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Edmond Eger

TitleProfessor Emeritus
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentAnesthesia
Address513 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-476-6927
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Sites and Mechanisms of Inhaled Anesthetic Actions
    NIH/NIGMS P01GM047818Aug 1, 1994 - Jul 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PROGRAM PROJECT - AGING AND ANESTHESIA
    NIH/NIA P01AG003104Feb 1, 1982 - Feb 29, 1992
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Eger EI. Three memorable years. Anesth Analg. 2014 Dec; 119(6):1232-4. PMID: 25405680.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Eger EI. Editorial comment: some pharmacokinetics of sevoflurane in a child with severe lipodystrophy. A A Case Rep. 2014 Mar 15; 2(6):65. PMID: 25611542.
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    3. Eger EI. From the Journal archives: A harbinger of modern anesthesia. Can J Anaesth. 2014 Jan; 61(1):76-9. PMID: 24249489.
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    4. Mychaskiw G, Eger EI. A different perspective on anesthetics and climate change. Anesth Analg. 2013 Mar; 116(3):734. PMID: 23439814.
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    5. Eger EI. Maybe it isn't aging. Anesthesiology. 2012 Nov; 117(5):1138-9; author reply 1139-40. PMID: 23095540.
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    6. Borghese CM, Xiong W, Oh SI, Ho A, Mihic SJ, Zhang L, Lovinger DM, Homanics GE, Eger EI, Harris RA. Mutations M287L and Q266I in the glycine receptor a1 subunit change sensitivity to volatile anesthetics in oocytes and neurons, but not the minimal alveolar concentration in knockin mice. Anesthesiology. 2012 Oct; 117(4):765-71. PMID: 22885675; PMCID: PMC3447119.
    7. Rau V, Oh I, Liao M, Bodarky C, Fanselow MS, Homanics GE, Sonner JM, Eger EI. Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor ß3 subunit forebrain-specific knockout mice are resistant to the amnestic effect of isoflurane. Anesth Analg. 2011 Sep; 113(3):500-4. PMID: 21813630; PMCID: PMC4003562.
    8. Burns WB, Eger EI. Ross C. Terrell, PhD, an anesthetic pioneer. Anesth Analg. 2011 Aug; 113(2):387-9. PMID: 21642612.
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    9. Perouansky M, Rau V, Ford T, Oh SI, Perkins M, Eger EI, Pearce RA. Slowing of the hippocampal ? rhythm correlates with anesthetic-induced amnesia. Anesthesiology. 2010 Dec; 113(6):1299-309. PMID: 21042201; PMCID: PMC3048812.
    10. Speca DJ, Chihara D, Ashique AM, Bowers MS, Pierce-Shimomura JT, Lee J, Rabbee N, Speed TP, Gularte RJ, Chitwood J, Medrano JF, Liao M, Sonner JM, Eger EI, Peterson AS, McIntire SL. Conserved role of unc-79 in ethanol responses in lightweight mutant mice. PLoS Genet. 2010 Aug 12; 6(8). PMID: 20714347; PMCID: PMC2920847.
    11. Eger EI. After you, please: the second Annual John W. Severinghaus Lecture on Translational Science. Anesthesiology. 2010 Apr; 112(4):786-93. PMID: 20216386; PMCID: PMC2862683.
    12. Ponomarev I, Rau V, Eger EI, Harris RA, Fanselow MS. Amygdala transcriptome and cellular mechanisms underlying stress-enhanced fear learning in a rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010 May; 35(6):1402-11. PMID: 20147889; PMCID: PMC3040562.
    13. Eger EI. Cost in several flavors. Anesth Analg. 2010 Feb 01; 110(2):276-7. PMID: 20081120.
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    14. Rau V, Iyer SV, Oh I, Chandra D, Harrison N, Eger EI, Fanselow MS, Homanics GE, Sonner JM. Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha 4 subunit knockout mice are resistant to the amnestic effect of isoflurane. Anesth Analg. 2009 Dec; 109(6):1816-22. PMID: 19923508; PMCID: PMC2895314.
    15. Stratmann G, Sall JW, Eger EI, Laster MJ, Bell JS, May LD, Eilers H, Krause M, Heusen Fv, Gonzalez HE. Increasing the duration of isoflurane anesthesia decreases the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration in 7-day-old but not in 60-day-old rats. Anesth Analg. 2009 Sep; 109(3):801-6. PMID: 19690249.
