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Wendy Max, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Institute for Health & Aging
SchoolSchool of Nursing
Phone415-476-8023
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)Co-Director, Institute for Health and Aging


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    UCSF2012Hal Luft Mentoring Award in Health Services and Health Policy Research
    UCSF2010Helen Nahm Research Award
    Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 2001  - 2006Honorary Visiting Professorship

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Wendy Max, Ph.D. is Professor of Health Economics and Co-Director of the Institute for Health & Aging at the University of California, San Francisco. She has been on the faculty at UCSF since 1987. Dr. Max holds a PhD in economics from the University of Colorado, Boulder. Her recent research has focused on modeling the economic impact of tobacco on healthcare expenditures. She has estimated national costs of smoking; costs to Medicare, Medicaid, and private payers; costs in California; and the impact on communities of color. She is currently developing models of the impact of secondhand exposure on healthcare expenditures in California and the US. Her other current projects include evaluating an integrated primary healthcare program in rural Malawi and looking at the economic impact of hurricane Katrina on the primary healthcare safety net in New Orleans. Dr. Max has also conducted studies related to the economic impact of Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and injuries.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Improved Models to Inform Tobacco Product Regulation
    NIH/NCI P50CA180890Sep 19, 2013 - Aug 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Global Health
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Max WB, Stark BB, Sung HY, Offen NB. Deaths from smoking and from HIV/AIDS among gay and bisexual men in California, 2005-2050. Tob Control. 2019 May 30. PMID: 31147476.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Coombs LA, Max W, Kolevska T, Tonner C, Stephens C. Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants: An Underestimated Workforce for Older Adults with Cancer. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019 Jul; 67(7):1489-1494. PMID: 31059140.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Watkins SL, Thrul J, Max W, Ling P. Cold Turkey and Hot Vapes? A national study of young adult cigarette cessation strategies. Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Dec 26. PMID: 30590749.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Yao T, Sung HY, Wang Y, Lightwood J, Max W. Healthcare Costs of Secondhand Smoke Exposure at Home for U.S. Children. Am J Prev Med. 2019 Feb; 56(2):281-287. PMID: 30553690.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Sung HY, Penko J, Cummins SE, Max W, Zhu SH, Bibbins-Domingo K, Kohatsu ND. Economic Impact of Financial Incentives and Mailing Nicotine Patches to Help Medicaid Smokers Quit Smoking: A Cost-Benefit Analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2018 Dec; 55(6S2):S148-S158. PMID: 30454669.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Johnson JK, Stewart AL, Acree M, Nápoles AM, Flatt JD, Max WB, Gregorich SE. A Community Choir Intervention to Promote Well-being among Diverse Older Adults: Results from the Community of Voices Trial. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2018 Nov 09. PMID: 30412233.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Max WB, Sung HY, Lightwood J, Wang Y, Yao T. Modelling the impact of a new tobacco product: review of Philip Morris International's Population Health Impact Model as applied to the IQOS heated tobacco product. Tob Control. 2018 11; 27(Suppl 1):s82-s86. PMID: 30275170.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Wang Y, Sung HY, Lightwood J, Chaffee BW, Yao T, Max W. Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Attributable to Smokeless Tobacco Use Among US Adults. Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Sep 25; 20(11):1359-1368. PMID: 29059335.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Sung HY, Wang Y, Yao T, Lightwood J, Max W. Polytobacco Use and Nicotine Dependence Symptoms Among US Adults, 2012-2014. Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Aug 14; 20(suppl_1):S88-S98. PMID: 30125019.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Keeler C, Max W, Yerger VB, Yao T, Wang Y, Ong MK, Sung HY. Effects of cigarette prices on intention to quit, quit attempts, and successful cessation among African American smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Jul 18. PMID: 30032184.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Wang Y, Sung HY, Yao T, Lightwood J, Max W. Infrequent and Frequent Nondaily Smokers and Daily Smokers: Their Characteristics and Other Tobacco Use Patterns. Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 May 03; 20(6):741-748. PMID: 28186549.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Wang Y, Sung HY, Yao T, Lightwood J, Max W. Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Attributable to Cigar Smoking Among US Adults, 2000-2015. Public Health Rep. 2018 May/Jun; 133(3):329-337. PMID: 29688130.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Yao T, Sung HY, Wang Y, Lightwood J, Max W. Healthcare costs attributable to secondhand smoke exposure at home for U.S. adults. Prev Med. 2018 03; 108:41-46. PMID: 29288781.