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Vanessa Bal, PhD

TitleAssistant Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentPsychiatry
Address401 Parnassus Ave.
San Francisco CA 94143
Phone415-502-4026
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of MichiganBA2004Psychology
    University of OxfordMSc2007Neuroscience
    University of MichiganPhD2014Psychology [Clinical]

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Identifying the role of emotion processes in core features of Autism Spectrum Disorder
    NIH/NIMH K23MH115166Sep 5, 2017 - Aug 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Featured Publications
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    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Kim SH, Bal V, Lord C. Longitudinal follow-up of academic achievement in children with autism from age 2 to 18. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2018 Mar; 59(3):258-267. PMID: 28949003.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Bal V, Farmer C, Thurm A. Describing Function in ASD: Using the DSM-5 and Other Methods to Improve Precision. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017 Sep; 47(9):2938-2941. PMID: 28681254.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Grzadzinski R, Lord C, Sanders SJ, Werling D, Bal V. Children with autism spectrum disorder who improve with fever: Insights from the Simons Simplex Collection. Autism Res. 2018 Jan; 11(1):175-184. PMID: 28861935.
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    4. Havdahl KA, Bal V, Huerta M, Pickles A, Øyen AS, Stoltenberg C, Lord C, Bishop SL. Dr. Havdahl et al. reply. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017 Jul; 56(7):619-620. PMID: 28647015.
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    5. Havdahl KA, Hus Bal V, Lord C, Pickles A, Bishop SL. In Reply. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017 Apr; 56(4):355-357. PMID: 28335882.
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    6. Krasileva KE, Sanders SJ, Bal V. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: Proxy for Verbal IQ in Genetic Studies of Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017 04; 47(4):1073-1085. PMID: 28132124.
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    7. Bishop SL, Farmer C, Bal V, Robinson EB, Willsey AJ, Werling DM, Havdahl KA, Sanders SJ, Thurm A. Identification of Developmental and Behavioral Markers Associated With Genetic Abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2017 06 01; 174(6):576-585. PMID: 28253736.
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    8. Havdahl KA, Hus Bal V, Huerta M, Pickles A, Øyen AS, Stoltenberg C, Lord C, Bishop SL. Multidimensional Influences on Autism Symptom Measures: Implications for Use in Etiological Research. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016 Dec; 55(12):1054-1063.e3. PMID: 27871640.
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    9. Bal V, Katz T, Bishop SL, Krasileva K. Understanding definitions of minimally verbal across instruments: evidence for subgroups within minimally verbal children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2016 Dec; 57(12):1424-1433. PMID: 27473432.
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    10. Bishop SL, Huerta M, Gotham K, Alexandra Havdahl K, Pickles A, Duncan A, Hus Bal V, Croen L, Lord C. The autism symptom interview, school-age: A brief telephone interview to identify autism spectrum disorders in 5-to-12-year-old children. Autism Res. 2017 Jan; 10(1):78-88. PMID: 27282463.
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    11. Pugliese CE, Kenworthy L, Bal V, Wallace GL, Yerys BE, Maddox BB, White SW, Popal H, Armour AC, Miller J, Herrington JD, Schultz RT, Martin A, Anthony LG. Replication and Comparison of the Newly Proposed ADOS-2, Module 4 Algorithm in ASD Without ID: A Multi-site Study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015 Dec; 45(12):3919-31. PMID: 26385796.
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    12. Sanders SJ, He X, Willsey AJ, Ercan-Sencicek AG, Samocha KE, Cicek AE, Murtha MT, Bal V, Bishop SL, Dong S, Goldberg AP, Jinlu C, Keaney JF, Klei L, Mandell JD, Moreno-De-Luca D, Poultney CS, Robinson EB, Smith L, Solli-Nowlan T, Su MY, Teran NA, Walker MF, Werling DM, Beaudet AL, Cantor RM, Fombonne E, Geschwind DH, Grice DE, Lord C, Lowe JK, Mane SM, Martin DM, Morrow EM, Talkowski ME, Sutcliffe JS, Walsh CA, Yu TW. Insights into Autism Spectrum Disorder Genomic Architecture and Biology from 71 Risk Loci. Neuron. 2015 Sep 23; 87(6):1215-1233. PMID: 26402605; PMCID: PMC4624267.
