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John Shepherd, PhD

Address400 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-476-8814
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Princeton UniversityPostdoctoral Fellow1995Biophysics
    University of VirginiaPhD1993Engineering Physics
    Texas Tech UniversityBS1988Engineering Physics
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    International Society for Clinical Densitometry2016  - 2017President
    ISCD2014  - 2015Vice President
    US Department of State2013  - 2014Fulbright Scholar, Karolinska Institutet
    ISCD2013  - 2013Oscar Gluck Humanitarian Award
    ISCD2007  - 2007John P. Belezikian Global Leadership Award
    NIH2002  - 2005BIRCWH Scholar (Building Institutional Research Careers in Women's Health)

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    John A. Shepherd, PhD, CCD, is a Professor in the Department of Radiology and the Director of the Breast and Bone Density Imaging Group at the University of California, San Francisco. He is an expert in quantitative breast imaging as well as musculoskeletal imaging using x-ray absorptiometry techniques. Dr. Shepherd received his BS in Engineering Physics from Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas, and he obtained his PhD in Engineering Physics from the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia, followed by a postdoctoral fellowship in Biophysics from Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey.

    Dr. Shepherd’s research interests involve quantitative imaging methods for tissue composition using x-rays. His mammographic methods are used extensively for research around the world and in the San Francisco Mammography Registry Program. Dr. Shepherd’s efforts are focused on the technical imaging aspects of the measurements of the body composition and the translation of these measurements into different fields of study. He has present and future research projects in the following areas: breast cancer risk and detection using breast density and tissue texture measures; dual-energy x-ray diagnostic mammography for characterizing compositional signatures of cancer lesions; total body protein measures, body shape analysis and metabolic diseases; statistics of quality assurance and quality control for quantitative measurements.

    Expertise:
    Quantitative breast imaging, breast density, bone density, body composition, statistical methods of quality control.

    Specialty:
    Quantitative imaging methods for tissue composition using x-rays, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

    Professional Interests:
    Body composition, diagnostic x-ray imaging, mammographic density, bone densitometry, dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), single X-ray absorptiometry (SXA), quantitative computed tomography, osteoporosis, breast cancer, peripheral bone densitometry, quantitative ultrasound

    Education and Training:
    • Bachelor of Science: Texas Tech University, Lubbock - Engineering Physics
    • Doctor of Philosophy: University of Virginia, Charlottesville - Engineering Physics
    • Postdoctoral Fellow: Princeton University, Princeton - Physics Department
    • Certified Clinical Densitometrist (CCD), International Society for Clinical Densitometry
    • Cert. Densitometry Technologist (CDT), International Society for Clinical Densitometry
    • Limited License: X-ray Bone Densitometry, American Registry of Radiologic Technologists California


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Shape up! Kids
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK111698Jan 20, 2017 - Dec 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Optical Body Composition and Health Assessment
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK109008May 15, 2016 - Apr 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Lesion Composition and Quantitative Imaging Analysis on Breast Cancer Diagnosis
    NIH/NCI R01CA166945Mar 6, 2013 - Feb 28, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Subregional Breast Density and Cancer Risk
    NIH/NCI R21CA157254Mar 1, 2012 - Feb 28, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Biological Basis of Breast Density and Cancer Risk
    NIH/NCI P01CA107584Aug 10, 2006 - Feb 28, 2013
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
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    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Faculty Mentoring
    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Global Health
    Collapse Featured Videos
    Collapse Featured Publications

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Bourgeois B, Ng BK, Latimer D, Stannard CR, Romeo L, Li X, Shepherd J, Heymsfield SB. Clinically applicable optical imaging technology for body size and shape analysis: comparison of systems differing in design. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Sep 06. PMID: 28876331.
      View in: PubMed
    2. McCormack SE, Cousminer DL, Chesi A, Mitchell JA, Roy SM, Kalkwarf HJ, Lappe JM, Gilsanz V, Oberfield SE, Shepherd J, Winer KK, Kelly A, Grant SFA, Zemel BS. Association Between Linear Growth and Bone Accrual in a Diverse Cohort of Children and Adolescents. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Sep 05; 171(9):e171769. PMID: 28672287.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Kerlikowske K, Ma L, Scott CG, Mahmoudzadeh AP, Jensen MR, Sprague BL, Henderson LM, Pankratz VS, Cummings SR, Miglioretti DL, Vachon CM, Shepherd J. Combining quantitative and qualitative breast density measures to assess breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res. 2017 Aug 22; 19(1):97. PMID: 28830497.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Maskarinec G, Lim U, Jacobs S, Monroe KR, Ernst T, Buchthal SD, Shepherd J, Wilkens LR, Le Marchand L, Boushey CJ. Diet Quality in Midadulthood Predicts Visceral Adiposity and Liver Fatness in Older Ages: The Multiethnic Cohort Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2017 Aug; 25(8):1442-1450. PMID: 28745024.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Hoy JF, Grund B, Roediger M, Schwartz AV, Shepherd J, Avihingsanon A, Badal-Faesen S, de Wit S, Jacoby S, La Rosa A, Pujari S, Schechter M, White D, Engen NW, Ensrud K, Aagaard PD, Carr A. Immediate Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection Accelerates Bone Loss Relative to Deferring Therapy: Findings from the START Bone Mineral Density Substudy, a Randomized Trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2017 Sep; 32(9):1945-1955. PMID: 28650589.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Yaghjyan L, Tamimi RM, Bertrand KA, Scott CG, Jensen MR, Pankratz VS, Brandt K, Visscher D, Norman A, Couch F, Shepherd J, Fan B, Chen YY, Ma L, Beck AH, Cummings SR, Kerlikowske K, Vachon CM. Interaction of mammographic breast density with menopausal status and postmenopausal hormone use in relation to the risk of aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017 Sep; 165(2):421-431. PMID: 28624977.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Shepherd J, Ng BK, Sommer MJ, Heymsfield SB. Body composition by DXA. Bone. 2017 Nov; 104:101-105. PMID: 28625918.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Shepherd JA, Shepherd J. Should postmenopausal women eat more protein? Or do the elite just exercise and eat better? Menopause. 2017 May; 24(5):480-481. PMID: 28419066.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Shepherd J, Ng BK, Fan B, Schwartz AV, Cawthon P, Cummings SR, Kritchevsky S, Nevitt M, Santanasto A, Cootes TF. Modeling the shape and composition of the human body using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry images. PLoS One. 2017; 12(4):e0175857. PMID: 28423041.