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Jay Levy, MD

Title(s)Professor, Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Phone415-476-4071
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Wesleyan UniversityBABiology
    Universite de ParisRegeneration
    Columbia University MDMedicine and Virology
    University of PennsylvaniaMed. Internship, Residency I
    NIH, National Cancer InstituteStaff Associate
    University of California, San FranciscoMed. Residency II
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    American Association for the Advancement of Science1993Fellow
    Wesleyan University1996Doctor of Science Honorary Degree
    University of California, San Francisco2002UCSF 45th Faculty Research Lecturer
    American Academy of Microbiology2003Fellow
    American Academy of Arts and Sciences2004Fellow
    Columbia University2008Gold Medal for Excellence in Medical Research
    University of California, San Francisco2015UCSF 150th Anniversary Alumni Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Research in the Levy laboratory is directed at understanding the interaction of viruses and the immune system in microbial pathogenesis. It focuses on HIV infection with the goal of designing novel antiviral therapies and an effective AIDS vaccine for which both innate and adaptive responses are needed. Biologic, serologic, and molecular characterization of several HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains has revealed their extensive heterogeneity and how viruses can evolve differently in the same individual in the immune system, bowel, and the brain. A major emphasis in the laboratory has been on anti-HIV innate immune responses. The research group is evaluating the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), the main producers of type 1 interferons. Studies are directed at understanding how HIV-infected cells induce interferon production from PDC and what cell surface molecules, including toll-like receptors (TLR), are involved in this process. An important potent innate response we have discovered is the ability of CD8+ lymphocytes to suppress HIV replication without killing the cells. This novel CD8+ cell noncytotoxic antiviral response (CNAR) is mediated by an as yet unidentified, natural CD8+ cell antiviral factor (CAF) that blocks HIV transcription. In summary, the Levy laboratory has been conducting studies to identify CAF through RNA Seq procedures, to determine the best strategy for an AIDS vaccine and to use genetically modified stem cell approaches towards a potential HIV cure.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Characterization of a New Anti-HIV Immune Protein
    NIH/NIAID R21AI129685Mar 6, 2017 - Feb 28, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV Cure with CCr5 (-) Human IPS Hematopoietic Stem Cells
    NIH/NIAID R01AI102825May 1, 2014 - Apr 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV cure with CCR5 (-) human IPS hematopoietic stem cells
    NIH/NIAID R56AI102825Jun 7, 2012 - Aug 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Protection from HIV Infection in Intravenous Drug Users
    NIH/NIDA R21DA030272Jul 1, 2010 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MBSR, Stress Arousal and Immune Response in Early HIV
    NIH/NCCIH P01AT002024Sep 30, 2004 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Role of Innate Immunity in Controlling HIV Infection
    NIH/NIAID R01AI056992Jul 1, 2003 - Feb 28, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Innate Immunity in Controlling HIV Infection
    NIH/NIAID R56AI056992Jul 1, 2003 - Aug 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    20Years of HIV Research: From Discovery to Understanding
    NIH/NIAID R13AI054154Mar 1, 2003 - Feb 29, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Suppression of HIV replication by CD8+ cells
    NIH/NIAID R21AI049926Apr 1, 2001 - Mar 31, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ANIMAL MODEL FOR HIV VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
    NIH/NCRR R01RR014181Jun 1, 1999 - Nov 30, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Immunologic &Virologic Features of Early HIV Infection
    NIH/NIAID U01AI041531Jul 1, 1997 - Jun 30, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF HIV-1 IN THAILAND--VIRAL FACTOR
    NIH/FIC R03TW000535Sep 30, 1995 - Sep 29, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV 2 INFECTION--A POTENTIAL MODEL
    NIH/NIAID R01AI034704Aug 1, 1994 - Jul 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    VIROLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY OF CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME
    NIH/NIAID R01AI035572Apr 1, 1994 - Mar 31, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SIV/HIV CHIMERAS--AN ANIMAL MODEL FOR HIV INFECTION
    NIH/NIAID R01AI034742Sep 30, 1993 - Jun 30, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    UCSF AIDS RESEARCH TRAINING PROGRAM
    NIH/NIAID T32AI007395Aug 1, 1990 - Jan 31, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SUPPRESSION OF HIV REPLICATION BY CD8+ CELLS
    NIH/NIAID R21AI030350Jun 1, 1990 - Sep 29, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SUPPRESSION OF HIV REPLICATION BY CD8+ CELLS
    NIH/NIAID R01AI030350Jun 1, 1990 - Jun 30, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ENHANCING ANTIBODIES IN HIV INFECTION
    NIH/NIAID R01AI029394Sep 30, 1989 - Jul 31, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator
    AIDS RETROVIRUS FEATURES AFFECTING ANTIVIRAL THERAPY
    NIH/NIAID R01AI024499Apr 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Bio-Organic Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Resource
    NIH P41RR001614Mar 1, 1982 - May 31, 2015
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Hecht FM, Moskowitz JT, Moran P, Epel ES, Bacchetti P, Acree M, Kemeny ME, Mendes WB, Duncan LG, Weng H, Levy JA, Deeks SG, Folkman S. A randomized, controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction in HIV infection. Brain Behav Immun. 2018 10; 73:331-339. PMID: 29842903.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Levy JA, Murphy EL.Schwab M (ed.) Encyclopedia of Cancer. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus. 2017; 3:2146 - 2149.