    13. Esler AN, Bal V, Guthrie W, Wetherby A, Ellis Weismer S, Lord C. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015 Sep; 45(9):2704-20. PMID: 25832801; PMCID: PMC4898775.
    14. Bal V, Kim SH, Cheong D, Lord C. Daily living skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder from 2 to 21?years of age. Autism. 2015 Oct; 19(7):774-84. PMID: 25922445; PMCID: PMC4912002.
    15. Hus Bal V, Lord C. Replication of Standardized ADOS Domain Scores in the Simons Simplex Collection. Autism Res. 2015 Oct; 8(5):583-92. PMID: 25712123; PMCID: PMC4876493.
    16. Hus V, Gotham K, Lord C. Standardizing ADOS domain scores: separating severity of social affect and restricted and repetitive behaviors. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014 Oct; 44(10):2400-12. PMID: 23143131.
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    17. Chaste P, Klei L, Sanders SJ, Hus V, Murtha MT, Lowe JK, Willsey AJ, Moreno-De-Luca D, Yu TW, Fombonne E, Geschwind D, Grice DE, Ledbetter DH, Mane SM, Martin DM, Morrow EM, Walsh CA, Sutcliffe JS, Lese Martin C, Beaudet AL, Lord C, State MW, Cook EH, Devlin B. A genome-wide association study of autism using the Simons Simplex Collection: Does reducing phenotypic heterogeneity in autism increase genetic homogeneity? Biol Psychiatry. 2015 May 01; 77(9):775-84. PMID: 25534755; PMCID: PMC4379124.
    18. Hus V, Lord C. The autism diagnostic observation schedule, module 4: revised algorithm and standardized severity scores. J Autism Dev Disord. 2014 Aug; 44(8):1996-2012. PMID: 24590409.
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    19. Chaste P, Sanders SJ, Mohan KN, Klei L, Song Y, Murtha MT, Hus V, Lowe JK, Willsey AJ, Moreno-De-Luca D, Yu TW, Fombonne E, Geschwind D, Grice DE, Ledbetter DH, Lord C, Mane SM, Martin DM, Morrow EM, Walsh CA, Sutcliffe JS, State MW, Martin CL, Devlin B, Beaudet AL, Cook EH, Kim SJ. Modest impact on risk for autism spectrum disorder of rare copy number variants at 15q11.2, specifically breakpoints 1 to 2. Autism Res. 2014 Jun; 7(3):355-62. PMID: 24821083.
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    20. Goin-Kochel, R., Esler, A.N., Kanne, S., Hus, V. .Developmental regression among children with autism spectrum disorders: Onset, duration, and effects on functional outcomes. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2014; 7(8):890-898.
    21. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs. Nat Genet. 2013 Sep; 45(9):984-94. PMID: 23933821.
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    22. Chaste P, Klei L, Sanders SJ, Murtha MT, Hus V, Lowe JK, Willsey AJ, Moreno-De-Luca D, Yu TW, Fombonne E, Geschwind D, Grice DE, Ledbetter DH, Lord C, Mane SM, Lese Martin C, Martin DM, Morrow EM, Walsh CA, Sutcliffe JS, State MW, Devlin B, Cook EH, Kim SJ. Adjusting head circumference for covariates in autism: clinical correlates of a highly heritable continuous trait. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Oct 15; 74(8):576-84. PMID: 23746936; PMCID: PMC3772969.
    23. Bishop SL, Hus V, Duncan A, Huerta M, Gotham K, Pickles A, Kreiger A, Buja A, Lund S, Lord C. Subcategories of restricted and repetitive behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013 Jun; 43(6):1287-97. PMID: 23065116.
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    24. Huerta M, Bishop SL, Duncan A, Hus V, Lord C. Response to Ritvo and Ritvo letter. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Apr; 170(4):445-6. PMID: 23545798.
