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Jay Levy, MD

Title(s)Professor, Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address513 Parnassus Ave, MSB
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-476-4071
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Wesleyan UniversityBABiology
    Universite de ParisRegeneration
    Columbia University MDMedicine and Virology
    University of PennsylvaniaMed. Internship, Residency I
    NIH, National Cancer InstituteStaff Associate
    University of California, San FranciscoMed. Residency II
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    American Association for the Advancement of Science1993Fellow
    Wesleyan University1996Doctor of Science Honorary Degree
    University of California, San Francisco2002UCSF 45th Faculty Research Lecturer
    American Academy of Microbiology2003Fellow
    American Academy of Arts and Sciences2004Fellow
    Columbia University2008Gold Medal for Excellence in Medical Research
    University of California, San Francisco2015UCSF 150th Anniversary Alumni Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Research in the Levy laboratory is directed at understanding the interaction of viruses and the immune system in microbial pathogenesis. It focuses on HIV infection with the goal of designing novel antiviral therapies and an effective AIDS vaccine for which both innate and adaptive responses are needed. Biologic, serologic, and molecular characterization of several HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains has revealed their extensive heterogeneity and how viruses can evolve differently in the same individual in the immune system, bowel, and the brain. A major emphasis in the laboratory has been on anti-HIV innate immune responses. The research group is evaluating the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), the main producers of type 1 interferons. Studies are directed at understanding how HIV-infected cells induce interferon production from PDC and what cell surface molecules, including toll-like receptors (TLR), are involved in this process. An important potent innate response we have discovered is the ability of CD8+ lymphocytes to suppress HIV replication without killing the cells. This novel CD8+ cell noncytotoxic antiviral response (CNAR) is mediated by an as yet unidentified, natural CD8+ cell antiviral factor (CAF) that blocks HIV transcription. In summary, the Levy laboratory has been conducting studies to identify CAF through RNA Seq procedures, to determine the best strategy for an AIDS vaccine and to use genetically modified stem cell approaches towards a potential HIV cure.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Characterization of a New Anti-HIV Immune Protein
    NIH/NIAID R21AI129685Mar 6, 2017 - Feb 28, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV Cure with CCr5 (-) Human IPS Hematopoietic Stem Cells
    NIH/NIAID R01AI102825May 1, 2014 - Apr 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV cure with CCR5 (-) human IPS hematopoietic stem cells
    NIH/NIAID R56AI102825Jun 7, 2012 - Aug 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Protection from HIV Infection in Intravenous Drug Users
    NIH/NIDA R21DA030272Jul 1, 2010 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Innate Immunity in Controlling HIV Infection
    NIH/NIAID R01AI056992Aug 14, 2009 - Jul 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MBSR, Stress Arousal and Immune Response in Early HIV
    NIH/NCCIH P01AT002024Sep 30, 2004 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Role of Innate Immunity in Controlling HIV Infection
    NIH/NIAID R56AI056992Jul 1, 2003 - Aug 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    20Years of HIV Research: From Discovery to Understanding
    NIH/NIAID R13AI054154Mar 1, 2003 - Feb 29, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Suppression of HIV replication by CD8+ cells
    NIH/NIAID R21AI049926Apr 1, 2001 - Mar 31, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ANIMAL MODEL FOR HIV VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
    NIH/NCRR R01RR014181Jun 1, 1999 - Nov 30, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Immunologic &Virologic Features of Early HIV Infection
