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Steven Shafer, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Bioengineering
SchoolSchool of Pharmacy
Address3333 California Street
San Francisco CA 94118
Phone415-476-1936
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Design of Clinical Trials Evaluating Sedation in Critically Ill Adults Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation: Recommendations From Sedation Consortium on Endpoints and Procedures for Treatment, Education, and Research (SCEPTER) Recommendation III. Crit Care Med. 2021 Apr 28. Ward DS, Absalom AR, Aitken LM, Balas MC, Brown DL, Burry L, Colantuoni E, Coursin D, Devlin JW, Dexter F, Dworkin RH, Egan TD, Elliott D, Egerod I, Flood P, Fraser GL, Girard TD, Gozal D, Hopkins RO, Kress J, Maze M, Needham DM, Pandharipande P, Riker R, Sessler DI, Shafer SL, Shehabi Y, Spies C, Sun LS, Tung A, Urman RD. PMID: 33938718.
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    2. The Titration Paradox Turns Pharmacology Upside Down. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2021 Apr 14. Shafer SL, Stanski DR. PMID: 33852737.
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    3. Bupivacaine local anesthetic to decrease opioid requirements after radical cystectomy: Does formulation matter? Urol Oncol. 2020 Dec 07. Schmidt B, Bhambhvani HP, Greenberg DR, Prado K, Shafer S, Thong A, Gill H, Skinner E, Shah JB. PMID: 33303378.
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    4. FDA Label for Over-the-Counter Naloxone. N Engl J Med. 2020 09 10; 383(11):1092-1093. Fisher DM, Shafer SL. PMID: 32905691.
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    5. Further retractions of articles by Joachim Boldt. Br J Anaesth. 2020 09; 125(3):409-411. Hemmings HC, Shafer SL. PMID: 32861401.
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    6. The evolution of pharmacokinetics. Br J Anaesth. 2020 06; 124(6):664-665. Shafer SL. PMID: 32327195.
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    7. Playing with dexmedetomidine pharmacokinetics! Br J Anaesth. 2020 03; 124(3):238-240. Hammer G, Shafer SL. PMID: 31879025.
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    8. Opioid-induced Ventilatory Depression in Sleep Apnea: Reply. Anesthesiology. 2019 10; 131(4):937-938. Doufas AG, Shafer SL, Henthorn TK. PMID: 31403499.
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    9. Falling Dominoes. Anesth Analg. 2019 04; 128(4):613-614. Polaner DM, Shafer SL. PMID: 30883412.
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    10. Non-steady State Modeling of the Ventilatory Depressant Effect of Remifentanil in Awake Patients Experiencing Moderate-to-severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Anesthesiology. 2019 02; 130(2):213-226. Doufas AG, Shafer SL, Rashid NHA, Kushida CA, Capasso R. PMID: 30247202.
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    11. Carfentanil: a weapon of mass destruction. Can J Anaesth. 2019 04; 66(4):351-355. Shafer SL. PMID: 30644074.
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    12. "Think. Check. Submit." to avoid predatory publishing. Crit Care. 2018 Nov 14; 22(1):300. Cortegiani A, Shafer SL. PMID: 30428920.
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    13. Letter to the Editor on "Local Infiltration Analgesia With Liposomal Bupivacaine Improves Pain Scores and Reduces Opioid Use After Total Knee Arthroplasty: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial". J Arthroplasty. 2018 08; 33(8):2694. Shafer SL. PMID: 29685711.
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    14. Artificial Intelligence for Everyone. Anesthesiology. 2018 03; 128(3):431-433. Gambus P, Shafer SL. PMID: 29166324.
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    15. Writing Research Reports. Anesth Analg. 2018 01; 126(1):330-337. Sessler DI, Shafer S. PMID: 29252483.
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    16. Dr Ted Eger Obituary. Anesth Analg. 2017 12; 125(6):1829-1830. Gropper MA, Shafer SL. PMID: 29189357.
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    17. Remifentanil Dosing at Extremes of Body Weight. Anesthesiology. 2017 06; 126(6):993-994. Shafer SL, Fisher DM. PMID: 28509793.