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    25. Hus V, Bishop S, Gotham K, Huerta M, Lord C. Commentary: Advancing measurement of ASD severity and social competence: a reply to Constantino and Frazier (2013). J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013 Jun; 54(6):698-700. PMID: 23488613.
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    26. Hus V, Lord C. Effects of child characteristics on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: implications for use of scores as a measure of ASD severity. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013 Feb; 43(2):371-81. PMID: 22729382; PMCID: PMC3493749.
    27. Gotham K, Bishop SL, Hus V, Huerta M, Lund S, Buja A, Krieger A, Lord C. Exploring the relationship between anxiety and insistence on sameness in autism spectrum disorders. Autism Res. 2013 Feb; 6(1):33-41. PMID: 23258569; PMCID: PMC4373663.
    28. Klei L, Sanders SJ, Murtha MT, Hus V, Lowe JK, Willsey AJ, Moreno-De-Luca D, Yu TW, Fombonne E, Geschwind D, Grice DE, Ledbetter DH, Lord C, Mane SM, Martin CL, Martin DM, Morrow EM, Walsh CA, Melhem NM, Chaste P, Sutcliffe JS, State MW, Cook EH, Roeder K, Devlin B. Common genetic variants, acting additively, are a major source of risk for autism. Mol Autism. 2012 Oct 15; 3(1):9. PMID: 23067556; PMCID: PMC3579743.
    29. Huerta M, Bishop SL, Duncan A, Hus V, Lord C. Application of DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder to three samples of children with DSM-IV diagnoses of pervasive developmental disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Oct; 169(10):1056-64. PMID: 23032385.
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    30. Anney R, Klei L, Pinto D, Almeida J, Bacchelli E, Baird G, Bolshakova N, Bölte S, Bolton PF, Bourgeron T, Brennan S, Brian J, Casey J, Conroy J, Correia C, Corsello C, Crawford EL, de Jonge M, Delorme R, Duketis E, Duque F, Estes A, Farrar P, Fernandez BA, Folstein SE, Fombonne E, Gilbert J, Gillberg C, Glessner JT, Green A, Green J, Guter SJ, Heron EA, Holt R, Howe JL, Hughes G, Hus V, Igliozzi R, Jacob S, Kenny GP, Kim C, Kolevzon A, Kustanovich V, Lajonchere CM, Lamb JA, Law-Smith M, Leboyer M, Le Couteur A, Leventhal BL, Liu XQ, Lombard F, Lord C, Lotspeich L, Lund SC, Magalhaes TR, Mantoulan C, McDougle CJ, Melhem NM, Merikangas A, Minshew NJ, Mirza GK, Munson J, Noakes C, Nygren G, Papanikolaou K, Pagnamenta AT, Parrini B, Paton T, Pickles A, Posey DJ, Poustka F, Ragoussis J, Regan R, Roberts W, Roeder K, Roge B, Rutter ML, Schlitt S, Shah N, Sheffield VC, Soorya L, Sousa I, Stoppioni V, Sykes N, Tancredi R, Thompson AP, Thomson S, Tryfon A, Tsiantis J, Van Engeland H, Vincent JB, Volkmar F, Vorstman JA, Wallace S, Wing K, Wittemeyer K, Wood S, Zurawiecki D, Zwaigenbaum L, Bailey AJ, Battaglia A, Cantor RM, Coon H, Cuccaro ML, Dawson G, Ennis S, Freitag CM, Geschwind DH, Haines JL, Klauck SM, McMahon WM, Maestrini E, Miller J, Monaco AP, Nelson SF, Nurnberger JI, Oliveira G, Parr JR, Pericak-Vance MA, Piven J, Schellenberg GD, Scherer SW, Vicente AM, Wassink TH, Wijsman EM, Betancur C, Buxbaum JD, Cook EH, Gallagher L, Gill M, Hallmayer J, Paterson AD, Sutcliffe JS, Szatmari P, Vieland VJ, Hakonarson H, Devlin B. Individual common variants exert weak effects on the risk for autism spectrum disorders. Hum Mol Genet. 2012 Nov 01; 21(21):4781-92. PMID: 22843504.
