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Zena Vexler, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Neurology
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address675 Nelson Rising Lane
San Francisco CA 94158
Phone415-502-7282
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences


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    Zinaida Vexler, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Neurology at UCSF and Director of Research at the Neonatal Brain Disorder Center. She has multi-disciplinary training in chemistry, biochemistry, pharmacology, and physiology and has served as Director of MRI Core on PPG since 2002, and as the Director of Research of Neonatal Brain Disorders Center at UCSF since 2003.

    Over the last twenty five years, her research has been centered on the mechanisms of experimental stroke with the long-term goal of developing effective therapies. She has contributed to the fields of brain vascular and cellular injury after experimental stroke first in the adult and, over more than seventeen years, in the neonate. Dr. Vexler’s lab was the first to establish and characterize the in vivo models of focal arterial stroke in neonatal rodents. With these age-appropriate models of perinatal stroke, she defined that the “signature” of neurovascular integrity after stroke is markedly different after neonatal stroke than after adult stroke. Her studies of microglial cell function in injured neonatal brain have been critical for the improved understanding of neuroinflammation as modifier of perinatal stroke.

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    Childhood stroke: effects of infection-induced arteriopathies
    NIH R01NS103483Apr 15, 2018 - Jan 31, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Perinatal stroke: effects of bioactive lipids on immune-neurovascular axis and brain repair
    NIH R01HL139685Dec 18, 2017 - Nov 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mesenchymal stem cells – derived extracellular vesicles for repair after neonatal stroke
    Cerebral Palsy Alliance PG0816Jul 1, 2017 - May 31, 2019
    Role: Pinciple Investigator
    Immune modulation by microglia-derived microvesicles in neonatal stroke
    American Heart Association Innovative Award 17IRG33430004Jan 1, 2017 - Dec 31, 2018
    Role: Principle Investigator
    Leukocyte trafficking through the choroid plexus as modulator of neonatal focal stroke
    NIH R21NS098514Jul 1, 2016 - Jun 30, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Macrophages as modulators of repair after neonatal stroke
    NIH R01NS076726Jul 1, 2012 - Jun 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Blood-brain barrier function after neonatal and pediatric experimental stroke
    NIH R21NS080015Jul 1, 2012 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CINC-1 as a modulator of blood-brain barrier integrity after neonatal stroke
    NIH R01NS055915Aug 5, 2009 - Jul 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Neonatal Stroke: The Role of Microglia
    NIH R01NS044025Sep 1, 2002 - Feb 28, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of Ischemic Neonatal Brain Injury
    NIH/NINDS P50NS035902Apr 1, 1997 - Sep 24, 2002
    Role: Co-Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Neonatal Stroke and TLR1/2 Ligand Recruit Myeloid Cells through the Choroid Plexus in a CX3CR1-CCR2- and Context-Specific Manner. J Neurosci. 2020 May 06; 40(19):3849-3861. Rayasam A, Faustino J, Lecuyer M, Vexler ZS. PMID: 32269105.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    2. Sex-Dependent Effects of Perinatal Inflammation on the Brain: Implication for Neuro-Psychiatric Disorders. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 May 08; 20(9). Ardalan M, Chumak T, Vexler Z, Mallard C. PMID: 31071949.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    3. CX3CR1-CCR2-dependent monocyte-microglial signaling modulates neurovascular leakage and acute injury in a mouse model of childhood stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2019 10; 39(10):1919-1935. Faustino J, Chip S, Derugin N, Jullienne A, Hamer M, Haddad E, Butovsky O, Obenaus A, Vexler ZS. PMID: 30628839.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    4. Positive and negative conditioning in the neonatal brain. Cond Med. 2018 Oct; 1(6):279-293. Vexler ZS, Mallard C, Hagberg H. PMID: 31214666.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    5. A Novel Technique for Visualizing and Analyzing the Cerebral Vasculature in Rodents. Transl Stroke Res. 2018 May 15. Salehi A, Jullienne A, Wendel KM, Hamer M, Tang J, Zhang JH, Pearce WJ, DeFazio RA, Vexler ZS, Obenaus A. PMID: 29766452.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    
