Stefan Walter, PhD

InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentEpidemiology & Biostatistics
AddressLocation Required
Varies CA 00000
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California San Francisco, San FranciscoPost-Doc08/2015Epidemiology
    Harvard School of Public Health, BostonPost-Doc08/2013Epidemiology
    Erasmus Medical Center, RotterdamPhD01/2012Epidemiology & Public Health
    Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, Nürnberg, GermanyDipl.Kfm09/2007Business Administration

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    My content work is related to the epidemiology of healthy ageing. Consequences of the ageing process are cognitive (dementia) and physical (frailty) decline. I am particularly interested in the causal role of lifestyle risk factors such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. An important part of my work is related to using genetic data to infer causal relationship between obesity and diabetes and phenotypes of aging using Mendelian Randomization Analysis. More recently I started to work with neuroimaging data to show the added benefit of deep cognitive assessment in combination with item response theory (IRT) models in evaluating health trajectories.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Differences in genetic and epigenetic risk related to frailty and cognitive decline
    Instituto de Salud Carlos III PI16/02125Jan 1, 2017 - Dec 31, 2019
    Role: PI
    Neuronal Connectivity as differentiating factors between frailty and dementia in the ageing brain.
    Ministerio de Economia, Industria y Competitividad EUIN2017-86641Jan 1, 2017 - Dec 31, 2018
    Role: PI

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Marden JR, Wang L, Tchetgen EJT, Walter S, Glymour MM, Wirth KE. Implementation of Instrumental Variable Bounds for Data Missing Not at Random. Epidemiology. 2018 May; 29(3):364-368. PMID: 29394191.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Vansteelandt S, Walter S, Tchetgen Tchetgen E. Eliminating survivor bias in two-stage instrumental variable estimators. Epidemiology. 2018 Apr 11. PMID: 29652757.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Nguyen TT, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Kawachi I, Gilman SE, Walter S, Glymour MM. The role of literacy in the association between educational attainment and depressive symptoms. SSM Popul Health. 2017 Dec; 3:586-593. PMID: 28868338.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Pega F, Liu SY, Walter S, Pabayo R, Saith R, Lhachimi SK. Unconditional cash transfers for reducing poverty and vulnerabilities: effect on use of health services and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 11 15; 11:CD011135. PMID: 29139110.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Conde E, Caminoa A, Dominguez C, Calles A, Walter S, Angulo B, Sánchez E, Alonso M, Jimenez L, Madrigal L, Hernando F, Sanz-Ortega J, Jimenez B, Garrido P, Paz-Ares L, de Castro J, Hernandez S, Lopez-Rios F. Aligning digital CD8+ scoring and targeted next-generation sequencing with programmed death ligand 1 expression: a pragmatic approach in early-stage squamous cell lung carcinoma. Histopathology. 2018 Jan; 72(2):270-284. PMID: 28815764.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Mez J, Marden JR, Mukherjee S, Walter S, Gibbons LE, Gross AL, Zahodne LB, Gilsanz P, Brewster P, Nho K, Crane PK, Larson EB, Glymour MM. Alzheimer's disease genetic risk variants beyond APOE e4 predict mortality. Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2017; 8:188-195. PMID: 28983503.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Chang SC, Glymour M, Cornelis M, Walter S, Rimm EB, Tchetgen Tchetgen E, Kawachi I, Kubzansky LD. Social Integration and Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women: The Role of Lifestyle Behaviors. Circ Res. 2017 Jun 09; 120(12):1927-1937. PMID: 28373350.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Gianfrancesco MA, Glymour MM, Walter S, Rhead B, Shao X, Shen L, Quach H, Hubbard A, Jónsdóttir I, Stefánsson K, Strid P, Hillert J, Hedström A, Olsson T, Kockum I, Schaefer C, Alfredsson L, Barcellos LF. Causal Effect of Genetic Variants Associated With Body Mass Index on Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility. Am J Epidemiol. 2017 02 01; 185(3):162-171. PMID: 28073764.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Glymour MM, Walter S, Mejía-Guevara I. Association of a Genetic Risk Score With Body Mass Index-Reply. JAMA. 2016 Nov 01; 316(17):1826-1827. PMID: 27802541.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Nguyen TT, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Kawachi I, Gilman SE, Walter S, Glymour MM. Comparing Alternative Effect Decomposition Methods: The Role of Literacy in Mediating Educational Effects on Mortality. Epidemiology. 2016 09; 27(5):670-6. PMID: 27280331.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Walter S, Mejía-Guevara I, Estrada K, Liu SY, Glymour MM. Association of a Genetic Risk Score With Body Mass Index Across Different Birth Cohorts. JAMA. 2016 Jul 05; 316(1):63-9. PMID: 27380344.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Marden JR, Mayeda ER, Walter S, Vivot A, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Kawachi I, Glymour MM. Using an Alzheimer Disease Polygenic Risk Score to Predict Memory Decline in Black and White Americans Over 14 Years of Follow-up. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2016 Jul-Sep; 30(3):195-202. PMID: 26756387; PMCID: PMC4940299 [Available on 07/01/17].
