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Millie Hughes-Fulford, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Phone415-750-6940
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Texas Womans University, Denton, TexasPhD1972Radiation Chemistry and Biology
    Tarleton State University, Stevenville, TXBS1968Chemistry and Biology
    Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TXPostdocteral 1973Cholesterol Metabolilsm
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Texas A&M1965  - 1966National Science Foundation Undergraduate Research Fellow
    Texas Womans University1968  - 1971National Science Foundation Fellow (graduate
    TexasWomans University1971  - 1972American Association of University Women Fellow/ MacArthur Foundation Fellow
    UCSF/VAMCSF1984Presidential Award of Federal Employee of the Year in Science
    UCSF1991NASA Space Flight Medal
    UCSF1991NASA Space Flight Medal
    VAMCSF/UCSF1993  - 1996VACO Secretary's Special Achievement Award
    VAMCSF/UCSF1993  - 1996VACO Secretary's Special Achievement Award
    UCSF/NCIRE2011NASA award for Best Flight Experiment "Mouse Immunology" STS-131
    UCSF/NCIRE2011NASA award for Best Flight Experiment "Mouse Immunology" STS-131
    UCSF/NCIRE2013Named top outstanding research of ISS by NASA (

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Featured Videos

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Richard Boyle, Millie Hughes-Fulford. Space Biology (Cells to Amphibians). Encyclopedia of Bioastronautics. 2019 Jan 1; 1-10.
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    2. Grenon SM, Owens CD, Nosova EV, Hughes-Fulford M, Alley HF, Chong K, Perez S, Yen PK, Boscardin J, Hellmann J, Spite M, Conte MS. Short-Term, High-Dose Fish Oil Supplementation Increases the Production of Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Derived Mediators in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease (the OMEGA-PAD I Trial). J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Aug 21; 4(8):e002034. PMID: 26296857.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Hughes-Fulford M, Chang TT, Martinez EM, Li CF. Spaceflight alters expression of microRNA during T-cell activation. FASEB J. 2015 Dec; 29(12):4893-900. PMID: 26276131.
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    4. Chang TT, Spurlock SM, Candelario TL, Grenon SM, Hughes-Fulford M. Spaceflight impairs antigen-specific tolerance induction in vivo and increases inflammatory cytokines. FASEB J. 2015 Oct; 29(10):4122-32. PMID: 26085131.
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    5. Martinez EM, Yoshida MC, Candelario TL, Hughes-Fulford M. Spaceflight and simulated microgravity cause a significant reduction of key gene expression in early T-cell activation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015 Mar 15; 308(6):R480-8. PMID: 25568077.
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    6. Chang TT, Hughes-Fulford M. Molecular mechanisms underlying the enhanced functions of three-dimensional hepatocyte aggregates. Biomaterials. 2014 Feb; 35(7):2162-71. PMID: 24332390.
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    7. Grenon SM, Owens CD, Alley H, Chong K, Yen PK, Harris W, Hughes-Fulford M, Conte MS. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in peripheral artery disease: the OMEGA-PAD trial. Vasc Med. 2013 Oct; 18(5):263-74. PMID: 24052491.
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    8. Marlene Grenon, Christopher D. Owens, Hugh Alley, Karen Chong, Eric Vittinghoff, William Harris, Millie Hughes-Fulford, Joseph Rapp, Michael Conte. The Association Between Erythrocyte n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (n-3 PUFAs) Content and Inflammation in Male Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD). Journal of Vascular Surgery. 2013 May 1; 57(5):10s-11s.
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    9. S. Grenon, M. Jeanne, M.S. Conte, M. Hughes-Fulford. Effects of Mechanical Gravitational Unloading on Vascular Endothelial Cells Function. Journal of Surgical Research. 2013 Feb 1; 179(2):200.
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    10. Grenon SM, Jeanne M, Aguado-Zuniga J, Conte MS, Hughes-Fulford M. Effects of gravitational mechanical unloading in endothelial cells: association between caveolins, inflammation and adhesion molecules. Sci Rep. 2013; 3:1494. PMID: 23511048.