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Gaskins AJ, Pereira A, Quintiliano D, Shepherd J, Uauy R, Corvalán C, Michels KB. Dairy intake in relation to breast and pubertal development in Chilean girls. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May; 105(5):1166-1175. PMID: 28381475.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Hinton BJ, Fan B, Ng BK, Shepherd J. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition reference values of limbs and trunk from NHANES 1999-2004 with additional visualization methods. PLoS One. 2017; 12(3):e0174180. PMID: 28346492.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Looker AC, Sarafrazi Isfahani N, Fan B, Shepherd J. Trends in osteoporosis and low bone mass in older US adults, 2005-2006 through 2013-2014. Osteoporos Int. 2017 Jun; 28(6):1979-1988. PMID: 28315954.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Chesi A, Mitchell JA, Kalkwarf HJ, Bradfield JP, Lappe JM, Cousminer DL, Roy SM, McCormack SE, Gilsanz V, Oberfield SE, Hakonarson H, Shepherd J, Kelly A, Zemel BS, Grant SF. A Genomewide Association Study Identifies Two Sex-Specific Loci, at SPTB and IZUMO3, Influencing Pediatric Bone Mineral Density at Multiple Skeletal Sites. J Bone Miner Res. 2017 Jun; 32(6):1274-1281. PMID: 28181694.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Looker AC, Sarafrazi Isfahani N, Fan B, Shepherd J. FRAX-based Estimates of 10-year Probability of Hip and Major Osteoporotic Fracture Among Adults Aged 40 and Over: United States, 2013 and 2014. Natl Health Stat Report. 2017 Mar; (103):1-16. PMID: 28459415.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Cosman F, Krege JH, Looker AC, Schousboe JT, Fan B, Sarafrazi Isfahani N, Shepherd J, Krohn KD, Steiger P, Wilson KE, Genant HK. Spine fracture prevalence in a nationally representative sample of US women and men aged =40 years: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014. Osteoporos Int. 2017 Jun; 28(6):1857-1866. PMID: 28175980.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Lewiecki EM, Bilezikian JP, Bukata SV, Camacho P, Clarke BL, McClung MR, Miller PD, Shepherd J. Proceedings of the 2016 Santa Fe Bone Symposium: New Concepts in the Management of Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Diseases. J Clin Densitom. 2017 Apr - Jun; 20(2):134-152. PMID: 28185765.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Engmann NJ, Scott C, Jensen MR, Ma L, Brandt KR, Mahmoudzadeh A, Malkov S, Whaley DH, Hruska C, Wu FF, Winham S, Miglioretti DL, Norman AD, Heine J, Shepherd J, Pankratz VS, Vachon CM, Kerlikowske K. Longitudinal Changes in Volumetric Breast Density with Tamoxifen and Aromatase Inhibitors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017 Jun; 26(6):930-937. PMID: 28148596.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Pereira A, Garmendia ML, Uauy R, Neira P, Lopez-Arana S, Malkov S, Shepherd J. Determinants of volumetric breast density in Chilean premenopausal women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017 Apr; 162(2):343-352. PMID: 28132392.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Malkov S, Shepherd J, Scott CG, Tamimi RM, Ma L, Bertrand KA, Couch F, Jensen MR, Mahmoudzadeh AP, Fan B, Norman A, Brandt KR, Pankratz VS, Vachon CM, Kerlikowske K. Erratum to: Mammographic texture and risk of breast cancer by tumor type and estrogen receptor status. Breast Cancer Res. 2017 01 04; 19(1):1. PMID: 28052757.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Malkov S, Shepherd J, Scott CG, Tamimi RM, Ma L, Bertrand KA, Couch F, Jensen MR, Mahmoudzadeh AP, Fan B, Norman A, Brandt KR, Pankratz VS, Vachon CM, Kerlikowske K. Mammographic texture and risk of breast cancer by tumor type and estrogen receptor status. Breast Cancer Res. 2016 12 06; 18(1):122. PMID: 27923387.
      View in: PubMed
    21. McCormack SE, Chesi A, Mitchell JA, Roy SM, Cousminer DL, Kalkwarf HJ, Lappe JM, Gilsanz V, Oberfield SE, Shepherd J, Mahboubi S, Winer KK, Kelly A, Grant SF, Zemel BS, et al. Relative Skeletal Maturation and Population Ancestry in Nonobese Children and Adolescents. J Bone Miner Res. 2017 Jan; 32(1):115-124. PMID: 27419386.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Shepherd J, Sommer MJ, Fan B, Powers C, Stranix-Chibanda L, Zadzilka A, Basar M, George K, Mukwasi-Kahari C, Siberry G. Advanced Analysis Techniques Improve Infant Bone and Body Composition Measures by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. J Pediatr. 2017 Feb; 181:248-253.e3. PMID: 27866821.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Strand F, Humphreys K, Cheddad A, Törnberg S, Azavedo E, Shepherd J, Hall P, Czene K. Novel mammographic image features differentiate between interval and screen-detected breast cancer: a case-case study. Breast Cancer Res. 2016 Oct 05; 18(1):100. PMID: 27716311.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Strand F, Humphreys K, Eriksson M, Li J, Andersson TM, Törnberg S, Azavedo E, Shepherd J, Hall P, Czene K, et al. Longitudinal fluctuation in mammographic percent density differentiates between interval and screen-detected breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2017 Jan 01; 140(1):34-40. PMID: 27615710.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Felix AS, Lenz P, Pfeiffer RM, Hewitt SM, Morris J, Patel DA, Geller B, Vacek PM, Weaver DL, Chicoine RE, Shepherd J, Mahmoudzadeh AP, Wang J, Fan B, Malkov S, Herschorn SD, Johnson JM, Cora RL, Brinton LA, Sherman ME, Gierach GL. Relationships between mammographic density, tissue microvessel density, and breast biopsy diagnosis. Breast Cancer Res. 2016 Aug 23; 18(1):88. PMID: 27552842; PMCID: PMC4995674.
    26. Mitchell JA, Chesi A, Elci O, McCormack SE, Roy SM, Kalkwarf HJ, Lappe JM, Gilsanz V, Oberfield SE, Shepherd J, Kelly A, Grant SF, Zemel BS, et al. Physical Activity Benefits the Skeleton of Children Genetically Predisposed to Lower Bone Density in Adulthood. J Bone Miner Res. 2016 Aug; 31(8):1504-12. PMID: 27172274; PMCID: PMC4970901 [Available on 08/01/17].
    27. Ng BK, Hinton BJ, Fan B, Kanaya AM, Shepherd J, et al. Clinical anthropometrics and body composition from 3D whole-body surface scans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Nov; 70(11):1265-1270. PMID: 27329614.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Avila JI, Ng BK, Kotowski L, Hinton BJ, Shepherd J. Can Racial Differences in Resting Metabolic Rate be Explained by Body Composition? Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 Jun; 24(6):1203. PMID: 27145362.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Oh H, Khodr ZG, Sherman ME, Palakal M, Pfeiffer RM, Linville L, Geller BM, Vacek PM, Weaver DL, Chicoine RE, Falk RT, Horne HN, Papathomas D, Patel DA, Xiang J, Xu X, Veenstra T, Hewitt SM, Shepherd J, Brinton LA, Figueroa JD, Gierach GL, et al. Relation of Serum Estrogen Metabolites with Terminal Duct Lobular Unit Involution Among Women Undergoing Diagnostic Image-Guided Breast Biopsy. Horm Cancer. 2016 Dec; 7(5-6):305-315. PMID: 27138982.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Shepherd J, Heymsfield SB, Norris SA, Redman LM, Ward LC, Slater C. Measuring body composition in low-resource settings across the life course. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 May; 24(5):985-8. PMID: 27060932; PMCID: PMC4846565 [Available on 05/01/17].
    31. Mitchell JA, Chesi A, McCormack SE, Roy SM, Cousminer DL, Kalkwarf HJ, Lappe JM, Gilsanz V, Oberfield SE, Shepherd J, Kelly A, Zemel BS, Grant SF. Rare EN1 Variants and Pediatric Bone Mass. J Bone Miner Res. 2016 Aug; 31(8):1513-7. PMID: 26970088; PMCID: PMC4970877 [Available on 08/01/17].
