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Jay Levy, MD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentMedicine
Address513 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-476-4071
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Wesleyan UniversityBABiology
    Universite de ParisRegeneration
    Columbia University MDMedicine and Virology
    University of PennsylvaniaMed. Internship, Residency I
    NIH, National Cancer InstituteStaff Associate
    University of California, San FranciscoMed. Residency II
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    American Association for the Advancement of Science1993Fellow
    Wesleyan University1996Doctor of Science Honorary Degree
    University of California, San Francisco2002UCSF 45th Faculty Research Lecturer
    American Academy of Microbiology2003Fellow
    American Academy of Arts and Sciences2004Fellow
    Columbia University2008Gold Medal for Excellence in Medical Research
    University of California, San Francisco2015UCSF 150th Anniversary Alumni Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Research in the Levy laboratory is directed at understanding the interaction of viruses and the immune system in microbial pathogenesis. It focuses on HIV infection with the goal of designing novel antiviral therapies and an effective AIDS vaccine for which both innate and adaptive responses are needed. Biologic, serologic, and molecular characterization of several HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains has revealed their extensive heterogeneity and how viruses can evolve differently in the same individual in the immune system, bowel, and the brain. A major emphasis in the laboratory has been on anti-HIV innate immune responses. The research group is evaluating the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), the main producers of type 1 interferons. Studies are directed at understanding how HIV-infected cells induce interferon production from PDC and what cell surface molecules, including toll-like receptors (TLR), are involved in this process. An important potent innate response we have discovered is the ability of CD8+ lymphocytes to suppress HIV replication without killing the cells. This novel CD8+ cell noncytotoxic antiviral response (CNAR) is mediated by an as yet unidentified, natural CD8+ cell antiviral factor (CAF) that blocks HIV transcription. In summary, the Levy laboratory has been conducting studies to identify CAF through RNA Seq procedures, to determine the best strategy for an AIDS vaccine and to use genetically modified stem cell approaches towards a potential HIV cure.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Characterization of a New Anti-HIV Immune Protein
    NIH/NIAID R21AI129685Mar 6, 2017 - Feb 28, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV Cure with CCr5 (-) Human IPS Hematopoietic Stem Cells
    NIH/NIAID R01AI102825May 1, 2014 - Apr 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV cure with CCR5 (-) human IPS hematopoietic stem cells
    NIH/NIAID R56AI102825Jun 7, 2012 - Aug 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Protection from HIV Infection in Intravenous Drug Users
    NIH/NIDA R21DA030272Jul 1, 2010 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MBSR, Stress Arousal and Immune Response in Early HIV
    NIH/NCCIH P01AT002024Sep 30, 2004 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Role of Innate Immunity in Controlling HIV Infection
    NIH/NIAID R01AI056992Jul 1, 2003 - Feb 28, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Innate Immunity in Controlling HIV Infection
    NIH/NIAID R56AI056992Jul 1, 2003 - Aug 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    20Years of HIV Research: From Discovery to Understanding
    NIH/NIAID R13AI054154Mar 1, 2003 - Feb 29, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Suppression of HIV replication by CD8+ cells
    NIH/NIAID R21AI049926Apr 1, 2001 - Mar 31, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ANIMAL MODEL FOR HIV VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
    NIH/NCRR R01RR014181Jun 1, 1999 - Nov 30, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Immunologic &Virologic Features of Early HIV Infection
    NIH/NIAID U01AI041531Jul 1, 1997 - Jun 30, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF HIV-1 IN THAILAND--VIRAL FACTOR
    NIH/FIC R03TW000535Sep 30, 1995 - Sep 29, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV 2 INFECTION--A POTENTIAL MODEL
    NIH/NIAID R01AI034704Aug 1, 1994 - Jul 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    VIROLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY OF CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME
    NIH/NIAID R01AI035572Apr 1, 1994 - Mar 31, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SIV/HIV CHIMERAS--AN ANIMAL MODEL FOR HIV INFECTION
    NIH/NIAID R01AI034742Sep 30, 1993 - Jun 30, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    UCSF AIDS RESEARCH TRAINING PROGRAM
    NIH/NIAID T32AI007395Aug 1, 1990 - Jan 31, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SUPPRESSION OF HIV REPLICATION BY CD8+ CELLS
    NIH/NIAID R21AI030350Jun 1, 1990 - Sep 29, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SUPPRESSION OF HIV REPLICATION BY CD8+ CELLS
    NIH/NIAID R01AI030350Jun 1, 1990 - Jun 30, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ENHANCING ANTIBODIES IN HIV INFECTION
    NIH/NIAID R01AI029394Sep 30, 1989 - Jul 31, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator
    AIDS RETROVIRUS FEATURES AFFECTING ANTIVIRAL THERAPY
    NIH/NIAID R01AI024499Apr 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Bio-Organic Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Resource
    NIH P41RR001614Mar 1, 1982 - May 31, 2015
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Global Health
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Levy J, Murphy EL.Schwab M (ed.) Encyclopedia of Cancer. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus. 2017; 3:2146 - 2149.