    3. Blazek D, Teque F, Mackewicz C, Peterlin M, Levy JA. The CD8+ cell non-cytotoxic antiviral response affects RNA polymerase II-mediated human immunodeficiency virus transcription in infected CD4+ cells. J Gen Virol. 2016 Jan; 97(1):220-4. PMID: 26499373.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Levy JA. Discovery of another anti-HIV protein in the search for the CD8+ cell anti-HIV Factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jun 30; 112(26):7888-9. PMID: 26085138.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Levy JA. Dispelling myths and focusing on notable concepts in HIV pathogenesis. Trends Mol Med. 2015 Jun; 21(6):341-53. PMID: 25883070.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Roff SR, Sanou MP, Rathore MH, Levy JA, Yamamoto JK. Conserved epitopes on HIV-1, FIV and SIV p24 proteins are recognized by HIV-1 infected subjects. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015; 11(6):1540-56. PMID: 25844718.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Ye L, Wang J, Beyer AI, Teque F, Cradick TJ, Qi Z, Chang JC, Bao G, Muench MO, Yu J, Levy JA, Kan YW. Seamless modification of wild-type induced pluripotent stem cells to the natural CCR5?32 mutation confers resistance to HIV infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jul 01; 111(26):9591-6. PMID: 24927590.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Venditto VJ, Wieczorek L, Molnar S, Teque F, Landucci G, Watson DS, Forthal D, Polonis VR, Levy JA, Szoka FC. Chemically modified peptides based on the membrane-proximal external region of the HIV-1 envelope induce high-titer, epitope-specific nonneutralizing antibodies in rabbits. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Aug; 21(8):1086-93. PMID: 24872518.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Sanou MP, Roff SR, Mennella A, Sleasman JW, Rathore MH, Yamamoto JK, Levy JA. Evolutionarily conserved epitopes on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptases detected by HIV-1-infected subjects. J Virol. 2013 Sep; 87(18):10004-15. PMID: 23824804.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Liu L, Wang L, Huang L, Siu V, Teque F, Aweeka FT, Levy JA. Nevirapine inhibits the anti-HIV activity of CD8+ cells. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Jun 01; 63(2):184-8. PMID: 23392464.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Kaushik S, Teque F, Patel M, Fujimura SH, Schmidt B, Levy JA. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell number and responses to Toll-like receptor 7 and 9 agonists vary in HIV Type 1-infected individuals in relation to clinical state. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Mar; 29(3):501-10. PMID: 23131038.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Ippolito G, Levy JA, Sonnerborg A, Mugusi F, Dianzani F. AIDS and HIV Infection after Thirty Years. AIDS Res Treat. 2013; 2013:731983. PMID: 23365727.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Sanou MP, De Groot AS, Murphey-Corb M, Levy JA, Yamamoto JK. HIV-1 Vaccine Trials: Evolving Concepts and Designs. Open AIDS J. 2012; 6:274-88. PMID: 23289052.