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    18. Narrative Review of Statistical Reporting Checklists, Mandatory Statistical Editing, and Rectifying Common Problems in the Reporting of Scientific Articles. Anesth Analg. 2017 03; 124(3):943-947. Dexter F, Shafer SL. PMID: 27676281.
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    19. Authorship wanting: dead or alive. Paediatr Anaesth. 2016 Oct; 26(10):949-50. Anderson BJ, Shafer SL, Dare T. PMID: 27600756.
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    20. Truth is elusive. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2016 Jul; 60(6):691-2. Shafer SL. PMID: 27251596.
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    21. Plagiarism Is Ubiquitous. Anesth Analg. 2016 06; 122(6):1776-80. Shafer SL. PMID: 27195629.
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    22. How "Volatile" Is the Protection Provided by Inhalational Anesthetics? Anesthesiology. 2016 06; 124(6):1213-4. Beck-Schimmer B, Shafer SL. PMID: 27065096.
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    23. Thank You, Thank You, Thank You. Anesth Analg. 2016 06; 122(6):1731-3. Shafer S. PMID: 27195615.
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    24. Broken Hearts. Anesth Analg. 2016 May; 122(5):1231-3. Shafer SL. PMID: 27101479.
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    25. Allometry, Shallometry! Anesth Analg. 2016 May; 122(5):1234-8. Fisher DM, Shafer SL. PMID: 27101480.
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    26. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Drugs Commonly Used in Pregnancy and Parturition. Anesth Analg. 2016 Mar; 122(3):786-804. Ansari J, Carvalho B, Shafer SL, Flood P. PMID: 26891392.
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    27. Threats to safety during sedation outside of the operating room and the death of Michael Jackson. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2016 Mar; 29 Suppl 1:S36-47. Webster CS, Mason KP, Shafer SL. PMID: 26926333.
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    28. All Boxes Are Black. Anesth Analg. 2016 Feb; 122(2):309-17. Cannesson M, Shafer SL. PMID: 26797548.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Target-Controlled Infusions: Surfing USA Redux. Anesth Analg. 2016 Jan; 122(1):1-3. Shafer SL, Egan T. PMID: 26678458.
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    30. Experience = Education: Time for the Next Step. A A Case Rep. 2015 Jul 15; 5(2):15-6. Schwartz AJ, Nussmeier NA, Shafer S. PMID: 26171735.
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    31. Anesthesia & Analgesia's 2015 Collection on the Perioperative Surgical Home. Anesth Analg. 2015 May; 120(5):966-7. Shafer SL. PMID: 25899256.
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    32. Dittrick's Missing Editorial About Apgar's Score. Anesth Analg. 2015 May; 120(5):962. Wong CA, Shafer SL. PMID: 25899254.
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    33. Making a difference in perioperative infection. Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr; 120(4):697-9. Shafer SL. PMID: 25790197.
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    34. The World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists, International Anesthesia Research Society, and Anesthesia & Analgesia: a shared global vision. Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr; 120(4):721-4. Walker IA, Shafer SL. PMID: 25790206.
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    35. Anesthesiologists make a difference. Anesth Analg. 2015 Mar; 120(3):497-8. Shafer SL. PMID: 25695562.
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    36. In response. Anesth Analg. 2015 Feb; 120(2):492-3. Shafer SL. PMID: 25602461.
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    37. A&A case reports: a progress report and an update on requirements for patient consent. Anesth Analg. 2014 Dec; 119(6):1251. Nussmeier N, Saidman LJ, Shafer S. PMID: 25405687.
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    38. Thank you, Larry Saidman! Anesth Analg. 2014 Dec; 119(6):1227-9. Shafer SL. PMID: 25405678.
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    39. A & a case reports: a progress report and an update on requirements for patient consent. A A Case Rep. 2014 Dec 01; 3(11):141. Nussmeier N, Saidman LJ, Shafer S. PMID: 25612098.
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    40. Deadly heat: economics of continuous temperature monitoring during general anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2014 Dec; 119(6):1235-7. Shafer SL, Dexter F, Brull SJ. PMID: 25405681.
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    41. Editor's note: notice of retraction. Anesth Analg. 2014 Nov; 119(5):1225. Shafer SL. PMID: 25329035.
