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Cynthia Harper, PhD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentOb/Gyn, Reproductive Sciences
Address3333 Calif. St,Laurel Heights
San Francisco CA 94118
Phone415-502-4092
vCardDownload vCard

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Middlebury College, Middlebury, VTBA06/1984Political Science
    Middlebury College, Madrid, Spain MA06/1985Spanish
    Columbia University, New York, MYMIA06/1987International and Public Affairs
    Princeton University, Princeton, NJPhD06/1996Demography and Health Policy
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PAPost-doctoral Fellowship08/1998Population Studies

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Cynthia C. Harper, PhD, is a Professor in Residence in the UCSF Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and is the Director of the UCSF-Kaiser BIRCWH (Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health) K12 scholar training program. She is a member of the Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health Executive Committee. Dr. Harper conducts research on contraception with the aim of improving access to care and women's health outcomes through clinical practice and health policy changes.

    With a team at UCSF Bixby, she conducted a series of studies over many years and policy contexts that helped to transform emergency contraception from a little known regimen of cut up packets of pills to a product widely available over the counter to everyone, including teens and undocumented populations. The research informed judicial and FDA decisions to ultimately move emergency contraception over-the-counter in the U.S. It also had a wide impact on policy and regulatory decisions in other countries where women can now access emergency contraception.

    Dr. Harper and her research team developed a provider contraceptive training curriculum that successfully reduced unintended pregnancy by nearly half among women in family planning clinics. Unintended pregnancy is high in the U.S at almost half of all pregnancies. The clinic intervention, tested in a large, national randomized trial, was a the first one to effectively decrease unintended pregnancy. The intervention also was demonstrated to respect women's autonomy in contraceptive-decision-making.

    Based on this effective intervention, Dr. Harper and her national training team, led by Dr. Suzan Goodman, have built a contraceptive training program, Beyond the Pill (beyondthepill.ucsf.edu), that offers a UCSF-Continuing Education-accredited course to physicians, nurses and health educators. They are bringing their intervention to scale reaching practices across the country, including large urban hospital systems, departments of health, FQHCs, family planning clinics, teen clinics, school-based health centers, and community colleges. The Beyond the Pill program has trained over 4,500 providers, reaching more than 1,000,000 female contraceptive patients annually. This year, in response to the Zika public health emergency, they partnered with the CDC Foundation and local stakeholders to train obstetrician-gynecologists in Puerto Rico. During this implementation science phase, the intervention has continued to have a significant impact on clinical practice changes and patient outcomes.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Contraceptive Training for Primary Care Providers in Puerto Rico
    University of Kansas-Missouri-DHHS Office of Population Affairs Jan 1, 2017 - Jul 1, 2017
    Role: PI
    Contraceptive Training of Ob\Gyns and Clinic Staff in Puerto Rico to Address Zika Virus Public Health Emergency
    CDC Foundation Jun 1, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    UCSF-Kaiser Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health K12s
    NIH/NICHD K12 HD052163Sep 30, 2015 - Jun 30, 2020
    Role: Director
    Providers' perceptions of the diaphragm in Southern Afr*
    NIH/NICHD R01HD046027Sep 26, 2003 - Jul 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Faculty Mentoring
    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Global Health

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Keesara S, Juma PA, Harper C, Newmann SJ. Barriers to postpartum contraception: differences among women based on parity and future fertility desires. Cult Health Sex. 2017 Jul 14; 1-15. PMID: 28705100.
      View in: PubMed
    2. El Ayadi AM, Rocca CH, Kohn JE, Velazquez D, Blum M, Newmann SJ, Harper C. The impact of an IUD and implant intervention on dual method use among young women: Results from a cluster randomized trial. Prev Med. 2017 Jan; 94:1-6. PMID: 27773708.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Gibbs SE, Rocca CH, Bednarek P, Thompson KM, Darney PD, Harper C. Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Counseling and Use for Older Adolescents and Nulliparous Women. J Adolesc Health. 2016 Dec; 59(6):703-709. PMID: 27665153.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Hsu A, Henderson JT, Harper C, Sawaya GF. Obstetrician-Gynecologist Practices and Beliefs Regarding External Genitalia Inspection and Speculum Examinations in Healthy Older Asymptomatic Women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016 Feb; 64(2):293-8. PMID: 26805728.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Thompson KM, Rocca CH, Kohn JE, Goodman S, Stern L, Blum M, Speidel JJ, Darney PD, Harper C. Public Funding for Contraception, Provider Training, and Use of Highly Effective Contraceptives: A Cluster Randomized Trial. Am J Public Health. 2016 Mar; 106(3):541-6. PMID: 26794168.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Steinberg JR, Tschann JM, Furgerson D, Harper C. Psychosocial factors and pre-abortion psychological health: The significance of stigma. Soc Sci Med. 2016 Feb; 150:67-75. PMID: 26735332; PMCID: PMC4737478 [Available on 02/01/17].