    NIH/NIAID U01AI041531Jul 1, 1997 - Jun 30, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF HIV-1 IN THAILAND--VIRAL FACTOR
    NIH/FIC R03TW000535Sep 30, 1995 - Sep 29, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV 2 INFECTION--A POTENTIAL MODEL
    NIH/NIAID R01AI034704Aug 1, 1994 - Jul 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    VIROLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY OF CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME
    NIH/NIAID R01AI035572Apr 1, 1994 - Mar 31, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SIV/HIV CHIMERAS--AN ANIMAL MODEL FOR HIV INFECTION
    NIH/NIAID R01AI034742Sep 30, 1993 - Jun 30, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    UCSF AIDS RESEARCH TRAINING PROGRAM
    NIH/NIAID T32AI007395Aug 1, 1990 - Jul 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SUPPRESSION OF HIV REPLICATION BY CD8+ CELLS
    NIH/NIAID R21AI030350Jun 1, 1990 - Sep 29, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SUPPRESSION OF HIV REPLICATION BY CD8+ CELLS
    NIH/NIAID R01AI030350Jun 1, 1990 - May 31, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ENHANCING ANTIBODIES IN HIV INFECTION
    NIH/NIAID R01AI029394Sep 30, 1989 - Jul 31, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator
    AIDS RETROVIRUS FEATURES AFFECTING ANTIVIRAL THERAPY
    NIH/NIAID R01AI024499Apr 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Bio-Organic Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Resource
    NIH P41RR001614Mar 1, 1982 - May 31, 2015
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. The need to reassess our approaches at HIV cure and prevention. AIDS. 2020 Sep 25. Levy JA. PMID: 32991381.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. AIDS new editor announcement. AIDS. 2020 Sep 17. Levy JA, Coutinho RA, Saag MS, Franks L. PMID: 32947591.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Genetically-edited induced pluripotent stem cells derived from HIV-1-infected patients on therapy can give rise to immune cells resistant to HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2020 07 01; 34(8):1141-1149. Teque F, Ye L, Xie F, Wang J, Morvan MG, Kan YW, Levy JA. PMID: 32287059.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    4. Generation of HIV-1-infected patients' gene-edited induced pluripotent stem cells using feeder-free culture conditions. AIDS. 2020 07 01; 34(8):1127-1139. Ye L, Wang J, Teque F, Xie F, Tan Y, Kan YW, Levy JA. PMID: 32501846.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    5. Generation of HIV-1 infected patient's gene-edited iPSC using feeder free culture conditions. AIDS. 2020 Apr 13. Ye L, Wang J, Teque F, Xie F, Tan Y, Kan YW, Levy JA. PMID: 32287058.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    6. A randomized, controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction in HIV infection. Brain Behav Immun. 2018 10; 73:331-339. Hecht FM, Moskowitz JT, Moran P, Epel ES, Bacchetti P, Acree M, Kemeny ME, Mendes WB, Duncan LG, Weng H, Levy JA, Deeks SG, Folkman S. PMID: 29842903.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    7. Schwab M (ed.) Encyclopedia of Cancer. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus. 2017; 3:2146 - 2149. Levy JA, Murphy EL.
    8. The CD8+ cell non-cytotoxic antiviral response affects RNA polymerase II-mediated human immunodeficiency virus transcription in infected CD4+ cells. J Gen Virol. 2016 Jan; 97(1):220-224. Blazek D, Teque F, Mackewicz C, Peterlin M, Levy JA. PMID: 26499373.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    9. Discovery of another anti-HIV protein in the search for the CD8+ cell anti-HIV Factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jun 30; 112(26):7888-9. Levy JA. PMID: 26085138.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    10. Dispelling myths and focusing on notable concepts in HIV pathogenesis. Trends Mol Med. 2015 Jun; 21(6):341-53. Levy JA. PMID: 25883070.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    11. Conserved epitopes on HIV-1, FIV and SIV p24 proteins are recognized by HIV-1 infected subjects. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015; 11(6):1540-56. Roff SR, Sanou MP, Rathore MH, Levy JA, Yamamoto JK. PMID: 25844718.