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    16. Rau V, Oh I, Laster M, Eger EI, Fanselow MS. Isoflurane suppresses stress-enhanced fear learning in a rodent model of post-traumatic stress disorder. Anesthesiology. 2009 Mar; 110(3):487-95. PMID: 19212264; PMCID: PMC2803013.
    17. Sewell JC, Raines DE, Eger EI, Laster MJ, Sear JW. A comparison of the molecular bases for N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor inhibition versus immobilizing activities of volatile aromatic anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2009 Jan; 108(1):168-75. PMID: 19095845; PMCID: PMC3606081.
    18. Harris RA, Eger EI. Alzheimer's disease and anesthesia: out of body, out of mind...or not? Ann Neurol. 2008 Dec; 64(6):595-7. PMID: 19107997.
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    19. Lemmens HJ, Saidman LJ, Eger EI, Laster MJ. Obesity modestly affects inhaled anesthetic kinetics in humans. Anesth Analg. 2008 Dec; 107(6):1864-70. PMID: 19020131.
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    20. Horishita T, Eger EI, Harris RA. The effects of volatile aromatic anesthetics on voltage-gated Na+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Anesth Analg. 2008 Nov; 107(5):1579-86. PMID: 18931215; PMCID: PMC2575119.
    21. Shnayderman D, Laster MJ, Eger EI, Oh I, Zhang Y, Jinks SL, Antognini JF, Raines DE. Increases in spinal cerebrospinal fluid potassium concentration do not increase isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in rats. Anesth Analg. 2008 Sep; 107(3):879-84. PMID: 18713900; PMCID: PMC2693418.
    22. Eger EI, Raines DE, Shafer SL, Hemmings HC, Sonner JM. Is a new paradigm needed to explain how inhaled anesthetics produce immobility? Anesth Analg. 2008 Sep; 107(3):832-48. PMID: 18713892; PMCID: PMC2653203.
    23. Zhang Y, Sharma M, Eger EI, Laster MJ, Hemmings HC, Harris RA. Intrathecal veratridine administration increases minimum alveolar concentration in rats. Anesth Analg. 2008 Sep; 107(3):875-8. PMID: 18713899; PMCID: PMC2587212.
    24. Hendrickx JF, Eger EI, Sonner JM, Shafer SL. Is synergy the rule? A review of anesthetic interactions producing hypnosis and immobility. Anesth Analg. 2008 Aug; 107(2):494-506. PMID: 18633028.
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    25. Shafer SL, Hendrickx JF, Flood P, Sonner J, Eger EI. Additivity versus synergy: a theoretical analysis of implications for anesthetic mechanisms. Anesth Analg. 2008 Aug; 107(2):507-24. PMID: 18633029.
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    26. Eger EI, Tang M, Liao M, Laster MJ, Solt K, Flood P, Jenkins A, Raines D, Hendrickx JF, Shafer SL, Yasumasa T, Sonner JM. Inhaled anesthetics do not combine to produce synergistic effects regarding minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration in rats. Anesth Analg. 2008 Aug; 107(2):479-85. PMID: 18633026.
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    27. Jenkins A, Lobo IA, Gong D, Trudell JR, Solt K, Harris RA, Eger EI. General anesthetics have additive actions on three ligand gated ion channels. Anesth Analg. 2008 Aug; 107(2):486-93. PMID: 18633027; PMCID: PMC2493416.
    28. Yost CS, Oh I, Eger EI, Sonner JM. Knockout of the gene encoding the K(2P) channel KCNK7 does not alter volatile anesthetic sensitivity. Behav Brain Res. 2008 Nov 21; 193(2):192-6. PMID: 18572259; PMCID: PMC2669440.
    29. Zhao J, Zhang Y, Eger EI, Sonner J. Intrathecal glycine significantly decreases the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in rats. Chin Med Sci J. 2008 Mar; 23(1):16-8. PMID: 18437904.
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    30. Eger EI. The ever-useful infrared analyzer. Anesth Analg. 2007 Dec; 105(6):1869. PMID: 18042906.
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    31. Buffington CW, Laster MJ, Jankowska K, Eger EI. Concentrations of isoflurane exceeding those used clinically slightly increase the affinity of methane, but not toluene, for water. Anesth Analg. 2007 Dec; 105(6):1675-80, table of contents. PMID: 18042866.
