Robert Gould, DSc

Title(s)Professor Emeritus, Radiology
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address505 Parnassus Avenue, #001
San Francisco CA 94117
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    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Radiological Society of North America 2003Third Vice President
    American Association of Physicists in Medicine2003Chairman of the Board
    American Association of Physicists in Medicine2002President
    American Association of Physicists in Medicine1999Fellow
    RadioGraphics 1998Editor's Certificate of Recognition

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    Robert Gould, DSc, is a Professor and Vice Chair of Radiology for Technology and Capital Projects at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Gould earned his BA in Chemistry from the College of Wooster in Wooster, Ohio. He completed his MS in Biomedical Engineering from the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and he received his ScD in Medical Physics from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was appointed to the faculty in the Department of Radiology at UCSF in 1977.

    Dr. Gould is also the Director of the Laboratory of Radiologic Informatics, which is responsible for the department’s Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). In this capacity, he has helped implement methods for recording of patient dose. He is currently involved in a Department project to install a Decision Support system that could potentially decrease patient radiation exposure by reducing unnecessary procedures and providing the referring clinician with alternative imaging methods that do not use ionizing radiation.

    He is a member of the Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging Operations Committee, Safety Committee and Radiation Oversight Committee. He is a member of UCSF Campus Radiation Safety Committee and Radioactive Drug Research Committee. Additionally, Dr. Gould is a member of the Medical Center Radiation Protection Committee. By serving on these Committees, he has been involved in radiation safety issues within the Department of Radiology, the Medical Center and the UCSF Campus. Dr. Gould has been involved in efforts to monitor and minimize radiation exposure to personnel involved in the use and delivery of radiation in clinical and research environments and in efforts to monitor and minimize exposure to patients undergoing an imaging procedure. These efforts have included the development of guidelines and standards for radiation use and quality improvement projects designed to reduce patient dose.

    Radiological Informatics

    Informatics, technology and capital projects

    Professional Interests:
    Medical physics, PACS, digital imaging, radiological informatics, digital mammography, CT, dual energy CT, x-ray detector technology

    Education and Training:
    • Bachelor of Art: College of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio - Chemistry
    • Masters of Science: University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia - Biomedical Engineering
    • Doctor of Science: Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts - Medical Physics