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    12. Seamless modification of wild-type induced pluripotent stem cells to the natural CCR5Δ32 mutation confers resistance to HIV infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jul 01; 111(26):9591-6. Ye L, Wang J, Beyer AI, Teque F, Cradick TJ, Qi Z, Chang JC, Bao G, Muench MO, Yu J, Levy JA, Kan YW. PMID: 24927590.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 98     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    13. Chemically modified peptides based on the membrane-proximal external region of the HIV-1 envelope induce high-titer, epitope-specific nonneutralizing antibodies in rabbits. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Aug; 21(8):1086-93. Venditto VJ, Wieczorek L, Molnar S, Teque F, Landucci G, Watson DS, Forthal D, Polonis VR, Levy JA, Szoka FC. PMID: 24872518.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    14. Evolutionarily conserved epitopes on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptases detected by HIV-1-infected subjects. J Virol. 2013 Sep; 87(18):10004-15. Sanou MP, Roff SR, Mennella A, Sleasman JW, Rathore MH, Yamamoto JK, Levy JA. PMID: 23824804.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    15. Nevirapine inhibits the anti-HIV activity of CD8+ cells. . 2013 Jun 01; 63(2):184-8. Liu L, Wang L, Huang L, Siu V, Teque F, Aweeka FT, Levy JA. PMID: 23392464.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    16. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell number and responses to Toll-like receptor 7 and 9 agonists vary in HIV Type 1-infected individuals in relation to clinical state. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Mar; 29(3):501-10. Kaushik S, Teque F, Patel M, Fujimura SH, Schmidt B, Levy JA. PMID: 23131038.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    17. AIDS and HIV Infection after Thirty Years. AIDS Res Treat. 2013; 2013:731983. Ippolito G, Levy JA, Sonnerborg A, Mugusi F, Dianzani F. PMID: 23365727.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    18. HIV-1 Vaccine Trials: Evolving Concepts and Designs. Open AIDS J. 2012; 6:274-88. Sanou MP, De Groot AS, Murphey-Corb M, Levy JA, Yamamoto JK. PMID: 23289052.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    19. HIV infection: what should be considered in approaches for a cure? AIDS. 2012 Nov 13; 26(17):2253-5. Levy JA, Levy Y. PMID: 23060292.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    20. 25 Years of AIDS: recording progress and future challenges. AIDS. 2012 Jun 19; 26(10):1187-9. Levy JA, Autran B, Coutinho RA, Phair JP. PMID: 22546989.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    21. Differential transmission of HIV traversing fetal oral/intestinal epithelia and adult oral epithelia. J Virol. 2012 Mar; 86(5):2556-70. Tugizov SM, Herrera R, Veluppillai P, Greenspan D, Soros V, Greene WC, Levy JA, Palefsky JM. PMID: 22205732.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    22. HIV/AIDS: 30 years of progress and future challenges. Eur J Immunol. 2011 Dec; 41(12):3401-11. Killian MS, Levy JA. PMID: 22125008.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    23. Transfection optimization for primary human CD8+ cells. J Immunol Methods. 2011 Sep 30; 372(1-2):22-9. Liu L, Johnson C, Fujimura S, Teque F, Levy JA. PMID: 21777592.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    24. No evidence of murine-like gammaretroviruses in CFS patients previously identified as XMRV-infected. Science. 2011 Jul 01; 333(6038):94-7. Knox K, Carrigan D, Simmons G, Teque F, Zhou Y, Hackett J, Qiu X, Luk KC, Schochetman G, Knox A, Kogelnik AM, Levy JA. PMID: 21628393.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 50     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    25. Virus-host interactions in HIV pathogenesis: directions for therapy. Adv Dent Res. 2011 Apr; 23(1):13-8. Levy JA. PMID: 21441474.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    26. Sex, race, and geographic region influence clinical outcomes following primary HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 15; 203(4):442-51. Meditz AL, MaWhinney S, Allshouse A, Feser W, Markowitz M, Little S, Hecht R, Daar ES, Collier AC, Margolick J, Kilby JM, Routy JP, Conway B, Kaldor J, Levy J, Schooley R, Cooper DA, Altfeld M, Richman D, Connick E. PMID: 21245157.