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Robert Raffai, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Surgery
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Phone415-221-4810 ext. 22541
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    McGill University, Montreal, QCB.S.05/1990Biochemistry
    University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ONPh.D05/1998Biochemistry

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    The focus of our laboratory rests with exploring the influence of metabolic stress on accelerated atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease. Specifically, our interest is in how a protein called apolipoprotein E controls hematopoiesis through microRNA regulation to suppress atherosclerosis beyond its ability to lower plasma lipid levels.

    A second interest of our laboratory explores how diabetic hyperglycemia contributes to differential microRNA biogenesis in mature immune cells and their progenitors. Specifically, we examine how this impacts on the release of these microRNAs into extracellular vesicles including exosomes to impact systemic and vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis.

    Our goal is to develop engineered exosomes with defined microRNA cargo as new nanobiological effectors to control inflammation and atherosclerosis.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    P.R.I.S.M: Purification of exRNA by Immuno-capture and Sorting using Microfluidic
    NIH/NCI UG3CA241703Sep 1, 2019 - Aug 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Exosomes in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Atherosclerosis & its Treatment Opportunities
    VA I01BX003928Jul 1, 2019 - Jul 1, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Exosomes in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Atherosclerosis & its Treatment Opportunities
    VA I01BX003928Jul 1, 2019 - Jun 30, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Immune Modulation and Cardiac Remodeling
    VA I01BX002994Oct 1, 2016 - Sep 30, 2020
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Hyperglycemia and MicroRNA Dysregulation of Inflammation in Atherosclerosis
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL133575Jun 1, 2016 - Mar 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Hyperglycemia Dysregulation of MicroRNA in Myeloid Cells: Impact on Atherosclerosis Regression
    American Heart Association 16GRNT27640007Jan 1, 2016 - Dec 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    In Vivo Regulated Release and Function of Extracellular Small RNAs
    NIH/NCI U19CA179512Sep 1, 2013 - Aug 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Does Diabetic Hyperglycemia Regulate Atherosclerosis Progression and Regression?
    VA I01BX000532Oct 1, 2009 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of apolipoprotein E4 in the progression and regression of atherosclerosis