    32. Looker AC, Sarafrazi Isfahani N, Fan B, Shepherd J. Trabecular bone scores and lumbar spine bone mineral density of US adults: comparison of relationships with demographic and body size variables. Osteoporos Int. 2016 Aug; 27(8):2467-75. PMID: 26952009.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Horne HN, Sherman ME, Pfeiffer RM, Figueroa JD, Khodr ZG, Falk RT, Pollak M, Patel DA, Palakal MM, Linville L, Papathomas D, Geller B, Vacek PM, Weaver DL, Chicoine R, Shepherd J, Mahmoudzadeh AP, Wang J, Fan B, Malkov S, Herschorn S, Hewitt SM, Brinton LA, Gierach GL. Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and terminal duct lobular unit involution of the breast: a cross-sectional study of women with benign breast disease. Breast Cancer Res. 2016 Feb 18; 18(1):24. PMID: 26893016; PMCID: PMC4758090.
    34. Brandt KR, Scott CG, Ma L, Mahmoudzadeh AP, Jensen MR, Whaley DH, Wu FF, Malkov S, Hruska CB, Norman AD, Heine J, Shepherd J, Pankratz VS, Kerlikowske K, Vachon CM. Comparison of Clinical and Automated Breast Density Measurements: Implications for Risk Prediction and Supplemental Screening. Radiology. 2016 Jun; 279(3):710-9. PMID: 26694052; PMCID: PMC4886704 [Available on 06/01/17].
    35. Mitchell JA, Chesi A, Elci O, McCormack SE, Roy SM, Kalkwarf HJ, Lappe JM, Gilsanz V, Oberfield SE, Shepherd J, Kelly A, Grant SF, Zemel BS. Genetic Risk Scores Implicated in Adult Bone Fragility Associate With Pediatric Bone Density. J Bone Miner Res. 2016 Apr; 31(4):789-95. PMID: 26572781; PMCID: PMC4826827 [Available on 04/01/17].
    36. Gierach GL, Patel DA, Pfeiffer RM, Figueroa JD, Linville LM, Papathomas D, Johnson JM, Chicoine RE, Herschorn S, Shepherd J, Wang J, Malkov S, Vacek PM, Weaver DL, Fan B, Mahmoudzadeh AP, Palakal MM, Xiang J, Oh H, Horne HN, Sprague BL, Hewitt SM, Brinton LA, Sherman M. Relationship of Terminal Duct Lobular Unit Involution of the Breast with Area and Volume Mammographic Densities. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016 Feb; 9(2):149-58. PMID: 26645278; PMCID: PMC4784982 [Available on 02/01/17].
    37. Bodelon C, Heaphy CM, Meeker AK, Geller B, Vacek PM, Weaver DL, Chicoine RE, Shepherd J, Mahmoudzadeh AP, Patel DA, Brinton LA, Sherman ME, Gierach GL. Leukocyte telomere length and its association with mammographic density and proliferative diagnosis among women undergoing diagnostic image-guided breast biopsy. BMC Cancer. 2015 Oct 30; 15:823. PMID: 26519084; PMCID: PMC4628256.
    38. Setiawan VW, Lim U, Lipworth L, Lu SC, Shepherd J, Ernst T, Wilkens LR, Henderson BE, Le Marchand L. Sex and Ethnic Differences in the Association of Obesity With Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Feb; 14(2):309-16. PMID: 26404865; PMCID: PMC4718778 [Available on 02/01/17].
    39. Hart V, Reeves KW, Sturgeon SR, Reich NG, Sievert LL, Kerlikowske K, Ma L, Shepherd J, Tice JA, Mahmoudzadeh AP, Malkov S, Sprague BL. The effect of change in body mass index on volumetric measures of mammographic density. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Nov; 24(11):1724-30. PMID: 26315554; PMCID: PMC4633314 [Available on 11/01/16].
    40. Xie B, Avila JI, Ng BK, Fan B, Loo V, Gilsanz V, Hangartner T, Kalkwarf HJ, Lappe J, Oberfield S, Winer K, Zemel B, Shepherd J. Accurate body composition measures from whole-body silhouettes. Med Phys. 2015 Aug; 42(8):4668-77. PMID: 26233194; PMCID: PMC4506301.
    41. Medina-Gómez C, Chesi A, Heppe DH, Zemel BS, Yin JL, Kalkwarf HJ, Hofman A, Lappe JM, Kelly A, Kayser M, Oberfield SE, Gilsanz V, Uitterlinden AG, Shepherd J, Jaddoe VW, Grant SF, Lao O, Rivadeneira F. BMD Loci Contribute to Ethnic and Developmental Differences in Skeletal Fragility across Populations: Assessment of Evolutionary Selection Pressures. Mol Biol Evol. 2015 Nov; 32(11):2961-72. PMID: 26226985; PMCID: PMC4651235.
    42. Bertrand KA, Baer HJ, Orav EJ, Klifa C, Shepherd J, Van Horn L, Snetselaar L, Stevens VJ, Hylton NM, Dorgan JF. Body fatness during childhood and adolescence and breast density in young women: a prospective analysis. Breast Cancer Res. 2015 Jul 16; 17:95. PMID: 26174168; PMCID: PMC4502611.
    43. Engelke K, Lang T, Khosla S, Qin L, Zysset P, Leslie WD, Shepherd J, Schousboe JT. Clinical Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) of the Hip in the Management of Osteoporosis in Adults: the 2015 ISCD Official Positions-Part I. J Clin Densitom. 2015 Jul-Sep; 18(3):338-58. PMID: 26277851.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Zysset P, Qin L, Lang T, Khosla S, Leslie WD, Shepherd J, Schousboe JT, Engelke K. Clinical Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography-Based Finite Element Analysis of the Hip and Spine in the Management of Osteoporosis in Adults: the 2015 ISCD Official Positions-Part II. J Clin Densitom. 2015 Jul-Sep; 18(3):359-92. PMID: 26277852.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Silva BC, Broy SB, Boutroy S, Schousboe JT, Shepherd J, Leslie WD. Fracture Risk Prediction by Non-BMD DXA Measures: the 2015 ISCD Official Positions Part 2: Trabecular Bone Score. J Clin Densitom. 2015 Jul-Sep; 18(3):309-30. PMID: 26277849.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Engelke K, Lang T, Khosla S, Qin L, Zysset P, Leslie WD, Shepherd J, Shousboe JT. Clinical Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography-Based Advanced Techniques in the Management of Osteoporosis in Adults: the 2015 ISCD Official Positions-Part III. J Clin Densitom. 2015 Jul-Sep; 18(3):393-407. PMID: 26277853.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Broy SB, Cauley JA, Lewiecki ME, Schousboe JT, Shepherd J, Leslie WD. Fracture Risk Prediction by Non-BMD DXA Measures: the 2015 ISCD Official Positions Part 1: Hip Geometry. J Clin Densitom. 2015 Jul-Sep; 18(3):287-308. PMID: 26277848.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Shepherd J, Schousboe JT, Broy SB, Engelke K, Leslie WD. Executive Summary of the 2015 ISCD Position Development Conference on Advanced Measures From DXA and QCT: Fracture Prediction Beyond BMD. J Clin Densitom. 2015 Jul-Sep; 18(3):274-86. PMID: 26277847.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Mukwasi C, Stranix Chibanda L, Banhwa J, Shepherd J. US White and Black Women Do Not Represent the Bone Mineral Density of Sub-Saharan Black Women. J Clin Densitom. 2015 Oct-Dec; 18(4):525-32. PMID: 26073424.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Jung S, Egleston BL, Chandler DW, Van Horn L, Hylton NM, Klifa CC, Lasser NL, LeBlanc ES, Paris K, Shepherd J, Snetselaar LG, Stanczyk FZ, Stevens VJ, Dorgan JF. Adolescent endogenous sex hormones and breast density in early adulthood. Breast Cancer Res. 2015 Jun 04; 17:77. PMID: 26041651; PMCID: PMC4468804.