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Keeler C, Max W, Yerger V, Yao T, Ong MK, Sung HY. The Association of Menthol Cigarette Use With Quit Attempts, Successful Cessation, and Intention to Quit Across Racial/Ethnic Groups in the United States. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Nov 07; 19(12):1450-1464. PMID: 27613927.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Yao T, Max W, Sung HY, Glantz SA, Goldberg RL, Wang JB, Wang Y, Lightwood J, Cataldo J. Relationship between spending on electronic cigarettes, 30-day use, and disease symptoms among current adult cigarette smokers in the U.S. PLoS One. 2017; 12(11):e0187399. PMID: 29112988.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Smith-Bernardin S, Carrico A, Max W, Chapman S. Utilization of a Sobering Center for Acute Alcohol Intoxication. Acad Emerg Med. 2017 09; 24(9):1060-1071. PMID: 28493551.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Yao T, Ong MK, Max W, Keeler C, Wang Y, Yerger VB, Sung HY. Responsiveness to cigarette prices by different racial/ethnic groups of US adults. Tob Control. 2018 05; 27(3):301-309. PMID: 28747492.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Kulik MC, Bialous SA, Munthali S, Max W. Tobacco growing and the sustainable development goals, Malawi. Bull World Health Organ. 2017 May 01; 95(5):362-367. PMID: 28479637.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Wang Y, Sung HY, Yao T, Lightwood J, Max W. Factors associated with short-term transitions of non-daily smokers: socio-demographic characteristics and other tobacco product use. Addiction. 2017 May; 112(5):864-872. PMID: 27886652.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Max W, Stark B, Sung HY, Offen N. Max et al. Respond. Am J Public Health. 2016 09; 106(9):e4-5. PMID: 27509289; PMCID: PMC4981790.
    21. Max WB, Stark B, Sung HY, Offen N. Sexual Identity Disparities in Smoking and Secondhand Smoke Exposure in California: 2003-2013. Am J Public Health. 2016 06; 106(6):1136-42. PMID: 26985597.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Yao T, Sung HY, Wang Y, Lightwood J, Max W. Sociodemographic Differences Among U.S. Children and Adults Exposed to Secondhand Smoke at Home: National Health Interview Surveys 2000 and 2010. Public Health Rep. 2016 Mar-Apr; 131(2):357-66. PMID: 26957671; PMCID: PMC4765985 [Available on 03/01/17].
    23. van Kempen BJ, Ferket BS, Steyerberg EW, Max W, Myriam Hunink MG, Fleischmann KE. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of four novel risk markers for screening asymptomatic individuals to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the US population. Int J Cardiol. 2016 Jan 15; 203:422-31. PMID: 26547049.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Johnson JK, Nápoles AM, Stewart AL, Max WB, Santoyo-Olsson J, Freyre R, Allison TA, Gregorich SE. Study protocol for a cluster randomized trial of the Community of Voices choir intervention to promote the health and well-being of diverse older adults. BMC Public Health. 2015 Oct 13; 15:1049. PMID: 26463176; PMCID: PMC4603966.
    25. Max W, Sung HY, Shi Y, Stark B. The Cost of Smoking in California. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 May; 18(5):1222-9. PMID: 26156629.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Sung HY, Wang Y, Yao T, Lightwood J, Max W. Polytobacco Use of Cigarettes, Cigars, Chewing Tobacco, and Snuff Among US Adults. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 May; 18(5):817-26. PMID: 26136525.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Chambers C, Sung HY, Max W. Home exposure to secondhand smoke among people living in multiunit housing and single family housing: a study of California adults, 2003-2012. J Urban Health. 2015 Apr; 92(2):279-90. PMID: 25466438; PMCID: PMC4411315.
    28. Berndt N, Bolman C, Lechner L, Max W, Mudde A, de Vries H, Evers S. Economic evaluation of a telephone- and face-to-face-delivered counseling intervention for smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease. Eur J Health Econ. 2016 Apr; 17(3):269-85. PMID: 25796578.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Chaloupka FJ, Warner KE, Acemoglu D, Gruber J, Laux F, Max W, Newhouse J, Schelling T, Sindelar J. An evaluation of the FDA's analysis of the costs and benefits of the graphic warning label regulation. Tob Control. 2015 Mar; 24(2):112-9. PMID: 25550419.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Lindsay RP, Tsoh JY, Sung HY, Max W. Secondhand smoke exposure and serum cotinine levels among current smokers in the USA. Tob Control. 2016 Mar; 25(2):224-31. PMID: 25398561.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Yao T, Sung HY, Mao Z, Hu TW, Max W. The healthcare costs of secondhand smoke exposure in rural China. Tob Control. 2015 Oct; 24(e3):e221-6. PMID: 25335898.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Max W, Sung HY, Shi Y. Childhood secondhand smoke exposure and ADHD-attributable costs to the health and education system. J Sch Health. 2014 Oct; 84(10):683-6. PMID: 25154533.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Barnett PG, Hamlett-Berry K, Sung HY, Max W. Health care expenditures attributable to smoking in military veterans. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 May; 17(5):586-91. PMID: 25239960; PMCID: PMC5009451.