    13. Hamad R, Walter S, Rehkopf DH. Telomere length and health outcomes: A two-sample genetic instrumental variables analysis. Exp Gerontol. 2016 09; 82:88-94. PMID: 27321645; PMCID: PMC4969151 [Available on 09/01/17].
    14. Walter S, Beltrán-Sánchez H, Regidor E, Gomez-Martin C, Del-Barrio JL, Gil-de-Miguel A, Subramanian SV, Gil-Prieto R. No evidence of morbidity compression in Spain: a time series study based on national hospitalization records. Int J Public Health. 2016 Sep; 61(7):729-38. PMID: 27233641.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Becker S, Walter S, Witzke O, Körber A, Bienholz A, Kottmann T, Kribben A, Kaiser G, Mitchell A. Edema, Hyperpigmentation, Induration: 3 Skin Signs Heralding Danger in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Mar; 95(12):e3121. PMID: 27015187; PMCID: PMC4998382.
    16. Gil-Prieto R, Pascual-Garcia R, Walter S, Álvaro-Meca A, Gil-De-Miguel Á. Risk of hospitalization due to pneumococcal disease in adults in Spain. The CORIENNE study. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016 07 02; 12(7):1900-5. PMID: 26901683; PMCID: PMC4964827 [Available on 02/22/17].
    17. Marden JR, Walter S, Kaufman JS, Glymour MM. African Ancestry, Social Factors, and Hypertension Among Non-Hispanic Blacks in the Health and Retirement Study. Biodemography Soc Biol. 2016; 62(1):19-35. PMID: 27050031.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Walter S, Marden JR, Kubzansky LD, Mayeda ER, Crane PK, Chang SC, Cornelis M, Rehkopf DH, Mukherjee S, Glymour MM. Diabetic Phenotypes and Late-Life Dementia Risk: A Mechanism-specific Mendelian Randomization Study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2016 Jan-Mar; 30(1):15-20. PMID: 26650880.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Shen L, Walter S, Melles RB, Glymour MM, Jorgenson E. Diabetes Pathology and Risk of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: Evaluating Causal Mechanisms by Using Genetic Information. Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Jan 15; 183(2):147-55. PMID: 26608880; PMCID: PMC4706681 [Available on 01/15/17].
    20. Nguyen TT, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Kawachi I, Gilman SE, Walter S, Liu SY, Manly JJ, Glymour MM. Instrumental variable approaches to identifying the causal effect of educational attainment on dementia risk. Ann Epidemiol. 2016 Jan; 26(1):71-6.e1-3. PMID: 26633592; PMCID: PMC4688127 [Available on 01/01/17].
    21. Pega F, Liu SY, Walter S, Lhachimi SK. Unconditional cash transfers for assistance in humanitarian disasters: effect on use of health services and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Sep 11; (9):CD011247. PMID: 26360970.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Østergaard SD, Mukherjee S, Sharp SJ, Proitsi P, Lotta LA, Day F, Perry JR, Boehme KL, Walter S, Kauwe JS, Gibbons LE. Associations between Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors and Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study. PLoS Med. 2015 Jun; 12(6):e1001841; discussion e1001841. PMID: 26079503.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Mukherjee S, Walter S, Kauwe JSK, Saykin AJ, Bennett DA, Larson EB, Crane PK, Glymour MM. Genetically predicted body mass index and Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes in three large samples: Mendelian randomization analyses. Alzheimers Dement. 2015 Dec; 11(12):1439-1451. PMID: 26079416.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Gilsanz P, Walter S, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Patton KK, Moon JR, Capistrant BD, Marden JR, Kubzansky LD, Kawachi I, Glymour MM. Changes in Depressive Symptoms and Incidence of First Stroke Among Middle-Aged and Older US Adults. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 May 13; 4(5). PMID: 25971438; PMCID: PMC4599421.