    2. Blazek D, Teque F, Mackewicz C, Peterlin M, Levy J. The CD8+ cell non-cytotoxic antiviral response affects RNA polymerase II-mediated human immunodeficiency virus transcription in infected CD4+ cells. J Gen Virol. 2016 Jan; 97(1):220-4. PMID: 26499373; PMCID: PMC4772706 [Available on 01/01/17].
    3. Levy J. Discovery of another anti-HIV protein in the search for the CD8+ cell anti-HIV Factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jun 30; 112(26):7888-9. PMID: 26085138; PMCID: PMC4491768.
    4. Levy J. Dispelling myths and focusing on notable concepts in HIV pathogenesis. Trends Mol Med. 2015 Jun; 21(6):341-53. PMID: 25883070.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Roff SR, Sanou MP, Rathore MH, Levy J, Yamamoto JK. Conserved epitopes on HIV-1, FIV and SIV p24 proteins are recognized by HIV-1 infected subjects. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015; 11(6):1540-56. PMID: 25844718; PMCID: PMC4514358.
    6. Ye L, Wang J, Beyer AI, Teque F, Cradick TJ, Qi Z, Chang JC, Bao G, Muench MO, Yu J, Levy J, Kan YW. Seamless modification of wild-type induced pluripotent stem cells to the natural CCR5?32 mutation confers resistance to HIV infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jul 01; 111(26):9591-6. PMID: 24927590; PMCID: PMC4084478.
    7. Venditto VJ, Wieczorek L, Molnar S, Teque F, Landucci G, Watson DS, Forthal D, Polonis VR, Levy J, Szoka FC. Chemically modified peptides based on the membrane-proximal external region of the HIV-1 envelope induce high-titer, epitope-specific nonneutralizing antibodies in rabbits. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Aug; 21(8):1086-93. PMID: 24872518; PMCID: PMC4135905.
    8. Sanou MP, Roff SR, Mennella A, Sleasman JW, Rathore MH, Yamamoto JK, Levy J. Evolutionarily conserved epitopes on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptases detected by HIV-1-infected subjects. J Virol. 2013 Sep; 87(18):10004-15. PMID: 23824804; PMCID: PMC3754003.
    9. Liu L, Wang L, Huang L, Siu V, Teque F, Aweeka FT, Levy J. Nevirapine inhibits the anti-HIV activity of CD8+ cells. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Jun 01; 63(2):184-8. PMID: 23392464; PMCID: PMC3653990.
    10. Kaushik S, Teque F, Patel M, Fujimura SH, Schmidt B, Levy J. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell number and responses to Toll-like receptor 7 and 9 agonists vary in HIV Type 1-infected individuals in relation to clinical state. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Mar; 29(3):501-10. PMID: 23131038; PMCID: PMC3581027.
    11. Ippolito G, Levy J, Sonnerborg A, Mugusi F, Dianzani F. AIDS and HIV Infection after Thirty Years. AIDS Res Treat. 2013; 2013:731983. PMID: 23365727; PMCID: PMC3556433.
    12. Levy J, Levy Y. HIV infection: what should be considered in approaches for a cure? AIDS. 2012 Nov 13; 26(17):2253-5. PMID: 23060292; PMCID: PMC3835309.
