Michael Brainard, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Physiology
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address675 Nelson Rising Lane, #514E
San Francisco CA 94158
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-9425-9907 Additional info
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Modular systems for large scale, long lasting measurements of brain activity
    NIH UF1NS107667Sep 30, 2018 - Sep 29, 2021
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Organization and experience-dependence of auditory coding in forebrain
    NIH R01DC011356Mar 25, 2012 - Feb 28, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Learning in neural circuits: applied optogenetics in non-genetic models
    NIH RC2NS069350Sep 30, 2009 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Variation as a Neural Code
    NIH P50MH077970Sep 8, 2006 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Behavioral and Neural Analysis of Vocal Plasticity
    NIH R01DC006636Apr 1, 2004 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Neural Analysis of Vocal Learning
    NIH R01MH055987Jul 1, 1996 - Jul 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Dynamic top-down biasing implements rapid adaptive changes to individual movements. Elife. 2023 09 21; 12. Tian LY, Warren TL, Mehaffey WH, Brainard MS. PMID: 37733005; PMCID: PMC10513479.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    2. Neural circuit-wide analysis of changes to gene expression during deafening-induced birdsong destabilization. Elife. 2023 06 07; 12. Colquitt BM, Li K, Green F, Veline R, Brainard MS. PMID: 37284822; PMCID: PMC10259477.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    3. Shared mechanisms of auditory and non-auditory vocal learning in the songbird brain. Elife. 2022 09 15; 11. McGregor JN, Grassler AL, Jaffe PI, Jacob AL, Brainard MS, Sober SJ. PMID: 36107757; PMCID: PMC9522248.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    4. Songbirds can learn flexible contextual control over syllable sequencing. Elife. 2021 06 01; 10. Veit L, Tian LY, Monroy Hernandez CJ, Brainard MS. PMID: 34060473; PMCID: PMC8169114.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    5. Cellular transcriptomics reveals evolutionary identities of songbird vocal circuits. Science. 2021 02 12; 371(6530). Colquitt BM, Merullo DP, Konopka G, Roberts TF, Brainard MS. PMID: 33574185; PMCID: PMC8136249.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 45     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    6. Acetylcholine acts on songbird premotor circuitry to invigorate vocal output. Elife. 2020 05 19; 9. Jaffe PI, Brainard MS. PMID: 32425158; PMCID: PMC7237207.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    7. Learning is enhanced by tailoring instruction to individual genetic differences. Elife. 2019 09 17; 8. Mets DG, Brainard MS. PMID: 31526480; PMCID: PMC6748825.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    8. The Avian Basal Ganglia Are a Source of Rapid Behavioral Variation That Enables Vocal Motor Exploration. J Neurosci. 2018 11 07; 38(45):9635-9647. Kojima S, Kao MH, Doupe AJ, Brainard MS. PMID: 30249800; PMCID: PMC6222063.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    9. An automated approach to the quantitation of vocalizations and vocal learning in the songbird. PLoS Comput Biol. 2018 08; 14(8):e1006437. Mets DG, Brainard MS. PMID: 30169523; PMCID: PMC6136806.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    10. Zebra finches are sensitive to combinations of temporally distributed features in a model of word recognition. J Acoust Soc Am. 2018 08; 144(2):872. Knowles JM, Doupe AJ, Brainard MS. PMID: 30180710; PMCID: PMC6103769.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    11. Draft genome assembly of the Bengalese finch, Lonchura striata domestica, a model for motor skill variability and learning. Gigascience. 2018 03 01; 7(3):1-6. Colquitt BM, Mets DG, Brainard MS. PMID: 29618046; PMCID: PMC5861438.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    12. Genetic variation interacts with experience to determine interindividual differences in learned song. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 01 09; 115(2):421-426. Mets DG, Brainard MS. PMID: 29279376; PMCID: PMC5777042.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    13. Vocal learning promotes patterned inhibitory connectivity. Nat Commun. 2017 12 13; 8(1):2105. Miller MN, Cheung CYJ, Brainard MS. PMID: 29235480; PMCID: PMC5727387.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    14. Discrete Circuits Support Generalized versus Context-Specific Vocal Learning in the Songbird. Neuron. 2017 Dec 06; 96(5):1168-1177.e5. Tian LY, Brainard MS. PMID: 29154128; PMCID: PMC5731642.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    15. Timing during transitions in Bengalese finch song: implications for motor sequencing. J Neurophysiol. 2017 09 01; 118(3):1556-1566. Troyer TW, Brainard MS, Bouchard KE. PMID: 28637816; PMCID: PMC5596144.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    16. Auditory-induced neural dynamics in sensory-motor circuitry predict learned temporal and sequential statistics of birdsong. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 08 23; 113(34):9641-6. Bouchard KE, Brainard MS. PMID: 27506786; PMCID: PMC5003256.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. An Adapting Auditory-motor Feedback Loop Can Contribute to Generating Vocal Repetition. PLoS Comput Biol. 2015 Oct; 11(10):e1004471. Wittenbach JD, Bouchard KE, Brainard MS, Jin DZ. PMID: 26448054; PMCID: PMC4598084.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    18. Role of the site of synaptic competition and the balance of learning forces for Hebbian encoding of probabilistic Markov sequences. Front Comput Neurosci. 2015; 9:92. Bouchard KE, Ganguli S, Brainard MS. PMID: 26257637; PMCID: PMC4508839.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3  