    7. Rocca CH, Thompson KM, Goodman S, Westhoff CL, Harper C. Funding policies and postabortion long-acting reversible contraception: results from a cluster randomized trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Jun; 214(6):716.e1-8. PMID: 26692178.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Rafie S, Kelly S, Gray EK, Wong M, Gibbs S, Harper C. Provider Opinions Regarding Expanding Access to Hormonal Contraception in Pharmacies. Womens Health Issues. 2016 Mar-Apr; 26(2):153-60. PMID: 26549241.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Keesara SR, Juma PA, Harper C. Why do women choose private over public facilities for family planning services? A qualitative study of post-partum women in an informal urban settlement in Kenya. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015 Aug 20; 15:335. PMID: 26290181; PMCID: PMC4545906.
    10. Biggs MA, Harper C, Brindis CD. California Family Planning Health Care Providers' Challenges to Same-Day Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Provision. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Aug; 126(2):338-45. PMID: 26241424.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Schneider A, Henderson JT, Harper C, Hsu A, Saraiya M, Sawaya GF. Obstetrician-gynecologists' beliefs about performing less cervical cancer screening: the pendulum swings. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Nov; 213(5):744-5. PMID: 26184779; PMCID: PMC4722818 [Available on 11/01/16].
    12. Steinauer JE, Upadhyay UD, Sokoloff A, Harper C, Diedrich JT, Drey EA. Choice of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, etonogestrel implant or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception after aspiration abortion. Contraception. 2015 Dec; 92(6):553-9. PMID: 26093190.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Harper C, Rocca CH, Thompson KM, Morfesis J, Goodman S, Darney PD, Westhoff CL, Speidel JJ. Reductions in pregnancy rates in the USA with long-acting reversible contraception: a cluster randomised trial. Lancet. 2015 Aug 08; 386(9993):562-8. PMID: 26091743.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Puri M, Henderson JT, Harper C, Blum M, Joshi D, Rocca CH. Contraceptive discontinuation and pregnancy postabortion in Nepal: a longitudinal cohort study. Contraception. 2015 Apr; 91(4):301-7. PMID: 25553872.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Yu JM, Henderson JT, Harper C, Sawaya GF. Obstetrician-gynecologists' beliefs on the importance of pelvic examinations in assessing hormonal contraception eligibility. Contraception. 2014 Dec; 90(6):612-4. PMID: 25108582.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Blanchard K, Chipato T, Ramjee G, Nhemachena T, Harper C. Clinicians' perceptions and provision of hormonal contraceptives for HIV-positive and at-risk women in Southern Africa: an original research article. Contraception. 2014 Oct; 90(4):391-8. PMID: 24924260; PMCID: PMC4437207.
    17. Rocca CH, Puri M, Harper C, Blum M, Dulal B, Henderson JT. Postabortion contraception a decade after legalization of abortion in Nepal. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2014 Aug; 126(2):170-4. PMID: 24825497.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Craig AD, Dehlendorf C, Borrero S, Harper C, Rocca CH. Exploring young adults' contraceptive knowledge and attitudes: disparities by race/ethnicity and age. Womens Health Issues. 2014 May-Jun; 24(3):e281-9. PMID: 24725755; PMCID: PMC4119871.
    19. Biggs MA, Harper C, Malvin J, Brindis CD. Factors influencing the provision of long-acting reversible contraception in California. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Mar; 123(3):593-602. PMID: 24499746.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Henderson JT, Yu JM, Harper C, Sawaya GF. U.S. clinicians' perspectives on less frequent routine gynecologic examinations. Prev Med. 2014 May; 62:49-53. PMID: 24518004.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Thompson KM, Stern L, Gelt M, Speidel JJ, Harper C. Counseling for IUDs and implants: are health educators and clinicians on the same page? Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2013 Dec; 45(4):191-5. PMID: 24325290.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Harper C, Stratton L, Raine TR, Thompson K, Henderson JT, Blum M, Postlethwaite D, Speidel JJ. Counseling and provision of long-acting reversible contraception in the US: national survey of nurse practitioners. Prev Med. 2013 Dec; 57(6):883-8. PMID: 24128950; PMCID: PMC3890255.