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 80     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    27. Natural suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication is mediated by transitional memory CD8+ T cells. J Virol. 2011 Feb; 85(4):1696-705. Killian MS, Johnson C, Teque F, Fujimura S, Levy JA. PMID: 21147929.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    28. HIV is inactivated after transepithelial migration via adult oral epithelial cells but not fetal epithelial cells. Virology. 2011 Jan 20; 409(2):211-22. Tugizov SM, Herrera R, Veluppillai P, Greenspan D, Soros V, Greene WC, Levy JA, Palefsky JM. PMID: 21056450.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    29. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation. Science. 2010 Dec 10; 330(6010):1551-7. Pereyra F, Jia X, McLaren PJ, Telenti A, de Bakker PI, Walker BD, Ripke S, Brumme CJ, Pulit SL, Carrington M, Kadie CM, Carlson JM, Heckerman D, Graham RR, Plenge RM, Deeks SG, Gianniny L, Crawford G, Sullivan J, Gonzalez E, Davies L, Camargo A, Moore JM, Beattie N, Gupta S, Crenshaw A, Burtt NP, Guiducci C, Gupta N, Gao X, Qi Y, Yuki Y, Piechocka-Trocha A, Cutrell E, Rosenberg R, Moss KL, Lemay P, O'Leary J, Schaefer T, Verma P, Toth I, Block B, Baker B, Rothchild A, Lian J, Proudfoot J, Alvino DM, Vine S, Addo MM, Allen TM, Altfeld M, Henn MR, Le Gall S, Streeck H, Haas DW, Kuritzkes DR, Robbins GK, Shafer RW, Gulick RM, Shikuma CM, Haubrich R, Riddler S, Sax PE, Daar ES, Ribaudo HJ, Agan B, Agarwal S, Ahern RL, Allen BL, Altidor S, Altschuler EL, Ambardar S, Anastos K, Anderson B, Anderson V, Andrady U, Antoniskis D, Bangsberg D, Barbaro D, Barrie W, Bartczak J, Barton S, Basden P, Basgoz N, Bazner S, Bellos NC, Benson AM, Berger J, Bernard NF, Bernard AM, Birch C, Bodner SJ, Bolan RK, Boudreaux ET, Bradley M, Braun JF, Brndjar JE, Brown SJ, Brown K, Brown ST, Burack J, Bush LM, Cafaro V, Campbell O, Campbell J, Carlson RH, Carmichael JK, Casey KK, Cavacuiti C, Celestin G, Chambers ST, Chez N, Chirch LM, Cimoch PJ, Cohen D, Cohn LE, Conway B, Cooper DA, Cornelson B, Cox DT, Cristofano MV, Cuchural G, Czartoski JL, Dahman JM, Daly JS, Davis BT, Davis K, Davod SM, DeJesus E, Dietz CA, Dunham E, Dunn ME, Ellerin TB, Eron JJ, Fangman JJ, Farel CE, Ferlazzo H, Fidler S, Fleenor-Ford A, Frankel R, Freedberg KA, French NK, Fuchs JD, Fuller JD, Gaberman J, Gallant JE, Gandhi RT, Garcia E, Garmon D, Gathe JC, Gaultier CR, Gebre W, Gilman FD, Gilson I, Goepfert PA, Gottlieb MS, Goulston C, Groger RK, Gurley TD, Haber S, Hardwicke R, Hardy WD, Harrigan PR, Hawkins TN, Heath S, Hecht FM, Henry WK, Hladek M, Hoffman RP, Horton JM, Hsu RK, Huhn GD, Hunt P, Hupert MJ, Illeman ML, Jaeger H, Jellinger RM, John M, Johnson JA, Johnson KL, Johnson H, Johnson K, Joly J, Jordan WC, Kauffman CA, Khanlou H, Killian RK, Kim AY, Kim DD, Kinder CA, Kirchner JT, Kogelman L, Kojic EM, Korthuis PT, Kurisu W, Kwon DS, LaMar M, Lampiris H, Lanzafame M, Lederman MM, Lee DM, Lee JM, Lee MJ, Lee ET, Lemoine J, Levy JA, Llibre JM, Liguori MA, Little SJ, Liu AY, Lopez AJ, Loutfy MR, Loy D, Mohammed DY, Man A, Mansour MK, Marconi VC, Markowitz M, Marques R, Martin JN, Martin HL, Mayer KH, McElrath MJ, McGhee TA, McGovern BH, McGowan K, McIntyre D, Mcleod GX, Menezes P, Mesa G, Metroka CE, Meyer-Olson D, Miller AO, Montgomery K, Mounzer KC, Nagami EH, Nagin I, Nahass RG, Nelson MO, Nielsen C, Norene DL, O'Connor DH, Ojikutu BO, Okulicz J, Oladehin OO, Oldfield EC, Olender SA, Ostrowski M, Owen WF, Pae E, Parsonnet J, Pavlatos AM, Perlmutter AM, Pierce MN, Pincus JM, Pisani L, Price LJ, Proia L, Prokesch RC, Pujet HC, Ramgopal M, Rathod A, Rausch M, Ravishankar J, Rhame FS, Richards CS, Richman DD, Rodes B, Rodriguez M, Rose RC, Rosenberg ES, Rosenthal D, Ross PE, Rubin DS, Rumbaugh E, Saenz L, Salvaggio MR, Sanchez WC, Sanjana VM, Santiago S, Schmidt W, Schuitemaker H, Sestak PM, Shalit P, Shay W, Shirvani VN, Silebi VI, Sizemore JM, Skolnik PR, Sokol-Anderson M, Sosman JM, Stabile P, Stapleton JT, Starrett S, Stein F, Stellbrink HJ, Sterman FL, Stone VE, Stone DR, Tambussi G, Taplitz RA, Tedaldi EM, Telenti A, Theisen W, Torres R, Tosiello L, Tremblay C, Tribble MA, Trinh PD, Tsao A, Ueda P, Vaccaro A, Valadas E, Vanig TJ, Vecino I, Vega VM, Veikley W, Wade BH, Walworth C, Wanidworanun C, Ward DJ, Warner DA, Weber RD, Webster D, Weis S, Wheeler DA, White DJ, Wilkins E, Winston A, Wlodaver CG, van't Wout A, Wright DP, Yang OO, Yurdin DL, Zabukovic BW, Zachary KC, Zeeman B, Zhao M. PMID: 21051598.