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL089871Sep 26, 2007 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Duong P, Chung A, Bouchareychas L, Raffai RL. Cushioned-Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation (C-DGUC) improves the isolation efficiency of extracellular vesicles. PLoS One. 2019; 14(4):e0215324. PMID: 30973950.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Adeosun SO, Hou X, Shi L, Stockmeier CA, Zheng B, Raffai RL, Weisgraber KH, Mosley TH, Wang JM. Female mice with apolipoprotein E4 domain interaction demonstrated impairments in spatial learning and memory performance and disruption of hippocampal cyto-architecture. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2019 05; 161:106-114. PMID: 30954674.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Murillo OD, Thistlethwaite W, Rozowsky J, Subramanian SL, Lucero R, Shah N, Jackson AR, Srinivasan S, Chung A, Laurent CD, Kitchen RR, Galeev T, Warrell J, Diao JA, Welsh JA, Hanspers K, Riutta A, Burgstaller-Muehlbacher S, Shah RV, Yeri A, Jenkins LM, Ahsen ME, Cordon-Cardo C, Dogra N, Gifford SM, Smith JT, Stolovitzky G, Tewari AK, Wunsch BH, Yadav KK, Danielson KM, Filant J, Moeller C, Nejad P, Paul A, Simonson B, Wong DK, Zhang X, Balaj L, Gandhi R, Sood AK, Alexander RP, Wang L, Wu C, Wong DTW, Galas DJ, Van Keuren-Jensen K, Patel T, Jones JC, Das S, Cheung KH, Pico AR, Su AI, Raffai RL, Laurent LC, Roth ME, Gerstein MB, Milosavljevic A. exRNA Atlas Analysis Reveals Distinct Extracellular RNA Cargo Types and Their Carriers Present across Human Biofluids. Cell. 2019 Apr 04; 177(2):463-477.e15. PMID: 30951672.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Srinivasan S, Yeri A, Cheah PS, Chung A, Danielson K, De Hoff P, Filant J, Laurent CD, Laurent LD, Magee R, Moeller C, Murthy VL, Nejad P, Paul A, Rigoutsos I, Rodosthenous R, Shah RV, Simonson B, To C, Wong D, Yan IK, Zhang X, Balaj L, Breakefield XO, Daaboul G, Gandhi R, Lapidus J, Londin E, Patel T, Raffai RL, Sood AK, Alexander RP, Das S, Laurent LC. Small RNA Sequencing across Diverse Biofluids Identifies Optimal Methods for exRNA Isolation. Cell. 2019 Apr 04; 177(2):446-462.e16. PMID: 30951671.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Das S, Ansel KM, Bitzer M, Breakefield XO, Charest A, Galas DJ, Gerstein MB, Gupta M, Milosavljevic A, McManus MT, Patel T, Raffai RL, Rozowsky J, Roth ME, Saugstad JA, Van Keuren-Jensen K, Weaver AM, Laurent LC. The Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium: Establishing Foundational Knowledge and Technologies for Extracellular RNA Research. Cell. 2019 Apr 04; 177(2):231-242. PMID: 30951667.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Théry C, Witwer KW, Aikawa E, Alcaraz MJ, Anderson JD, Andriantsitohaina R, Antoniou A, Arab T, Archer F, Atkin-Smith GK, Ayre DC, Bach JM, Bachurski D, Baharvand H, Balaj L, Baldacchino S, Bauer NN, Baxter AA, Bebawy M, Beckham C, Bedina Zavec A, Benmoussa A, Berardi AC, Bergese P, Bielska E, Blenkiron C, Bobis-Wozowicz S, Boilard E, Boireau W, Bongiovanni A, Borràs FE, Bosch S, Boulanger CM, Breakefield X, Breglio AM, Brennan MÁ, Brigstock DR, Brisson A, Broekman ML, Bromberg JF, Bryl-Górecka P, Buch S, Buck AH, Burger D, Busatto S, Buschmann D, Bussolati B, Buzás EI, Byrd JB, Camussi G, Carter DR, Caruso S, Chamley LW, Chang YT, Chen C, Chen S, Cheng L, Chin AR, Clayton A, Clerici SP, Cocks A, Cocucci E, Coffey RJ, Cordeiro-da-Silva A, Couch Y, Coumans FA, Coyle B, Crescitelli R, Criado MF, D'Souza-Schorey C, Das S, Datta Chaudhuri A, de Candia P, De Santana EF, De Wever O, Del Portillo HA, Demaret T, Deville S, Devitt A, Dhondt B, Di Vizio D, Dieterich LC, Dolo V, Dominguez Rubio AP, Dominici M, Dourado MR, Driedonks TA, Duarte FV, Duncan HM, Eichenberger RM, Ekström K, El Andaloussi S, Elie-Caille C, Erdbrügger U, Falcón-Pérez JM, Fatima F, Fish JE, Flores-Bellver M, Försönits A, Frelet-Barrand A, Fricke F, Fuhrmann