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Levy JA, Levy Y. HIV infection: what should be considered in approaches for a cure? AIDS. 2012 Nov 13; 26(17):2253-5. PMID: 23060292.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Levy JA, Autran B, Coutinho RA, Phair JP. 25 Years of AIDS: recording progress and future challenges. AIDS. 2012 Jun 19; 26(10):1187-9. PMID: 22546989.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Tugizov SM, Herrera R, Veluppillai P, Greenspan D, Soros V, Greene WC, Levy JA, Palefsky JM. Differential transmission of HIV traversing fetal oral/intestinal epithelia and adult oral epithelia. J Virol. 2012 Mar; 86(5):2556-70. PMID: 22205732.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Killian MS, Levy JA. HIV/AIDS: 30 years of progress and future challenges. Eur J Immunol. 2011 Dec; 41(12):3401-11. PMID: 22125008.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Liu L, Johnson C, Fujimura S, Teque F, Levy JA. Transfection optimization for primary human CD8+ cells. J Immunol Methods. 2011 Sep 30; 372(1-2):22-9. PMID: 21777592.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Knox K, Carrigan D, Simmons G, Teque F, Zhou Y, Hackett J, Qiu X, Luk KC, Schochetman G, Knox A, Kogelnik AM, Levy JA. No evidence of murine-like gammaretroviruses in CFS patients previously identified as XMRV-infected. Science. 2011 Jul 01; 333(6038):94-7. PMID: 21628393.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Levy JA. Virus-host interactions in HIV pathogenesis: directions for therapy. Adv Dent Res. 2011 Apr; 23(1):13-8. PMID: 21441474.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Meditz AL, MaWhinney S, Allshouse A, Feser W, Markowitz M, Little S, Hecht R, Daar ES, Collier AC, Margolick J, Kilby JM, Routy JP, Conway B, Kaldor J, Levy J, Schooley R, Cooper DA, Altfeld M, Richman D, Connick E. Sex, race, and geographic region influence clinical outcomes following primary HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 15; 203(4):442-51. PMID: 21245157.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Killian MS, Johnson C, Teque F, Fujimura S, Levy JA. Natural suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication is mediated by transitional memory CD8+ T cells. J Virol. 2011 Feb; 85(4):1696-705. PMID: 21147929.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Tugizov SM, Herrera R, Veluppillai P, Greenspan D, Soros V, Greene WC, Levy JA, Palefsky JM. HIV is inactivated after transepithelial migration via adult oral epithelial cells but not fetal epithelial cells. Virology. 2011 Jan 20; 409(2):211-22. PMID: 21056450.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Pereyra F, Jia X, McLaren PJ, Telenti A, de Bakker PI, Walker BD, Ripke S, Brumme CJ, Pulit SL, Carrington M, Kadie CM, Carlson JM, Heckerman D, Graham RR, Plenge RM, Deeks SG, Gianniny L, Crawford G, Sullivan J, Gonzalez E, Davies L, Camargo A, Moore JM, Beattie N, Gupta S, Crenshaw A, Burtt NP, Guiducci C, Gupta N, Gao X, Qi Y, Yuki Y, Piechocka-Trocha A, Cutrell E, Rosenberg R, Moss KL, Lemay P, O'Leary J, Schaefer T, Verma P, Toth I, Block B, Baker B, Rothchild A, Lian J, Proudfoot J, Alvino DM, Vine S, Addo MM, Allen TM, Altfeld M, Henn MR, Le Gall S, Streeck H, Haas DW, Kuritzkes DR, Robbins GK, Shafer