    23. Steinberg JR, Tschann JM, Henderson JT, Drey EA, Steinauer JE, Harper C. Psychological distress and post-abortion contraceptive method effectiveness level chosen at an urban clinic. Contraception. 2013 Dec; 88(6):717-24. PMID: 24094755; PMCID: PMC3844792.
    24. Rocca CH, Harper C, Raine-Bennett TR. The authors reply. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2013 Jun; 45(2):113-4. PMID: 23901444.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Henderson JT, Puri M, Blum M, Harper C, Rana A, Gurung G, Pradhan N, Regmi K, Malla K, Sharma S, Grossman D, Bajracharya L, Satyal I, Acharya S, Lamichhane P, Darney PD. Effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e64775. PMID: 23741391; PMCID: PMC3669364.
    26. Morse J, Chipato T, Blanchard K, Nhemachena T, Ramjee G, McCulloch C, Blum M, Saleeby E, Harper C. Provision of long-acting reversible contraception in HIV-prevalent countries: results from nationally representative surveys in southern Africa. BJOG. 2013 Oct; 120(11):1386-94. PMID: 23721413; PMCID: PMC3775997.
    27. Speidel JJ, Rocca CH, Thompson KM, Harper C. Pregnancy: not a disease but still a health risk. Contraception. 2013 Oct; 88(4):481-4. PMID: 23663918.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Rocca CH, Puri M, Dulal B, Bajracharya L, Harper C, Blum M, Henderson JT. Unsafe abortion after legalisation in Nepal: a cross-sectional study of women presenting to hospitals. BJOG. 2013 Aug; 120(9):1075-83. PMID: 23574112.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Holt K, Blanchard K, Chipato T, Nhemachena T, Blum M, Stratton L, Morar N, Ramjee G, Harper C. A nationally representative survey of healthcare provider counselling and provision of the female condom in South Africa and Zimbabwe. BMJ Open. 2013 Mar 18; 3(3). PMID: 23512836; PMCID: PMC3612751.
    30. Thompson KM, Raine TR, Foster DG, Speidel JJ, Darney PD, Brindis CD, Harper C. Access to levonorgestrel emergency contraception: science versus federal politics. Womens Health (Lond). 2013 Mar; 9(2):139-43. PMID: 23477320.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Becker D, Díaz Olavarrieta C, Garcia SG, Harper C. Women's reports on postabortion family-planning services provided by the public-sector legal abortion program in Mexico City. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013 May; 121(2):149-53. PMID: 23499047; PMCID: PMC4074400.
    32. Rocca CH, Harper C, Raine-Bennett TR. Young women's perceptions of the benefits of childbearing: associations with contraceptive use and pregnancy. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2013 Mar; 45(1):23-32. PMID: 23489854; PMCID: PMC3620026.
    33. Henderson JT, Harper C, Gutin S, Saraiya M, Chapman J, Sawaya GF. Routine bimanual pelvic examinations: practices and beliefs of US obstetrician-gynecologists. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Feb; 208(2):109.e1-7. PMID: 23159688; PMCID: PMC4350675.
    34. Henderson JT, Saraiya M, Martinez G, Harper C, Sawaya GF. Changes to cervical cancer prevention guidelines: effects on screening among U.S. women ages 15-29. Prev Med. 2013 Jan; 56(1):25-9. PMID: 23137444; PMCID: PMC4350673.
    35. Harper C, Henderson JT, Raine TR, Goodman S, Darney PD, Thompson KM, Dehlendorf C, Speidel JJ. Evidence-based IUD practice: family physicians and obstetrician-gynecologists. Fam Med. 2012 Oct; 44(9):637-45. PMID: 23027156; PMCID: PMC3745306.
    36. Harper C, Holt K, Nhemachena T, Chipato T, Ramjee G, Stratton L, Blum M, McCulloch CE, Mgweba S, Blanchard K. Willingness of clinicians to integrate microbicides into HIV prevention practices in southern Africa. AIDS Behav. 2012 Oct; 16(7):1821-9. PMID: 22210482; PMCID: PMC3745300.