    25. Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Walter S, Vansteelandt S, Martinussen T, Glymour M. Instrumental variable estimation in a survival context. Epidemiology. 2015 May; 26(3):402-10. PMID: 25692223; PMCID: PMC4387894.
    26. Walter S, Kubzansky LD, Koenen KC, Liang L, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Cornelis MC, Chang SC, Rimm E, Kawachi I, Glymour MM. Revisiting Mendelian randomization studies of the effect of body mass index on depression. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2015 Mar; 168B(2):108-15. PMID: 25656382; PMCID: PMC4387873.
    27. Stefan Walter, Jessica R. Marden, Laura D. Kubzansky, Elizabeth Rose Mayeda, Paul K. Crane, Shun-Chiao Chang, Marilyn Cornelis, David H. Rehkopf, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, M. Maria Glymour.Diabetic Phenotypes and Late Life Dementia Risk: A Mechanism-Specific Mendelian Randomization Study. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders - An International Journal. 2015; (in press).
    28. Marden JR, Mayeda ER, Walter S, Vivot A, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Kawachi I, Glymour MM .Using an Alzheimer’s disease polygenic risk score to predict memory decline in black and white Americans over 14 years of follow-up. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders. 2015; (in press).
    29. Iturrieta-Zuazo I, Walter S. Mendelian randomization: present and future of epidemiological studies in cardiology. Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed). 2015 Feb; 68(2):87-91. PMID: 25449812.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Liu SY, Walter S, Marden J, Rehkopf DH, Kubzansky LD, Nguyen T, Glymour MM. Genetic vulnerability to diabetes and obesity: does education offset the risk? Soc Sci Med. 2015 Feb; 127:150-8. PMID: 25245452.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Marden JR, Walter S, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Kawachi I, Glymour MM. Validation of a polygenic risk score for dementia in black and white individuals. Brain Behav. 2014 Sep; 4(5):687-97. PMID: 25328845; PMCID: PMC4107377.
    32. Walter S, Glymour M, Avendano M. The health effects of US unemployment insurance policy: does income from unemployment benefits prevent cardiovascular disease? PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e101193. PMID: 25025281; PMCID: PMC4098914.
    33. Walter S, Glymour MM, Koenen K, Liang L, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Cornelis M, Chang SC, Rewak M, Rimm E, Kawachi I, Kubzansky LD. Do genetic risk scores for body mass index predict risk of phobic anxiety? Evidence for a shared genetic risk factor. Psychol Med. 2015 Jan; 45(1):181-91. PMID: 25065638; PMCID: PMC4387884.
    34. Wang Q, Mejía-Guevara I, Rist PM, Walter S, Capistrant BD, Glymour MM. Changes in memory before and after stroke differ by age and sex, but not by race. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014; 37(4):235-43. PMID: 24686293; PMCID: PMC4347666.
    35. Chang SC, Glymour MM, Walter S, Liang L, Koenen KC, Tchetgen EJ, Cornelis MC, Kawachi I, Rimm E, Kubzansky LD. Genome-wide polygenic scoring for a 14-year long-term average depression phenotype. Brain Behav. 2014 Mar; 4(2):298-311. PMID: 24683521; PMCID: PMC3967544.