    6. The myth of the immature barrier systems in the developing brain: role in perinatal brain injury. J Physiol. 2018 12; 596(23):5655-5664. Mallard C, Ek CJ, Vexler ZS. PMID: 29528501.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    7. Microglia and Neonatal Brain Injury. Neuroscience. 2019 05 01; 405:68-76. Mallard C, Tremblay ME, Vexler ZS. PMID: 29352997.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    8. Live imaging of the innate immune response in neonates reveals differential TLR2 dependent activation patterns in sterile inflammation and infection. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Oct; 65:312-327. Lalancette-Hébert M, Faustino J, Thammisetty SS, Chip S, Vexler ZS, Kriz J. PMID: 28579520.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    9. Effects of therapeutic hypothermia on white matter injury from murine neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Pediatr Res. 2017 Sep; 82(3):518-526. Koo E, Sheldon RA, Lee BS, Vexler ZS, Ferriero DM. PMID: 28561815.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    10. Genetic deletion of galectin-3 enhances neuroinflammation, affects microglial activation and contributes to sub-chronic injury in experimental neonatal focal stroke. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Feb; 60:270-281. Chip S, Fernández-López D, Li F, Faustino J, Derugin N, Vexler ZS. PMID: 27836669.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    11. "Small Blood Vessels: Big Health Problems?": Scientific Recommendations of the National Institutes of Health Workshop. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 11 04; 5(11). Bosetti F, Galis ZS, Bynoe MS, Charette M, Cipolla MJ, Del Zoppo GJ, Gould D, Hatsukami TS, Jones TL, Koenig JI, Lutty GA, Maric-Bilkan C, Stevens T, Tolunay HE, Koroshetz W. PMID: 27815267.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuate MRI-identifiable injury, protect white matter, and improve long-term functional outcomes after neonatal focal stroke in rats. J Neurosci Res. 2017 05; 95(5):1225-1236. van Velthoven CT, Dzietko M, Wendland MF, Derugin N, Faustino J, Heijnen CJ, Ferriero DM, Vexler ZS. PMID: 27781299.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    13. Microglial Cells Prevent Hemorrhage in Neonatal Focal Arterial Stroke. J Neurosci. 2016 Mar 09; 36(10):2881-93. Fernández-López D, Faustino J, Klibanov AL, Derugin N, Blanchard E, Simon F, Leib SL, Vexler ZS. PMID: 26961944.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    14. Lack of the scavenger receptor CD36 alters microglial phenotypes after neonatal stroke. J Neurochem. 2015 Nov; 135(3):445-52. Li F, Faustino J, Woo MS, Derugin N, Vexler ZS. PMID: 26223273.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    15. Modeling Ischemia in the Immature Brain: How Translational Are Animal Models? Stroke. 2015 Oct; 46(10):3006-11. Mallard C, Vexler ZS. PMID: 26272384.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    16. LSR/angulin-1 is a tricellular tight junction protein involved in blood-brain barrier formation. J Cell Biol. 2015 Mar 16; 208(6):703-11. Sohet F, Lin C, Munji RN, Lee SY, Ruderisch N, Soung A, Arnold TD, Derugin N, Vexler ZS, Yen FT, Daneman R. PMID: 25753034.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. The role of inflammation in perinatal brain injury. Nat Rev Neurol. 2015 Apr; 11(4):192-208. Hagberg H, Mallard C, Ferriero DM, Vannucci SJ, Levison SW, Vexler ZS, Gressens P. PMID: 25686754.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 159     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    18. Pathophysiology and neuroprotection of global and focal perinatal brain injury: lessons from animal models. Pediatr Neurol. 2015 Jun; 52(6):566-584. Titomanlio L, Fernández-López D, Manganozzi L, Moretti R, Vexler ZS, Gressens P. PMID: 26002050.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    19. Barrier mechanisms in neonatal stroke. Front Neurosci. 2014; 8:359. Kratzer I, Chip S, Vexler ZS. PMID: 25426016.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    20. Stem cells for neonatal stroke- the future is here. Front Cell Neurosci. 2014; 8:207. van Velthoven CT, Gonzalez F, Vexler ZS, Ferriero DM. PMID: 25120432.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    21. Mechanisms of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014 Jun; 34(6):921-32. Fernández-López D, Natarajan N, Ashwal S, Vexler ZS. PMID: 24667913.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    22. Acute and chronic vascular responses to experimental focal arterial stroke in the neonate rat. Transl Stroke Res. 2013 Apr; 4(2):179-88. Fernández-López D, Faustino J, Derugin N, Vexler ZS. PMID: 23730350.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    23. Delayed VEGF treatment enhances angiogenesis and recovery after neonatal focal rodent stroke. Transl Stroke Res. 2013 Apr; 4(2):189-200. Dzietko M, Derugin N, Wendland MF, Vexler ZS, Ferriero DM. PMID: 23926451.