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    31. Hus V, Bishop S, Gotham K, Huerta M, Lord C. Factors influencing scores on the social responsiveness scale. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013 Feb; 54(2):216-24. PMID: 22823182.
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    32. Lord C, Petkova E, Hus V, Gan W, Lu F, Martin DM, Ousley O, Guy L, Bernier R, Gerdts J, Algermissen M, Whitaker A, Sutcliffe JS, Warren Z, Klin A, Saulnier C, Hanson E, Hundley R, Piggot J, Fombonne E, Steiman M, Miles J, Kanne SM, Goin-Kochel RP, Peters SU, Cook EH, Guter S, Tjernagel J, Green-Snyder LA, Bishop S, Esler A, Gotham K, Luyster R, Miller F, Olson J, Richler J, Risi S. A multisite study of the clinical diagnosis of different autism spectrum disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Mar; 69(3):306-13. PMID: 22065253; PMCID: PMC3626112.
    33. Casey JP, Magalhaes T, Conroy JM, Regan R, Shah N, Anney R, Shields DC, Abrahams BS, Almeida J, Bacchelli E, Bailey AJ, Baird G, Battaglia A, Berney T, Bolshakova N, Bolton PF, Bourgeron T, Brennan S, Cali P, Correia C, Corsello C, Coutanche M, Dawson G, de Jonge M, Delorme R, Duketis E, Duque F, Estes A, Farrar P, Fernandez BA, Folstein SE, Foley S, Fombonne E, Freitag CM, Gilbert J, Gillberg C, Glessner JT, Green J, Guter SJ, Hakonarson H, Holt R, Hughes G, Hus V, Igliozzi R, Kim C, Klauck SM, Kolevzon A, Lamb JA, Leboyer M, Le Couteur A, Leventhal BL, Lord C, Lund SC, Maestrini E, Mantoulan C, Marshall CR, McConachie H, McDougle CJ, McGrath J, McMahon WM, Merikangas A, Miller J, Minopoli F, Mirza GK, Munson J, Nelson SF, Nygren G, Oliveira G, Pagnamenta AT, Papanikolaou K, Parr JR, Parrini B, Pickles A, Pinto D, Piven J, Posey DJ, Poustka A, Poustka F, Ragoussis J, Roge B, Rutter ML, Sequeira AF, Soorya L, Sousa I, Sykes N, Stoppioni V, Tancredi R, Tauber M, Thompson AP, Thomson S, Tsiantis J, Van Engeland H, Vincent JB, Volkmar F, Vorstman JA, Wallace S, Wang K, Wassink TH, White K, Wing K, Wittemeyer K, Yaspan BL, Zwaigenbaum L, Betancur C, Buxbaum JD, Cantor RM, Cook EH, Coon H, Cuccaro ML, Geschwind DH, Haines JL, Hallmayer J, Monaco AP, Nurnberger JI, Pericak-Vance MA, Schellenberg GD, Scherer SW, Sutcliffe JS, Szatmari P, Vieland VJ, Wijsman EM, Green A, Gill M, Gallagher L, Vicente A, Ennis S. A novel approach of homozygous haplotype sharing identifies candidate genes in autism spectrum disorder. Hum Genet. 2012 Apr; 131(4):565-79. PMID: 21996756.
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    34. Sanders SJ, Ercan-Sencicek AG, Hus V, Luo R, Murtha MT, Moreno-De-Luca D, Chu SH, Moreau MP, Gupta AR, Thomson SA, Mason CE, Bilguvar K, Celestino-Soper PB, Choi M, Crawford EL, Davis L, Wright NR, Dhodapkar RM, DiCola M, DiLullo NM, Fernandez TV, Fielding-Singh V, Fishman DO, Frahm S, Garagaloyan R, Goh GS, Kammela S, Klei L, Lowe JK, Lund SC, McGrew AD, Meyer KA, Moffat WJ, Murdoch JD, O'Roak BJ, Ober GT, Pottenger RS, Raubeson MJ, Song Y, Wang Q, Yaspan BL, Yu TW, Yurkiewicz IR, Beaudet AL, Cantor RM, Curland M, Grice DE, Günel M, Lifton RP, Mane SM, Martin DM, Shaw CA, Sheldon M, Tischfield JA, Walsh CA, Morrow EM, Ledbetter DH, Fombonne E, Lord C, Martin CL, Brooks AI, Sutcliffe JS, Cook EH, Geschwind D, Roeder K, Devlin B, State MW. Multiple recurrent de novo CNVs, including duplications of the 7q11.23 Williams syndrome region, are strongly associated with autism. Neuron. 2011 Jun 09; 70(5):863-85. PMID: 21658581.