G, Gabrielsson S, Gámez-Valero A, Gardiner C, Gärtner K, Gaudin R, Gho YS, Giebel B, Gilbert C, Gimona M, Giusti I, Goberdhan DC, Görgens A, Gorski SM, Greening DW, Gross JC, Gualerzi A, Gupta GN, Gustafson D, Handberg A, Haraszti RA, Harrison P, Hegyesi H, Hendrix A, Hill AF, Hochberg FH, Hoffmann KF, Holder B, Holthofer H, Hosseinkhani B, Hu G, Huang Y, Huber V, Hunt S, Ibrahim AG, Ikezu T, Inal JM, Isin M, Ivanova A, Jackson HK, Jacobsen S, Jay SM, Jayachandran M, Jenster G, Jiang L, Johnson SM, Jones JC, Jong A, Jovanovic-Talisman T, Jung S, Kalluri R, Kano SI, Kaur S, Kawamura Y, Keller ET, Khamari D, Khomyakova E, Khvorova A, Kierulf P, Kim KP, Kislinger T, Klingeborn M, Klinke DJ, Kornek M, Kosanovic MM, Kovács ÁF, Krämer-Albers EM, Krasemann S, Krause M, Kurochkin IV, Kusuma GD, Kuypers S, Laitinen S, Langevin SM, Languino LR, Lannigan J, Lässer C, Laurent LC, Lavieu G, Lázaro-Ibáñez E, Le Lay S, Lee MS, Lee YXF, Lemos DS, Lenassi M, Leszczynska A, Li IT, Liao K, Libregts SF, Ligeti E, Lim R, Lim SK, Line A, Linnemannstöns K, Llorente A, Lombard CA, Lorenowicz MJ, Lörincz ÁM, Lötvall J, Lovett J, Lowry MC, Loyer X, Lu Q, Lukomska B, Lunavat TR, Maas SL, Malhi H, Marcilla A, Mariani J, Mariscal J, Martens-Uzunova ES, Martin-Jaular L, Martinez MC, Martins VR, Mathieu M, Mathivanan S, Maugeri M, McGinnis LK, McVey MJ, Meckes DG, Meehan KL, Mertens I, Minciacchi VR, Möller A, Møller Jørgensen M, Morales-Kastresana A, Morhayim J, Mullier F, Muraca M, Musante L, Mussack V, Muth DC, Myburgh KH, Najrana T, Nawaz M, Nazarenko I, Nejsum P, Neri C, Neri T, Nieuwland R, Nimrichter L, Nolan JP, Nolte-'t Hoen EN, Noren Hooten N, O'Driscoll L, O'Grady T, O'Loghlen A, Ochiya T, Olivier M, Ortiz A, Ortiz LA, Osteikoetxea X, Østergaard O, Ostrowski M, Park J, Pegtel DM, Peinado H, Perut F, Pfaffl MW, Phinney DG, Pieters BC, Pink RC, Pisetsky DS, Pogge von Strandmann E, Polakovicova I, Poon IK, Powell BH, Prada I, Pulliam L, Quesenberry P, Radeghieri A, Raffai RL, Raimondo S, Rak J, Ramirez MI, Raposo G, Rayyan MS, Regev-Rudzki N, Ricklefs FL, Robbins PD, Roberts DD, Rodrigues SC, Rohde E, Rome S, Rouschop KM, Rughetti A, Russell AE, Saá P, Sahoo S, Salas-Huenuleo E, Sánchez C, Saugstad JA, Saul MJ, Schiffelers RM, Schneider R, Schøyen TH, Scott A, Shahaj E, Sharma S, Shatnyeva O, Shekari F, Shelke GV, Shetty AK, Shiba K, Siljander PR, Silva AM, Skowronek A, Snyder OL, Soares RP, Sódar BW, Soekmadji C, Sotillo J, Stahl PD, Stoorvogel W, Stott SL, Strasser EF, Swift S, Tahara H, Tewari M, Timms K, Tiwari S, Tixeira R, Tkach M, Toh WS, Tomasini R, Torrecilhas AC, Tosar JP, Toxavidis V, Urbanelli L, Vader P, van Balkom BW, van der Grein SG, Van Deun J, van Herwijnen MJ, Van Keuren-Jensen K, van Niel G, et al. Minimal information for studies of extracellular vesicles 2018 (MISEV2018): a position statement of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles and update of the MISEV2014 guidelines. J Extracell Vesicles. 2018; 7(1):1535750. PMID: 30637094.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Raffai RL. MicroRNA-146a & hematopoiesis: friend or foe in atherosclerosis. Noncoding RNA Investig. 2018 Jul; 2. PMID: 30101215.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Bouchareychas L, Raffai RL. Apolipoprotein E and Atherosclerosis: From Lipoprotein Metabolism to MicroRNA Control of Inflammation. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2018 May 23; 5(2). PMID: 29789495.