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 38     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    24. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation attenuates brain injury after neonatal stroke. Stroke. 2013 May; 44(5):1426-32. van Velthoven CT, Sheldon RA, Kavelaars A, Derugin N, Vexler ZS, Willemen HL, Maas M, Heijnen CJ, Ferriero DM. PMID: 23539530.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 54     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Genetic deletion of CD36 enhances injury after acute neonatal stroke. Ann Neurol. 2012 Dec; 72(6):961-70. Woo MS, Wang X, Faustino JV, Derugin N, Wendland MF, Zhou P, Iadecola C, Vexler ZS. PMID: 23280844.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    26. Blood-brain barrier permeability is increased after acute adult stroke but not neonatal stroke in the rat. J Neurosci. 2012 Jul 11; 32(28):9588-600. Fernández-López D, Faustino J, Daneman R, Zhou L, Lee SY, Derugin N, Wendland MF, Vexler ZS. PMID: 22787045.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 70     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    27. Reduced infarct size and accumulation of microglia in rats treated with WIN 55,212-2 after neonatal stroke. Neuroscience. 2012 Apr 05; 207:307-15. Fernández-López D, Faustino J, Derugin N, Wendland M, Lizasoain I, Moro MA, Vexler ZS. PMID: 22285309.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    28. Microglial cells contribute to endogenous brain defenses after acute neonatal focal stroke. J Neurosci. 2011 Sep 07; 31(36):12992-3001. Faustino JV, Wang X, Johnson CE, Klibanov A, Derugin N, Wendland MF, Vexler ZS. PMID: 21900578.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 103     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. Cerebrovascular disease in children: recent advances in diagnosis and management. J Child Neurol. 2011 Sep; 26(9):1074-100. Bowers KJ, Deveber GA, Ferriero DM, Roach ES, Vexler ZS, Maria BL. PMID: 21778188.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a translational tool for the study of neonatal stroke. J Child Neurol. 2011 Sep; 26(9):1145-53. Dzietko M, Wendland M, Derugin N, Ferriero DM, Vexler ZS. PMID: 21670390.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    31. Cerebellar abnormalities following hypoxia alone compared to hypoxic-ischemic forebrain injury in the developing rat brain. Neurobiol Dis. 2011 Jan; 41(1):138-46. Biran V, Heine VM, Verney C, Sheldon RA, Spadafora R, Vexler ZS, Rowitch DH, Ferriero DM. PMID: 20843479.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    32. Role of vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein in VEGF induced blood-brain barrier permeability in endothelial cell monolayers. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2010 Oct; 28(6):423-8. Davis B, Tang J, Zhang L, Mu D, Jiang X, Biran V, Vexler Z, Ferriero DM. PMID: 20599605.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 inhibition promotes cell death and limits endothelial cell proliferation in a neonatal rodent model of stroke. Stroke. 2010 Feb; 41(2):343-9. Shimotake J, Derugin N, Wendland M, Vexler ZS, Ferriero DM. PMID: 20101028.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 48     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. Does inflammation after stroke affect the developing brain differently than adult brain? Dev Neurosci. 2009; 31(5):378-93. Vexler ZS, Yenari MA. PMID: 19672067.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    35. Early diffusion-weighted MRI as a predictor of caspase-3 activation after hypoxic-ischemic insult in neonatal rodents. Stroke. 2008 Jun; 39(6):1862-8. Wendland MF, Faustino J, West T, Manabat C, Holtzman DM, Vexler ZS. PMID: 18420950.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Erythropoietin enhances long-term neuroprotection and neurogenesis in neonatal stroke. Dev Neurosci. 2007; 29(4-5):321-30. Gonzalez FF, McQuillen P, Mu D, Chang Y, Wendland M, Vexler Z, Ferriero DM. PMID: 17762200.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 73     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Macrophages are comprised of resident brain microglia not infiltrating peripheral monocytes acutely after neonatal stroke. J Neurochem. 2007 Feb; 100(4):893-904. Denker SP, Ji S, Dingman A, Lee SY, Derugin N, Wendland MF, Vexler ZS. PMID: 17212701.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 63     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    38. Inflammation in adult and neonatal stroke. Clin Neurosci Res. 2006 Dec 01; 6(5):293-313. Vexler ZS, Tang XN, Yenari MA. PMID: 20300490.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    39. Translational stroke research in the developing brain. Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Jun; 34(6):459-63. Vexler ZS, Sharp FR, Feuerstein GZ, Ashwal S, Thoresen M, Yager JY, Ferriero DM. PMID: 16765824.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    40. Aminoguanidine inhibits caspase-3 and calpain activation without affecting microglial activation following neonatal transient cerebral ischemia. J Neurochem. 2006 Mar; 96(5):1467-79. Dingman A, Lee SY, Derugin N, Wendland MF, Vexler ZS. PMID: 16464234.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. Reduction of caspase-8 and -9 cleavage is associated with increased c-FLIP and increased binding of Apaf-1 and Hsp70 after neonatal hypoxic/ischemic injury in mice overexpressing Hsp70. Stroke. 2006 Feb; 37(2):507-12. Matsumori Y, Northington FJ, Hong SM, Kayama T, Sheldon RA, Vexler ZS, Ferriero DM, Weinstein PR, Liu J. PMID: 16397188.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Magnetic resonance imaging as a surrogate measure for histological sub-chronic endpoint in a neonatal rat stroke model. Brain Res. 2005 Dec 20; 1066(1-2):49-56. Derugin N, Dingman A, Wendland MF, Fox C, Bollen A, Vexler ZS. PMID: 16336947.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    43. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and erythropoietin upregulation with deferoxamine salvage after neonatal stroke. Exp Neurol. 2005 Oct; 195(2):407-15. Mu D, Chang YS, Vexler ZS, Ferriero DM. PMID: 16023639.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. Minocycline confers early but transient protection in the immature brain following focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005 Sep; 25(9):1138-49. Fox C, Dingman A, Derugin N, Wendland MF, Manabat C, Ji S, Ferriero DM, Vexler ZS. PMID: 15874975.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 53     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    45. Antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of heat-shock protein protection. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Aug; 1053:74-83. Yenari MA, Liu J, Zheng Z, Vexler ZS, Lee JE, Giffard RG. PMID: 16179510.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 92     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    46. Hsp70 overexpression sequesters AIF and reduces neonatal hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005 Jul; 25(7):899-910. Matsumori Y, Hong SM, Aoyama K, Fan Y, Kayama T, Sheldon RA, Vexler ZS, Ferriero DM, Weinstein PR, Liu J. PMID: 15744251.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 52     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Erythropoietin improves functional and histological outcome in neonatal stroke. Pediatr Res. 2005 Jul; 58(1):106-11. Chang YS, Mu D, Wendland M, Sheldon RA, Vexler ZS, McQuillen PS, Ferriero DM. PMID: 15879287.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    48. Differential vulnerability of immature murine neurons to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Exp Neurol. 2004 Nov; 190(1):224-32. Jiang X, Mu D, Manabat C, Koshy AA, Christen S, Täuber MG, Vexler ZS, Ferriero DM. PMID: 15473995.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Manipulation of antioxidant pathways in neonatal murine brain. Pediatr Res. 2004 Oct; 56(4):656-62. Sheldon RA, Jiang X, Francisco C, Christen S, Vexler ZS, Täuber MG, Ferriero DM. PMID: 15295091.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    50. Regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and induction of vascular endothelial growth factor in a rat neonatal stroke model. Neurobiol Dis. 2003 Dec; 14(3):524-34. Mu D, Jiang X, Sheldon RA, Fox CK, Hamrick SE, Vexler ZS, Ferriero DM. PMID: 14678768.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 60     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    51. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate preserves intracellular glutathione and protects cortical neurons against oxidative stress. Brain Res. 2003 Jan 17; 960(1-2):90-8. Vexler ZS, Wong A, Francisco C, Manabat C, Christen S, Täuber M, Ferriero DM, Gregory G. PMID: 12505661.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Reperfusion differentially induces caspase-3 activation in ischemic core and penumbra after stroke in immature brain. Stroke. 2003 Jan; 34(1):207-13. Manabat C, Han BH, Wendland M, Derugin N, Fox CK, Choi J, Holtzman DM, Ferriero DM, Vexler ZS. PMID: 12511776.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 49     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Rat forebrain neurogenesis and striatal neuron replacement after focal stroke. Ann Neurol. 2002 Dec; 52(6):802-13. Parent JM, Vexler ZS, Gong C, Derugin N, Ferriero DM. PMID: 12447935.