    Chairman of the Board, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, 2003
    Third Vice President, Radiological Society of North America, 2003
    President, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, 2002
    Fellow, American Association of Physicists in Medicine, 1999
    Editor's Certificate of Recognition, RadioGraphics, 1998
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Healthy Air, Healthy Brains: Advancing Air Pollution Policy to Protect Children's Health. Am J Public Health. 2019 04; 109(4):550-554. Payne-Sturges DC, Marty MA, Perera F, Miller MD, Swanson M, Ellickson K, Cory-Slechta DA, Ritz B, Balmes J, Anderko L, Talbott EO, Gould R, Hertz-Picciotto I. PMID: 30789769; PMCID: PMC6417586.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    2. International variation in radiation dose for computed tomography examinations: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2019 01 02; 364:k4931. Smith-Bindman R, Wang Y, Chu P, Chung R, Einstein AJ, Balcombe J, Cocker M, Das M, Delman BN, Flynn M, Gould R, Lee RK, Nelson TR, Schindera S, Seibert A, Starkey J, Suntharalingam S, Wetter A, Wildberger JE, Miglioretti DL. PMID: 30602590; PMCID: PMC6314083.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 43     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    3. Improved Calcium Scoring at Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Angiography Using a High-Z Contrast Element and Novel Material Separation Technique. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2018 May/Jun; 42(3):459-466. Lambert JW, Sun Y, Ordovas KG, Gould RG, Wang S, Yeh BM. PMID: 28937491; PMCID: PMC5860919.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    4. Axial or Helical? Considerations for wide collimation CT scanners capable of volumetric imaging in both modes. Med Phys. 2017 Nov; 44(11):5718-5725. Lambert JW, Phillips ED, Villanueva-Meyer JE, Nardo L, Facchetti L, Gould RG. PMID: 28833277.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    
    5. Optimizing Radiation Doses for Computed Tomography Across Institutions: Dose Auditing and Best Practices. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 06 01; 177(6):810-817. Demb J, Chu P, Nelson T, Hall D, Seibert A, Lamba R, Boone J, Krishnam M, Cagnon C, Bostani M, Gould R, Miglioretti D, Smith-Bindman R. PMID: 28395000; PMCID: PMC5818828.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    6. Radiation Dose Reduction during Uterine Fibroid Embolization Using an Optimized Imaging Platform. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2017 Aug; 28(8):1129-1135.e1. Kohlbrenner R, Kolli KP, Taylor AG, Kohi MP, Lehrman ED, Fidelman N, Conrad M, LaBerge JM, Kerlan RK, Gould R. PMID: 28457758.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. An Image-Domain Contrast Material Extraction Method for Dual-Energy Computed Tomography. Invest Radiol. 2017 04; 52(4):245-254. Lambert JW, Sun Y, Gould RG, Ohliger MA, Li Z, Yeh BM. PMID: 27875338; PMCID: PMC5339044.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    8. Reduction of peristalsis-related gastrointestinal streak artifacts with dual-energy CT: a patient and phantom study. Abdom Radiol (NY). 2016 08; 41(8):1456-65. Winklhofer S, Lambert JW, Wang ZJ, Sun Y, Gould RG, Zagoria RJ, Yeh BM. PMID: 26987848; PMCID: PMC4974136.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. Predictors of CT Radiation Dose and Their Effect on Patient Care: A Comprehensive Analysis Using Automated Data. Radiology. 2017 Jan; 282(1):182-193. Smith-Bindman R, Wang Y, Nelson TR, Moghadassi M, Wilson N, Gould R, Seibert A, Boone JM, Krishnam M, Lamba R, Hall DJ, Miglioretti DL. PMID: 27438166; PMCID: PMC5207127.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Evaluation of a Net Dose-Reducing Organ-Based Tube Current Modulation Technique: Comparison With Standard Dose and Bismuth-Shielded Acquisitions. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2016 Jun; 206(6):1233-40. Lambert JW, Gould RG. PMID: 27058461.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    11. How Much Does Lead Shielding during Fluoroscopy Reduce Radiation Dose to Out-of-Field Body Parts? J Med Imaging Radiat Sci. 2016 Jun; 47(2):171-177. Phelps AS, Gould RG, Courtier JL, Marcovici PA, Salani C, MacKenzie JD. PMID: 31047181.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    12. Image quality and dose optimisation for infant CT using a paediatric phantom. Eur Radiol. 2016 May; 26(5):1387-95. Lambert JW, Phelps AS, Courtier JL, Gould RG, MacKenzie JD. PMID: 26304803.