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 544     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    30. IL-2 immunotherapy to recently HIV-1 infected adults maintains the numbers of IL-17 expressing CD4+ T (T(H)17) cells in the periphery. J Clin Immunol. 2010 Sep; 30(5):681-92. Ndhlovu LC, Sinclair E, Epling L, Tan QX, Ho T, Jha AR, Eccles-James I, Tincati C, Levy JA, Nixon DF, Hecht FM, Barbour JD. PMID: 20571894.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    31. The unexpected pleiotropic activities of RANTES. J Immunol. 2009 Apr 01; 182(7):3945-6. Levy JA. PMID: 19299688.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 53     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    32. Not an HIV cure, but encouraging new directions. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 12; 360(7):724-5. Levy JA. PMID: 19213687.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    33. High CD8+ T cell activation marks a less differentiated HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell response that is not altered by suppression of viral replication. PLoS One. 2009; 4(2):e4408. Barbour JD, Ndhlovu LC, Xuan Tan Q, Ho T, Epling L, Bredt BM, Levy JA, Hecht FM, Sinclair E. PMID: 19198651.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    34. CD8+ cell anti-HIV activity rapidly increases upon discontinuation of early antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Immunol. 2009 May; 29(3):311-8. Killian MS, Roop J, Ng S, Hecht FM, Levy JA. PMID: 19189205.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    35. HIV pathogenesis: 25 years of progress and persistent challenges. AIDS. 2009 Jan 14; 23(2):147-60. Levy JA. PMID: 19098484.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    36. The spread, treatment, and prevention of HIV-1: evolution of a global pandemic. J Clin Invest. 2008 Apr; 118(4):1244-54. Cohen MS, Hellmann N, Levy JA, DeCock K, Lange J. PMID: 18382737.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 58     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    37. Derivation of infectious HIV-1 molecular clones with LTR mutations: sensitivity to the CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response. Virology. 2008 Mar 30; 373(1):30-8. Bonneau KR, Ng S, Foster H, Choi KB, Berkhout B, Rabson A, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. PMID: 18086484.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    38. A single amino acid of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 capsid affects its replication in the presence of cynomolgus monkey and human TRIM5alphas. J Virol. 2007 Jul; 81(13):7280-5. Song H, Nakayama EE, Yokoyama M, Sato H, Levy JA, Shioda T. PMID: 17475650.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    39. Quantitative longitudinal analysis of T cell receptor repertoire expression in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral and interleukin-2 therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 May; 23(5):741-7. Sriram U, Wong M, Caillier SJ, Hecht FM, Elkins MK, Levy JA, Oksenberg JR, Baranzini SE. PMID: 17531001.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    40. Synergy or independence? Deciphering the interaction of HLA Class I and NK cell KIR alleles in early HIV-1 disease progression. PLoS Pathog. 2007 Apr; 3(4):e43. Barbour JD, Sriram U, Caillier SJ, Levy JA, Hecht FM, Oksenberg JR. PMID: 17447840.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    41. Differential gene expression in CD8(+) cells from HIV-1-infected subjects showing suppression of HIV replication. Virology. 2007 May 25; 362(1):217-25. Martinez-Mariño B, Foster H, Hao Y, Levy JA. PMID: 17240414.