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    11. Grenon SM, Saary J, Gray G, Vanderploeg JM, Hughes-Fulford M. Can I take a space flight? Considerations for doctors. BMJ. 2012 Dec 13; 345:e8124. PMID: 23241271.
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    12. Chang TT, Walther I, Li CF, Boonyaratanakornkit J, Galleri G, Meloni MA, Pippia P, Cogoli A, Hughes-Fulford M. The Rel/NF-?B pathway and transcription of immediate early genes in T cell activation are inhibited by microgravity. J Leukoc Biol. 2012 Dec; 92(6):1133-45. PMID: 22750545.
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    13. Marlene Grenon, Jesus Aguado-Zunega, Michael S. Conte, Millie Hughes-Fulford. PS204. Mechanical (or “Gravitational”) Unloading Reduces Inflammatory and Cell Adhesion Molecule Gene Expression in Human Endothelial Cells. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 2012 Jun 1; 55(6):78s-79s.
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    14. Grenon SM, Aguado-Zuniga J, Hatton JP, Owens CD, Conte MS, Hughes-Fulford M. Effects of fatty acids on endothelial cells: inflammation and monocyte adhesion. J Surg Res. 2012 Sep; 177(1):e35-43. PMID: 22572621.
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    15. Grenon SM, Hughes-Fulford M, Rapp J, Conte MS. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and peripheral artery disease. Vasc Med. 2012 Feb; 17(1):51-63. PMID: 22363018.
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    16. S.M. Grenon, J. Aguado-Zuniga, M.S. Conte, M. Hughes-Fulford. The Effects of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Monocyte-Endothelial Cell Interactions. Journal of Surgical Research. 2012 Feb 1; 172(2):269.
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    17. Hughes-Fulford M. To infinity ... and beyond! Human spaceflight and life science. FASEB J. 2011 Sep; 25(9):2858-64. PMID: 21880668.
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    18. Magbanua MJ, Roy R, Sosa EV, Weinberg V, Federman S, Mattie MD, Hughes-Fulford M, Simko J, Shinohara K, Haqq CM, Carroll PR, Chan JM. Gene expression and biological pathways in tissue of men with prostate cancer in a randomized clinical trial of lycopene and fish oil supplementation. PLoS One. 2011; 6(9):e24004. PMID: 21912659.
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    19. Hughes-Fulford M, Li CF. The role of FGF-2 and BMP-2 in regulation of gene induction, cell proliferation and mineralization. J Orthop Surg Res. 2011 Feb 09; 6:8. PMID: 21306641.
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    20. Chan JM, Weinberg V, Magbanua MJ, Sosa E, Simko J, Shinohara K, Federman S, Mattie M, Hughes-Fulford M, Haqq C, Carroll PR. Nutritional supplements, COX-2 and IGF-1 expression in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Jan; 22(1):141-50. PMID: 21103921.
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    21. Chang TT, Hughes-Fulford M. Monolayer and spheroid culture of human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line cells demonstrate distinct global gene expression patterns and functional phenotypes. Tissue Eng Part A. 2009 Mar; 15(3):559-67. PMID: 18724832.
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    22. C.-F. Li, J. C. Bodle, J. P. Hatton, M. Hughes-Fulford. ACTIVATION AND REGULATION OF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN MONOCYTES AND THEIR CORRELATION WITH GRAVITY.: 278. Journal of Investigative Medicine. 2007 Jan 1; 55(1):s121.
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    23. Sevigny MB, Li CF, Alas M, Hughes-Fulford M. Glycosylation regulates turnover of cyclooxygenase-2. FEBS Lett. 2006 Dec 11; 580(28-29):6533-6. PMID: 17113084.