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Patient Radiation Dose Reduction during Transarterial Chemoembolization Using a Novel X-Ray Imaging Platform. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2015 Sep; 26(9):1331-8. Kohlbrenner R, Kolli KP, Taylor AG, Kohi MP, Fidelman N, LaBerge JM, Kerlan RK, Agarwal VK, Lehrman ED, Nanavati S, Avrin DE, Gould R. PMID: 26212556.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Radiation Doses in Consecutive CT Examinations from Five University of California Medical Centers. Radiology. 2015 Oct; 277(1):134-41. Smith-Bindman R, Moghadassi M, Wilson N, Nelson TR, Boone JM, Cagnon CH, Gould R, Hall DJ, Krishnam M, Lamba R, McNitt-Gray M, Seibert A, Miglioretti DL. PMID: 25988262; PMCID: PMC4613871.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. Techniques and tactics for optimizing CT dose in adults and children: state of the art and future advances. J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 Mar; 11(3):262-6. Lambert J, MacKenzie JD, Cody DD, Gould R. PMID: 24589401.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. Radiation dose metrics in CT: assessing dose using the National Quality Forum CT patient safety measure. J Am Coll Radiol. 2014 Mar; 11(3):309-15. Keegan J, Miglioretti DL, Gould R, Donnelly LF, Wilson ND, Smith-Bindman R. PMID: 24589407.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    
    17. Radiation dose reduction in intra-arterial chemotherapy infusion for intraocular retinoblastoma. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Dec; 6(10):785-9. Cooke DL, Stout CE, Kim WT, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Gould RG. PMID: 24385553.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Myocardial blood flow measurement with a conventional dual-head SPECT/CT with spatiotemporal iterative reconstructions - a clinical feasibility study. Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2013; 4(1):53-9. Alhassen F, Nguyen N, Bains S, Gould RG, Seo Y, Bacharach SL, Song X, Shao L, Gullberg GT, Aparici CM. PMID: 24380045; PMCID: PMC3867729.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8  
    19. Template-driven computed tomography radiation dose reporting: implementation of a radiology housestaff quality improvement project. Acad Radiol. 2013 Jun; 20(6):769-72. Yu JP, Kansagra AP, Naeger DM, Gould RG, Coakley FV. PMID: 23664402.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    20. Point/counterpoint.The use of bismuth breast shields for CT should be discouraged. Med Phys. 2012 May; 39(5):2321-4. McCollough CH, Wang J, Gould RG, Orton CG. PMID: 22559601.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Temperature dependent operation of PSAPD-based compact gamma camera for SPECT imaging. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2011 Oct 10; 58(5):2169-2174. Kim S, McClish M, Alhassen F, Seo Y, Shah KS, Gould RG. PMID: 24465051; PMCID: PMC3898791.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    22. Depth-of-Interaction Compensation Using a Focused-Cut Scintillator for a Pinhole Gamma Camera. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2011 Jun 01; 58(3):634-638. Alhassen F, Kudrolli H, Singh B, Kim S, Seo Y, Gould RG, Nagarkar VV. PMID: 21731108; PMCID: PMC3126617.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    23. Positive enteric contrast material for abdominal and pelvic CT with automatic exposure control: what is the effect on patient radiation exposure? Eur J Radiol. 2011 Aug; 79(2):e58-62. Wang ZJ, Chen KS, Gould R, Coakley FV, Fu Y, Yeh BM. PMID: 21493028; PMCID: PMC4117209.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. CT radiation dose: what can you do right now in your practice? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011 Mar; 196(3):619-25. Coakley FV, Gould R, Yeh BM, Arenson RL. PMID: 21343506.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Multi-Material Decomposition using Low-Current X-Ray and a Photon-Counting CZT Detector. IEEE Nucl Sci Symp Conf Rec (1997). 2011; 4735-4738. Kim S, Hernandez A, Alhassen F, Pivovaroff M, Cho HM, Gould RG, Seo Y. PMID: 23503709; PMCID: PMC3598635.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    26. Phantom experiments on a PSAPD-based compact gamma camera with submillimeter spatial resolution for small animal SPECT. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2010 Oct; 57(5):2518-2523. Kim S, McClish M, Alhassen F, Seo Y, Shah KS, Gould RG. PMID: 21278833; PMCID: PMC3026481.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2  