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    42. The effects of early antiretroviral therapy and its discontinuation on the HIV-specific antibody response. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006 Jul; 22(7):640-7. Killian MS, Norris PJ, Rawal BD, Lebedeva M, Hecht FM, Levy JA, Busch MP. PMID: 16831088.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    43. Similar changes in plasmacytoid dendritic cell and CD4 T-cell counts during primary HIV-1 infection and treatment. AIDS. 2006 Jun 12; 20(9):1247-52. Killian MS, Fujimura SH, Hecht FM, Levy JA. PMID: 16816552.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    44. Sacral epithelioid angiosarcoma associated with a bleeding diathesis and spinal epidural hematoma: case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006 Mar; 4(3):246-50. Sanchez-Mejia RO, Ojemann SG, Simko J, Chaudhary UB, Levy J, Lawton MT. PMID: 16572625.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Seroreversion in subjects receiving antiretroviral therapy during acute/early HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Mar 01; 42(5):700-8. Hare CB, Pappalardo BL, Busch MP, Karlsson AC, Phelps BH, Alexander SS, Bentsen C, Ramstead CA, Nixon DF, Levy JA, Hecht FM. PMID: 16447118.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    46. Variations in plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC) and myeloid dendritic cell (MDC) levels in HIV-infected subjects on and off antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Immunol. 2006 Jan; 26(1):55-64. Schmidt B, Fujimura SH, Martin JN, Levy JA. PMID: 16418803.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    47. HIV-infected cells are major inducers of plasmacytoid dendritic cell interferon production, maturation, and migration. Virology. 2005 Dec 20; 343(2):256-66. Schmidt B, Ashlock BM, Foster H, Fujimura SH, Levy JA. PMID: 16278001.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 56     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    48. Potential herpesvirus interaction during HIV type 1 primary infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005 Oct; 21(10):869-75. Lennette ET, Busch MP, Hecht FM, Levy JA. PMID: 16225414.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    49. A screening assay for detecting CD8+ cell non-cytotoxic anti-HIV responses. J Immunol Methods. 2005 Sep; 304(1-2):137-50. Killian MS, Ng S, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. PMID: 16129447.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    50. Differential effects of R5 and X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection on CD4+ cell proliferation and activation. J Gen Virol. 2005 Apr; 86(Pt 4):1171-1179. Locher CP, Witt SA, Kassel R, Dowell NL, Fujimura S, Levy JA. PMID: 15784911.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    51. VCAM-1 expression on CD8+ cells correlates with enhanced anti-HIV suppressing activity. J Immunol. 2005 Feb 01; 174(3):1574-9. Diaz LS, Foster H, Stone MR, Fujimura S, Relman DA, Levy JA. PMID: 15661918.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    52. Registration of clinical trials. AIDS. 2005 Jan 28; 19(2):105. Levy JA, Autran B, Coutinho R, Phair JP. PMID: 15665791.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    53. Low-level HIV infection of plasmacytoid dendritic cells: onset of cytopathic effects and cell death after PDC maturation. Virology. 2004 Nov 24; 329(2):280-8. Schmidt B, Scott I, Whitmore RG, Foster H, Fujimura S, Schmitz J, Levy JA. PMID: 15518808.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    54. Interleukin-2 therapy restores CD8 cell non-cytotoxic anti-HIV responses in primary infection subjects receiving HAART. AIDS. 2004 Oct 21; 18(15):1991-9. Martinez-Mariño B, Shiboski S, Hecht FM, Kahn JO, Levy JA. PMID: 15577620.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    55. Prospects for an AIDS vaccine: encourage innate immunity. AIDS. 2004 Oct 21; 18(15):2085-6. Levy JA. PMID: 15577631.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    56. Potential screening assay for undetectable viruses on the basis of their capacity to induce alpha interferon production. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Sep; 42(9):4300-2. Schmidt B, Ashlock B, Neipel F, Levy JA. PMID: 15365027.