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    32. Dutton RC, Cuellar JM, Eger EI, Antognini JF, Carstens E. Temporal and spatial determinants of sacral dorsal horn neuronal windup in relation to isoflurane-induced immobility. Anesth Analg. 2007 Dec; 105(6):1665-74, table of contents. PMID: 18042865.
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    33. Rosales CM, Young T, Laster MJ, Eger EI, Garg U. Sevoflurane concentrations in blood, brain, and lung after sevoflurane-induced death. J Forensic Sci. 2007 Nov; 52(6):1408-10. PMID: 17944910.
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    34. Yang L, Zhao J, Milutinovic PS, Brosnan RJ, Eger EI, Sonner JM. Anesthetic properties of the ketone bodies beta-hydroxybutyric acid and acetone. Anesth Analg. 2007 Sep; 105(3):673-9. PMID: 17717222.
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    35. Laster MJ, Zhang Y, Eger EI, Shnayderman D, Sonner JM. Alterations in spinal, but not cerebral, cerebrospinal fluid Na+ concentrations affect the isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in rats. Anesth Analg. 2007 Sep; 105(3):661-5. PMID: 17717220.
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    36. Milutinovic PS, Yang L, Cantor RS, Eger EI, Sonner JM. Anesthetic-like modulation of a gamma-aminobutyric acid type A, strychnine-sensitive glycine, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors by coreleased neurotransmitters. Anesth Analg. 2007 Aug; 105(2):386-92. PMID: 17646495.
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    37. Cascio M, Xing Y, Gong D, Popovich J, Eger EI, Sen S, Peltz G, Sonner JM. Mouse chromosome 7 harbors a quantitative trait locus for isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration. Anesth Analg. 2007 Aug; 105(2):381-5. PMID: 17646494.
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    38. Yang L, Milutinovic PS, Brosnan RJ, Eger EI, Sonner JM. The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate modulates gamma-aminobutyric acid type A and glycine receptor function. Anesth Analg. 2007 Aug; 105(2):393-6. PMID: 17646496.
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    39. Brosnan RJ, Eger EI, Laster MJ, Sonner JM. Anesthetic properties of carbon dioxide in the rat. Anesth Analg. 2007 Jul; 105(1):103-6. PMID: 17578964.
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    40. Eger EI. Brain magnetic resonance imaging increases core body temperature in sedated children. Anesth Analg. 2007 Jul; 105(1):283; author reply 283. PMID: 17578995.
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    41. Anderson JS, Rose NR, Martin JL, Eger EI, Njoku DB. Desflurane hepatitis associated with hapten and autoantigen-specific IgG4 antibodies. Anesth Analg. 2007 Jun; 104(6):1452-3, table of contents. PMID: 17513640; PMCID: PMC3650136.
    42. Brosnan RJ, Yang L, Milutinovic PS, Zhao J, Laster MJ, Eger EI, Sonner JM. Ammonia has anesthetic properties. Anesth Analg. 2007 Jun; 104(6):1430-3, table of contents. PMID: 17513636.
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    43. Eger EI, Lemal D, Laster MJ, Liao M, Jankowska K, Raghavanpillai A, Popov AV, Gan Y, Lou Y. Anesthetic properties of some fluorinated oxolanes and oxetanes. Anesth Analg. 2007 May; 104(5):1090-7, tables of contents. PMID: 17456657.
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    44. Zhang Y, Laster MJ, Eger EI, Sharma M, Sonner JM. Lidocaine, MK-801, and MAC. Anesth Analg. 2007 May; 104(5):1098-102, tables of contents. PMID: 17456658.
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    45. Antognini JF, Raines DE, Solt K, Barter LS, Atherley RJ, Bravo E, Laster MJ, Jankowska K, Eger EI. Hexafluorobenzene acts in the spinal cord, whereas o-difluorobenzene acts in both brain and spinal cord, to produce immobility. Anesth Analg. 2007 Apr; 104(4):822-8. PMID: 17377088.
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    46. Antognini JF, Atherley RJ, Dutton RC, Laster MJ, Eger EI, Carstens E. The excitatory and inhibitory effects of nitrous oxide on spinal neuronal responses to noxious stimulation. Anesth Analg. 2007 Apr; 104(4):829-35. PMID: 17377089.
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    47. Zhang Y, Laster MJ, Eger EI, Sharma M, Sonner JM. Blockade of acetylcholine receptors does not change the dose of etomidate required to produce immobility in rats. Anesth Analg. 2007 Apr; 104(4):850-2. PMID: 17377093.