    51. Chesi A, Mitchell JA, Kalkwarf HJ, Bradfield JP, Lappe JM, McCormack SE, Gilsanz V, Oberfield SE, Hakonarson H, Shepherd J, Kelly A, Zemel BS, Grant SF. A trans-ethnic genome-wide association study identifies gender-specific loci influencing pediatric aBMD and BMC at the distal radius. Hum Mol Genet. 2015 Sep 01; 24(17):5053-9. PMID: 26041818; PMCID: PMC4527490.
    52. Mitchell JA, Chesi A, Elci O, McCormack SE, Kalkwarf HJ, Lappe JM, Gilsanz V, Oberfield SE, Shepherd J, Kelly A, Zemel BS, Grant SF. Genetics of Bone Mass in Childhood and Adolescence: Effects of Sex and Maturation Interactions. J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Sep; 30(9):1676-83. PMID: 25762182; PMCID: PMC4839534.
    53. Malkov S, Cawthon PM, Peters KW, Cauley JA, Murphy RA, Visser M, Wilson JP, Harris T, Satterfield S, Cummings S, Shepherd J. Hip Fractures Risk in Older Men and Women Associated With DXA-Derived Measures of Thigh Subcutaneous Fat Thickness, Cross-Sectional Muscle Area, and Muscle Density. J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Aug; 30(8):1414-21. PMID: 25644748.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Hart V, Reeves KW, Sturgeon SR, Reich NG, Sievert LL, Kerlikowske K, Ma L, Shepherd J, Tice J, Sprague BL. The effect of weight change on volumetric measures of mammographic density. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Apr; 24(4):761. PMID: 25834157.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Gierach GL, Patel DA, Falk RT, Pfeiffer RM, Geller BM, Vacek PM, Weaver DL, Chicoine RE, Shepherd J, Mahmoudzadeh AP, Wang J, Fan B, Herschorn SD, Xu X, Veenstra T, Fuhrman B, Sherman ME, Brinton LA. Relationship of serum estrogens and metabolites with area and volume mammographic densities. Horm Cancer. 2015 Jun; 6(2-3):107-19. PMID: 25757805; PMCID: PMC4558904.
    56. Bertrand KA, Scott CG, Tamimi RM, Jensen MR, Pankratz VS, Norman AD, Visscher DW, Couch FJ, Shepherd J, Chen YY, Fan B, Wu FF, Ma L, Beck AH, Cummings SR, Kerlikowske K, Vachon CM. Dense and nondense mammographic area and risk of breast cancer by age and tumor characteristics. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 May; 24(5):798-809. PMID: 25716949; PMCID: PMC4417380.
    57. Ollberding NJ, Gilsanz V, Lappe JM, Oberfield SE, Shepherd J, Winer KK, Zemel BS, Kalkwarf HJ. Reproducibility and intermethod reliability of a calcium food frequency questionnaire for use in Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White youth. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015 Apr; 115(4):519-27.e2. PMID: 25683819; PMCID: PMC4380535.
    58. Lappe JM, Watson P, Gilsanz V, Hangartner T, Kalkwarf HJ, Oberfield S, Shepherd J, Winer KK, Zemel B. The longitudinal effects of physical activity and dietary calcium on bone mass accrual across stages of pubertal development. J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Jan; 30(1):156-64. PMID: 25130421; PMCID: PMC4280289.
    59. Nardo L, Lane NE, Parimi N, Cawthon PM, Fan B, Shepherd J, Cauley J, Zucker-Levin A, Murphy RA, Katzman WB. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis association with thoracic spine kyphosis: a cross-sectional study for the Health Aging and Body Composition Study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014 Nov 15; 39(24):E1418-24. PMID: 25387143; PMCID: PMC4228693.
    60. Hodge MG, Hovinga M, Shepherd J, Egleston B, Gabriel K, Van Horn L, Robson A, Snetselaar L, Stevens VK, Jung S, Dorgan J. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2015 Feb; 27(1):140-50. PMID: 25387239.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Jung S, Stanczyk FZ, Egleston BL, Snetselaar LG, Stevens VJ, Shepherd J, Van Horn L, LeBlanc ES, Paris K, Klifa C, Dorgan JF. Endogenous sex hormones and breast density in young women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Feb; 24(2):369-78. PMID: 25371447; PMCID: PMC4323882.
    62. Short DF, Gilsanz V, Kalkwarf HJ, Lappe JM, Oberfield S, Shepherd J, Winer KK, Zemel BS, Hangartner TN. Anthropometric models of bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density based on the bone mineral density in childhood study. Osteoporos Int. 2015 Mar; 26(3):1099-108. PMID: 25311106; PMCID: PMC4768717.
    63. Jones JA, Hartman TJ, Klifa CS, Coffman DL, Mitchell DC, Vernarelli JA, Snetselaar LG, Van Horn L, Stevens VJ, Robson AM, Himes JH, Shepherd J, Dorgan JF. Dietary energy density is positively associated with breast density among young women. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015 Mar; 115(3):353-9. PMID: 25300225; PMCID: PMC4344841.
    64. Eng A, Gallant Z, Shepherd J, McCormack V, Li J, Dowsett M, Vinnicombe S, Allen S, Dos-Santos-Silva I. Digital mammographic density and breast cancer risk: a case-control study of six alternative density assessment methods. Breast Cancer Res. 2014 Sep 20; 16(5):439. PMID: 25239205; PMCID: PMC4303120.
    65. Gierach GL, Geller BM, Shepherd J, Patel DA, Vacek PM, Weaver DL, Chicoine RE, Pfeiffer RM, Fan B, Mahmoudzadeh AP, Wang J, Johnson JM, Herschorn SD, Brinton LA, Sherman ME. Comparison of mammographic density assessed as volumes and areas among women undergoing diagnostic image-guided breast biopsy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Nov; 23(11):2338-48. PMID: 25139935; PMCID: PMC4337788.
    66. Brand JS, Czene K, Shepherd J, Leifland K, Heddson B, Sundbom A, Eriksson M, Li J, Humphreys K, Hall P. Automated measurement of volumetric mammographic density: a tool for widespread breast cancer risk assessment. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Sep; 23(9):1764-72. PMID: 25012995.
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    67. Prebil LA, Ereman RR, Powell MJ, Jamshidian F, Kerlikowske K, Shepherd J, Hurlbert MS, Benz CC. First pregnancy events and future breast density: modification by age at first pregnancy and specific VEGF and IGF1R gene variants. Cancer Causes Control. 2014 Jul; 25(7):859-68. PMID: 24801045; PMCID: PMC4048469.
    68. Cheddad A, Czene K, Shepherd J, Li J, Hall P, Humphreys K. Enhancement of mammographic density measures in breast cancer risk prediction. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Jul; 23(7):1314-23. PMID: 24722754.
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    69. Malkov S, Kerlikowske K, Shepherd J. Automated Volumetric Breast Density derived by Shape and Appearance Modeling. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Mar 22; 9034:90342T. PMID: 25083119.
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    70. Drukker K, Duewer F, Giger ML, Malkov S, Flowers CI, Joe B, Kerlikowske K, Drukteinis JS, Li H, Shepherd J. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification. Med Phys. 2014 Mar; 41(3):031915. PMID: 24593733; PMCID: PMC3978370.
    71. Malkov S, Shepherd J. Combining 3D optical imaging and dual energy absorptiometry to measure three compositional components. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 17; 8937:893714. PMID: 25083118.