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    57. Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 DNA vaccine provides partial protection from acute baboon infection. Vaccine. 2004 Jun 02; 22(17-18):2261-72. Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Polacino P, Hu SL, Shiboski S, Schmidt AM, Agy MB, Anderson DM, Staprans SI, zur Megede J, Levy JA. PMID: 15149785.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    58. Retraction. Clinical course of cardiomyopathy in HIV-infected patients with or without encephalopathy related to the myocardial expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide synthase. AIDS. 2004 May 21; 18(8):1087. Levy JA, Autran B, Coutinho R, Phair JP. PMID: 15166523.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    59. Immune activation set point during early HIV infection predicts subsequent CD4+ T-cell changes independent of viral load. Blood. 2004 Aug 15; 104(4):942-7. Deeks SG, Kitchen CM, Liu L, Guo H, Gascon R, Narváez AB, Hunt P, Martin JN, Kahn JO, Levy J, McGrath MS, Hecht FM. PMID: 15117761.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 340     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    60. Evaluation of genetic immunization adjuvants to improve the effectiveness of a human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) envelope DNA vaccine. DNA Cell Biol. 2004 Feb; 23(2):107-10. Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy JA. PMID: 15000750.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    61. Mature dendritic cells can enhance CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV responses: the role of IL-15. Blood. 2004 Apr 01; 103(7):2699-704. Castelli J, Thomas EK, Gilliet M, Liu YJ, Levy JA. PMID: 14684414.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    62. Enhancement of a human immunodeficiency virus env DNA vaccine using a novel polycationic nanoparticle formulation. Immunol Lett. 2003 Dec 15; 90(2-3):67-70. Locher CP, Putnam D, Langer R, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy JA. PMID: 14687705.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    63. Influence of HLA-B57 on clinical presentation and viral control during acute HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2003 Dec 05; 17(18):2581-91. Altfeld M, Addo MM, Rosenberg ES, Hecht FM, Lee PK, Vogel M, Yu XG, Draenert R, Johnston MN, Strick D, Allen TM, Feeney ME, Kahn JO, Sekaly RP, Levy JA, Rockstroh JK, Goulder PJ, Walker BD. PMID: 14685052.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 164     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    64. The search for the CD8+ cell anti-HIV factor (CAF). Trends Immunol. 2003 Dec; 24(12):628-32. Levy JA. PMID: 14644135.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    65. Virucidal efficacy of soap and water against human immunodeficiency virus in genital secretions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Oct; 47(10):3321-2. Li JZ, Mack EC, Levy JA. PMID: 14506048.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    66. alpha-Defensins can have anti-HIV activity but are not CD8 cell anti-HIV factors. AIDS. 2003 Sep 26; 17(14):F23-32. Mackewicz CE, Yuan J, Tran P, Diaz L, Mack E, Selsted ME, Levy JA. PMID: 14502030.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 43     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    67. Protection from HIV/AIDS: the importance of innate immunity. Clin Immunol. 2003 Sep; 108(3):167-74. Levy JA, Scott I, Mackewicz C. PMID: 14499239.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    68. Differential gene expression in CD8+ cells exhibiting noncytotoxic anti-HIV activity. Virology. 2003 Jul 05; 311(2):400-9. Diaz LS, Stone MR, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. PMID: 12842629.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    69. Clinical course of cardiomyopathy in HIV-infected patients with or without encephalopathy related to the myocardial expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide synthase. AIDS. 2003 May 23; 17(8):1119. Levy JA, Autran B, Coutinho R, Phair JP. PMID: 12819511.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    70. Lack of the CD8+ cell anti-HIV factor in CD8+ cell granules. Blood. 