RW, Gulick RM, Shikuma CM, Haubrich R, Riddler S, Sax PE, Daar ES, Ribaudo HJ, Agan B, Agarwal S, Ahern RL, Allen BL, Altidor S, Altschuler EL, Ambardar S, Anastos K, Anderson B, Anderson V, Andrady U, Antoniskis D, Bangsberg D, Barbaro D, Barrie W, Bartczak J, Barton S, Basden P, Basgoz N, Bazner S, Bellos NC, Benson AM, Berger J, Bernard NF, Bernard AM, Birch C, Bodner SJ, Bolan RK, Boudreaux ET, Bradley M, Braun JF, Brndjar JE, Brown SJ, Brown K, Brown ST, Burack J, Bush LM, Cafaro V, Campbell O, Campbell J, Carlson RH, Carmichael JK, Casey KK, Cavacuiti C, Celestin G, Chambers ST, Chez N, Chirch LM, Cimoch PJ, Cohen D, Cohn LE, Conway B, Cooper DA, Cornelson B, Cox DT, Cristofano MV, Cuchural G, Czartoski JL, Dahman JM, Daly JS, Davis BT, Davis K, Davod SM, DeJesus E, Dietz CA, Dunham E, Dunn ME, Ellerin TB, Eron JJ, Fangman JJ, Farel CE, Ferlazzo H, Fidler S, Fleenor-Ford A, Frankel R, Freedberg KA, French NK, Fuchs JD, Fuller JD, Gaberman J, Gallant JE, Gandhi RT, Garcia E, Garmon D, Gathe JC, Gaultier CR, Gebre W, Gilman FD, Gilson I, Goepfert PA, Gottlieb MS, Goulston C, Groger RK, Gurley TD, Haber S, Hardwicke R, Hardy WD, Harrigan PR, Hawkins TN, Heath S, Hecht FM, Henry WK, Hladek M, Hoffman RP, Horton JM, Hsu RK, Huhn GD, Hunt P, Hupert MJ, Illeman ML, Jaeger H, Jellinger RM, John M, Johnson JA, Johnson KL, Johnson H, Johnson K, Joly J, Jordan WC, Kauffman CA, Khanlou H, Killian RK, Kim AY, Kim DD, Kinder CA, Kirchner JT, Kogelman L, Kojic EM, Korthuis PT, Kurisu W, Kwon DS, LaMar M, Lampiris H, Lanzafame M, Lederman MM, Lee DM, Lee JM, Lee MJ, Lee ET, Lemoine J, Levy JA, Llibre JM, Liguori MA, Little SJ, Liu AY, Lopez AJ, Loutfy MR, Loy D, Mohammed DY, Man A, Mansour MK, Marconi VC, Markowitz M, Marques R, Martin JN, Martin HL, Mayer KH, McElrath MJ, McGhee TA, McGovern BH, McGowan K, McIntyre D, Mcleod GX, Menezes P, Mesa G, Metroka CE, Meyer-Olson D, Miller AO, Montgomery K, Mounzer KC, Nagami EH, Nagin I, Nahass RG, Nelson MO, Nielsen C, Norene DL, O'Connor DH, Ojikutu BO, Okulicz J, Oladehin OO, Oldfield EC, Olender SA, Ostrowski M, Owen WF, Pae E, Parsonnet J, Pavlatos AM, Perlmutter AM, Pierce MN, Pincus JM, Pisani L, Price LJ, Proia L, Prokesch RC, Pujet HC, Ramgopal M, Rathod A, Rausch M, Ravishankar J, Rhame FS, Richards CS, Richman DD, Rodes B, Rodriguez M, Rose RC, Rosenberg ES, Rosenthal D, Ross PE, Rubin DS, Rumbaugh E, Saenz L, Salvaggio MR, Sanchez WC, Sanjana VM, Santiago S, Schmidt W, Schuitemaker H, Sestak PM, Shalit P, Shay W, Shirvani VN, Silebi VI, Sizemore JM, Skolnik PR, Sokol-Anderson M, Sosman JM, Stabile P, Stapleton JT, Starrett S, Stein F, Stellbrink HJ, Sterman FL, Stone VE, Stone DR, Tambussi G, Taplitz RA, Tedaldi EM, Telenti A, Theisen W, Torres R, Tosiello L, Tremblay C, Tribble MA, Trinh PD, Tsao A, Ueda P, Vaccaro A, Valadas E, Vanig TJ, Vecino I, Vega VM, Veikley W, Wade BH, Walworth C, Wanidworanun C, Ward DJ, Warner DA, Weber RD, Webster D, Weis S, Wheeler DA, White DJ, Wilkins E, Winston A, Wlodaver CG, van't Wout A, Wright DP, Yang OO, Yurdin DL, Zabukovic BW, Zachary KC, Zeeman B, Zhao M. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation. Science. 2010 Dec 10; 330(6010):1551-7. PMID: 21051598.