    13. Levy J, Autran B, Coutinho RA, Phair JP. 25 Years of AIDS: recording progress and future challenges. AIDS. 2012 Jun 19; 26(10):1187-9. PMID: 22546989.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Tugizov SM, Herrera R, Veluppillai P, Greenspan D, Soros V, Greene WC, Levy J, Palefsky JM. Differential transmission of HIV traversing fetal oral/intestinal epithelia and adult oral epithelia. J Virol. 2012 Mar; 86(5):2556-70. PMID: 22205732; PMCID: PMC3302289.
    15. Killian MS, Levy J. HIV/AIDS: 30 years of progress and future challenges. Eur J Immunol. 2011 Dec; 41(12):3401-11. PMID: 22125008.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Liu L, Johnson C, Fujimura S, Teque F, Levy J. Transfection optimization for primary human CD8+ cells. J Immunol Methods. 2011 Sep 30; 372(1-2):22-9. PMID: 21777592; PMCID: PMC3170435.
    17. Knox K, Carrigan D, Simmons G, Teque F, Zhou Y, Hackett J, Qiu X, Luk KC, Schochetman G, Knox A, Kogelnik AM, Levy J. No evidence of murine-like gammaretroviruses in CFS patients previously identified as XMRV-infected. Science. 2011 Jul 01; 333(6038):94-7. PMID: 21628393.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Levy J. Virus-host interactions in HIV pathogenesis: directions for therapy. Adv Dent Res. 2011 Apr; 23(1):13-8. PMID: 21441474; PMCID: PMC3144039.
    19. Meditz AL, MaWhinney S, Allshouse A, Feser W, Markowitz M, Little S, Hecht R, Daar ES, Collier AC, Margolick J, Kilby JM, Routy JP, Conway B, Kaldor J, Levy J, Schooley R, Cooper DA, Altfeld M, Richman D, Connick E. Sex, race, and geographic region influence clinical outcomes following primary HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 15; 203(4):442-51. PMID: 21245157; PMCID: PMC3071223.
    20. Killian MS, Johnson C, Teque F, Fujimura S, Levy J. Natural suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication is mediated by transitional memory CD8+ T cells. J Virol. 2011 Feb; 85(4):1696-705. PMID: 21147929; PMCID: PMC3028886.
    21. Tugizov SM, Herrera R, Veluppillai P, Greenspan D, Soros V, Greene WC, Levy J, Palefsky JM. HIV is inactivated after transepithelial migration via adult oral epithelial cells but not fetal epithelial cells. Virology. 2011 Jan 20; 409(2):211-22. PMID: 21056450; PMCID: PMC3034249.
    22. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation. Science. 2010 Dec 10; 330(6010):1551-7. PMID: 21051598; PMCID: PMC3235490.
    23. Ndhlovu LC, Sinclair E, Epling L, Tan QX, Ho T, Jha AR, Eccles-James I, Tincati C, Levy J, Nixon DF, Hecht FM, Barbour JD. IL-2 immunotherapy to recently HIV-1 infected adults maintains the numbers of IL-17 expressing CD4+ T (T(H)17) cells in the periphery. J Clin Immunol. 2010 Sep; 30(5):681-92. PMID: 20571894; PMCID: PMC2935971.
    24. Levy J. The unexpected pleiotropic activities of RANTES. J Immunol. 2009 Apr 01; 182(7):3945-6. PMID: 19299688.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Levy J. Not an HIV cure, but encouraging new directions. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 12; 360(7):724-5. PMID: 19213687.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Barbour JD, Ndhlovu LC, Xuan Tan Q, Ho T, Epling L, Bredt BM, Levy J, Hecht FM, Sinclair E. High CD8+ T cell activation marks a less differentiated HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell response that is not altered by suppression of viral replication. PLoS One. 2009; 4(2):e4408. PMID: 19198651; PMCID: PMC2634967.