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    35. Hus V, Taylor A, Lord C. Telescoping of caregiver report on the Autism Diagnostic Interview--Revised. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011 Jul; 52(7):753-60. PMID: 21410473.
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    36. Anney R, Klei L, Pinto D, Regan R, Conroy J, Magalhaes TR, Correia C, Abrahams BS, Sykes N, Pagnamenta AT, Almeida J, Bacchelli E, Bailey AJ, Baird G, Battaglia A, Berney T, Bolshakova N, Bölte S, Bolton PF, Bourgeron T, Brennan S, Brian J, Carson AR, Casallo G, Casey J, Chu SH, Cochrane L, Corsello C, Crawford EL, Crossett A, Dawson G, de Jonge M, Delorme R, Drmic I, Duketis E, Duque F, Estes A, Farrar P, Fernandez BA, Folstein SE, Fombonne E, Freitag CM, Gilbert J, Gillberg C, Glessner JT, Goldberg J, Green J, Guter SJ, Hakonarson H, Heron EA, Hill M, Holt R, Howe JL, Hughes G, Hus V, Igliozzi R, Kim C, Klauck SM, Kolevzon A, Korvatska O, Kustanovich V, Lajonchere CM, Lamb JA, Laskawiec M, Leboyer M, Le Couteur A, Leventhal BL, Lionel AC, Liu XQ, Lord C, Lotspeich L, Lund SC, Maestrini E, Mahoney W, Mantoulan C, Marshall CR, McConachie H, McDougle CJ, McGrath J, McMahon WM, Melhem NM, Merikangas A, Migita O, Minshew NJ, Mirza GK, Munson J, Nelson SF, Noakes C, Noor A, Nygren G, Oliveira G, Papanikolaou K, Parr JR, Parrini B, Paton T, Pickles A, Piven J, Posey DJ, Poustka A, Poustka F, Prasad A, Ragoussis J, Renshaw K, Rickaby J, Roberts W, Roeder K, Roge B, Rutter ML, Bierut LJ, Rice JP, Salt J, Sansom K, Sato D, Segurado R, Senman L, Shah N, Sheffield VC, Soorya L, Sousa I, Stoppioni V, Strawbridge C, Tancredi R, Tansey K, Thiruvahindrapduram B, Thompson AP, Thomson S, Tryfon A, Tsiantis J, Van Engeland H, Vincent JB, Volkmar F, Wallace S, Wang K, Wang Z, Wassink TH, Wing K, Wittemeyer K, Wood S, Yaspan BL, Zurawiecki D, Zwaigenbaum L, Betancur C, Buxbaum JD, Cantor RM, Cook EH, Coon H, Cuccaro ML, Gallagher L, Geschwind DH, Gill M, Haines JL, Miller J, Monaco AP, Nurnberger JI, Paterson AD, Pericak-Vance MA, Schellenberg GD, Scherer SW, Sutcliffe JS, Szatmari P, Vicente AM, Vieland VJ, Wijsman EM, Devlin B, Ennis S, Hallmayer J. A genome-wide scan for common alleles affecting risk for autism. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Oct 15; 19(20):4072-82. PMID: 20663923.