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    72. Wren TA, Kalkwarf HJ, Zemel BS, Lappe JM, Oberfield S, Shepherd J, Winer KK, Gilsanz V. Longitudinal tracking of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone measures over 6 years in children and adolescents: persistence of low bone mass to maturity. J Pediatr. 2014 Jun; 164(6):1280-5.e2. PMID: 24485819; PMCID: PMC4035430.
    73. Wang J, Azziz A, Fan B, Malkov S, Klifa C, Newitt D, Yitta S, Hylton N, Kerlikowske K, Shepherd J. Agreement of mammographic measures of volumetric breast density to MRI. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e81653. PMID: 24324712; PMCID: PMC3852736.
    74. Powers C, Fan B, Borrud LG, Looker AC, Shepherd J. Long-term precision of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition measurements and association with their covariates. J Clin Densitom. 2015 Jan-Mar; 18(1):76-85. PMID: 24200863.
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    75. Bertrand KA, Tamimi RM, Scott CG, Jensen MR, Pankratz V, Visscher D, Norman A, Couch F, Shepherd J, Fan B, Chen YY, Ma L, Beck AH, Cummings SR, Kerlikowske K, Vachon CM. Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer by age and tumor characteristics. Breast Cancer Res. 2013 Nov 04; 15(6):R104. PMID: 24188089; PMCID: PMC3978749.
    76. Fan B, Shepherd J, Levine MA, Steinberg D, Wacker W, Barden HS, Ergun D, Wu XP. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry reference data for GE Lunar systems. J Clin Densitom. 2014 Jul-Sep; 17(3):344-77. PMID: 24161789.
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    77. Kendler DL, Borges JL, Fielding RA, Itabashi A, Krueger D, Mulligan K, Camargos BM, Sabowitz B, Wu CH, Yu EW, Shepherd J. The Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: Indications of Use and Reporting of DXA for Body Composition. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct-Dec; 16(4):496-507. PMID: 24090645.
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    78. Hangartner TN, Warner S, Braillon P, Jankowski L, Shepherd J. The Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: acquisition of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition and considerations regarding analysis and repeatability of measures. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct-Dec; 16(4):520-36. PMID: 24183641.
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    79. Petak S, Barbu CG, Yu EW, Fielding R, Mulligan K, Sabowitz B, Wu CH, Shepherd J. The Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: body composition analysis reporting. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct-Dec; 16(4):508-19. PMID: 24183640.
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    80. Shepherd J, Baim S, Bilezikian JP, Schousboe JT. Executive summary of the 2013 International Society for Clinical Densitometry Position Development Conference on Body Composition. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct-Dec; 16(4):489-95. PMID: 24183639.
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    81. Schousboe JT, Shepherd J, Bilezikian JP, Baim S. Executive summary of the 2013 International Society for Clinical Densitometry Position Development Conference on bone densitometry. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct-Dec; 16(4):455-66. PMID: 24183638.
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    82. Dorgan JF, Klifa C, Deshmukh S, Egleston BL, Shepherd J, Kwiterovich PO, Van Horn L, Snetselaar LG, Stevens VJ, Robson AM, Lasser NL, Hylton NM. Menstrual and reproductive characteristics and breast density in young women. Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Nov; 24(11):1973-83. PMID: 23933948; PMCID: PMC3960004.
    83. Looker AC, Borrud LG, Hughes JP, Fan B, Shepherd J, Sherman M. Total body bone area, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density for individuals aged 8 years and over: United States, 1999-2006. Vital Health Stat 11. 2013 Aug; (253):1-78. PMID: 25204772.
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    84. Wilson JP, Kanaya AM, Fan B, Shepherd J. Ratio of trunk to leg volume as a new body shape metric for diabetes and mortality. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68716. PMID: 23874736; PMCID: PMC3707853.
    85. Treatment effects on measures of body composition in the TODAY clinical trial. Diabetes Care. 2013 Jun; 36(6):1742-8. PMID: 23704673; PMCID: PMC3661839.
    86. Caswell JL, Kerlikowske K, Shepherd J, Cummings SR, Hu D, Huntsman S, Ziv E. High mammographic density in women of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Breast Cancer Res. 2013 May 13; 15(3):R40. PMID: 23668689; PMCID: PMC4053164.
    87. Wilson JP, Strauss BJ, Fan B, Duewer FW, Shepherd J. Improved 4-compartment body-composition model for a clinically accessible measure of total body protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar; 97(3):497-504. PMID: 23364008.
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    88. Gregson CL, Paggiosi MA, Crabtree N, Steel SA, McCloskey E, Duncan EL, Fan B, Shepherd J, Fraser WD, Smith GD, Tobias JH. Analysis of body composition in individuals with high bone mass reveals a marked increase in fat mass in women but not men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Feb; 98(2):818-28. PMID: 23337721; PMCID: PMC3589712.
    89. Wilson JP, Fan B, Shepherd J. Total and regional body volumes derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry output. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Jul-Sep; 16(3):368-73. PMID: 23321490.
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    90. Shepherd J, Fan B, Lu Y, Wu XP, Wacker WK, Ergun DL, Levine MA. A multinational study to develop universal standardization of whole-body bone density and composition using GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic DXA systems. J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Oct; 27(10):2208-16. PMID: 22623101.
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    91. Wren TA, Shepherd J, Kalkwarf HJ, Zemel BS, Lappe JM, Oberfield S, Dorey FJ, Winer KK, Gilsanz V. Racial disparity in fracture risk between white and nonwhite children in the United States. J Pediatr. 2012 Dec; 161(6):1035-40. PMID: 22974572; PMCID: PMC3504618.
    92. Shepherd J. Is osteoporosis an obesity paradox? J Clin Densitom. 2013 Apr-Jun; 16(2):131-2. PMID: 22921773.
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    93. Dorgan JF, Klifa C, Shepherd J, Egleston BL, Kwiterovich PO, Himes JH, Gabriel K, Horn L, Snetselaar LG, Stevens VJ, Barton BA, Robson AM, Lasser NL, Deshmukh S, Hylton NM. Height, adiposity and body fat distribution and breast density in young women. Breast Cancer Res. 2012 Jul 13; 14(4):R107. PMID: 22800711; PMCID: PMC3680938.
    94. Jonas MM, Balistreri W, Gonzalez-Peralta RP, Haber B, Lobritto S, Mohan P, Molleston JP, Murray KF, Narkewicz MR, Rosenthal P, Schwarz KB, Barton BA, Shepherd J, Mitchell PD, Duggan C. Pegylated interferon for chronic hepatitis C in children affects growth and body composition: results from the pediatric study of hepatitis C (PEDS-C) trial. Hepatology. 2012 Aug; 56(2):523-31. PMID: 22383118; PMCID: PMC3382022.
    95. Looker AC, Borrud LG, Dawson-Hughes B, Shepherd J, Wright NC. Osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femur neck or lumbar spine in older adults: United States, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. 2012 Apr; (93):1-8. PMID: 22617299.
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    96. Looker AC, Borrud LG, Hughes JP, Fan B, Shepherd J, Melton LJ. Lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and bone area: United States, 2005-2008. Vital Health Stat 11. 2012 Mar; (251):1-132. PMID: 24261130.
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    97. Schwartz AV, Johnson KC, Kahn SE, Shepherd J, Nevitt MC, Peters AL, Walkup MP, Hodges A, Williams CC, Bray GA. Effect of 1 year of an intentional weight loss intervention on bone mineral density in type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD randomized trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Mar; 27(3):619-27. PMID: 22354851; PMCID: PMC3410035.