    27. Killian MS, Roop J, Ng S, Hecht FM, Levy J. CD8+ cell anti-HIV activity rapidly increases upon discontinuation of early antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Immunol. 2009 May; 29(3):311-8. PMID: 19189205.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Levy J. HIV pathogenesis: 25 years of progress and persistent challenges. AIDS. 2009 Jan 14; 23(2):147-60. PMID: 19098484.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Cohen MS, Hellmann N, Levy J, DeCock K, Lange J. The spread, treatment, and prevention of HIV-1: evolution of a global pandemic. J Clin Invest. 2008 Apr; 118(4):1244-54. PMID: 18382737; PMCID: PMC2276790.
    30. Bonneau KR, Ng S, Foster H, Choi KB, Berkhout B, Rabson A, Mackewicz CE, Levy J. Derivation of infectious HIV-1 molecular clones with LTR mutations: sensitivity to the CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response. Virology. 2008 Mar 30; 373(1):30-8. PMID: 18086484.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Song H, Nakayama EE, Yokoyama M, Sato H, Levy J, Shioda T. A single amino acid of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 capsid affects its replication in the presence of cynomolgus monkey and human TRIM5alphas. J Virol. 2007 Jul; 81(13):7280-5. PMID: 17475650; PMCID: PMC1933286.
    32. Sriram U, Wong M, Caillier SJ, Hecht FM, Elkins MK, Levy J, Oksenberg JR, Baranzini SE. Quantitative longitudinal analysis of T cell receptor repertoire expression in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral and interleukin-2 therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 May; 23(5):741-7. PMID: 17531001.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Barbour JD, Sriram U, Caillier SJ, Levy J, Hecht FM, Oksenberg JR. Synergy or independence? Deciphering the interaction of HLA Class I and NK cell KIR alleles in early HIV-1 disease progression. PLoS Pathog. 2007 Apr; 3(4):e43. PMID: 17447840; PMCID: PMC1853116.
    34. Martinez-Mariño B, Foster H, Hao Y, Levy J. Differential gene expression in CD8(+) cells from HIV-1-infected subjects showing suppression of HIV replication. Virology. 2007 May 25; 362(1):217-25. PMID: 17240414; PMCID: PMC1987396.
    35. Killian MS, Norris PJ, Rawal BD, Lebedeva M, Hecht FM, Levy J, Busch MP. The effects of early antiretroviral therapy and its discontinuation on the HIV-specific antibody response. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006 Jul; 22(7):640-7. PMID: 16831088.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Killian MS, Fujimura SH, Hecht FM, Levy J. Similar changes in plasmacytoid dendritic cell and CD4 T-cell counts during primary HIV-1 infection and treatment. AIDS. 2006 Jun 12; 20(9):1247-52. PMID: 16816552.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Sanchez-Mejia RO, Ojemann SG, Simko J, Chaudhary UB, Levy J, Lawton MT. Sacral epithelioid angiosarcoma associated with a bleeding diathesis and spinal epidural hematoma: case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006 Mar; 4(3):246-50. PMID: 16572625.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Hare CB, Pappalardo BL, Busch MP, Karlsson AC, Phelps BH, Alexander SS, Bentsen C, Ramstead CA, Nixon DF, Levy J, Hecht FM. Seroreversion in subjects receiving antiretroviral therapy during acute/early HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Mar 01; 42(5):700-8. PMID: 16447118.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Schmidt B, Fujimura SH, Martin JN, Levy J. Variations in plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC) and myeloid dendritic cell (MDC) levels in HIV-infected subjects on and off antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Immunol. 2006 Jan; 26(1):55-64. PMID: 16418803.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Schmidt B, Ashlock BM, Foster H, Fujimura SH, Levy J. HIV-infected cells are major inducers of plasmacytoid dendritic cell interferon production, maturation, and migration. Virology. 2005 Dec 20; 343(2):256-66. PMID: 16278001.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Lennette ET, Busch MP, Hecht FM, Levy J. Potential herpesvirus interaction during HIV type 1 primary infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005 Oct; 21(10):869-75. PMID: 16225414.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Killian MS, Ng S, Mackewicz CE, Levy J. A screening assay for detecting CD8+ cell non-cytotoxic anti-HIV responses. J Immunol Methods. 2005 Sep; 304(1-2):137-50. PMID: 16129447.