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    9. Thomas A Sorrentino, Phat Duong, Laura Bouchareychas, Brian E Sansbury, Pete Mitchell, Mian Chen, Allen Chung, Melinda S Schaller, Matthew Spite, Robert L Raffai, Michael S Conte. Abstract 262: Circulating Exosomes from PAD Patients Modulate Vascular Repair and Inflammation. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. 2018 May 1; 38(Suppl_1).
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    10. Phat Duong, Allen Chung, David K Wong, Kang Li, King Y Hong, Laura Bouchareychas, Robert L Raffai. Abstract 443: Cushioned-Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation (C-DGUC) Improves the Isolation Efficiency of Exosomes for their use in Atherosclerosis Research. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. 2018 May 1; 38(Suppl_1).
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    11. Laura Bouchareychas, Ryo Yamamoto, Fu Sang Luk, Roy Y Kim, David Wong, Jonathan Villeneuva, Phat Duong, Allen Chung, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Robert Raffai. Abstract 408: ApoE Regulation of Hematopoiesis Suppresses Atherosclerosis by Reducing Adaptive Immunity in Hyperlipidemic Mice. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. 2018 May 1; 38(Suppl_1).
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    12. Laura Bouchareychas, Allen Chung, David K Wong, Phat Duong, Robert L Raffai. Abstract 184: Hyperglycemia Enhances Pro-inflammatory Properties of Macrophage-derived Exosomes to Drive Hematopoiesis in Apolipoprotein E-deficient Mouse. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. 2018 May 1; 38(Suppl_1).
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    13. Li K, Rodosthenous RS, Kashanchi F, Gingeras T, Gould SJ, Kuo LS, Kurre P, Lee H, Leonard JN, Liu H, Lombo TB, Momma S, Nolan JP, Ochocinska MJ, Pegtel DM, Sadovsky Y, Sánchez-Madrid F, Valdes KM, Vickers KC, Weaver AM, Witwer KW, Zeng Y, Das S, Raffai RL, Howcroft TK. Advances, challenges, and opportunities in extracellular RNA biology: insights from the NIH exRNA Strategic Workshop. JCI Insight. 2018 04 05; 3(7). PMID: 29618663.
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    14. Li K, Wong DK, Hong KY, Raffai RL. Cushioned-Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation (C-DGUC): A Refined and High Performance Method for the Isolation, Characterization, and Use of Exosomes. Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1740:69-83. PMID: 29388137.
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    15. Li K, Wong DK, Luk FS, Kim RY, Raffai RL. Isolation of Plasma Lipoproteins as a Source of Extracellular RNA. Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1740:139-153. PMID: 29388141.
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    16. Robert Raffai, Kang Li, David Wong, Justin Hong. Therapeutic control of systemic inflammation & atherosclerosis with ApoE-polarized macrophage exosomes. Atherosclerosis. 2017 Aug 1; 263:e5-e6.
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    17. Baligand C, Qin H, True-Yasaki A, Gordon JW, von Morze C, Santos JD, Wilson DM, Raffai R, Cowley PM, Baker AJ, Kurhanewicz J, Lovett DH, Wang ZJ. Hyperpolarized 13 C magnetic resonance evaluation of renal ischemia reperfusion injury in a murine model. NMR Biomed. 2017 Oct; 30(10). PMID: 28708304.
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    18. Ceron CS, Baligand C, Joshi S, Wanga S, Cowley PM, Walker JP, Song SH, Mahimkar R, Baker AJ, Raffai RL, Wang ZJ, Lovett DH. An intracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 isoform induces tubular regulated necrosis: implications for acute kidney injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017 06 01; 312(6):F1166-F1183. PMID: 28331061.
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    19. Cheung KH, Keerthikumar S, Roncaglia P, Subramanian SL, Roth ME, Samuel M, Anand S, Gangoda L, Gould S, Alexander R, Galas D, Gerstein MB, Hill AF, Kitchen RR, Lötvall J, Patel T, Procaccini DC, Quesenberry P, Rozowsky J, Raffai RL, Shypitsyna A, Su AI, Théry C, Vickers K, Wauben MH, Mathivanan S, Milosavljevic A, Laurent LC. Extending gene ontology in the context of extracellular RNA and vesicle communication. J Biomed Semantics. 2016; 7:19. PMID: 27076901.