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    25. Ndhlovu LC, Sinclair E, Epling L, Tan QX, Ho T, Jha AR, Eccles-James I, Tincati C, Levy JA, Nixon DF, Hecht FM, Barbour JD. IL-2 immunotherapy to recently HIV-1 infected adults maintains the numbers of IL-17 expressing CD4+ T (T(H)17) cells in the periphery. J Clin Immunol. 2010 Sep; 30(5):681-92. PMID: 20571894.
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    26. Levy JA. The unexpected pleiotropic activities of RANTES. J Immunol. 2009 Apr 01; 182(7):3945-6. PMID: 19299688.
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    27. Levy JA. Not an HIV cure, but encouraging new directions. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 12; 360(7):724-5. PMID: 19213687.
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    28. Barbour JD, Ndhlovu LC, Xuan Tan Q, Ho T, Epling L, Bredt BM, Levy JA, Hecht FM, Sinclair E. High CD8+ T cell activation marks a less differentiated HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell response that is not altered by suppression of viral replication. PLoS One. 2009; 4(2):e4408. PMID: 19198651.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Killian MS, Roop J, Ng S, Hecht FM, Levy JA. CD8+ cell anti-HIV activity rapidly increases upon discontinuation of early antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Immunol. 2009 May; 29(3):311-8. PMID: 19189205.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Levy JA. HIV pathogenesis: 25 years of progress and persistent challenges. AIDS. 2009 Jan 14; 23(2):147-60. PMID: 19098484.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Cohen MS, Hellmann N, Levy JA, DeCock K, Lange J. The spread, treatment, and prevention of HIV-1: evolution of a global pandemic. J Clin Invest. 2008 Apr; 118(4):1244-54. PMID: 18382737.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Bonneau KR, Ng S, Foster H, Choi KB, Berkhout B, Rabson A, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. Derivation of infectious HIV-1 molecular clones with LTR mutations: sensitivity to the CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response. Virology. 2008 Mar 30; 373(1):30-8. PMID: 18086484.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Song H, Nakayama EE, Yokoyama M, Sato H, Levy JA, Shioda T. A single amino acid of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 capsid affects its replication in the presence of cynomolgus monkey and human TRIM5alphas. J Virol. 2007 Jul; 81(13):7280-5. PMID: 17475650.
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    34. Sriram U, Wong M, Caillier SJ, Hecht FM, Elkins MK, Levy JA, Oksenberg JR, Baranzini SE. Quantitative longitudinal analysis of T cell receptor repertoire expression in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral and interleukin-2 therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 May; 23(5):741-7. PMID: 17531001.
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    35. Barbour JD, Sriram U, Caillier SJ, Levy JA, Hecht FM, Oksenberg JR. Synergy or independence? Deciphering the interaction of HLA Class I and NK cell KIR alleles in early HIV-1 disease progression. PLoS Pathog. 2007 Apr; 3(4):e43. PMID: 17447840.
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    36. Martinez-Mariño B, Foster H, Hao Y, Levy JA. Differential gene expression in CD8(+) cells from HIV-1-infected subjects showing suppression of HIV replication. Virology. 2007 May 25; 362(1):217-25. PMID: 17240414.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Killian MS, Norris PJ, Rawal BD, Lebedeva M, Hecht FM, Levy JA, Busch MP. The effects of early antiretroviral therapy and its discontinuation on the HIV-specific antibody response. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006 Jul; 22(7):640-7. PMID: 16831088.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Killian MS, Fujimura SH, Hecht FM, Levy JA. Similar changes in plasmacytoid dendritic cell and CD4 T-cell counts during primary HIV-1 infection and treatment. AIDS. 2006 Jun 12; 20(9):1247-52. PMID: 16816552.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Sanchez-Mejia RO, Ojemann SG, Simko J, Chaudhary UB, Levy J, Lawton MT. Sacral epithelioid angiosarcoma associated with a bleeding diathesis and spinal epidural hematoma: case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006 Mar; 4(3):246-50. PMID: 16572625.