    37. Sheldon WR, Nhemachena T, Blanchard K, Chipato T, Ramjee G, Trussell J, McCulloch CE, Blum M, Harper C. Male circumcision for HIV prevention: clinical practices and attitudes among healthcare providers in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Sex Transm Dis. 2012 Jul; 39(7):567-75. PMID: 22706221; PMCID: PMC3377943.
    38. Rocca CH, Harper C. Do racial and ethnic differences in contraceptive attitudes and knowledge explain disparities in method use? Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2012 Sep; 44(3):150-8. PMID: 22958659.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Rafie S, Haycock M, Rafie S, Yen S, Harper C. Direct pharmacy access to hormonal contraception: California physician and advanced practice clinician views. Contraception. 2012 Dec; 86(6):687-93. PMID: 22717185.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Morse J, Freedman L, Speidel JJ, Thompson KM, Stratton L, Harper C. Postabortion contraception: qualitative interviews on counseling and provision of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2012 Jun; 44(2):100-6. PMID: 22681425.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Puri M, Lamichhane P, Harken T, Blum M, Harper C, Darney PD, Henderson JT. "Sometimes they used to whisper in our ears": health care workers' perceptions of the effects of abortion legalization in Nepal. BMC Public Health. 2012 Apr 20; 12:297. PMID: 22520231; PMCID: PMC3434092.
    42. Raine TR, Ricciotti N, Sokoloff A, Brown BA, Hummel A, Harper C. An over-the-counter simulation study of a single-tablet emergency contraceptive in young females. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Apr; 119(4):772-9. PMID: 22395146.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Harper C, Speidel JJ, Drey EA, Trussell J, Blum M, Darney PD. Copper intrauterine device for emergency contraception: clinical practice among contraceptive providers. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Feb; 119(2 Pt 1):220-6. PMID: 22270272; PMCID: PMC3266549.
    44. Becker D, Díaz-Olavarrieta C, Juárez C, García SG, Sanhueza P, Harper C. Clients' perceptions of the quality of care in Mexico city's public-sector legal abortion program. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2011 Dec; 37(4):191-201. PMID: 22227626; PMCID: PMC4956411.
    45. Belden P, Harper C, Speidel JJ. The copper IUD for emergency contraception, a neglected option. Contraception. 2012 Apr; 85(4):338-9. PMID: 22067753.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Thompson KM, Foster DG, Harper C. Increased use of intrauterine contraception in California, 1997 to 2007. Womens Health Issues. 2011 Nov-Dec; 21(6):425-30. PMID: 21723742.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Lamichhane P, Harken T, Puri M, Darney PD, Blum M, Harper C, Henderson JT. Sex-selective abortion in Nepal: a qualitative study of health workers' perspectives. Womens Health Issues. 2011 May-Jun; 21(3 Suppl):S37-41. PMID: 21530837.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Becker D, Diaz-Olavarrieta C, Juarez C, Garcia SG, Sanhueza Smith P, Harper C. Sociodemographic factors associated with obstacles to abortion care: findings from a survey of abortion patients in Mexico City. Womens Health Issues. 2011 May-Jun; 21(3 Suppl):S16-20. PMID: 21530832.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Raine TR, Foster-Rosales A, Upadhyay UD, Boyer CB, Brown BA, Sokoloff A, Harper C. One-year contraceptive continuation and pregnancy in adolescent girls and women initiating hormonal contraceptives. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Feb; 117(2 Pt 1):363-71. PMID: 21252751; PMCID: PMC3154007.
    50. Henderson JT, Sawaya GF, Blum M, Stratton L, Harper C. Pelvic examinations and access to oral hormonal contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Dec; 116(6):1257-64. PMID: 21099589; PMCID: PMC3745305.
    51. Thompson KM, Speidel JJ, Saporta V, Waxman NJ, Harper C. Contraceptive policies affect post-abortion provision of long-acting reversible contraception. Contraception. 2011 Jan; 83(1):41-7. PMID: 21134502.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Harper C, Brown BA, Foster-Rosales A, Raine TR. Hormonal contraceptive method choice among young, low-income women: how important is the provider? Patient Educ Couns. 2010 Dec; 81(3):349-54. PMID: 20837389; PMCID: PMC2997915.