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    42. Anesthesia & Analgesia's collection on the perioperative surgical home. Anesth Analg. 2014 May; 118(5):893-5. Shafer SL, Donovan JF. PMID: 24781555.
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    43. Education and management case reports. Anesth Analg. 2014 May; 118(5):915. Shafer SL. PMID: 24781563.
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    44. Plagiarism is plagiarism is plagiarism. Anesth Analg. 2014 Jan; 118(1):1-2. Shafer SL. PMID: 24356150.
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    45. Impact of cervical effacement and fetal station on progress during the first stage of labor: a biexponential model. Am J Perinatol. 2014 Oct; 31(9):745-51. Quincy MM, Weng C, Shafer SL, Smiley RM, Flood PD, Mirza FG. PMID: 24338118.
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    46. Anesthesia and analgesia case reports. Anesth Analg. 2013 Mar; 116(3):513-4. Shafer SL. PMID: 23439810.
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    47. Editor's note: notices of retractions. Anesth Analg. 2013 Mar; 116(3):739. Shafer SL. PMID: 23439818.
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    48. Bispectral index dynamics during propofol hypnosis is similar in red-haired and dark-haired subjects. Anesth Analg. 2013 Feb; 116(2):319-26. Doufas AG, Orhan-Sungur M, Komatsu R, Lauber R, Akca O, Shafer SL, Sessler DI. PMID: 23302977.
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    49. Editor's note: notices of retraction. Anesth Analg. 2012 Oct; 115(4):982. Shafer SL. PMID: 23002266.
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    50. Caveat lector. Anesth Analg. 2012 Jun; 114(6):1160-2. Eldawlatly A, Shafer SL. PMID: 22615444.
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    51. Publication bias, retrospective bias, and reproducibility of significant results in observational studies. Anesth Analg. 2012 May; 114(5):931-2. Shafer SL, Dexter F. PMID: 22523409.
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    52. Caveat lector. Saudi J Anaesth. 2012 Apr; 6(2):99-101. Eldawlatly A, Shafer SL. PMID: 22754430.
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    53. All models are wrong. Anesthesiology. 2012 Feb; 116(2):240-1. Shafer SL. PMID: 22222474.
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    54. From d-tubocurarine to sugammadex: the contributions of T. Cecil Gray to modern anaesthetic practice. Br J Anaesth. 2011 Jul; 107(1):97-102. Shafer SL. PMID: 21613280.
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    55. ß2-adrenergic receptor genotype and other variables that contribute to labor pain and progress. Anesthesiology. 2011 Apr; 114(4):927-39. Reitman E, Conell-Price J, Evansmith J, Olson L, Drosinos S, Jasper N, Randolph P, Smiley RM, Shafer S, Flood P. PMID: 21394004.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    56. Editor's note: notices of retraction. Anesth Analg. 2011 May; 112(5):1246-7. Shafer SL. PMID: 21451077.
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    57. You will be caught. Anesth Analg. 2011 Mar; 112(3):491-3. Shafer SL. PMID: 21350222.
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    58. Anesthesia & Analgesia policy on institutional review board approval and informed consent for research. Anesth Analg. 2011 Mar; 112(3):494-5. Shafer SL. PMID: 21350223.
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    59. The Scott Reuben saga: one last retraction. Anesth Analg. 2011 Mar; 112(3):512-5. White PF, Rosow CE, Shafer SL, Editorial Board of Anesthesia & Analgesia . PMID: 21350225.
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    60. Shadow of doubt. Anesth Analg. 2011 Mar; 112(3):498-500. Shafer SL. PMID: 21296856.
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    61. Notice of retraction. Anesth Analg. 2010 Dec; 111(6):1567. Shafer SL. PMID: 21106980.
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    62. Notice of retraction. Anesth Analg. 2010 Dec; 111(6):1561. Shafer SL. PMID: 21106975.
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    63. Walk a mile in my shoes. Anesth Analg. 2010 Aug; 111(2):264-5. Fisher DM, Shafer SL. PMID: 20664088.