    27. Radiation dose associated with common computed tomography examinations and the associated lifetime attributable risk of cancer. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Dec 14; 169(22):2078-86. Smith-Bindman R, Lipson J, Marcus R, Kim KP, Mahesh M, Gould R, Berrington de González A, Miglioretti DL. PMID: 20008690; PMCID: PMC4635397.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 661     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Law of Large Numbers: the Theory, Applications and Technology-based Education. J Stat Educ. 2009 Mar; 17(1):1-19. Dinov ID, Christou N, Gould R. PMID: 21603584; PMCID: PMC3095954.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4  
    29. Computed tomographic metal artifact reduction for the detection and quantitation of small features near large metallic implants: a comparison of published methods. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2008 Jul-Aug; 32(4):621-9. Rinkel J, Dillon WP, Funk T, Gould R, Prevrhal S. PMID: 18664852.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    
    30. Radiation dose reduction strategy for CT protocols: successful implementation in neuroradiology section. Radiology. 2008 May; 247(2):499-506. Smith AB, Dillon WP, Lau BC, Gould R, Verdun FR, Lopez EB, Wintermark M. PMID: 18372456.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. Physiology of renal medullary tip hyperattenuation at unenhanced CT: urinary specific gravity and the NaCl concentration gradient. Radiology. 2008 Apr; 247(1):147-53. Hsu CT, Wang ZJ, Yu AS, Gould RG, Fu Y, Joe BN, Qayyum A, Breiman RS, Coakley FV, Yeh BM. PMID: 18305187.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    32. Gallstone detection at CT in vitro: effect of peak voltage setting. Radiology. 2006 Nov; 241(2):546-53. Chan WC, Joe BN, Coakley FV, Prien EL, Gould RG, Prevrhal S, Barber WC, Kirkwood KS, Qayyum A, Yeh BM. PMID: 17057073.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. Alcohol use, comorbidity, and mortality. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006 May; 54(5):757-62. Moore AA, Giuli L, Gould R, Hu P, Zhou K, Reuben D, Greendale G, Karlamangla A. PMID: 16696740.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 52     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of alcohol consumption in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2005 Mar; 95(3):458-65. Moore AA, Gould R, Reuben DB, Greendale GA, Carter MK, Zhou K, Karlamangla A. PMID: 15727977; PMCID: PMC1449202.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 108     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    35. Symptoms of depression and anxiety (MHI) following acute medical/surgical hospitalization and post-discharge psychiatric diagnoses (DSM) in 839 geriatric US veterans. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004 Dec; 19(12):1155-67. Gerson S, Mistry R, Bastani R, Blow F, Gould R, Llorente M, Maxwell A, Moye J, Olsen E, Rohrbaugh R, Rosansky J, Van Stone W, Jarvik L. PMID: 15526306.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    36. Measuring medical burden using CIRS in older veterans enrolled in UPBEAT, a psychogeriatric treatment program: a pilot study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004 Oct; 59(10):1068-75. Mistry R, Gokhman I, Bastani R, Gould R, Jimenez E, Maxwell A, McDermott C, Rosansky J, Van Stone W, Jarvik L, UPBEAT Collaborative Group. PMID: 15528780.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Workflow assessment of digital versus computed radiography and screen-film in the outpatient environment. J Digit Imaging. 2002; 15 Suppl 1:124-6. Andriole KP, Luth DM, Gould RG. PMID: 12105711.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Focal liver lesions: characterization with nonenhanced and dynamic contrast material-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 1994 Feb; 190(2):417-23. Hamm B, Thoeni RF, Gould RG, Bernardino ME, Lüning M, Saini S, Mahfouz AE, Taupitz M, Wolf KJ. PMID: 8284392.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    39. [Cine-CT: a new procedure in x-ray computed tomography]. Rontgenpraxis. 1988 Jun; 41(6):205-11. Jaschke W, Lipton MJ, Gould RG, Georgi M. PMID: 3388143.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    40. Measurement of right and left ventricular volumes in healthy individuals with cine MR imaging. Radiology. 1987 Jun; 163(3):697-702. Sechtem U, Pflugfelder PW, Gould RG, Cassidy MM, Higgins CB. PMID: 3575717.