    34. Yao T, Huang J, Sung HY, Ong MK, Mao Z, Jiang Y, Fong GT, Max W. Determinants of smoking-induced deprivation in China. Tob Control. 2015 Nov; 24 Suppl 4:iv35-9. PMID: 24827978.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Ferket BS, van Kempen BJ, Hunink MG, Agarwal I, Kavousi M, Franco OH, Steyerberg EW, Max W, Fleischmann KE. Predictive value of updating Framingham risk scores with novel risk markers in the U.S. general population. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e88312. PMID: 24558385; PMCID: PMC3928195.
    36. Max W, Sung HY, Shi Y. The cost of secondhand smoke exposure at home in California. Tob Control. 2015 Mar; 24(2):205-10. PMID: 24500272.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Yao T, Huang J, Sung HY, Ong MK, Mao Z, Jiang Y, Fong GT, Max W. Who purchases cigarettes from cheaper sources in China? Findings from the ITC China Survey. Tob Control. 2014 Mar; 23 Suppl 1:i97-101. PMID: 24078076.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Max W, Sung HY, Shi Y. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children exposed to secondhand smoke: a logistic regression analysis of secondary data. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013 Jun; 50(6):797-806. PMID: 23107006.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Max W, Sung HY, Shi Y. Deaths from secondhand smoke exposure in the United States: economic implications. Am J Public Health. 2012 Nov; 102(11):2173-80. PMID: 22994180; PMCID: PMC3477960.
    40. Prochaska JJ, Sung HY, Max W, Shi Y, Ong M. Validity study of the K6 scale as a measure of moderate mental distress based on mental health treatment need and utilization. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2012 Jun; 21(2):88-97. PMID: 22351472.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Yao T, Sung HY, Mao Z, Hu TW, Max W. Secondhand smoke exposure at home in rural China. Cancer Causes Control. 2012 Mar; 23 Suppl 1:109-15. PMID: 22327886; PMCID: PMC3637665.
    42. Max W, Sung HY, Lightwood J. The impact of changes in tobacco control funding on healthcare expenditures in California, 2012-2016. Tob Control. 2013 May; 22(e1):e10-5. PMID: 22253003.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Max W, Sung HY, Shi Y. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home and at work in California. Public Health Rep. 2012 Jan-Feb; 127(1):81-8. PMID: 22298925; PMCID: PMC3234400.
    44. Knowlton K, Rotkin-Ellman M, Geballe L, Max W, Solomon GM. Six climate change-related events in the United States accounted for about $14 billion in lost lives and health costs. Health Aff (Millwood). 2011 Nov; 30(11):2167-76. PMID: 22068410.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Sung HY, Prochaska JJ, Ong MK, Shi Y, Max W. Cigarette smoking and serious psychological distress: a population-based study of California adults. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Dec; 13(12):1183-92. PMID: 21849411.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Dicker RA, Lopez DS, Pepper MB, Crane I, Max W. Cost-driven injury prevention: creating an innovative plan to save lives with limited resources. J Trauma. 2011 Apr; 70(4):985-90. PMID: 21610400.
      View in: PubMed
    47. John RM, Sung HY, Max WB, Ross H. Counting 15 million more poor in India, thanks to tobacco. Tob Control. 2011 Sep; 20(5):349-52. PMID: 21292807.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Max W, Sung HY, Tucker LY, Stark B. The cost of smoking for California's Hispanic community. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Apr; 13(4):248-54. PMID: 21330281.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Miller LS, Max W, Sung HY, Rice D, Zaretsky M. Evaluation of the economic impact of California's Tobacco Control Program: a dynamic model approach. Tob Control. 2010 Apr; 19 Suppl 1:i68-76. PMID: 20382654; PMCID: PMC2976474.
    50. Max W, Sung HY, Tucker LY, Stark B. The disproportionate cost of smoking for African Americans in California. Am J Public Health. 2010 Jan; 100(1):152-8. PMID: 19965569; PMCID: PMC2791258.
    51. Max W, Sung HY, Shi Y. Who is exposed to secondhand smoke? Self-reported and serum cotinine measured exposure in the U.S., 1999-2006. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 05; 6(5):1633-48. PMID: 19543411; PMCID: PMC2697933.