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    64. Pitfalls in chronobiology: a suggested analysis using intrathecal bupivacaine analgesia as an example. Anesth Analg. 2010 Oct; 111(4):980-5. Shafer SL, Lemmer B, Boselli E, Boiste F, Bouvet L, Allaouchiche B, Chassard D. PMID: 20442259.
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    65. Consent contraindicated? Science. 2010 Apr 02; 328(5974):45; author reply 45. Yaksh TL, Eisenach JC, Shafer SL. PMID: 20360092.
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    66. The need for a journal policy on intrathecal, epidural, and perineural administration of non-approved drugs. Pain. 2010 Jun; 149(3):417-419. Eisenach JC, Shafer SL, Yaksh T. PMID: 20227830.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    67. Mathematical modeling of the pain and progress of the first stage of nulliparous labor. Anesthesiology. 2009 Nov; 111(5):1093-110. Debiec J, Conell-Price J, Evansmith J, Shafer SL, Flood P. PMID: 19858874.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    68. Computational genetic mapping in mice: the ship has sailed. Sci Transl Med. 2009 Oct 21; 1(3):3ps4. Zheng M, Shafer S, Liao G, Liu HH, Peltz G. PMID: 20368166.
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    69. Neuromuscular block differentially affects immobility and cortical activation at near-minimum alveolar concentration anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 2009 Oct; 109(4):1097-104. Doufas AG, Komatsu R, Orhan-Sungur M, Sengupta P, Wadhwa A, Mascha E, Shafer SL, Sessler DI. PMID: 19762737.
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    70. Automated responsiveness monitor to titrate propofol sedation. Anesth Analg. 2009 Sep; 109(3):778-86. Doufas AG, Morioka N, Mahgoub AN, Bjorksten AR, Shafer SL, Sessler DI. PMID: 19690246.
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    71. Notice of retraction. Anesth Analg. 2009 Jun; 108(6):1953. Shafer SL. PMID: 19448229.
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    72. Tattered threads. Anesth Analg. 2009 May; 108(5):1361-3. Shafer SL. PMID: 19372305.
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    73. Notice of retraction. Anesth Analg. 2009 Apr; 108(4):1350. Shafer SL. PMID: 19299812.
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    74. Retraction notice. Anesth Analg. 2009 Apr; 108(4):1351. Shafer SL. PMID: 19299814.
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    75. Critical thinking in anesthesia: eighth Honorary FAER Research Lecture. Anesthesiology. 2009 Apr; 110(4):729-37. Shafer SL. PMID: 19293701.
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    76. When the model does not fit the data, the model is wrong. Anesthesiology. 2009 Apr; 110(4):947; author reply 948. Fisher D, Shafer SL. PMID: 19307873.
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    77. No evidence for the development of acute tolerance to analgesic, respiratory depressant and sedative opioid effects in humans. Pain. 2009 Mar; 142(1-2):17-26. Angst MS, Chu LF, Tingle MS, Shafer SL, Clark JD, Drover DR. PMID: 19135798.
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    78. I appreciate the dialog between Drs. Anderson and Schonfeld and Murphy et al. Anesth Analg. 2009 Jan; 108(1):377-8. Shafer SL. PMID: 19095879.
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    79. Changes in Anesthesia & Analgesia for 2009. Anesth Analg. 2009 Jan; 108(1):1-2. Shafer SL. PMID: 19095821.
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    80. Is a new paradigm needed to explain how inhaled anesthetics produce immobility? Anesth Analg. 2008 Sep; 107(3):832-48. Eger EI, Raines DE, Shafer SL, Hemmings HC, Sonner JM. PMID: 18713892.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    81. Additivity versus synergy: a theoretical analysis of implications for anesthetic mechanisms. Anesth Analg. 2008 Aug; 107(2):507-24. Shafer SL, Hendrickx JF, Flood P, Sonner J, Eger EI. PMID: 18633029.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    82. Is synergy the rule? A review of anesthetic interactions producing hypnosis and immobility. Anesth Analg. 2008 Aug; 107(2):494-506. Hendrickx JF, Eger EI, Sonner JM, Shafer SL. PMID: 18633028.