    36. Lubitz SA, Lunetta KL, Lin H, Arking DE, Trompet S, Li G, Krijthe BP, Chasman DI, Barnard J, Kleber ME, Dörr M, Ozaki K, Smith AV, Müller-Nurasyid M, Walter S, Agarwal SK, Bis JC, Brody JA, Chen LY, Everett BM, Ford I, Franco OH, Harris TB, Hofman A, Kääb S, Mahida S, Kathiresan S, Kubo M, Launer LJ, MacFarlane PW, Magnani JW, McKnight B, McManus DD, Peters A, Psaty BM, Rose LM, Rotter JI, Silbernagel G, Smith JD, Sotoodehnia N, Stott DJ, Taylor KD, Tomaschitz A, Tsunoda T, Uitterlinden AG, Van Wagoner DR, Völker U, Völzke H, Murabito JM, Sinner MF, Gudnason V, Felix SB, März W, Chung M, Albert CM, Stricker BH, Tanaka T, Heckbert SR, Jukema JW, Alonso A, Benjamin EJ, Ellinor PT. Novel genetic markers associate with atrial fibrillation risk in Europeans and Japanese. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Apr 01; 63(12):1200-1210. PMID: 24486271; PMCID: PMC4009240.
    37. Gil-Prieto R, Walter S, Gonzalez-Escalada A, Garcia-Garcia L, Marín-García P, Gil-de-Miguel A. Different vaccination strategies in Spain and its impact on severe varicella and zoster. Vaccine. 2014 Jan 03; 32(2):277-83. PMID: 24275483.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Walter S, Glymour MM, Koenen K, Liang L, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Cornelis M, Chang SC, Rimm E, Kawachi I, Kubzansky LD. Performance of polygenic scores for predicting phobic anxiety. PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e80326. PMID: 24278274; PMCID: PMC3835914.
    39. Chang SC, Glymour MM, Rewak M, Cornelis MC, Walter S, Koenen KC, Kawachi I, Liang L, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Kubzansky LD. Are genetic variations in OXTR, AVPR1A, and CD38 genes important to social integration? Results from two large U.S. cohorts. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 Jan; 39:257-68. PMID: 24209975; PMCID: PMC3864016.
    40. Thorgeirsson TE, Gudbjartsson DF, Sulem P, Besenbacher S, Styrkarsdottir U, Thorleifsson G, Walters GB. A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction. Transl Psychiatry. 2013 Oct 01; 3:e308. PMID: 24084939.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Ho JE, Chen WY, Chen MH, Larson MG, McCabe EL, Cheng S, Ghorbani A, Coglianese E, Emilsson V, Johnson AD, Walter S, Franceschini N, O'Donnell CJ. Common genetic variation at the IL1RL1 locus regulates IL-33/ST2 signaling. J Clin Invest. 2013 Oct; 123(10):4208-18. PMID: 23999434; PMCID: PMC3784527.
    42. Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Walter S, Glymour MM. Commentary: building an evidence base for mendelian randomization studies: assessing the validity and strength of proposed genetic instrumental variables. Int J Epidemiol. 2013 Feb; 42(1):328-31. PMID: 23508417; PMCID: PMC3600630.
    43. de Hollander EL, Bemelmans WJ, Boshuizen HC, Friedrich N, Wallaschofski H, Guallar-Castillón P, Walter S, Zillikens MC, Rosengren A, Lissner L, Bassett JK, Giles GG, Orsini N, Heim N, Visser M, de Groot LC. The association between waist circumference and risk of mortality considering body mass index in 65- to 74-year-olds: a meta-analysis of 29 cohorts involving more than 58 000 elderly persons. Int J Epidemiol. 2012 Jun; 41(3):805-17. PMID: 22467292.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Walter S, Mackenbach J, Vokó Z, Lhachimi S, Ikram MA, Uitterlinden AG, Newman AB, Murabito JM, Garcia ME, Gudnason V, Tanaka T, Tranah GJ, Wallaschofski H, Kocher T, Launer LJ, Franceschini N, Schipper M, Hofman A, Tiemeier H. Genetic, physiological, and lifestyle predictors of mortality in the general population. Am J Public Health. 2012 Apr; 102(4):e3-10. PMID: 22397355; PMCID: PMC3489349.
    45. Gil-Prieto R, Walter S, Alvar J, de Miguel AG. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Spain based on hospitalization records (1997-2008). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Nov; 85(5):820-5. PMID: 22049034; PMCID: PMC3205626.