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Locher CP, Witt SA, Kassel R, Dowell NL, Fujimura S, Levy J. Differential effects of R5 and X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection on CD4+ cell proliferation and activation. J Gen Virol. 2005 Apr; 86(Pt 4):1171-9. PMID: 15784911.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Diaz LS, Foster H, Stone MR, Fujimura S, Relman DA, Levy J. VCAM-1 expression on CD8+ cells correlates with enhanced anti-HIV suppressing activity. J Immunol. 2005 Feb 01; 174(3):1574-9. PMID: 15661918.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Levy J, Autran B, Coutinho R, Phair JP. Registration of clinical trials. AIDS. 2005 Jan 28; 19(2):105. PMID: 15665791.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Schmidt B, Scott I, Whitmore RG, Foster H, Fujimura S, Schmitz J, Levy J. Low-level HIV infection of plasmacytoid dendritic cells: onset of cytopathic effects and cell death after PDC maturation. Virology. 2004 Nov 24; 329(2):280-8. PMID: 15518808.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Martinez-Mariño B, Shiboski S, Hecht FM, Kahn JO, Levy J. Interleukin-2 therapy restores CD8 cell non-cytotoxic anti-HIV responses in primary infection subjects receiving HAART. AIDS. 2004 Oct 21; 18(15):1991-9. PMID: 15577620.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Levy J. Prospects for an AIDS vaccine: encourage innate immunity. AIDS. 2004 Oct 21; 18(15):2085-6. PMID: 15577631.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Schmidt B, Ashlock B, Neipel F, Levy J. Potential screening assay for undetectable viruses on the basis of their capacity to induce alpha interferon production. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Sep; 42(9):4300-2. PMID: 15365027; PMCID: PMC516323.
    50. Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Polacino P, Hu SL, Shiboski S, Schmidt AM, Agy MB, Anderson DM, Staprans SI, zur Megede J, Levy J. Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 DNA vaccine provides partial protection from acute baboon infection. Vaccine. 2004 Jun 02; 22(17-18):2261-72. PMID: 15149785.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Levy J, Autran B, Coutinho R, Phair JP. Retraction. Clinical course of cardiomyopathy in HIV-infected patients with or without encephalopathy related to the myocardial expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide synthase. AIDS. 2004 May 21; 18(8):1087. PMID: 15166523.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Deeks SG, Kitchen CM, Liu L, Guo H, Gascon R, Narváez AB, Hunt P, Martin JN, Kahn JO, Levy J, McGrath MS, Hecht FM. Immune activation set point during early HIV infection predicts subsequent CD4+ T-cell changes independent of viral load. Blood. 2004 Aug 15; 104(4):942-7. PMID: 15117761.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy J. Evaluation of genetic immunization adjuvants to improve the effectiveness of a human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) envelope DNA vaccine. DNA Cell Biol. 2004 Feb; 23(2):107-10. PMID: 15000750.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Castelli J, Thomas EK, Gilliet M, Liu YJ, Levy J. Mature dendritic cells can enhance CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV responses: the role of IL-15. Blood. 2004 Apr 01; 103(7):2699-704. PMID: 14684414.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Locher CP, Putnam D, Langer R, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy J. Enhancement of a human immunodeficiency virus env DNA vaccine using a novel polycationic nanoparticle formulation. Immunol Lett. 2003 Dec 15; 90(2-3):67-70. PMID: 14687705.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Altfeld M, Addo MM, Rosenberg ES, Hecht FM, Lee PK, Vogel M, Yu XG, Draenert R, Johnston MN, Strick D, Allen TM, Feeney ME, Kahn JO, Sekaly RP, Levy J, Rockstroh JK, Goulder PJ, Walker BD. Influence of HLA-B57 on clinical presentation and viral control during acute HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2003 Dec 05; 17(18):2581-91. PMID: 14685052.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Levy J. The search for the CD8+ cell anti-HIV factor (CAF). Trends Immunol. 2003 Dec; 24(12):628-32. PMID: 14644135.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Li JZ, Mack EC, Levy J. Virucidal efficacy of soap and water against human immunodeficiency virus in genital secretions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Oct; 47(10):3321-2. PMID: 14506048; PMCID: PMC201149.