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    20. Tie G, Yan J, Messina JA, Raffai RL, Messina LM. Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Enhances the Apoptosis Induced by Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein in Endothelial Progenitor Cells. J Vasc Res. 2015; 52(6):361-71. PMID: 27031525.
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    21. Luk FS, Kim RY, Li K, Ching D, Wong DK, Joshi SK, Imhof I, Honbo N, Hoover H, Zhu BQ, Lovett DH, Karliner JS, Raffai RL. Immunosuppression With FTY720 Reverses Cardiac Dysfunction in Hypomorphic ApoE Mice Deficient in SR-BI Expression That Survive Myocardial Infarction Caused by Coronary Atherosclerosis. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2016 Jan; 67(1):47-56. PMID: 26322923.
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    22. Patton JG, Franklin JL, Weaver AM, Vickers K, Zhang B, Coffey RJ, Ansel KM, Blelloch R, Goga A, Huang B, L'Etoille N, Raffai RL, Lai CP, Krichevsky AM, Mateescu B, Greiner VJ, Hunter C, Voinnet O, McManus MT. Biogenesis, delivery, and function of extracellular RNA. J Extracell Vesicles. 2015; 4:27494. PMID: 26320939.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Laurent LC, Abdel-Mageed AB, Adelson PD, Arango J, Balaj L, Breakefield X, Carlson E, Carter BS, Majem B, Chen CC, Cocucci E, Danielson K, Courtright A, Das S, Abd Elmageed ZY, Enderle D, Ezrin A, Ferrer M, Freedman J, Galas D, Gandhi R, Huentelman MJ, Van Keuren-Jensen K, Kalani Y, Kim Y, Krichevsky AM, Lai C, Lal-Nag M, Laurent CD, Leonardo T, Li F, Malenica I, Mondal D, Nejad P, Patel T, Raffai RL, Rubio R, Skog J, Spetzler R, Sun J, Tanriverdi K, Vickers K, Wang L, Wang Y, Wei Z, Weiner HL, Wong D, Yan IK, Yeri A, Gould S. Meeting report: discussions and preliminary findings on extracellular RNA measurement methods from laboratories in the NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium. J Extracell Vesicles. 2015; 4:26533. PMID: 26320937.
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    24. Samuel O. Adeosun, Xu Hou, Xueying Zhao, Craig Stockmeier, Tom Mosley, Baoying Zheng, Robert Raffai, Qinli Zhang, Karl H. Weisgraber, Jun Ming Wang. Apolipoprotein e e4 domain interaction in size of hippocampal subregions, density of newborn neurons, and cognitive behaviors. Alzheimer's & Dementia. 2015 Jul 1; 11(7):p491-p492.
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    25. Li K, Ching D, Luk FS, Raffai RL. Apolipoprotein E enhances microRNA-146a in monocytes and macrophages to suppress nuclear factor-?B-driven inflammation and atherosclerosis. Circ Res. 2015 Jun 19; 117(1):e1-e11. PMID: 25904598.
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    26. Robert L. Raffai. Apolipoprotein E and Atherosclerosis: Beyond Lipid Effects. Apolipoprotein Mimetics in the Management of Human Disease. 2015 Jan 1; 119-134.
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    27. Mattis AN, Song G, Hitchner K, Kim RY, Lee AY, Sharma AD, Malato Y, McManus MT, Esau CC, Koller E, Koliwad S, Lim LP, Maher JJ, Raffai RL, Willenbring H. A screen in mice uncovers repression of lipoprotein lipase by microRNA-29a as a mechanism for lipid distribution away from the liver. Hepatology. 2015 Jan; 61(1):141-52. PMID: 25131933.