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    40. Hare CB, Pappalardo BL, Busch MP, Karlsson AC, Phelps BH, Alexander SS, Bentsen C, Ramstead CA, Nixon DF, Levy JA, Hecht FM. Seroreversion in subjects receiving antiretroviral therapy during acute/early HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Mar 01; 42(5):700-8. PMID: 16447118.
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    41. Schmidt B, Fujimura SH, Martin JN, Levy JA. Variations in plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC) and myeloid dendritic cell (MDC) levels in HIV-infected subjects on and off antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Immunol. 2006 Jan; 26(1):55-64. PMID: 16418803.
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    42. Schmidt B, Ashlock BM, Foster H, Fujimura SH, Levy JA. HIV-infected cells are major inducers of plasmacytoid dendritic cell interferon production, maturation, and migration. Virology. 2005 Dec 20; 343(2):256-66. PMID: 16278001.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Lennette ET, Busch MP, Hecht FM, Levy JA. Potential herpesvirus interaction during HIV type 1 primary infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005 Oct; 21(10):869-75. PMID: 16225414.
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    44. Killian MS, Ng S, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. A screening assay for detecting CD8+ cell non-cytotoxic anti-HIV responses. J Immunol Methods. 2005 Sep; 304(1-2):137-50. PMID: 16129447.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Locher CP, Witt SA, Kassel R, Dowell NL, Fujimura S, Levy JA. Differential effects of R5 and X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection on CD4+ cell proliferation and activation. J Gen Virol. 2005 Apr; 86(Pt 4):1171-9. PMID: 15784911.
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    46. Diaz LS, Foster H, Stone MR, Fujimura S, Relman DA, Levy JA. VCAM-1 expression on CD8+ cells correlates with enhanced anti-HIV suppressing activity. J Immunol. 2005 Feb 01; 174(3):1574-9. PMID: 15661918.
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    47. Levy JA, Autran B, Coutinho R, Phair JP. Registration of clinical trials. AIDS. 2005 Jan 28; 19(2):105. PMID: 15665791.
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    48. Schmidt B, Scott I, Whitmore RG, Foster H, Fujimura S, Schmitz J, Levy JA. Low-level HIV infection of plasmacytoid dendritic cells: onset of cytopathic effects and cell death after PDC maturation. Virology. 2004 Nov 24; 329(2):280-8. PMID: 15518808.
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    49. Martinez-Mariño B, Shiboski S, Hecht FM, Kahn JO, Levy JA. Interleukin-2 therapy restores CD8 cell non-cytotoxic anti-HIV responses in primary infection subjects receiving HAART. AIDS. 2004 Oct 21; 18(15):1991-9. PMID: 15577620.
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    50. Levy JA. Prospects for an AIDS vaccine: encourage innate immunity. AIDS. 2004 Oct 21; 18(15):2085-6. PMID: 15577631.
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    51. Schmidt B, Ashlock B, Neipel F, Levy JA. Potential screening assay for undetectable viruses on the basis of their capacity to induce alpha interferon production. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Sep; 42(9):4300-2. PMID: 15365027.
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    52. Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Polacino P, Hu SL, Shiboski S, Schmidt AM, Agy MB, Anderson DM, Staprans SI, zur Megede J, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 DNA vaccine provides partial protection from acute baboon infection. Vaccine. 2004 Jun 02; 22(17-18):2261-72. PMID: 15149785.
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    53. Levy JA, Autran B, Coutinho R, Phair JP. Retraction. Clinical course of cardiomyopathy in HIV-infected patients with or without encephalopathy related to the myocardial expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide synthase. AIDS. 2004 May 21; 18(8):1087. PMID: 15166523.
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    54. Deeks SG, Kitchen CM, Liu L, Guo H, Gascon R, Narváez AB, Hunt P, Martin JN, Kahn JO, Levy J, McGrath MS, Hecht FM. Immune activation set point during early HIV infection predicts subsequent CD4+ T-cell changes independent of viral load. Blood. 2004 Aug 15; 104(4):942-7. PMID: 15117761.
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    55. Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy JA. Evaluation of genetic immunization adjuvants to improve the effectiveness of a human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) envelope DNA vaccine. DNA Cell Biol. 2004 Feb; 23(2):107-10. PMID: 15000750.