2003 Jul 01; 102(1):180-3. Mackewicz CE, Wang B, Metkar S, Richey M, Froelich CJ, Levy JA. PMID: 12649153.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    71. The CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response can be blocked by protease inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Mar 18; 100(6):3433-8. Mackewicz CE, Craik CS, Levy JA. PMID: 12624186.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    72. Is HIV superinfection worrisome? Lancet. 2003 Jan 11; 361(9352):98-9. Levy JA. PMID: 12531573.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    73. Increased virus replication and virulence after serial passage of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 in baboons. J Virol. 2003 Jan; 77(1):77-83. Locher CP, Witt SA, Herndier BG, Abbey NW, Tenner-Racz K, Racz P, Kiviat NB, Murthy KK, Brasky K, Leland M, Levy JA. PMID: 12477812.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    74. Expression patterns of phenotypic markers on lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus type 2-infected baboons. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003 Jan 01; 19(1):31-40. Locher CP, Fujimura S, Murthy KK, Brasky K, Leland M, Levy JA. PMID: 12581514.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    75. Natural type 1 interferon producing cells in HIV infection. Hum Immunol. 2002 Dec; 63(12):1206-12. Soumelis V, Scott I, Liu YJ, Levy J. PMID: 12480265.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    76. Enhancement of antibody responses to an HIV-2 DNA envelope vaccine using an expression vector containing a constitutive transport element. DNA Cell Biol. 2002 Aug; 21(8):581-6. Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy JA. PMID: 12215261.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    77. HIV-1: hitching a ride on erythrocytes. Lancet. 2002 Jun 29; 359(9325):2212-3. Levy JA. PMID: 12103280.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    78. Relationship of CD8(+) T cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response to CD4(+) T cell number in untreated asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals. Blood. 2002 Jun 01; 99(11):4225-7. Castelli JC, Deeks SG, Shiboski S, Levy JA. PMID: 12010831.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    79. Use of laboratory tests and clinical symptoms for identification of primary HIV infection. AIDS. 2002 May 24; 16(8):1119-29. Hecht FM, Busch MP, Rawal B, Webb M, Rosenberg E, Swanson M, Chesney M, Anderson J, Levy J, Kahn JO. PMID: 12004270.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 86     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    80. Sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus infection to various alpha, beta and gamma chemokines. J Gen Virol. 1999 Sep; 80 ( Pt 9):2369-2373. Greco G, Mackewicz C, Levy JA. PMID: 10501489.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    81. Limited transmission of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in cultured cells. J Virol. 1998 Jun; 72(6):5182-8. Renne R, Blackbourn D, Whitby D, Levy J, Ganem D. PMID: 9573290.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 129     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    82. Adaptation of craniofacial muscles in subjects with craniomandibular disorders. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1990 Jan; 97(1):20-34. Nielsen IL, McNeill C, Danzig W, Goldman S, Levy J, Miller AJ. PMID: 2296935.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    83. Effect of Foscarnet therapy on infection with human immunodeficiency virus in patients with AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1988 Oct; 158(4):862-5. Jacobson MA, Crowe S, Levy J, Aweeka F, Gambertoglio J, McManus N, Mills J. PMID: 2844921.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    84. Association of a [corrected] murine leukaemia virus from a mouse lymphoma (2731-L) associated [corrected] with reovirus type 3 infection. Nature. 1970 Mar 07; 225(5236):949-50. Levy JA, Huebner RJ. PMID: 4313576.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
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