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    28. Wang G, Kim RY, Imhof I, Honbo N, Luk FS, Li K, Kumar N, Zhu BQ, Eberlé D, Ching D, Karliner JS, Raffai RL. The immunosuppressant FTY720 prolongs survival in a mouse model of diet-induced coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2014 Feb; 63(2):132-143. PMID: 24508946.
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    29. Gaudreault N, Kumar N, Olivas VR, Eberlé D, Stephens K, Raffai RL. Hyperglycemia impairs atherosclerosis regression in mice. Am J Pathol. 2013 Dec; 183(6):1981-1992. PMID: 24113453.
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    30. Lovett DH, Mahimkar R, Raffai RL, Cape L, Zhu BQ, Jin ZQ, Baker AJ, Karliner JS. N-terminal truncated intracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, inflammation and systolic heart failure. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68154. PMID: 23874529.
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    31. Eberlé D, Luk FS, Kim RY, Olivas VR, Kumar N, Posada JM, Li K, Gaudreault N, Rapp JH, Raffai RL. Inducible ApoE gene repair in hypomorphic ApoE mice deficient in the low-density lipoprotein receptor promotes atheroma stabilization with a human-like lipoprotein profile. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013 Aug; 33(8):1759-67. PMID: 23788760.
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    32. Raffai RL. Apolipoprotein E regulation of myeloid cell plasticity in atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2012 Oct; 23(5):471-8. PMID: 22892903.
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    33. Gaudreault N, Kumar N, Olivas VR, Eberlé D, Rapp JH, Raffai RL. Macrophage-specific apoE gene repair reduces diet-induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in hypomorphic Apoe mice. PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e35816. PMID: 22606237.
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    34. Lovett DH, Mahimkar R, Raffai RL, Cape L, Maklashina E, Cecchini G, Karliner JS. A novel intracellular isoform of matrix metalloproteinase-2 induced by oxidative stress activates innate immunity. PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e34177. PMID: 22509276.
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    35. Eberlé D, Kim RY, Luk FS, de Mochel NS, Gaudreault N, Olivas VR, Kumar N, Posada JM, Birkeland AC, Rapp JH, Raffai RL. Apolipoprotein E4 domain interaction accelerates diet-induced atherosclerosis in hypomorphic Arg-61 apoe mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012 May; 32(5):1116-23. PMID: 22441102.
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    36. Gaudreault N, Kumar N, Posada JM, Stephens KB, Reyes de Mochel NS, Eberlé D, Olivas VR, Kim RY, Harms MJ, Johnson S, Messina LM, Rapp JH, Raffai RL. ApoE suppresses atherosclerosis by reducing lipid accumulation in circulating monocytes and the expression of inflammatory molecules on monocytes and vascular endothelium. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012 Feb; 32(2):264-72. PMID: 22053073.
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    37. Tie G, Yan J, Yang Y, Park BD, Messina JA, Raffai RL, Nowicki PT, Messina LM. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces apoptosis in endothelial progenitor cells by inactivating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. J Vasc Res. 2010; 47(6):519-30. PMID: 20431300.
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    38. Tao R, Hoover HE, Honbo N, Kalinowski M, Alano CC, Karliner JS, Raffai R. High-density lipoprotein determines adult mouse cardiomyocyte fate after hypoxia-reoxygenation through lipoprotein-associated sphingosine 1-phosphate. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010 Mar; 298(3):H1022-8. PMID: 20061542.
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    39. Zhang S, Picard MH, Vasile E, Zhu Y, Raffai RL, Weisgraber KH, Krieger M. Diet-induced occlusive coronary atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, cardiac dysfunction, and premature death in scavenger receptor class B type I-deficient, hypomorphic apolipoprotein ER61 mice. Circulation. 2005 Jun 28; 111(25):3457-64. PMID: 15967843.
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    40. Carpenter B, Lin Y, Stoll S, Raffai RL, McCuskey R, Wang R. VEGF is crucial for the hepatic vascular development required for lipoprotein uptake. Development. 2005 Jul; 132(14):3293-303. PMID: 15944181.