    98. Morimoto Y, Maskarinec G, Conroy SM, Lim U, Shepherd J, Novotny R. Asian ethnicity is associated with a higher trunk/peripheral fat ratio in women and adolescent girls. J Epidemiol. 2012; 22(2):130-5. PMID: 22327117; PMCID: PMC3798591.
    99. Shepherd J, Kerlikowske K. Do fatty breasts increase or decrease breast cancer risk? Breast Cancer Res. 2012 Jan 25; 14(1):102. PMID: 22277587; PMCID: PMC3496115.
    100. Baracos V, Caserotti P, Earthman CP, Fields D, Gallagher D, Hall KD, Heymsfield SB, Müller MJ, Rosen AN, Pichard C, Redman LM, Shen W, Shepherd J, Thomas D. Advances in the science and application of body composition measurement. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2012 Jan; 36(1):96-107. PMID: 22235108; PMCID: PMC4422066.
    101. Schwartz AV, Johnson KC, Kahn SE, Shepherd J, Nevitt MC, Peters AL, Walkup MP, Hodges A, Williams CC, Bray GA. Effect of one year of an intentional weight loss intervention on bone mineral density in type 2 diabetes: Results from the look AHEAD randomized trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Dec 2. PMID: 22140018.
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    102. Wilson JP, Mulligan K, Fan B, Sherman JL, Murphy EJ, Tai VW, Powers CL, Marquez L, Ruiz-Barros V, Shepherd J. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based body volume measurement for 4-compartment body composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan; 95(1):25-31. PMID: 22134952; PMCID: PMC3238462.
    103. Shepherd J, Wang L, Fan B, Gilsanz V, Kalkwarf HJ, Lappe J, Lu Y, Hangartner T, Zemel BS, Fredrick M, Oberfield S, Winer KK. Optimal monitoring time interval between DXA measures in children. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Nov; 26(11):2745-52. PMID: 21773995; PMCID: PMC3200454.
    104. Dorgan JF, Liu L, Barton BA, Deshmukh S, Snetselaar LG, Van Horn L, Stevens VJ, Robson AM, Lasser NL, Himes JH, Shepherd J, Pourfarzib R, Pettee Gabriel K, Kriska A, Kwiterovich PO. Adolescent diet and metabolic syndrome in young women: results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) follow-up study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Dec; 96(12):E1999-2008. PMID: 21994964; PMCID: PMC3232612.
    105. Zemel BS, Kalkwarf HJ, Gilsanz V, Lappe JM, Oberfield S, Shepherd J, Frederick MM, Huang X, Lu M, Mahboubi S, Hangartner T, Winer KK. Revised reference curves for bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density according to age and sex for black and non-black children: results of the bone mineral density in childhood study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Oct; 96(10):3160-9. PMID: 21917867; PMCID: PMC3200252.
    106. Katzman W, Cawthon P, Hicks GE, Vittinghoff E, Shepherd J, Cauley JA, Harris T, Simonsick EM, Strotmeyer E, Womack C, Kado DM. Association of spinal muscle composition and prevalence of hyperkyphosis in healthy community-dwelling older men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Feb; 67(2):191-5. PMID: 21878482; PMCID: PMC3297013.
    107. Maskarinec G, Morimoto Y, Daida Y, Shepherd J, Novotny R. A comparison of breast density measures between mothers and adolescent daughters. BMC Cancer. 2011 Aug 02; 11:330. PMID: 21810248; PMCID: PMC3161041.
    108. Toombs RJ, Ducher G, Shepherd J, De Souza MJ. The impact of recent technological advances on the trueness and precision of DXA to assess body composition. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Jan; 20(1):30-9. PMID: 21760631.
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    109. Looker AC, Melton LJ, Borrud LG, Shepherd J. Lumbar spine bone mineral density in US adults: demographic patterns and relationship with femur neck skeletal status. Osteoporos Int. 2012 Apr; 23(4):1351-60. PMID: 21720893.
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    110. Shepherd J, Kerlikowske K, Ma L, Duewer F, Fan B, Wang J, Malkov S, Vittinghoff E, Cummings SR. Volume of mammographic density and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Jul; 20(7):1473-82. PMID: 21610220; PMCID: PMC3132306.
    111. Looker AC, Melton LJ, Borrud LG, Shepherd J. Changes in femur neck bone density in US adults between 1988-1994 and 2005-2008: demographic patterns and possible determinants. Osteoporos Int. 2012 Feb; 23(2):771-80. PMID: 21625885.
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    112. Novotny R, Daida Y, Morimoto Y, Shepherd J, Maskarinec G. Puberty, body fat, and breast density in girls of several ethnic groups. Am J Hum Biol. 2011 May-Jun; 23(3):359-65. PMID: 21445936.
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    113. Baker-LePain JC, Nakamura MC, Shepherd J, von Scheven E. Assessment of bone remodelling in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2011 Mar; 50(3):611-9. PMID: 21098573; PMCID: PMC3042255.
    114. Gilsanz V, Chalfant J, Kalkwarf H, Zemel B, Lappe J, Oberfield S, Shepherd J, Wren T, Winer K. Age at onset of puberty predicts bone mass in young adulthood. J Pediatr. 2011 Jan; 158(1):100-5, 105.e1-2. PMID: 20797727; PMCID: PMC4767165.
    115. Maskarinec G, Morimoto Y, Daida Y, Laidevant A, Malkov S, Shepherd J, Novotny R. Comparison of breast density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry with mammographic density among adult women in Hawaii. Cancer Epidemiol. 2011 Apr; 35(2):188-93. PMID: 20688593; PMCID: PMC3081054.
    116. Shepherd J, Fan B, Lu Y, Marquez L, Salama K, Hwang J, Fung EB. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry with serum ferritin predicts liver iron concentration and changes in concentration better than ferritin alone. J Clin Densitom. 2010 Oct-Dec; 13(4):399-406. PMID: 20663700; PMCID: PMC4607766.
    117. Katzman WB, Wanek L, Shepherd J, Sellmeyer DE. Age-related hyperkyphosis: its causes, consequences, and management. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010 Jun; 40(6):352-60. PMID: 20511692; PMCID: PMC2907357.
    118. Dorgan JF, Liu L, Klifa C, Hylton N, Shepherd J, Stanczyk FZ, Snetselaar LG, Van Horn L, Stevens VJ, Robson A, Kwiterovich PO, Lasser NL, Himes JH, Pettee Gabriel K, Kriska A, Ruder EH, Fang CY, Barton BA. Adolescent diet and subsequent serum hormones, breast density, and bone mineral density in young women: results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children follow-up study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Jun; 19(6):1545-56. PMID: 20501774; PMCID: PMC2883023.
    119. Short DF, Zemel BS, Gilsanz V, Kalkwarf HJ, Lappe JM, Mahboubi S, Oberfield SE, Shepherd J, Winer KK, Hangartner TN. Fitting of bone mineral density with consideration of anthropometric parameters. Osteoporos Int. 2011 Apr; 22(4):1047-57. PMID: 20495903; PMCID: PMC2996478.
    120. Borrud LG, Flegal KM, Looker AC, Everhart JE, Harris TB, Shepherd J. Body composition data for individuals 8 years of age and older: U.S. population, 1999-2004. Vital Health Stat 11. 2010 Apr; (250):1-87. PMID: 20812448.