    53. Henderson JT, Raine T, Schalet A, Blum M, Harper C. "I wouldn't be this firm if I didn't care": preventive clinical counseling for reproductive health. Patient Educ Couns. 2011 Feb; 82(2):254-9. PMID: 20558024; PMCID: PMC3025054.
    54. Harper C, Henderson JT, Schalet A, Becker D, Stratton L, Raine TR. Abstinence and teenagers: prevention counseling practices of health care providers serving high-risk patients in the United States. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2010 Jun; 42(2):125-32. PMID: 20618752; PMCID: PMC2904609.
    55. Raine TR, Gard JC, Boyer CB, Haider S, Brown BA, Ramirez Hernandez FA, Harper C. Contraceptive decision-making in sexual relationships: young men's experiences, attitudes and values. Cult Health Sex. 2010 May; 12(4):373-86. PMID: 20169479; PMCID: PMC2854868.
    56. Stotland NE, Gilbert P, Bogetz A, Harper C, Abrams B, Gerbert B. Preventing excessive weight gain in pregnancy: how do prenatal care providers approach counseling? J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010 Apr; 19(4):807-14. PMID: 20078239; PMCID: PMC2867592.
    57. Raine TR, Epstein LB, Harper C, Brown BA, Boyer CB. Attitudes toward the vaginal ring and transdermal patch among adolescents and young women. J Adolesc Health. 2009 Sep; 45(3):262-7. PMID: 19699422; PMCID: PMC2749568.
    58. Speidel JJ, Harper C, Shields WC. The potential of long-acting reversible contraception to decrease unintended pregnancy. Contraception. 2008 Sep; 78(3):197-200. PMID: 18692608.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Harper C, Blum M, de Bocanegra HT, Darney PD, Speidel JJ, Policar M, Drey EA. Challenges in translating evidence to practice: the provision of intrauterine contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jun; 111(6):1359-69. PMID: 18515520.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Callegari L, Harper C, van der Straten A, Kamba M, Chipato T, Padian NS. Consistent condom use in married Zimbabwean women after a condom intervention. Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jun; 35(6):624-30. PMID: 18545141.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Harper C, Weiss DC, Speidel JJ, Raine-Bennett T. Over-the-counter access to emergency contraception for teens. Contraception. 2008 Apr; 77(4):230-3. PMID: 18342644.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Polis CB, Schaffer K, Blanchard K, Glasier A, Harper C, Grimes DA. Advance provision of emergency contraception for pregnancy prevention: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Dec; 110(6):1379-88. PMID: 18055735.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Stewart FH, Brown BA, Raine TR, Weitz TA, Harper C. Adolescent and young women's experience with the vaginal ring and oral contraceptive pills. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2007 Dec; 20(6):345-51. PMID: 18082856; PMCID: PMC3163239.
    64. El-Ibiary SY, Raine T, McIntosh J, Darney PD, Harper C. Pharmacy access to emergency contraception: Perspectives of pharmacists at a chain pharmacy in San Francisco. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2007 Nov-Dec; 47(6):702-10. PMID: 18032132.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Moss NJ, Harper C, Ahrens K, Scott K, Kao S, Padian N, Raine T, Klausner JD. Predictors of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in young women at risk for unintended pregnancy in San Francisco. BMC Infect Dis. 2007 Sep 26; 7:113. PMID: 17897466; PMCID: PMC2131754.