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    48. Benkwitz C, Liao M, Laster MJ, Sonner JM, Eger EI, Pearce RA. Determination of the EC50 amnesic concentration of etomidate and its diffusion profile in brain tissue: implications for in vitro studies. Anesthesiology. 2007 Jan; 106(1):114-23. PMID: 17197853.
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    49. Sonner JM, Werner DF, Elsen FP, Xing Y, Liao M, Harris RA, Harrison NL, Fanselow MS, Eger EI, Homanics GE. Effect of isoflurane and other potent inhaled anesthetics on minimum alveolar concentration, learning, and the righting reflex in mice engineered to express alpha1 gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors unresponsive to isoflurane. Anesthesiology. 2007 Jan; 106(1):107-13. PMID: 17197852.
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    50. Tanifuji Y, Zhang Y, Liao M, Eger EI, Laster MJ, Sonner JM. Do dopamine receptors mediate part of MAC? Anesth Analg. 2006 Nov; 103(5):1177-81. PMID: 17056951.
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    51. Antognini JF, Atherley RJ, Laster MJ, Carstens E, Dutton RC, Eger EI. A method for recording single unit activity in lumbar spinal cord in rats anesthetized with nitrous oxide in a hyperbaric chamber. J Neurosci Methods. 2007 Mar 15; 160(2):215-22. PMID: 17045342; PMCID: PMC2693129.
    52. Merrill AW, Barter LS, Rudolph U, Eger EI, Antognini JF, Carstens MI, Carstens E. Propofol's effects on nociceptive behavior and spinal c-fos expression after intraplantar formalin injection in mice with a mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid-type(A) receptor beta3 subunit. Anesth Analg. 2006 Aug; 103(2):478-83, table of contents. PMID: 16861438.
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    53. Won A, Oh I, Laster MJ, Popovich J, Eger EI, Sonner JM. Chirality in anesthesia I: minimum alveolar concentration of secondary alcohol enantiomers. Anesth Analg. 2006 Jul; 103(1):81-4, table of contents. PMID: 16790631.
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    54. Brosnan R, Gong D, Cotten J, Keshavaprasad B, Yost CS, Eger EI, Sonner JM. Chirality in anesthesia II: stereoselective modulation of ion channel function by secondary alcohol enantiomers. Anesth Analg. 2006 Jul; 103(1):86-91, table of contents. PMID: 16790632.
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    55. Eger EI, Liao M, Laster MJ, Won A, Popovich J, Raines DE, Solt K, Dutton RC, Cobos FV, Sonner JM. Contrasting roles of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the production of immobilization by conventional and aromatic anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2006 May; 102(5):1397-406. PMID: 16632817.
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    56. Won A, Oh I, Liao M, Sonner JM, Harris RA, Laster MJ, Brosnan R, Trudell JR, Eger EI. The minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration of 2-, 3-, and 4-alcohols and ketones in rats: relevance to anesthetic mechanisms. Anesth Analg. 2006 May; 102(5):1419-26. PMID: 16632820.
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    57. Solt K, Eger EI, Raines DE. Differential modulation of human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by structurally diverse general anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2006 May; 102(5):1407-11. PMID: 16632818.
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    58. Liao M, Laster MJ, Eger EI, Tang M, Sonner JM. Naloxone does not increase the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration of sevoflurane in mice. Anesth Analg. 2006 May; 102(5):1452-5. PMID: 16632825.
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    59. Dutton RC, Laster MJ, Xing Y, Sonner JM, Raines DE, Solt K, Eger EI. Do N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediate the capacity of inhaled anesthetics to suppress the temporal summation that contributes to minimum alveolar concentration? Anesth Analg. 2006 May; 102(5):1412-8. PMID: 16632819.
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    60. Eger EI, Sonner JM. Anaesthesia defined (gentlemen, this is no humbug). Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2006 Mar; 20(1):23-9. PMID: 16634411.
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    61. Cotten JF, Keshavaprasad B, Laster MJ, Eger EI, Yost CS. The ventilatory stimulant doxapram inhibits TASK tandem pore (K2P) potassium channel function but does not affect minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration. Anesth Analg. 2006 Mar; 102(3):779-85. PMID: 16492828.
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    62. Won A, Oh I, Brosnan R, Eger EI, Sonner JM. Hypothermia decreases ethanol MAC in rats. J Anesth. 2006; 20(3):247-50. PMID: 16897251.