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    121. Kalkwarf HJ, Gilsanz V, Lappe JM, Oberfield S, Shepherd J, Hangartner TN, Huang X, Frederick MM, Winer KK, Zemel BS. Tracking of bone mass and density during childhood and adolescence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Apr; 95(4):1690-8. PMID: 20194709; PMCID: PMC2853985.
    122. Flegal KM, Ogden CL, Yanovski JA, Freedman DS, Shepherd J, Graubard BI, Borrud LG. High adiposity and high body mass index-for-age in US children and adolescents overall and by race-ethnic group. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Apr; 91(4):1020-6. PMID: 20164313; PMCID: PMC2844683.
    123. Zemel BS, Leonard MB, Kelly A, Lappe JM, Gilsanz V, Oberfield S, Mahboubi S, Shepherd J, Hangartner TN, Frederick MM, Winer KK, Kalkwarf HJ. Height adjustment in assessing dual energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mass and density in children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Mar; 95(3):1265-73. PMID: 20103654; PMCID: PMC2841534.
    124. Laidevant AD, Malkov S, Flowers CI, Kerlikowske K, Shepherd J. Compositional breast imaging using a dual-energy mammography protocol. Med Phys. 2010 Jan; 37(1):164-74. PMID: 20175478; PMCID: PMC2801735.
    125. Looker AC, Melton LJ, Harris TB, Borrud LG, Shepherd J. Prevalence and trends in low femur bone density among older US adults: NHANES 2005-2006 compared with NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res. 2010 Jan; 25(1):64-71. PMID: 19580459; PMCID: PMC3312738.
    126. Malkov S, Wang J, Kerlikowske K, Cummings SR, Shepherd J. Single x-ray absorptiometry method for the quantitative mammographic measure of fibroglandular tissue volume. Med Phys. 2009 Dec; 36(12):5525-36. PMID: 20095265; PMCID: PMC2789112.
    127. Fan B, Lu Y, Genant H, Fuerst T, Shepherd J. Does standardized BMD still remove differences between Hologic and GE-Lunar state-of-the-art DXA systems? Osteoporos Int. 2010 Jul; 21(7):1227-36. PMID: 19859644; PMCID: PMC2906746.
    128. Klifa C, Carballido-Gamio J, Wilmes L, Laprie A, Shepherd J, Gibbs J, Fan B, Noworolski S, Hylton N. Magnetic resonance imaging for secondary assessment of breast density in a high-risk cohort. Magn Reson Imaging. 2010 Jan; 28(1):8-15. PMID: 19631485; PMCID: PMC4087111.
    129. Yeh BM, Shepherd J, Wang ZJ, Teh HS, Hartman RP, Prevrhal S. Dual-energy and low-kVp CT in the abdomen. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009 Jul; 193(1):47-54. PMID: 19542394; PMCID: PMC2868328.
    130. Cummings SR, Tice JA, Bauer S, Browner WS, Cuzick J, Ziv E, Vogel V, Shepherd J, Vachon C, Smith-Bindman R, Kerlikowske K. Prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: approaches to estimating and reducing risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 Mar 18; 101(6):384-98. PMID: 19276457; PMCID: PMC2720698.
    131. Flegal KM, Shepherd J, Looker AC, Graubard BI, Borrud LG, Ogden CL, Harris TB, Everhart JE, Schenker N. Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Feb; 89(2):500-8. PMID: 19116329; PMCID: PMC2647766.
    132. Looker AC, Melton LJ, Harris T, Borrud L, Shepherd J, McGowan J. Age, gender, and race/ethnic differences in total body and subregional bone density. Osteoporos Int. 2009 Jul; 20(7):1141-9. PMID: 19048179; PMCID: PMC3057045.
    133. Shepherd J, Malkov S, Fan B, Laidevant A, Novotny R, Maskarinec G. Breast density assessment in adolescent girls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a feasibility study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jul; 17(7):1709-13. PMID: 18628421; PMCID: PMC2587078.
    134. Shepherd J, Morgan SL, Lu Y. Comparing BMD results between two similar DXA systems using the generalized least significant change. J Clin Densitom. 2008 Apr-Jun; 11(2):237-42. PMID: 18455677.
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    135. Fan B, Lewiecki EM, Sherman M, Lu Y, Miller PD, Genant HK, Shepherd J. Improved precision with Hologic Apex software. Osteoporos Int. 2008 Nov; 19(11):1597-602. PMID: 18373054.
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    136. Murphy KJ, Kelekis DA, Rundback J, Gomolka B, Faciszewski T, Gangi A, Kelekis AD, Kraft C, McKiernan FE, Ruefenacht DA, Shepherd J, Verlaan JJ. Development of a research agenda for skeletal intervention: proceedings from a multidisciplinary consensus panel. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2008 May; 19(5):631-8. PMID: 18440448.
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    137. Murphy KJ, Kelekis DA, Rundback J, Faciszewski T, Gangi A, Kelekis AD, Kraft C, McKiernan FE, Ruefenacht DA, Shepherd J, Verlaan JJ. Development of a research agenda for skeletal intervention: proceedings of a multidisciplinary consensus panel. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2008 Jul-Aug; 31(4):678-86. PMID: 18357487.
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    138. Prevrhal S, Klifa CS, Shepherd J, Ries MD, Genant HK. Computer-assisted technique to delineate osteolytic lesions around the femoral component in total hip arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2008 Sep; 23(6):833-8. PMID: 18534519.
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    139. Prevrhal S, Shepherd J, Faulkner KG, Gaither KW, Black DM, Lang TF. Comparison of DXA hip structural analysis with volumetric QCT. J Clin Densitom. 2008 Apr-Jun; 11(2):232-6. PMID: 18280192.
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    140. Hans DB, Shepherd J, Schwartz EN, Reid DM, Blake GM, Fordham JN, Fuerst T, Hadji P, Itabashi A, Krieg MA, Lewiecki EM. Peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the management of osteoporosis: the 2007 ISCD Official Positions. J Clin Densitom. 2008 Jan-Mar; 11(1):188-206. PMID: 18442759.
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    141. Zemel B, Bass S, Binkley T, Ducher G, Macdonald H, McKay H, Moyer-Mileur L, Shepherd J, Specker B, Ward K, Hans D. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography in children and adolescents: the 2007 ISCD Pediatric Official Positions. J Clin Densitom. 2008 Jan-Mar; 11(1):59-74. PMID: 18442753.
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    142. Shepherd J, Blake GM. T-scores and Z-scores. J Clin Densitom. 2007 Oct-Dec; 10(4):349-50. PMID: 17993399.
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    143. Blake GM, Shepherd J. Effect of random BMD measurement errors on diagnostic classification using T-scores. J Clin Densitom. 2007 Oct-Dec; 10(4):415-7; author reply 417-8. PMID: 17993402.
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    144. Shepherd J, Lu Y. A generalized least significant change for individuals measured on different DXA systems. J Clin Densitom. 2007 Jul-Sep; 10(3):249-58. PMID: 17616413.
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    145. Grady D, Vittinghoff E, Lin F, Hanes V, Ensrud K, Habel LA, Wallace R, Macer J, Cummings SR, Shepherd J. Effect of ultra-low-dose transdermal estradiol on breast density in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2007 May-Jun; 14(3 Pt 1):391-6. PMID: 17224859.
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    146. Kalkwarf HJ, Zemel BS, Gilsanz V, Lappe JM, Horlick M, Oberfield S, Mahboubi S, Fan B, Frederick MM, Winer K, Shepherd J. The bone mineral density in childhood study: bone mineral content and density according to age, sex, and race. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jun; 92(6):2087-99. PMID: 17311856.