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    83. Inhaled anesthetics do not combine to produce synergistic effects regarding minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration in rats. Anesth Analg. 2008 Aug; 107(2):479-85. Eger EI, Tang M, Liao M, Laster MJ, Solt K, Flood P, Jenkins A, Raines D, Hendrickx JF, Shafer SL, Yasumasa T, Sonner JM. PMID: 18633026.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    84. Mixed effect modeling in analgesia trials. Anesth Analg. 2008 Jul; 107(1):9-10. Shafer SL, Struys MM. PMID: 18635460.
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    85. The development and validation of a dynamic model to account for the progress of labor in the assessment of pain. Anesth Analg. 2008 May; 106(5):1509-15, table of contents. Conell-Price J, Evans JB, Hong D, Shafer S, Flood P. PMID: 18420869.
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    86. Con: The black box warning on droperidol should not be removed (but should be clarified!). Anesth Analg. 2008 May; 106(5):1418-20. Ludwin DB, Shafer SL. PMID: 18420855.
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    87. Full disclosure matters! Anesth Analg. 2008 Mar; 106(3):1017. Shafer SL. PMID: 18292458.
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    88. Anesthesia matters: statistical anomaly or new paradigm? Anesth Analg. 2008 Jan; 106(1):3-4. Shafer SL, Nekhendzy V. PMID: 18165544.
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    89. Estimation of optimal modeling weights for a Bayesian-based closed-loop system for propofol administration using the bispectral index as a controlled variable: a simulation study. Anesth Analg. 2007 Dec; 105(6):1629-38, table of contents. De Smet T, Struys MM, Greenwald S, Mortier EP, Shafer SL. PMID: 18042860.
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    90. In silico and in vitro pharmacogenetic analysis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Nov 06; 104(45):17735-40. Guo Y, Lu P, Farrell E, Zhang X, Weller P, Monshouwer M, Wang J, Liao G, Zhang Z, Hu S, Allard J, Shafer S, Usuka J, Peltz G. PMID: 17978195.
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    91. Influence of administration rate on propofol plasma-effect site equilibration. Anesthesiology. 2007 Sep; 107(3):386-96. Struys MM, Coppens MJ, De Neve N, Mortier EP, Doufas AG, Van Bocxlaer JF, Shafer SL. PMID: 17721240.
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    92. Occam's razor. Anesth Analg. 2007 Jun; 104(6):1597-8. Shafer SL. PMID: 17526100.
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    93. The pharmacokinetics of the conopeptide contulakin-G (CGX-1160) after intrathecal administration: an analysis of data from studies in beagles. Anesth Analg. 2007 Jun; 104(6):1514-20, table of contents. Kern SE, Allen J, Wagstaff J, Shafer SL, Yaksh T. PMID: 17513651.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    94. Did our brains fall out? Anesth Analg. 2007 Feb; 104(2):247-8. Shafer SL. PMID: 17242071.
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    95. Case scheduling for dummies. Anesth Analg. 2006 Dec; 103(6):1351-2. Shafer SL. PMID: 17122201.
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    96. A phase I, two-center study of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine in children. Anesthesiology. 2006 Dec; 105(6):1098-110. Petroz GC, Sikich N, James M, van Dyk H, Shafer SL, Schily M, Lerman J. PMID: 17122572.
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    97. Understanding our drugs and our diseases. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2006 Jul; 3(5):409-12. Guo Y, Weller P, Allard J, Usuka J, Masjedizadeh M, Wu SY, Fitch B, Clark D, Clark JD, Shafer S, Wang J, Liao G, Peltz G. PMID: 16799083.
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    98. Pediatric research and scholarship: another Gordian knot? Anesth Analg. 2006 Jul; 103(1):43-8. Tobin JR, Shafer SL, Davis PJ. PMID: 16790623.
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    99. Do distribution volumes and clearances relate to tissue volumes and blood flows? A computer simulation. BMC Anesthesiol. 2006 Jun 13; 6:7. Hendrickx JF, Lemmens HJ, Shafer SL. PMID: 16772041.
