteriovenous fistulas of the cranium and spine. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1991 May-Jun; 12(3):441-5. PMID: 2058490.
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    194. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Barnwell SL, Hieshima GB. Management of vascular perforations that occur during neurointerventional procedures. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1991 Mar-Apr; 12(2):319-27. PMID: 1902036.
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    195. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Barnwell SL, Hieshima GB. Intracranial aneurysms: interventional neurovascular treatment with detachable balloons--results in 215 cases. Radiology. 1991 Mar; 178(3):663-70. PMID: 1994399.
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    196. Barnwell SL, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Wilson CB. A variant of arteriovenous fistulas within the wall of dural sinuses. Results of combined surgical and endovascular therapy. J Neurosurg. 1991 Feb; 74(2):199-204. PMID: 1988588.
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    197. Wilson CB, Hieshima GB, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Barnwell SL. Interventional radiologic adjuncts in cerebrovascular surgery. Clin Neurosurg. 1991; 37:332-52. PMID: 2009697.
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    198. Barnwell SL, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Hieshima GB. Direct endovascular thrombolytic therapy for dural sinus thrombosis. Neurosurgery. 1991 Jan; 28(1):135-42. PMID: 1994268.
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    199. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Barnwell SL, Hieshima GB. Interventional neurovascular treatment of a giant intracranial aneurysm using platinum microcoils. Surg Neurol. 1991 Jan; 35(1):64-8. PMID: 1983886.
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    200. Dowd C, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Barnwell SL, Hieshima GB. Endovascular coil embolization of unusual posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 1990 Dec; 27(6):954-61. PMID: 2274138.
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    201. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Barnwell SL, Dowd C, Dormandy B, Bell J, Hieshima GB. Treatment of intracranial aneurysms with preservation of the parent vessel: results of percutaneous balloon embolization in 84 patients. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1990 Jul-Aug; 11(4):633-40. PMID: 2114739.
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    202. Dowd C, Halbach VV, Barnwell SL, Higashida RT, Edwards MS, Hieshima GB. Transfemoral venous embolization of vein of Galen malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1990 Jul-Aug; 11(4):643-8. PMID: 2114741.
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    203. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd C, Barnwell SL, Hieshima GB. Treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Neurosurgery. 1990 Jun; 26(6):1021-7. PMID: 2362658.
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    204. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Barnwell SL, Dormandy B, Bell J, Hieshima GB. Endovascular detachable balloon embolization therapy of cavernous carotid artery aneurysms: results in 87 cases. J Neurosurg. 1990 Jun; 72(6):857-63. PMID: 2338569.
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    205. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Wilson CB, Barnwell SL, Dowd C. Dural arteriovenous fistulas supplied by ethmoidal arteries. Neurosurgery. 1990 May; 26(5):816-23. PMID: 2191241.
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    206. Barnwell SL, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Dural arteriovenous fistulas involving the inferior petrosal sinus: angiographic findings in six patients. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1990 May; 11(3):511-6. PMID: 2112316.
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    207. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Dowd C, Barnwell SL, Edwards MS, Melicharek M. Aneurysms of the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery: results of treatment with endovascular or surgical occlusion. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1990 Mar-Apr; 11(2):253-7. PMID: 2107708.
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    208. Barnwell SL, Dowd C, Davis RL, Edwards MS, Gutin PH, Wilson CB. Cryptic vascular malformations of the spinal cord: diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging and outcome of surgery. J Neurosurg. 1990 Mar; 72(3):403-7. PMID: 2303875.
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    209. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Cahan LD, Brant-Zawadzki M, Barnwell S, Dowd C, Hieshima GB. Transluminal angioplasty for treatment of intracranial arterial vasospasm. J Neurosurg. 1989 Nov; 71(5 Pt 1):648-53. PMID: 2530320.
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    210. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Dowd C, Barnwell SL. Venography and venous pressure monitoring in dural sinus meningiomas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989 Nov-Dec; 10(6):1209-13. PMID: 2512784.
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    211. Barnwell SL, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Endovascular treatment of scalp arteriovenous fistulas associated with a large varix. Radiology. 1989 Nov; 173(2):533-9. PMID: 2798886.
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    212. Barnwell SL, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd C, Wilson CB, Hieshima GB. Transluminal angioplasty of intracerebral vessels for cerebral arterial spasm: reversal of neurological deficits after delayed treatment. Neurosurgery. 1989 Sep; 25(3):424-9. PMID: 2528079.
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    213. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Hardin CW, Dowd C, Barnwell SL. Transarterial occlusion of solitary intracerebral arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989 Jul-Aug; 10(4):747-52. PMID: 2505503.
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    214. Lemieux M, Dumesnil JG, Dowd C, Lutz D, Cartier P, Desaulniers D, Despres JP, Metras J, Raymond G. A new porcine bioprosthesis: design rationale and early clinical experience. Can J Cardiol. 1988 Sep; 4(6):322-7. PMID: 3179795.
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    215. Hesselink JR, Dowd C, Healy ME, Hajek P, Baker LL, Luerssen TG. MR imaging of brain contusions: a comparative study with CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988 May; 150(5):1133-42. PMID: 3258718.
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    216. Davis GB, Dowd C, Bookstein JJ, Maroney TP, Lang EV, Halasz N. Thrombosed dialysis grafts: efficacy of intrathrombic deposition of concentrated urokinase, clot maceration, and angioplasty. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987 Jul; 149(1):177-81. PMID: 2954441.
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    217. Sartoris DJ, Clopton P, Nemcek A, Dowd C, Resnick D. Vertebral-body collapse in focal and diffuse disease: patterns of pathologic processes. Radiology. 1986 Aug; 160(2):479-83. PMID: 3726130.
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