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    147. Murray KF, Rodrigue JR, González-Peralta RP, Shepherd J, Barton BA, Robuck PR, Schwarz KB. Design of the PEDS-C trial: pegylated interferon +/- ribavirin for children with chronic hepatitis C viral infection. Clin Trials. 2007; 4(6):661-73. PMID: 18042575; PMCID: PMC3755272.
    148. Bennett HS, Dienstfrey A, Hudson LT, Oreskovic T, Fuerst T, Shepherd J. Standards and measurements for assessing bone health-workshop report co-sponsored by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). J Clin Densitom. 2006 Oct-Dec; 9(4):399-405. PMID: 17097524.
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    149. Shepherd J, Fan B, Lu Y, Lewiecki EM, Miller P, Genant HK. Comparison of BMD precision for Prodigy and Delphi spine and femur scans. Osteoporos Int. 2006; 17(9):1303-8. PMID: 16823544.
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    150. Shepherd J, Lu Y, Wilson K, Fuerst T, Genant H, Hangartner TN, Wilson C, Hans D, Leib ES. Cross-calibration and minimum precision standards for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: the 2005 ISCD Official Positions. J Clin Densitom. 2006 Jan-Mar; 9(1):31-6. PMID: 16731429.
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    151. Shepherd J, Herve L, Landau J, Fan B, Kerlikowske K, Cummings SR. Clinical comparison of a novel breast DXA technique to mammographic density. Med Phys. 2006 May; 33(5):1490-8. PMID: 16752583.
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    152. Morimoto Y, Maskarinec G, Conroy SM, Lim U, Shepherd J, Novotny R. Asian ethnicity is associated with a higher trunk/periphery fat ratio in women and adolescent girls. J Epidemiol. 2006 Mar 01; 136(3):642-647. PMID: 22247607.
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    153. Shepherd J, Meta M, Landau J, Sherrer YS, Goddard DH, Ovalle MI, Rosholm A, Genant HK. Metacarpal index and bone mineral density in healthy African-American women. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Dec; 16(12):1621-6. PMID: 15947863.
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    154. Prevrhal S, Lu Y, Genant HK, Toschke JO, Shepherd J. Towards standardization of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the forearm: a common region of interest (ROI) improves the comparability among DXA devices. Calcif Tissue Int. 2005 May; 76(5):348-54. PMID: 15868279.
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    155. Schoeller DA, Tylavsky FA, Baer DJ, Chumlea WC, Earthman CP, Fuerst T, Harris TB, Heymsfield SB, Horlick M, Lohman TG, Lukaski HC, Shepherd J, Siervogel RM, Borrud LG. QDR 4500A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer underestimates fat mass in comparison with criterion methods in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 May; 81(5):1018-25. PMID: 15883424.
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    156. Melton LJ, Looker AC, Shepherd J, O'Connor MK, Achenbach SJ, Riggs BL, Khosla S. Osteoporosis assessment by whole body region vs. site-specific DXA. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Dec; 16(12):1558-64. PMID: 15812599.
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    157. Shepherd J, Herve L, Landau J, Fan B, Kerlikowske K, Cummings SR. Novel use of single X-ray absorptiometry for measuring breast density. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2005 Apr; 4(2):173-82. PMID: 15773786.
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    158. Kerlikowske K, Shepherd J, Creasman J, Tice JA, Ziv E, Cummings SR. Are breast density and bone mineral density independent risk factors for breast cancer? J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Mar 02; 97(5):368-74. PMID: 15741573.
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    159. Ziv E, Tice J, Smith-Bindman R, Shepherd J, Cummings S, Kerlikowske K. Mammographic density and estrogen receptor status of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Dec; 13(12):2090-5. PMID: 15598766.
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    160. Binkley N, Kiebzak GM, Lewiecki EM, Krueger D, Gangnon RE, Miller PD, Shepherd J, Drezner MK. Recalculation of the NHANES database SD improves T-score agreement and reduces osteoporosis prevalence. J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Feb; 20(2):195-201. PMID: 15647812.
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    161. Lewiecki EM, Watts NB, McClung MR, Petak SM, Bachrach LK, Shepherd J, Downs RW. Official positions of the international society for clinical densitometry. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Aug; 89(8):3651-5. PMID: 15292281.
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    162. Ziv E, Shepherd J, Smith-Bindman R, Kerlikowske K. Mammographic breast density and family history of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003 Apr 02; 95(7):556-8. PMID: 12671024.
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    163. Prevrhal S, Fox JC, Shepherd J, Genant HK. Accuracy of CT-based thickness measurement of thin structures: modeling of limited spatial resolution in all three dimensions. Med Phys. 2003 Jan; 30(1):1-8. PMID: 12557971.
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    164. Mingin GC, Nguyen HT, Mathias RS, Shepherd J, Glidden D, Baskin LS. Growth and metabolic consequences of bladder augmentation in children with myelomeningocele and bladder exstrophy. Pediatrics. 2002 Dec; 110(6):1193-8. PMID: 12456918.
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    165. Prevrhal S, Shepherd J, Smith-Bindman R, Cummings SR, Kerlikowske K. Accuracy of mammographic breast density analysis: results of formal operator training. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Nov; 11(11):1389-93. PMID: 12433716.
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    166. Grigorian M, Shepherd J, Cheng XG, Njeh CF, Toschke JO, Genant HK. Does osteoporosis classification using heel BMD agree across manufacturers? Osteoporos Int. 2002 Aug; 13(8):613-7. PMID: 12181618.
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    167. Shepherd J, Kerlikowske KM, Smith-Bindman R, Genant HK, Cummings SR. Measurement of breast density with dual X-ray absorptiometry: feasibility. Radiology. 2002 May; 223(2):554-7. PMID: 11997567.
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    168. Shepherd J, Cheng XG, Lu Y, Njeh C, Toschke J, Engelke K, Grigorian M, Genant HK. Universal standardization of forearm bone densitometry. J Bone Miner Res. 2002 Apr; 17(4):734-45. PMID: 11918231.
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    169. Sherman ME, Shepherd J, Frassetto L, Genant HK. Discrepancy in results between spine and hip scans of a woman with end stage renal disease. J Clin Densitom. 2002; 5(1):95-8. PMID: 11940734.
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    170. Njeh CF, Chen MB, Fan B, Grigorian M, Shepherd J, Saeed I, Genant HK. Evaluation of a gel-coupled quantitative ultrasound device for bone status assessment. J Ultrasound Med. 2001 Nov; 20(11):1219-28. PMID: 11758027.
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    171. Njeh CF, Saeed I, Grigorian M, Kendler DL, Fan B, Shepherd J, McClung M, Drake WM, Genant HK. Assessment of bone status using speed of sound at multiple anatomical sites. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2001 Oct; 27(10):1337-45. PMID: 11731047.
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    172. Lu Y, Genant HK, Shepherd J, Zhao S, Mathur A, Fuerst TP, Cummings SR. Classification of osteoporosis based on bone mineral densities. J Bone Miner Res. 2001 May; 16(5):901-10. PMID: 11341335.
      View in: PubMed
    173. Diessel E, Shepherd J, Fuerst T, Gonzalez M, Genant HK, Carew B, Looker A. Comparison of two phantoms for body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000 May; 904:107-10. PMID: 10865719.
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    174. Genant HK, Li J, Wu CY, Shepherd J. Vertebral fractures in osteoporosis: a new method for clinical assessment. J Clin Densitom. 2000; 3(3):281-90. PMID: 11090235.
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