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    41. Raffai RL, Loeb SM, Weisgraber KH. Apolipoprotein E promotes the regression of atherosclerosis independently of lowering plasma cholesterol levels. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Feb; 25(2):436-41. PMID: 15591220.
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    42. Raffaï RL, McPherson R, Weisgraber KH, Innerarity TL, Rassart E, Bersot TP, Milne RW. Antibody phenotyping test for the human apolipoprotein E2 isoform. Clin Chem. 2003 Sep; 49(9):1524-6. PMID: 12928236.
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    43. Raffai RL, Weisgraber KH. Cholesterol: from heart attacks to Alzheimer's disease. J Lipid Res. 2003 Aug; 44(8):1423-30. PMID: 12837845.
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    44. Raffaï RL, Hasty AH, Wang Y, Mettler SE, Sanan DA, Linton MF, Fazio S, Weisgraber KH. Hepatocyte-derived ApoE is more effective than non-hepatocyte-derived ApoE in remnant lipoprotein clearance. J Biol Chem. 2003 Mar 28; 278(13):11670-5. PMID: 12551940.
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    45. R. Raffai, S. Loeb, K. Weisgraber. 3P-0878 A mouse model to study the role of ApoE in atherosclerosis regression and plaque vulnerability in peripheral arterial disease. Atherosclerosis Supplements. 2003 Jan 1; 4(2):254-255.
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    46. Raffai RL, Weisgraber KH. Hypomorphic apolipoprotein E mice: a new model of conditional gene repair to examine apolipoprotein E-mediated metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2002 Mar 29; 277(13):11064-8. PMID: 11792702.
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    47. Raffaï RL. Periplasmic expression and purification of recombinant Fabs. Methods Mol Biol. 2002; 178:343-8. PMID: 11968503.
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    48. Raffai RL, Dong LM, Farese RV, Weisgraber KH. Introduction of human apolipoprotein E4 "domain interaction" into mouse apolipoprotein E. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Sep 25; 98(20):11587-91. PMID: 11553788.
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    49. Libeu CP, Lund-Katz S, Phillips MC, Wehrli S, Hernáiz MJ, Capila I, Linhardt RJ, Raffaï RL, Newhouse YM, Zhou F, Weisgraber KH. New insights into the heparan sulfate proteoglycan-binding activity of apolipoprotein E. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 19; 276(42):39138-44. PMID: 11500500.
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    50. Raffaï R, Weisgraber KH, MacKenzie R, Rupp B, Rassart E, Hirama T, Innerarity TL, Milne R. Binding of an antibody mimetic of the human low density lipoprotein receptor to apolipoprotein E is governed through electrostatic forces. Studies using site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling. J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 10; 275(10):7109-16. PMID: 10702278.
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    51. Raffaï R, Vukmirica J, Weisgraber KH, Rassart E, Innerarity TL, Milne R. Bacterial expression and purification of the Fab fragment of a monoclonal antibody specific for the low-density lipoprotein receptor-binding site of human apolipoprotein E. Protein Expr Purif. 1999 Jun; 16(1):84-90. PMID: 10336864.
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    52. Trakhanov S, Parkin S, Raffaï R, Milne R, Newhouse YM, Weisgraber KH, Rupp B. Structure of a monoclonal 2E8 Fab antibody fragment specific for the low-density lipoprotein-receptor binding region of apolipoprotein E refined at 1.9 A. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1999 Jan; 55(Pt 1):122-8. PMID: 10089402.
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    53. Raffai R, Maurice R, Weisgraber K, Innerarity T, Wang X, MacKenzie R, Hirama T, Watson D, Rassart E, Milne R. Molecular characterization of two monoclonal antibodies specific for the LDL receptor-binding site of human apolipoprotein E. J Lipid Res. 1995 Sep; 36(9):1905-18. PMID: 8558079.
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    54. R. Raffai¨, E. Rassart, K. Weisgraber, T. Innerarity, R. Milne. Determination of the fine specificity and molecular cloning of two monoclonal antibodies directed against the receptor-binding domain of human apolipoprotein E. Atherosclerosis. 1994 Sep 1; 109(1-2):264.
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