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    63. Eger EI, Shafer S. The complexity of recovery from anesthesia. J Clin Anesth. 2005 Sep; 17(6):411-2. PMID: 16171659.
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    64. Laster MJ, Eger EI. Temperatures in soda lime during degradation of desflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane by desiccated soda lime. Anesth Analg. 2005 Sep; 101(3):753-7, table of contents. PMID: 16115987.
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    65. Eger EI, Shafer SL. Tutorial: context-sensitive decrement times for inhaled anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2005 Sep; 101(3):688-96, table of contents. PMID: 16115976.
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    66. Liao M, Sonner JM, Jurd R, Rudolph U, Borghese CM, Harris RA, Laster MJ, Eger EI. Beta3-containing gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors are not major targets for the amnesic and immobilizing actions of isoflurane. Anesth Analg. 2005 Aug; 101(2):412-8, table of contents. PMID: 16037154.
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    67. Sonner JM, Vissel B, Royle G, Maurer A, Gong D, Baron NV, Harrison N, Fanselow M, Eger EI. The effect of three inhaled anesthetics in mice harboring mutations in the GluR6 (kainate) receptor gene. Anesth Analg. 2005 Jul; 101(1):143-8, table of contents. PMID: 15976221.
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    68. Liao M, Sonner JM, Husain SS, Miller KW, Jurd R, Rudolph U, Eger EI. R (+) etomidate and the photoactivable R (+) azietomidate have comparable anesthetic activity in wild-type mice and comparably decreased activity in mice with a N265M point mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor beta3 subunit. Anesth Analg. 2005 Jul; 101(1):131-5, table of contents. PMID: 15976219.
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    69. Eger EI, Sonner JM. How likely is awareness during anesthesia? Anesth Analg. 2005 May; 100(5):1544; author reply 1545. PMID: 15845735.
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    70. Sonner JM, Xing Y, Zhang Y, Maurer A, Fanselow MS, Dutton RC, Eger EI. Administration of epinephrine does not increase learning of fear to tone in rats anesthetized with isoflurane or desflurane. Anesth Analg. 2005 May; 100(5):1333-7, table of contents. PMID: 15845679.
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    71. Sonner JM, Cascio M, Xing Y, Fanselow MS, Kralic JE, Morrow AL, Korpi ER, Hardy S, Sloat B, Eger EI, Homanics GE. Alpha 1 subunit-containing GABA type A receptors in forebrain contribute to the effect of inhaled anesthetics on conditioned fear. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Jul; 68(1):61-8. PMID: 15833735.
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    72. Neumann MA, Eger EI, Weiskopf RB. Solubility of volatile anesthetics in bovine white matter, cortical gray matter, thalamus, hippocampus, and hypothalamic area. Anesth Analg. 2005 Apr; 100(4):1003-6. PMID: 15781514.
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    73. Eger EI, Saidman LJ. Illustrations of inhaled anesthetic uptake, including intertissue diffusion to and from fat. Anesth Analg. 2005 Apr; 100(4):1020-33. PMID: 15781517.
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    74. Stabernack C, Zhang Y, Sonner JM, Laster M, Eger EI. Thiopental produces immobility primarily by supraspinal actions in rats. Anesth Analg. 2005 Jan; 100(1):128-36. PMID: 15616066.
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    75. Schwab HS, Seeberger MD, Eger EI, Kindler CH, Filipovic M. Sevoflurane decreases bispectral index values more than does halothane at equal MAC multiples. Anesth Analg. 2004 Dec; 99(6):1723-7, table of contents. PMID: 15562061.
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    76. Jinks SL, Antognini JF, Dutton RC, Carstens E, Eger EI. Isoflurane depresses windup of C fiber-evoked limb withdrawal with variable effects on nociceptive lumbar spinal neurons in rats. Anesth Analg. 2004 Nov; 99(5):1413-9; table of contents. PMID: 15502040.
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    77. Eger EI. Characteristics of anesthetic agents used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2004 Oct 15; 61 Suppl 4:S3-10. PMID: 15532143.
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    78. Laster M, Roth P, Eger EI. Fires from the interaction of anesthetics with desiccated absorbent. Anesth Analg. 2004 Sep; 99(3):769-74, table of contents. PMID: 15333409.