    66. Harper C, Blanchard K, Grossman D, Henderson JT, Darney PD. Reducing maternal mortality due to elective abortion: Potential impact of misoprostol in low-resource settings. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007 Jul; 98(1):66-9. PMID: 17466303.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Polis CB, Schaffer K, Blanchard K, Glasier A, Harper C, Grimes DA. Advance provision of emergency contraception for pregnancy prevention (full review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18; (2):CD005497. PMID: 17443596.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Foster DG, Ralph LJ, Arons A, Brindis CD, Harper C. Trends in knowledge of emergency contraception among women in California, 1999-2004. Womens Health Issues. 2007 Jan-Feb; 17(1):22-8. PMID: 17321944.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Rocca CH, Schwarz EB, Stewart FH, Darney PD, Raine TR, Harper C. Beyond access: acceptability, use and nonuse of emergency contraception among young women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jan; 196(1):29.e1-6; discussion 90.e1-5. PMID: 17240221.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Sambol NC, Harper C, Kim L, Liu CY, Darney P, Raine TR. Pharmacokinetics of single-dose levonorgestrel in adolescents. Contraception. 2006 Aug; 74(2):104-9. PMID: 16860047.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Henderson JT, Hwang AC, Harper C, Stewart FH. Safety of mifepristone abortions in clinical use. Contraception. 2005 Sep; 72(3):175-8. PMID: 16102550.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Harper C, Cheong M, Rocca CH, Darney PD, Raine TR. The effect of increased access to emergency contraception among young adolescents. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Sep; 106(3):483-91. PMID: 16135577.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Raine TR, Harper C, Rocca CH, Fischer R, Padian N, Klausner JD, Darney PD. Direct access to emergency contraception through pharmacies and effect on unintended pregnancy and STIs: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005 Jan 05; 293(1):54-62. PMID: 15632336.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Harper C, Henderson JT, Darney PD. Abortion in the United States. Annu Rev Public Health. 2005; 26:501-12. PMID: 15760299.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Harper C, Rocca CH, Darney PD, von Hertzen H, Raine TR. Tolerability of levonorgestrel emergency contraception in adolescents. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Oct; 191(4):1158-63. PMID: 15507936.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Foster DG, Harper C, Bley JJ, Mikanda JJ, Induni M, Saviano EC, Stewart FH. Knowledge of emergency contraception among women aged 18 to 44 in California. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Jul; 191(1):150-6. PMID: 15295356.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Harper C, Callegari L, Raine T, Blum M, Darney P. Adolescent clinic visits for contraception: support from mothers, male partners and friends. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2004 Jan-Feb; 36(1):20-6. PMID: 14982673.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Harper C, Minnis AM, Padian NS. Sexual partners and use of emergency contraception. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Oct; 189(4):1093-9. PMID: 14586361.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Raine T, Marcell AV, Rocca CH, Harper C. The other half of the equation: Serving young men in a young women's reproductive health clinic. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2003 Sep-Oct; 35(5):208-14. PMID: 14668023.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Raine T, Harper C, Paukku M, Darney P. Race, adolescent contraceptive choice, and pregnancy at presentation to a family planning clinic. Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Feb; 99(2):241-7. PMID: 11814504.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Harper C, Ellertson C, Winikoff B. Could American women use mifepristone-misoprostol pills safely with less medical supervision? Contraception. 2002 Feb; 65(2):133-42. PMID: 11927116.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Stewart FH, Harper C, Ellertson CE, Grimes DA, Sawaya GF, Trussell J. Clinical breast and pelvic examination requirements for hormonal contraception: Current practice vs evidence. JAMA. 2001 May 02; 285(17):2232-9. PMID: 11325325.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Sawaya GF, Harper C, Balistreri E, Boggess J, Darney P. Cervical neoplasia risk in women provided hormonal contraception without a Pap smear. Contraception. 2001 Feb; 63(2):57-60. PMID: 11292467.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Harper C, Balistreri E, Boggess J, Leon K, Darney P. Provision of hormonal contraceptives without a mandatory pelvic examination: the first stop demonstration project. Fam Plann Perspect. 2001 Jan-Feb; 33(1):13-8. PMID: 11271540.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Raine T, Harper C, Leon K, Darney P. Emergency contraception: advance provision in a young, high-risk clinic population. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Jul; 96(1):1-7. PMID: 10862832.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Langer A, Harper C, Garcia-Barrios C, Schiavon R, Heimburger A, Elul B, Renoso Delgado S, Ellertson C. Emergency contraception in Mexico City: what do health care providers and potential users know and think about it? Contraception. 1999 Oct; 60(4):233-41. PMID: 10640170.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Harper C, Winikoff B, Ellertson C, Coyaji K. Blood loss with mifepristone--misoprostol abortion: measures from a trial in China, Cuba and India. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1998 Oct; 63(1):39-49. PMID: 9849710.
      View in: PubMed
    88. Harper C, Ellertson CE. The emergency contraceptive pill: a survey of knowledge and attitudes among students at Princeton University. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Nov; 173(5):1438-45. PMID: 7503182.
      View in: PubMed
    89. Harper C, Ellertson C. Knowledge and perceptions of emergency contraceptive pills among a college-age population: a qualitative approach. Fam Plann Perspect. 1995 Jul-Aug; 27(4):149-54. PMID: 7589355.
      View in: PubMed
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