    59. Mackewicz CE, Yuan J, Tran P, Diaz L, Mack E, Selsted ME, Levy J. alpha-Defensins can have anti-HIV activity but are not CD8 cell anti-HIV factors. AIDS. 2003 Sep 26; 17(14):F23-32. PMID: 14502030.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Levy J, Scott I, Mackewicz C. Protection from HIV/AIDS: the importance of innate immunity. Clin Immunol. 2003 Sep; 108(3):167-74. PMID: 14499239.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Diaz LS, Stone MR, Mackewicz CE, Levy J. Differential gene expression in CD8+ cells exhibiting noncytotoxic anti-HIV activity. Virology. 2003 Jul 05; 311(2):400-9. PMID: 12842629.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Levy J, Autran B, Coutinho R, Phair JP. Clinical course of cardiomyopathy in HIV-infected patients with or without encephalopathy related to the myocardial expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide synthase. AIDS. 2003 May 23; 17(8):1119. PMID: 12819511.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Mackewicz CE, Wang B, Metkar S, Richey M, Froelich CJ, Levy J. Lack of the CD8+ cell anti-HIV factor in CD8+ cell granules. Blood. 2003 Jul 01; 102(1):180-3. PMID: 12649153.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Mackewicz CE, Craik CS, Levy J. The CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response can be blocked by protease inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Mar 18; 100(6):3433-8. PMID: 12624186; PMCID: PMC152310.
    65. Levy J. Is HIV superinfection worrisome? Lancet. 2003 Jan 11; 361(9352):98-9. PMID: 12531573.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Locher CP, Fujimura S, Murthy KK, Brasky K, Leland M, Levy J. Expression patterns of phenotypic markers on lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus type 2-infected baboons. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003 Jan 01; 19(1):31-40. PMID: 12581514.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Locher CP, Witt SA, Herndier BG, Abbey NW, Tenner-Racz K, Racz P, Kiviat NB, Murthy KK, Brasky K, Leland M, Levy J. Increased virus replication and virulence after serial passage of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 in baboons. J Virol. 2003 Jan; 77(1):77-83. PMID: 12477812; PMCID: PMC140565.
    68. Soumelis V, Scott I, Liu YJ, Levy J. Natural type 1 interferon producing cells in HIV infection. Hum Immunol. 2002 Dec; 63(12):1206-12. PMID: 12480265.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy J. Enhancement of antibody responses to an HIV-2 DNA envelope vaccine using an expression vector containing a constitutive transport element. DNA Cell Biol. 2002 Aug; 21(8):581-6. PMID: 12215261.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Levy J. HIV-1: hitching a ride on erythrocytes. Lancet. 2002 Jun 29; 359(9325):2212-3. PMID: 12103280.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Castelli JC, Deeks SG, Shiboski S, Levy J. Relationship of CD8(+) T cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response to CD4(+) T cell number in untreated asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals. Blood. 2002 Jun 01; 99(11):4225-7. PMID: 12010831.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Hecht FM, Busch MP, Rawal B, Webb M, Rosenberg E, Swanson M, Chesney M, Anderson J, Levy J, Kahn JO. Use of laboratory tests and clinical symptoms for identification of primary HIV infection. AIDS. 2002 May 24; 16(8):1119-29. PMID: 12004270.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Renne R, Blackbourn D, Whitby D, Levy J, Ganem D. Limited transmission of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in cultured cells. J Virol. 1998 Jun; 72(6):5182-8. PMID: 9573290; PMCID: PMC110093.
    74. Nielsen IL, McNeill C, Danzig W, Goldman S, Levy J, Miller AJ. Adaptation of craniofacial muscles in subjects with craniomandibular disorders. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1990 Jan; 97(1):20-34. PMID: 2296935.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Jacobson MA, Crowe S, Levy J, Aweeka F, Gambertoglio J, McManus N, Mills J. Effect of Foscarnet therapy on infection with human immunodeficiency virus in patients with AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1988 Oct; 158(4):862-5. PMID: 2844921.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Levy J, Huebner RJ. Association of a [corrected] murine leukaemia virus from a mouse lymphoma (2731-L) associated [corrected] with reovirus type 3 infection. Nature. 1970 Mar 07; 225(5236):949-50. PMID: 4313576.
      View in: PubMed
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