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    24. Hughes-Fulford M, Rodenacker K, Jütting U. Reduction of anabolic signals and alteration of osteoblast nuclear morphology in microgravity. J Cell Biochem. 2006 Oct 01; 99(2):435-49. PMID: 16619267.
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    25. Li CF, Hughes-Fulford M. Fibroblast growth factor-2 is an immediate-early gene induced by mechanical stress in osteogenic cells. J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Jun; 21(6):946-55. PMID: 16753025.
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    26. Hughes-Fulford M, Li CF, Boonyaratanakornkit J, Sayyah S. Arachidonic acid activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and induces gene expression in prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 01; 66(3):1427-33. PMID: 16452198.
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    27. Boonyaratanakornkit JB, Cogoli A, Li CF, Schopper T, Pippia P, Galleri G, Meloni MA, Hughes-Fulford M. Key gravity-sensitive signaling pathways drive T cell activation. FASEB J. 2005 Dec; 19(14):2020-2. PMID: 16210397.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Hughes-Fulford M, Tjandrawinata RR, Li CF, Sayyah S. Arachidonic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, induces cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 in prostate carcinoma cells. Carcinogenesis. 2005 Sep; 26(9):1520-6. PMID: 15878913.
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    29. Hughes-Fulford M, Sugano E, Schopper T, Li CF, Boonyaratanakornkit JB, Cogoli A. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits. Cell Signal. 2005 Sep; 17(9):1111-24. PMID: 15993752.
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    30. Hughes-Fulford M. Signal transduction and mechanical stress. Sci STKE. 2004 Aug 31; 2004(249):RE12. PMID: 15353762.
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    31. Hughes-Fulford M. Lessons learned about spaceflight and cell biology experiments. J Gravit Physiol. 2004 Mar; 11(1):105-9. PMID: 16145818.
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    32. Hatton JP, Pooran M, Li CF, Luzzio C, Hughes-Fulford M. A short pulse of mechanical force induces gene expression and growth in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts via an ERK 1/2 pathway. J Bone Miner Res. 2003 Jan; 18(1):58-66. PMID: 12510806.
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    33. Hughes-Fulford M. Function of the cytoskeleton in gravisensing during spaceflight. Adv Space Res. 2003; 32(8):1585-93. PMID: 15002415.
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    34. Hughes-Fulford M. The role of signaling pathways in osteoblast gravity perception. J Gravit Physiol. 2002 Jul; 9(1):P257-60. PMID: 15002570.
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    35. Hughes-Fulford M. Physiological effects of microgravity on osteoblast morphology and cell biology. Adv Space Biol Med. 2002; 8:129-57. PMID: 12951695.
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    36. Hughes-Fulford M. Changes in gene expression and signal transduction in microgravity. J Gravit Physiol. 2001 Jul; 8(1):P1-4. PMID: 12638602.
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    37. Hughes-Fulford M, Chen Y, Tjandrawinata RR. Fatty acid regulates gene expression and growth of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Carcinogenesis. 2001 May; 22(5):701-7. PMID: 11323387.
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    38. Chen Y, Hughes-Fulford M. Human prostate cancer cells lack feedback regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and its regulator, SREBP2. Int J Cancer. 2001 Jan 01; 91(1):41-5. PMID: 11149418.
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    39. Chen Y, Hughes-Fulford M. Prostaglandin E2 and the protein kinase A pathway mediate arachidonic acid induction of c-fos in human prostate cancer cells. Br J Cancer. 2000 Jun; 82(12):2000-6. PMID: 10864209.
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    40. Lewis ML, Hughes-Fulford M. Regulation of heat shock protein message in Jurkat cells cultured under serum-starved and gravity-altered conditions. J Cell Biochem. 2000 Feb; 77(1):127-34. PMID: 10679823.
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    41. Fitzgerald J, Dietz TJ, Hughes-Fulford M. Prostaglandin E2-induced up-regulation of c-fos messenger ribonucleic acid is primarily mediated by 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Endocrinology. 2000 Jan; 141(1):291-8. PMID: 10614650.