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 74     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. High-resolution CT of the lungs: an optimal approach. Radiology. 1987 May; 163(2):507-10. Mayo JR, Webb WR, Gould R, Stein MG, Bass I, Gamsu G, Goldberg HI. PMID: 3562834.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    42. Measurement of renal blood flow by cine computed tomography. Kidney Int. 1987 Apr; 31(4):1038-42. Jaschke W, Cogan MG, Sievers R, Gould R, Lipton MJ. PMID: 3586494.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    43. Flow measurements with a high-speed computed tomography scanner. Med Phys. 1987 Mar-Apr; 14(2):238-43. Jaschke W, Gould RG, Assimakopoulos PA, Lipton MJ. PMID: 3587146.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. Cine MR imaging: potential for the evaluation of cardiovascular function. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987 Feb; 148(2):239-46. Sechtem U, Pflugfelder PW, White RD, Gould RG, Holt W, Lipton MJ, Higgins CB. PMID: 3492096.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Quantitation of regional myocardial function by cine computed tomography: pharmacologic changes in wall thickness. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986 Sep; 8(3):682-92. Lanzer P, Garrett J, Lipton MJ, Gould R, Sievers R, O'Connell W, Botvinick E, Higgins CB. PMID: 3745717.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    46. Cine-CT of the temporomandibular joint. Cranio. 1986 Jul; 4(3):246-50. Helms CA, Gillespy T, Gould RG, Ware WH. PMID: 3460712.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. High-speed (cine) computed tomography of the heart. Cardiovasc Clin. 1986; 17(1):345-56. Farmer D, Lipton MJ, Gould R, Higgins CB. PMID: 3768924.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    48. Feasibility, reliability, and advantage of utilizing low contrast dose digital subtraction ventriculography in a conventional catheterization laboratory. Am Heart J. 1985 Sep; 110(3):631-6. Denardo SJ, Anderson DJ, Gould RG, Lipton MJ, Brundage BH, Ports TA. PMID: 3898796.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. Optimal iodine concentration in digital subtraction arteriography. Invest Radiol. 1984 Nov-Dec; 19(6 Suppl):S368-70. Norman D, Brant-Zawadzki M, Gould RG, Newton TH. PMID: 6392167.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    50. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant. Radiology. 1982 Mar; 142(3):649-55. Brasch RC, Gould RG. PMID: 7063679.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    51. In vivo demonstration of small intestinal villi in dogs and monkeys using radiographic magnification. Radiology. 1982 Jan; 142(1):53-8. Goldberg HI, Gould R, Rosenquist J, Royal S, Owen RL, Silverman S. PMID: 7053547.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Follow-up of Wilms tumor: comparison of CT with other imaging procedures. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1981 Nov; 137(5):1005-9. Brasch RC, Randel SB, Gould RG. PMID: 6270992.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    53. Quantitative and qualitative comparison of two microfocus-tube imaging systems. Radiology. 1981 Jan; 138(1):195-201. Gould RG, Genant HK. PMID: 7455083.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    54. Objective performance measurements versus perceived image quality in intensified fluoroscopic or photospot images. Radiology. 1980 Dec; 137(3):783-8. Gould RG, Belanger B, Goldberg HI, Moss A. PMID: 7444062.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    55. The fork-lift infant elevator for neonatal magnification radiography. Radiology. 1980 Jul; 136(1):232-3. Brasch RC, Gould RG. PMID: 7384506.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    56. Noise characteristics of a microchannel plate x-ray image intensifier. Med Phys. 1978 Mar-Apr; 5(2):115-9. Gould RG, Judy PF, Bjärngard BE. PMID: 683149.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    57. Image resolution of a microchannel plate x-ray image intensifier. Med Phys. 1978 Jan-Feb; 5(1):27-30. Gould RG. PMID: 634230.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    58. A comparison of fluoroscopically controlled patient positioning and conventional positioning, including comparative dosimetry. Radiology. 1977 Jul; 124(1):231-4. Leeming BW, Hames OS, Gould RG, Locke E. PMID: 866644.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
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