    52. John RM, Sung HY, Max W. Economic cost of tobacco use in India, 2004. Tob Control. 2009 Apr; 18(2):138-43. PMID: 19131453.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Max W, Sung HY, Stark B. The economic burden of breast cancer in California. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009 Jul; 116(1):201-7. PMID: 18683041.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Max W, Tsoukalas T. Economics on trial: the use and abuse of economic methods in third party tobacco litigation. Tob Control. 2006 Dec; 15 Suppl 4:iv77-83. PMID: 17130627; PMCID: PMC2563584.
    55. Max W, Rice DP, Sung HY, Zhang X, Miller L. The economic burden of smoking in California. Tob Control. 2004 Sep; 13(3):264-7. PMID: 15333882.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Froelicher ES, Sohn M, Max W, Bacchetti P. Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking-VII: evaluation of health service utilization and costs among women smokers with cardiovascular disease. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 2004 Jul-Aug; 24(4):218-28. PMID: 15286526.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Max W, Rice DP, Finkelstein E, Bardwell RA, Leadbetter S. The economic toll of intimate partner violence against women in the United States. Violence Vict. 2004 Jun; 19(3):259-72. PMID: 15631280.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Max W, Rice DP, Sung HY, Michel M, Breuer W, Zhang X. The economic burden of gynecologic cancers in California, 1998. Gynecol Oncol. 2003 Feb; 88(2):96-103. PMID: 12586586.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Max W, Rice DP, Sung HY, Michel M, Breuer W, Zhang X. The economic burden of prostate cancer, California, 1998. Cancer. 2002 Jun 01; 94(11):2906-13. PMID: 12115378.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Max W, Sinnot P, Kao C, Sung HY, Rice DP. The burden of osteoporosis in California, 1998. Osteoporos Int. 2002; 13(6):493-500. PMID: 12107664.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Rice DP, Fillit HM, Max W, Knopman DS, Lloyd JR, Duttagupta S. Prevalence, costs, and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and related dementia: a managed care perspective. Am J Manag Care. 2001 Aug; 7(8):809-18. PMID: 11519239.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Max W. The financial impact of smoking on health-related costs: a review of the literature. Am J Health Promot. 2001 May-Jun; 15(5):321-31. PMID: 11502013.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Fox PJ, Kohatsu N, Max W, Arnsberger P. Estimating the costs of caring for people with Alzheimer disease in California: 2000-2040. J Public Health Policy. 2001; 22(1):88-97. PMID: 11382092.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Zhang X, Miller L, Max W, Rice DP. Cost of smoking to the Medicare program, 1993. Health Care Financ Rev. 1999; 20(4):179-96. PMID: 11482121.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Max W, Stark B, Root S. Putting a lid on injury costs: the economic impact of the California motorcycle helmet law. J Trauma. 1998 Sep; 45(3):550-6. PMID: 9751549.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Miller LS, Zhang X, Rice DP, Max W. State estimates of total medical expenditures attributable to cigarette smoking, 1993. Public Health Rep. 1998 Sep-Oct; 113(5):447-58. PMID: 9769770.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Miller LS, Zhang X, Novotny T, Rice DP, Max W. State estimates of Medicaid expenditures attributable to cigarette smoking, fiscal year 1993. Public Health Rep. 1998 Mar-Apr; 113(2):140-51. PMID: 9719815.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Rice DP, Max W. The high cost of injuries in the United States. Am J Public Health. 1996 Jan; 86(1):14-5. PMID: 8561234.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Fox P, Gazzaniga J, Karter A, Max W. The economic costs of cardiovascular disease mortality in California, 1991: implications for public health policy. J Public Health Policy. 1996; 17(4):442-59. PMID: 9009539.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Max W. The cost of Alzheimer's disease. Will drug treatment ease the burden? Pharmacoeconomics. 1996 Jan; 9(1):5-10. PMID: 10172695.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Max W, Webber P, Fox P. Alzheimer's disease. The unpaid burden of caring. J Aging Health. 1995 May; 7(2):179-99. PMID: 10172777.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Rice DP, Fox PJ, Max W, Webber PA, Lindeman DA, Hauck WW, Segura E. The economic burden of Alzheimer's disease care. Health Aff (Millwood). 1993; 12(2):164-76. PMID: 8375811.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Max W, Rice DP. Shooting in the dark: estimating the cost of firearm injuries. Health Aff (Millwood). 1993; 12(4):171-85. PMID: 7802749.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Max W, Rice DP, MacKenzie EJ. The lifetime cost of injury. Inquiry. 1990; 27(4):332-43. PMID: 2148306.
      View in: PubMed