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    79. Xing Y, Sonner JM, Eger EI, Cascio M, Sessler DI. Mice with a melanocortin 1 receptor mutation have a slightly greater minimum alveolar concentration than control mice. Anesthesiology. 2004 Aug; 101(2):544-6. PMID: 15277941.
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    80. Shumilla JA, Sweitzer SM, Eger EI, Laster MJ, Kendig JJ. Inhibition of spinal protein kinase C-epsilon or -gamma isozymes does not affect halothane minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration in rats. Anesth Analg. 2004 Jul; 99(1):82-4. PMID: 15281508.
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    81. Zhang Y, Sonner JM, Eger EI, Stabernack CR, Laster MJ, Raines DE, Harris RA. Gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors do not mediate the immobility produced by isoflurane. Anesth Analg. 2004 Jul; 99(1):85-90. PMID: 15281509.
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    82. Cuellar JM, Antognini JF, Eger EI, Carstens E. Halothane depresses C-fiber-evoked windup of deep dorsal horn neurons in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2004 Jun 17; 363(3):207-11. PMID: 15182945.
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    83. Xing Y, Sonner J, Laster MJ, Abaigar W, Caraiscos VB, Orser B, Eger EI. Insulin decreases isoflurane minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration in rats independently of an effect on the spinal cord. Anesth Analg. 2004 Jun; 98(6):1712-7, table of contents. PMID: 15155333.
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    84. Eger EI, Laster MJ, Gregory GA, Katoh T, Sonner JM. Women appear to have the same minimum alveolar concentration as men: a retrospective study. Anesthesiology. 2003 Nov; 99(5):1059-61. PMID: 14576539.
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    85. Xing Y, Zhang Y, Stabernack CR, Eger EI, Gray AT. The use of the potassium channel activator riluzole to test whether potassium channels mediate the capacity of isoflurane to produce immobility. Anesth Analg. 2003 Oct; 97(4):1020-4, table of contents. PMID: 14500151.
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    86. Sonner JM, Antognini JF, Dutton RC, Flood P, Gray AT, Harris RA, Homanics GE, Kendig J, Orser B, Raines DE, Rampil IJ, Trudell J, Vissel B, Eger EI. Inhaled anesthetics and immobility: mechanisms, mysteries, and minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration. Anesth Analg. 2003 Sep; 97(3):718-40. PMID: 12933393.
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    87. Saidman LJ, Eger EI. Safety of low-flow sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with chronically impaired renal function is not proven. Anesthesiology. 2003 Sep; 99(3):752; author reply 752-4. PMID: 12960564.
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    88. Zhang Y, Laster MJ, Eger EI, Stabernack CR, Sonner JM. Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors may mediate or modulate part of the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2003 Aug; 97(2):475-9, table of contents. PMID: 12873938.
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    89. Dutton RC, Zhang Y, Stabernack CR, Laster MJ, Sonner JM, Eger EI. Temporal summation governs part of the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jun; 98(6):1372-7. PMID: 12766645.
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    90. Eger EI, Xing Y, Laster MJ, Sonner JM. Alpha-2 adrenoreceptors probably do not mediate the immobility produced by inhaled anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2003 Jun; 96(6):1661-4, table of contents. PMID: 12760992.
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    91. Eger EI, Xing Y, Laster M, Sonner J, Antognini JF, Carstens E. Halothane and isoflurane have additive minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) effects in rats. Anesth Analg. 2003 May; 96(5):1350-3, table of contents. PMID: 12707132.
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    92. Gerstin KM, Gong DH, Abdallah M, Winegar BD, Eger EI, Gray AT. Mutation of KCNK5 or Kir3.2 potassium channels in mice does not change minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration. Anesth Analg. 2003 May; 96(5):1345-9, table of contents. PMID: 12707131.
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    93. Eger EI, Xing Y, Pearce R, Shafer S, Laster MJ, Zhang Y, Fanselow MS, Sonner JM. Isoflurane antagonizes the capacity of flurothyl or 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane to impair fear conditioning to context and tone. Anesth Analg. 2003 Apr; 96(4):1010-8, table of contents. PMID: 12651651.
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    94. Stabernack CR, Eger EI, Warnken UH, Förster H, Hanks DK, Ferrell LD. Sevoflurane degradation by carbon dioxide absorbents may produce more than one nephrotoxic compound in rats. Can J Anaesth. 2003 Mar; 50(3):249-52. PMID: 12620947.
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