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    56. Castelli J, Thomas EK, Gilliet M, Liu YJ, Levy JA. Mature dendritic cells can enhance CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV responses: the role of IL-15. Blood. 2004 Apr 01; 103(7):2699-704. PMID: 14684414.
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    57. Locher CP, Putnam D, Langer R, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy JA. Enhancement of a human immunodeficiency virus env DNA vaccine using a novel polycationic nanoparticle formulation. Immunol Lett. 2003 Dec 15; 90(2-3):67-70. PMID: 14687705.
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    58. Altfeld M, Addo MM, Rosenberg ES, Hecht FM, Lee PK, Vogel M, Yu XG, Draenert R, Johnston MN, Strick D, Allen TM, Feeney ME, Kahn JO, Sekaly RP, Levy JA, Rockstroh JK, Goulder PJ, Walker BD. Influence of HLA-B57 on clinical presentation and viral control during acute HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2003 Dec 05; 17(18):2581-91. PMID: 14685052.
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    59. Levy JA. The search for the CD8+ cell anti-HIV factor (CAF). Trends Immunol. 2003 Dec; 24(12):628-32. PMID: 14644135.
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    60. Li JZ, Mack EC, Levy JA. Virucidal efficacy of soap and water against human immunodeficiency virus in genital secretions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Oct; 47(10):3321-2. PMID: 14506048.
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    61. Mackewicz CE, Yuan J, Tran P, Diaz L, Mack E, Selsted ME, Levy JA. alpha-Defensins can have anti-HIV activity but are not CD8 cell anti-HIV factors. AIDS. 2003 Sep 26; 17(14):F23-32. PMID: 14502030.
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    62. Levy JA, Scott I, Mackewicz C. Protection from HIV/AIDS: the importance of innate immunity. Clin Immunol. 2003 Sep; 108(3):167-74. PMID: 14499239.
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    63. Diaz LS, Stone MR, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. Differential gene expression in CD8+ cells exhibiting noncytotoxic anti-HIV activity. Virology. 2003 Jul 05; 311(2):400-9. PMID: 12842629.
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    67. Levy JA. Is HIV superinfection worrisome? Lancet. 2003 Jan 11; 361(9352):98-9. PMID: 12531573.
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    70. Soumelis V, Scott I, Liu YJ, Levy J. Natural type 1 interferon producing cells in HIV infection. Hum Immunol. 2002 Dec; 63(12):1206-12. PMID: 12480265.
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    71. Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy JA. Enhancement of antibody responses to an HIV-2 DNA envelope vaccine using an expression vector containing a constitutive transport element. DNA Cell Biol. 2002 Aug; 21(8):581-6. PMID: 12215261.
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    72. Levy JA. HIV-1: hitching a ride on erythrocytes. Lancet. 2002 Jun 29; 359(9325):2212-3. PMID: 12103280.
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    74. Hecht FM, Busch MP, Rawal B, Webb M, Rosenberg E, Swanson M, Chesney M, Anderson J, Levy J, Kahn JO. Use of laboratory tests and clinical symptoms for identification of primary HIV infection. AIDS. 2002 May 24; 16(8):1119-29. PMID: 12004270.
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    75. Renne R, Blackbourn D, Whitby D, Levy J, Ganem D. Limited transmission of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in cultured cells. J Virol. 1998 Jun; 72(6):5182-8. PMID: 9573290.
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    76. Nielsen IL, McNeill C, Danzig W, Goldman S, Levy J, Miller AJ. Adaptation of craniofacial muscles in subjects with craniomandibular disorders. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1990 Jan; 97(1):20-34. PMID: 2296935.
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    77. Jacobson MA, Crowe S, Levy J, Aweeka F, Gambertoglio J, McManus N, Mills J. Effect of Foscarnet therapy on infection with human immunodeficiency virus in patients with AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1988 Oct; 158(4):862-5. PMID: 2844921.
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    78. Levy JA, Huebner RJ. Association of a [corrected] murine leukaemia virus from a mouse lymphoma (2731-L) associated [corrected] with reovirus type 3 infection. Nature. 1970 Mar 07; 225(5236):949-50. PMID: 4313576.
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