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    100. In silico pharmacogenetics of warfarin metabolism. Nat Biotechnol. 2006 May; 24(5):531-6. Guo Y, Weller P, Farrell E, Cheung P, Fitch B, Clark D, Wu SY, Wang J, Liao G, Zhang Z, Allard J, Cheng J, Nguyen A, Jiang S, Shafer S, Usuka J, Masjedizadeh M, Peltz G. PMID: 16680137.
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    101. Pharmacogenomics and drug development. Pharmacogenomics. 2005 Dec; 6(8):857-64. Guo Y, Shafer S, Weller P, Usuka J, Peltz G. PMID: 16296948.
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    102. Arterial and venous pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine with and without epinephrine after thoracic paravertebral block. Anesthesiology. 2005 Oct; 103(4):704-11. Karmakar MK, Ho AM, Law BK, Wong AS, Shafer SL, Gin T. PMID: 16192762.
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    103. Tutorial: context-sensitive decrement times for inhaled anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2005 Sep; 101(3):688-96, table of contents. Eger EI, Shafer SL. PMID: 16115976.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    104. The complexity of recovery from anesthesia. J Clin Anesth. 2005 Sep; 17(6):411-2. Eger EI, Shafer S. PMID: 16171659.
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    105. Differential activation of trigeminal C or Adelta nociceptors by infrared diode laser in rats: behavioral evidence. Brain Res. 2005 Mar 10; 1037(1-2):148-56. Tzabazis A, Klyukinov M, Manering N, Nemenov MI, Shafer SL, Yeomans DC. PMID: 15777763.
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    106. Variability of target-controlled infusion is less than the variability after bolus injection. Anesthesiology. 2005 Mar; 102(3):639-45. Hu C, Horstman DJ, Shafer SL. PMID: 15731604.
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    107. Picking safe combinations. Anesthesiology. 2004 Dec; 101(6):1260-1. Shafer SL. PMID: 15564930.
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    108. Induction speed is not a determinant of propofol pharmacodynamics. Anesthesiology. 2004 Nov; 101(5):1112-21. Doufas AG, Bakhshandeh M, Bjorksten AR, Shafer SL, Sessler DI. PMID: 15505446.
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    109. Target controlled infusions: targeting the effect site while limiting peak plasma concentration. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2004 Nov; 51(11):1869-75. Van Poucke GE, Bravo LJ, Shafer SL. PMID: 15536889.
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    110. In silico genetics: identification of a functional element regulating H2-Ealpha gene expression. Science. 2004 Oct 22; 306(5696):690-5. Liao G, Wang J, Guo J, Allard J, Cheng J, Ng A, Shafer S, Puech A, McPherson JD, Foernzler D, Peltz G, Usuka J. PMID: 15499019.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 62     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    111. Application of Bispectral Index and Narcotrend index to the measurement of the electroencephalographic effects of isoflurane with and without burst suppression. Anesthesiology. 2004 Oct; 101(4):847-54. Kreuer S, Bruhn J, Larsen R, Grundmann U, Shafer SL, Wilhelm W. PMID: 15448516.
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    112. Shock values. Anesthesiology. 2004 Sep; 101(3):567-8. Shafer SL. PMID: 15329579.
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    113. Spectral entropy as an electroencephalographic measure of anesthetic drug effect: a comparison with bispectral index and processed midlatency auditory evoked response. Anesthesiology. 2004 Jul; 101(1):34-42. Vanluchene AL, Vereecke H, Thas O, Mortier EP, Shafer SL, Struys MM. PMID: 15220769.
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    114. Pharmacodynamic interaction between propofol and remifentanil regarding hypnosis, tolerance of laryngoscopy, bispectral index, and electroencephalographic approximate entropy. Anesthesiology. 2004 Jun; 100(6):1353-72. Bouillon TW, Bruhn J, Radulescu L, Andresen C, Shafer TJ, Cohane C, Shafer SL. PMID: 15166553.
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    115. Determination of the pharmacodynamic interaction of propofol and remifentanil during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children. Anesthesiology. 2004 Jun; 100(6):1382-6. Drover DR, Litalien C, Wellis V, Shafer SL, Hammer GB. PMID: 15166555.
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    116. Use of population modeling to define rational monitoring of amiodarone hepatic effects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Apr; 75(4):342-51. Pollak PT, Shafer SL. PMID: 15060512.