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    42. Jamie Fitzgerald, Thomas J. Dietz, Millie Hughes-Fulford. Prostaglandin E2-Induced Up-Regulation of c-fos Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Is Primarily Mediated by 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate in MC3T3-E1 Osteoblasts1. Endocrinology. 2000 Jan 1; 141(1):291-298.
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    43. Lum DF, McQuaid KR, Gilbertson VL, Hughes-Fulford M. Coordinate up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and cyclo-oxygenase-2 gene expression in human colorectal cells and in colorectal adenocarcinoma biopsies. Int J Cancer. 1999 Oct 08; 83(2):162-6. PMID: 10471521.
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    44. Fitzgerald J, Hughes-Fulford M. Mechanically induced c-fos expression is mediated by cAMP in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. FASEB J. 1999 Mar; 13(3):553-7. PMID: 10064622.
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    45. Hughes-Fulford M, Gilbertson V. Osteoblast fibronectin mRNA, protein synthesis, and matrix are unchanged after exposure to microgravity. FASEB J. 1999; 13 Suppl:S121-7. PMID: 10352153.
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    46. Hughes-Fulford M, Tjandrawinata R, Fitzgerald J, Gasuad K, Gilbertson V. Effects of microgravity on osteoblast growth. Gravit Space Biol Bull. 1998 May; 11(2):51-60. PMID: 11540639.
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    47. Tjandrawinata RR, Vincent VL, Hughes-Fulford M. Vibrational force alters mRNA expression in osteoblasts. FASEB J. 1997 May; 11(6):493-7. PMID: 9194530.
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    48. Tjandrawinata RR, Dahiya R, Hughes-Fulford M. Induction of cyclo-oxygenase-2 mRNA by prostaglandin E2 in human prostatic carcinoma cells. Br J Cancer. 1997; 75(8):1111-8. PMID: 9099957.
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    49. Tjandrawinata RR, Hughes-Fulford M. Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 by product-prostaglandin E2. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 407:163-70. PMID: 9321948.
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    50. Hughes-Fulford M. Prostaglandin regulation of gene expression and growth in normal and malignant tissues. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 400A:269-78. PMID: 9547568.
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    51. Hughes-Fulford M, Boman B. Growth regulation of Gardner's syndrome colorectal cancer cells by NSAIDs. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997; 407:433-41. PMID: 9321987.
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    52. Fitzgerald J, Hughes-Fulford M. Gravitational loading of a simulated launch alters mRNA expression in osteoblasts. Exp Cell Res. 1996 Oct 10; 228(1):168-71. PMID: 8892985.
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    53. Hughes-Fulford M, Lewis ML. Effects of microgravity on osteoblast growth activation. Exp Cell Res. 1996 Apr 10; 224(1):103-9. PMID: 8612673.
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    54. Leong J, Hughes-Fulford M, Rakhlin N, Habib A, Maclouf J, Goldyne ME. Cyclooxygenases in human and mouse skin and cultured human keratinocytes: association of COX-2 expression with human keratinocyte differentiation. Exp Cell Res. 1996 Apr 10; 224(1):79-87. PMID: 8612694.
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    55. Hughes-Fulford M. Cell cycle arrest by prostaglandin A1 at the G1/S phase interface with up-regulation of oncogenes in S-49 cyc- cells. J Cell Biochem. 1994 Mar; 54(3):265-72. PMID: 8200906.
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    56. Lin HS, Hughes-Fulford M, Kumegawa M, Pitts AC, Snowdowne KW. Cytoplasmic pH influences cytoplasmic calcium in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. J Bone Miner Res. 1993 Jun; 8(6):725-32. PMID: 8328315.
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    57. Hughes-Fulford M. Review of the biological effects of weightlessness on the human endocrine system. Receptor. 1993; 3(3):145-54. PMID: 8167565.