    46. Walter S, Atzmon G, Demerath EW, Garcia ME, Kaplan RC, Kumari M, Lunetta KL, Milaneschi Y, Tanaka T, Tranah GJ, Völker U, Yu L, Arnold A, Benjamin EJ, Biffar R, Buchman AS, Boerwinkle E, Couper D, De Jager PL, Evans DA, Harris TB, Hoffmann W, Hofman A, Karasik D, Kiel DP, Kocher T, Kuningas M, Launer LJ, Lohman KK, Lutsey PL, Mackenbach J, Marciante K, Psaty BM, Reiman EM, Rotter JI, Seshadri S, Shardell MD, Smith AV, van Duijn C, Walston J, Zillikens MC, Bandinelli S, Baumeister SE, Bennett DA, Ferrucci L, Gudnason V, Kivimaki M, Liu Y, Murabito JM, Newman AB, Tiemeier H, Franceschini N. A genome-wide association study of aging. Neurobiol Aging. 2011 Nov; 32(11):2109.e15-28. PMID: 21782286.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Krijthe BP, Walter S, Newson RS, Hofman A, Hunink MG, Tiemeier H. Is positive affect associated with survival? A population-based study of elderly persons. Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Jun 01; 173(11):1298-307. PMID: 21454828.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Thorgeirsson TE, Gudbjartsson DF, Surakka I, Vink JM, Amin N, Geller F, Sulem P, Rafnar T, Esko T, Walter S, Gieger C, Rawal R, Mangino M, Prokopenko I, Mägi R, Keskitalo K, Gudjonsdottir IH, Gretarsdottir S, Stefansson H, Thompson JR, Aulchenko YS, Nelis M, Aben KK, den Heijer M, Dirksen A, Ashraf H, Soranzo N, Valdes AM, Steves C, Uitterlinden AG, Hofman A, Tönjes A, Kovacs P, Hottenga JJ, Willemsen G, Vogelzangs N, Döring A, Dahmen N, Nitz B, Pergadia ML, Saez B, De Diego V, Lezcano V, Garcia-Prats MD, Ripatti S, Perola M, Kettunen J, Hartikainen AL, Pouta A, Laitinen J, Isohanni M, Huei-Yi S, Allen M, Krestyaninova M, Hall AS, Jones GT, van Rij AM, Mueller T, Dieplinger B, Haltmayer M, Jonsson S, Matthiasson SE, Oskarsson H, Tyrfingsson T, Kiemeney LA, Mayordomo JI, Lindholt JS, Pedersen JH, Franklin WA, Wolf H, Montgomery GW, Heath AC, Martin NG, Madden PA, Giegling I, Rujescu D, Järvelin MR, Salomaa V, Stumvoll M, Spector TD, Wichmann HE, Metspalu A, Samani NJ, Penninx BW, Oostra BA, Boomsma DI, Tiemeier H, van Duijn CM, Kaprio J, Gulcher JR. Sequence variants at CHRNB3-CHRNA6 and CYP2A6 affect smoking behavior. Nat Genet. 2010 May; 42(5):448-53. PMID: 20418888.
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    49. Newman AB, Walter S, Lunetta KL, Garcia ME, Slagboom PE, Christensen K, Arnold AM, Aspelund T, Aulchenko YS, Benjamin EJ, Christiansen L, D'Agostino RB, Fitzpatrick AL, Franceschini N, Glazer NL, Gudnason V, Hofman A, Kaplan R, Karasik D, Kelly-Hayes M, Kiel DP, Launer LJ, Marciante KD, Massaro JM, Miljkovic I, Nalls MA, Hernandez D, Psaty BM, Rivadeneira F, Rotter J, Seshadri S, Smith AV, Taylor KD, Tiemeier H, Uh HW, Uitterlinden AG, Vaupel JW, Walston J, Westendorp RG, Harris TB, Lumley T, van Duijn CM, Murabito JM. A meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies of survival to age 90 years or older: the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010 May; 65(5):478-87. PMID: 20304771; PMCID: PMC2854887.
    50. Walter S, Tiemeier H. Variable selection: current practice in epidemiological studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2009; 24(12):733-6. PMID: 19967429.
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    51. Walter S, Kunst A, Mackenbach J, Hofman A, Tiemeier H. Mortality and disability: the effect of overweight and obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009 Dec; 33(12):1410-8. PMID: 19786964.
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