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    117. Mixed-effects modeling of the intrinsic ventilatory depressant potency of propofol in the non-steady state. Anesthesiology. 2004 Feb; 100(2):240-50. Bouillon T, Bruhn J, Radu-Radulescu L, Andresen C, Cohane C, Shafer SL. PMID: 14739795.
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    118. Safety of patients reason for FDA black box warning on droperidol. Anesth Analg. 2004 Feb; 98(2):551-2; author reply 552. Shafer SL. PMID: 14742409.
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    119. Teaching application of clinical pharmacology skills using unusual observations from clozapine overdoses. J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Feb; 44(2):141-9. Pollak PT, Shafer SL. PMID: 14747422.
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    120. MAC Attack? Anesthesiology. 2003 Dec; 99(6):1249-50. Sani O, Shafer SL. PMID: 14639133.
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    121. Target-controlled infusions for intravenous anesthetics: surfing USA not! Anesthesiology. 2003 Nov; 99(5):1039-41. Egan TD, Shafer SL. PMID: 14576533.
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    122. A model of the ventilatory depressant potency of remifentanil in the non-steady state. Anesthesiology. 2003 Oct; 99(4):779-87. Bouillon T, Bruhn J, Radu-Radulescu L, Andresen C, Cohane C, Shafer SL. PMID: 14508307.
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    123. Using the time of maximum effect site concentration to combine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Anesthesiology. 2003 Aug; 99(2):324-33. Minto CF, Schnider TW, Gregg KM, Henthorn TK, Shafer SL. PMID: 12883405.
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    124. Cephalad movement of morphine and fentanyl in humans after intrathecal injection. Anesthesiology. 2003 Jul; 99(1):166-73. Eisenach JC, Hood DD, Curry R, Shafer SL. PMID: 12826857.
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    125. Isoflurane antagonizes the capacity of flurothyl or 1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane to impair fear conditioning to context and tone. Anesth Analg. 2003 Apr; 96(4):1010-8, table of contents. Eger EI, Xing Y, Pearce R, Shafer S, Laster MJ, Zhang Y, Fanselow MS, Sonner JM. PMID: 12651651.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    126. Correlation of approximate entropy, bispectral index, and spectral edge frequency 95 (SEF95) with clinical signs of "anesthetic depth" during coadministration of propofol and remifentanil. Anesthesiology. 2003 Mar; 98(3):621-7. Bruhn J, Bouillon TW, Radulescu L, Hoeft A, Bertaccini E, Shafer SL. PMID: 12606904.
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    127. Mathematical analysis of a pharmacodynamic model without plasma concentrations to extend its applicability. Med Hypotheses. 2003 Mar; 60(3):453-7. Nava-Ocampo AA, Shafer SL, Velázquez-Armenta Y, Ruiz-Velazco S, Toni B. PMID: 12581628.
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    128. Non-steady state analysis of the pharmacokinetic interaction between propofol and remifentanil. Anesthesiology. 2002 Dec; 97(6):1350-62. Bouillon T, Bruhn J, Radu-Radulescu L, Bertaccini E, Park S, Shafer S. PMID: 12459659.
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    129. Pharmacokinetic study of FFP photochemically treated with amotosalen (S-59) and UV light compared to FFP in healthy volunteers anticoagulated with warfarin. Transfusion. 2002 Oct; 42(10):1302-7. Hambleton J, Wages D, Radu-Radulescu L, Adams M, MacKenzie M, Shafer S, Lee M, Smyers J, Wiesehahn G, Corash L. PMID: 12423514.
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    130. Efficient trial design for eliciting a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model-based response surface describing the interaction between two intravenous anesthetic drugs. Anesthesiology. 2002 Feb; 96(2):400-8. Short TG, Ho TY, Minto CF, Schnider TW, Shafer SL. PMID: 11818774.
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    131. Artifact robustness, inter- and intraindividual baseline stability, and rational EEG parameter selection. Anesthesiology. 2002 Jan; 96(1):54-9. Bruhn J, Bouillon TW, Hoeft A, Shafer SL. PMID: 11753002.
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