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    37. Pinto D, Pagnamenta AT, Klei L, Anney R, Merico D, Regan R, Conroy J, Magalhaes TR, Correia C, Abrahams BS, Almeida J, Bacchelli E, Bader GD, Bailey AJ, Baird G, Battaglia A, Berney T, Bolshakova N, Bölte S, Bolton PF, Bourgeron T, Brennan S, Brian J, Bryson SE, Carson AR, Casallo G, Casey J, Chung BH, Cochrane L, Corsello C, Crawford EL, Crossett A, Cytrynbaum C, Dawson G, de Jonge M, Delorme R, Drmic I, Duketis E, Duque F, Estes A, Farrar P, Fernandez BA, Folstein SE, Fombonne E, Freitag CM, Gilbert J, Gillberg C, Glessner JT, Goldberg J, Green A, Green J, Guter SJ, Hakonarson H, Heron EA, Hill M, Holt R, Howe JL, Hughes G, Hus V, Igliozzi R, Kim C, Klauck SM, Kolevzon A, Korvatska O, Kustanovich V, Lajonchere CM, Lamb JA, Laskawiec M, Leboyer M, Le Couteur A, Leventhal BL, Lionel AC, Liu XQ, Lord C, Lotspeich L, Lund SC, Maestrini E, Mahoney W, Mantoulan C, Marshall CR, McConachie H, McDougle CJ, McGrath J, McMahon WM, Merikangas A, Migita O, Minshew NJ, Mirza GK, Munson J, Nelson SF, Noakes C, Noor A, Nygren G, Oliveira G, Papanikolaou K, Parr JR, Parrini B, Paton T, Pickles A, Pilorge M, Piven J, Ponting CP, Posey DJ, Poustka A, Poustka F, Prasad A, Ragoussis J, Renshaw K, Rickaby J, Roberts W, Roeder K, Roge B, Rutter ML, Bierut LJ, Rice JP, Salt J, Sansom K, Sato D, Segurado R, Sequeira AF, Senman L, Shah N, Sheffield VC, Soorya L, Sousa I, Stein O, Sykes N, Stoppioni V, Strawbridge C, Tancredi R, Tansey K, Thiruvahindrapduram B, Thompson AP, Thomson S, Tryfon A, Tsiantis J, Van Engeland H, Vincent JB, Volkmar F, Wallace S, Wang K, Wang Z, Wassink TH, Webber C, Weksberg R, Wing K, Wittemeyer K, Wood S, Wu J, Yaspan BL, Zurawiecki D, Zwaigenbaum L, Buxbaum JD, Cantor RM, Cook EH, Coon H, Cuccaro ML, Devlin B, Ennis S, Gallagher L, Geschwind DH, Gill M, Haines JL, Hallmayer J, Miller J, Monaco AP, Nurnberger JI, Paterson AD, Pericak-Vance MA, Schellenberg GD, Szatmari P, Vicente AM, Vieland VJ, Wijsman EM, Scherer SW, Sutcliffe JS, Betancur C. Functional impact of global rare copy number variation in autism spectrum disorders. Nature. 2010 Jul 15; 466(7304):368-72. PMID: 20531469.
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    38. Luyster R, Gotham K, Guthrie W, Coffing M, Petrak R, Pierce K, Bishop S, Esler A, Hus V, Oti R, Richler J, Risi S, Lord C. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-toddler module: a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009 Sep; 39(9):1305-20. PMID: 19415479; PMCID: PMC2893552.
    39. Corsello C, Hus V, Pickles A, Risi S, Cook EH, Leventhal BL, Lord C. Between a ROC and a hard place: decision making and making decisions about using the SCQ. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007 Sep; 48(9):932-40. PMID: 17714378.
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    40. Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements. Nat Genet. 2007 Mar; 39(3):319-28. PMID: 17322880.
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    41. Hus V, Pickles A, Cook EH, Risi S, Lord C. Using the autism diagnostic interview--revised to increase phenotypic homogeneity in genetic studies of autism. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Feb 15; 61(4):438-48. PMID: 17276746.
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    42. Havdahl, KA Bal, VH Huerta, M Pickles, A Oyen, AS Stoltenberg, C Lord, C Bishop, S.Multidimensional influences on autism symptom measures: Implications for use in etiological research. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.