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    58. Hughes-Fulford M, Fukushima M. Control of cell cycle by metabolites of prostaglandin D2 through a non-cAMP mediated mechanism. Life Sci Adv Exp Clin Endocrinol. 1993; 12:57-64. PMID: 11539936.
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    59. Millie Hughes-Fulford. Growth and Repair of Mineralized Osteoblasts. Spinal Instability. 1993 Jan 1; 3-19.
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    60. Hughes-Fulford M, Appel R, Kumegawa M, Schmidt J. Effect of dexamethasone on proliferating osteoblasts: inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis, DNA synthesis, and alterations in actin cytoskeleton. Exp Cell Res. 1992 Nov; 203(1):150-6. PMID: 1426038.
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    61. Hughes-Fulford M, McGrath MS, Hanks D, Erickson S, Pulliam L. Effects of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 on herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus replication. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992 Oct; 36(10):2253-8. PMID: 1332592.
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    62. Rossberg Walker K, Hughes-Fulford M, Schmidt G. KC-135 flights for life science activities. ASGSB Bull. 1992 Oct; 6(1):107-12. PMID: 11537651.
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    63. Millie Hughes-Fulford. Growth and Repair of Mineralized Osteoblasts. Clinical Spine Surgery. 1992 Mar 1; 5(1):137.
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    64. Hughes-Fulford M. Altered cell function in microgravity. Exp Gerontol. 1991; 26(2-3):247-56. PMID: 1915694.
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    65. Demeure MJ, Hughes-Fulford M, Goretzki PE, Duh QY, Clark OH. Actin architecture of cultured human thyroid cancer cells: predictor of differentiation? Surgery. 1990 Dec; 108(6):986-92; discussion 992-3. PMID: 2247845.
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    66. A. E. Siperstein, H. van Raavenswaay Claasen, R. Miller, M. M. Bhattathiry, M. Hughes-Fulford, O. H. Clark. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Growth-Responsive, Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Unresponsive Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma of Follicular Cell Origin1. Growth Regulation of Thyroid Gland and Thyroid Tumors. 1989 Oct 16; 18:81-87.
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    67. Hughes-Fulford M, Scheld HW. Thin film bioreactors in space. Adv Space Res. 1989; 9(11):111-7. PMID: 11537324.
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    68. Erickson SK, Cooper AD, Barnard GF, Havel CM, Watson JA, Feingold KR, Moser AH, Hughes-Fulford M, Siperstein MD. Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in a slow-growing hepatoma in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988 May 22; 960(2):131-8. PMID: 2835108.
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    69. M. Hughes-Fulford. The Mechanism of Prostaglandin Inhibition on the Cell Cycle. Prostaglandins in Cancer Research. 1987 Jan 1; 115-128.
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    70. Hughes-Fulford M, Feingold KR, Searle GL, Wu J, Siperstein MD, Schoenfeld PY, Kaysen G. Role of the kidneys in the metabolism of circulating mevalonate in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Jun; 62(6):1227-31. PMID: 3084536.
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    71. Feingold KR, Zsigmond G, Hughes-Fulford M, Lear SR, Moser AH. The effect of diabetes mellitus on the lymphatic transport of intestinal sterols. Metabolism. 1985 Dec; 34(12):1105-9. PMID: 4069009.
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    72. Williams ML, Hughes-Fulford M, Elias PM. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and sterol synthesis by cholesterol sulfate in cultured fibroblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985 Jun 30; 845(3):349-57. PMID: 3859337.
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    73. Hughes-Fulford M, Wu J, Kato T, Fukushima M. Inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell cycle by prostaglandins independent of cyclic AMP. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res. 1985; 15:401-4. PMID: 3004144.
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    74. Trentalance A, Leoni S, Mangiantini MT, Spagnuolo S, Feingold K, Hughes-Fulford M, Siperstein M, Cooper AD, Erickson SK. Regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol synthesis and esterification during the first cell cycle of liver regeneration. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1984 Jun 06; 794(1):142-51. PMID: 6733123.
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