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 297     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    54. Neuroprotection and intracellular Ca2+ modulation with fructose-1,6-bisphosphate during in vitro hypoxia-ischemia involves phospholipase C-dependent signaling. Brain Res. 2001 Nov 02; 917(2):158-66. Donohoe PH, Fahlman CS, Bickler PE, Vexler ZS, Gregory GA. PMID: 11640901.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Molecular and biochemical mechanisms of perinatal brain injury. Semin Neonatol. 2001 Apr; 6(2):99-108. Vexler ZS, Ferriero DM. PMID: 11483016.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    56. Evolution of brain injury after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in neonatal rats. Stroke. 2000 Jul; 31(7):1752-61. Derugin N, Wendland M, Muramatsu K, Roberts TP, Gregory G, Ferriero DM, Vexler ZS. PMID: 10884483.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. Toxicity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate in developing normoxic rats. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1999 Mar; 84(3):115-21. Vexler Z, Berrios M, Ursell PC, Sola A, Ferriero DM, Gregory GA. PMID: 10193671.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    58. Neonatal reversible focal cerebral ischemia: a new model. Neurosci Res. 1998 Dec; 32(4):349-53. Derugin N, Ferriero DM, Vexler ZS. PMID: 9950062.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    59. Transient cerebral ischemia. Association of apoptosis induction with hypoperfusion. J Clin Invest. 1997 Mar 15; 99(6):1453-9. Vexler ZS, Roberts TP, Bollen AW, Derugin N, Arieff AI. PMID: 9077555.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    60. Activation of Na+-H+ exchange is necessary for RhoA-induced stress fiber formation. J Biol Chem. 1996 Sep 13; 271(37):22281-4. Vexler ZS, Symons M, Barber DL. PMID: 8798382.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    61. Sensitivity of high-speed "perfusion-sensitive" magnetic resonance imaging to mild cerebral ischemia. Eur Radiol. 1996; 6(5):645-9. Roberts TP, Vexler ZS, Vexler V, Derugin N, Kucharczyk J. PMID: 8934128.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    62. Evaluation of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF) as a cerebroprotective agent using high speed MR imaging. Brain Res. 1995 Nov 13; 699(1):51-61. Roberts TP, Vexler ZS, Derugin N, Kozniewska E, Kucharczyk J, Emmett CJ. PMID: 8616613.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    63. Age, gender, and vasopressin affect survival and brain adaptation in rats with metabolic encephalopathy. Am J Physiol. 1995 May; 268(5 Pt 2):R1143-52. Arieff AI, Kozniewska E, Roberts TP, Vexler ZS, Ayus JC, Kucharczyk J. PMID: 7771574.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    64. Hormonal dependence of the effects of metabolic encephalopathy on cerebral perfusion and oxygen utilization in the rat. Circ Res. 1995 Apr; 76(4):551-8. Kozniewska E, Roberts TP, Vexler ZS, Oseka M, Kucharczyk J, Arieff AI. PMID: 7895330.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    65. Severe brain edema associated with cumulative effects of hyponatremic encephalopathy and ischemic hypoxia. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien). 1994; 60:246-9. Vexler ZS, Roberts TP, Kucharczyk J, Arieff AI. PMID: 7976557.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    66. Hypoxic and ischemic hypoxia exacerbate brain injury associated with metabolic encephalopathy in laboratory animals. J Clin Invest. 1994 Jan; 93(1):256-64. Vexler ZS, Ayus JC, Roberts TP, Fraser CL, Kucharczyk J, Arieff AI. PMID: 8282795.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    67. Mechanisms of brain injury associated with partial and complete occlusion of the MCA in cat. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien). 1994; 60:211-5. Vexler ZS, Roberts TP, Derugin N, Kozniewska E, Arieff AI, Kucharczyk J. PMID: 7976549.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    68. High-speed MR imaging of ischemic brain injury following stenosis of the middle cerebral artery. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1993 Nov; 13(6):940-6. Roberts TP, Vexler Z, Derugin N, Moseley ME, Kucharczyk J. PMID: 7691853.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    69. Echo-planar perfusion-sensitive MR imaging of acute cerebral ischemia. Radiology. 1993 Sep; 188(3):711-7. Kucharczyk J, Vexler ZS, Roberts TP, Asgari HS, Mintorovitch J, Derugin N, Watson AD, Moseley ME. PMID: 8351338.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    70. Rapid MR imaging of a vascular challenge to focal ischemia in cat brain. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1993 May-Jun; 3(3):475-81. de Crespigny AJ, Wendland MF, Derugin N, Vexler ZS, Moseley ME. PMID: 8324306.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
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