    19. Editorial overview: communication and language: animal communication and human language. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2014 Oct; 28:v-viii. Brainard MS, Fitch WT. PMID: 25192981.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    20. Neural encoding and integration of learned probabilistic sequences in avian sensory-motor circuitry. J Neurosci. 2013 Nov 06; 33(45):17710-23. Bouchard KE, Brainard MS. PMID: 24198363; PMCID: PMC3818547.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    21. Translating birdsong: songbirds as a model for basic and applied medical research. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2013 Jul 08; 36:489-517. Brainard MS, Doupe AJ. PMID: 23750515; PMCID: PMC4130661.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 97     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    22. Vocal learning is constrained by the statistics of sensorimotor experience. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Dec 18; 109(51):21099-103. Sober SJ, Brainard MS. PMID: 23213223; PMCID: PMC3529072.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    23. Variable sequencing is actively maintained in a well learned motor skill. J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 31; 32(44):15414-25. Warren TL, Charlesworth JD, Tumer EC, Brainard MS. PMID: 23115179; PMCID: PMC3752123.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    24. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit. Nature. 2012 May 20; 486(7402):251-5. Charlesworth JD, Warren TL, Brainard MS. PMID: 22699618; PMCID: PMC3377745.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 61     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    25. Mechanisms and time course of vocal learning and consolidation in the adult songbird. J Neurophysiol. 2011 Oct; 106(4):1806-21. Warren TL, Tumer EC, Charlesworth JD, Brainard MS. PMID: 21734110; PMCID: PMC3191835.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 67     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    26. Learning the microstructure of successful behavior. Nat Neurosci. 2011 Mar; 14(3):373-80. Charlesworth JD, Tumer EC, Warren TL, Brainard MS. PMID: 21278732; PMCID: PMC3045469.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 43     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    27. Linked control of syllable sequence and phonology in birdsong. J Neurosci. 2010 Sep 29; 30(39):12936-49. Wohlgemuth MJ, Sober SJ, Brainard MS. PMID: 20881112; PMCID: PMC2965410.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    28. Social context rapidly modulates the influence of auditory feedback on avian vocal motor control. J Neurophysiol. 2009 Oct; 102(4):2485-97. Sakata JT, Brainard MS. PMID: 19692513; PMCID: PMC2775389.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    29. Adult birdsong is actively maintained by error correction. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Jul; 12(7):927-31. Sober SJ, Brainard MS. PMID: 19525945; PMCID: PMC2701972.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 72     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    30. An avian basal ganglia-forebrain circuit contributes differentially to syllable versus sequence variability of adult Bengalese finch song. J Neurophysiol. 2009 Jun; 101(6):3235-45. Hampton CM, Sakata JT, Brainard MS. PMID: 19357331; PMCID: PMC2694116.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    31. Online contributions of auditory feedback to neural activity in avian song control circuitry. J Neurosci. 2008 Oct 29; 28(44):11378-90. Sakata JT, Brainard MS. PMID: 18971480; PMCID: PMC2597407.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 52     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    32. Central contributions to acoustic variation in birdsong. J Neurosci. 2008 Oct 08; 28(41):10370-9. Sober SJ, Wohlgemuth MJ, Brainard MS. PMID: 18842896; PMCID: PMC2613831.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 97     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Social modulation of sequence and syllable variability in adult birdsong. J Neurophysiol. 2008 Apr; 99(4):1700-11. Sakata JT, Hampton CM, Brainard MS. PMID: 18216221.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 51     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    34. Performance variability enables adaptive plasticity of 'crystallized' adult birdsong. Nature. 2007 Dec 20; 450(7173):1240-4. Tumer EC, Brainard MS. PMID: 18097411.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 195     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    35. Real-time contributions of auditory feedback to avian vocal motor control. J Neurosci. 2006 Sep 20; 26(38):9619-28. Sakata JT, Brainard MS. PMID: 16988032; PMCID: PMC6674450.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 63     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    36. Lesions of an avian basal ganglia circuit prevent context-dependent changes to song variability. J Neurophysiol. 2006 Sep; 96(3):1441-55. Kao MH, Brainard MS. PMID: 16723412.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 133     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Contributions of an avian basal ganglia-forebrain circuit to real-time modulation of song. Nature. 2005 Feb 10; 433(7026):638-43. Kao MH, Doupe AJ, Brainard MS. PMID: 15703748.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 250     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    38. Contributions of the anterior forebrain pathway to vocal plasticity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Jun; 1016:377-94. Brainard MS. PMID: 15313786.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    39. What songbirds teach us about learning. Nature. 2002 May 16; 417(6886):351-8. Brainard MS, Doupe AJ. PMID: 12015616.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 170     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    40. Postlearning consolidation of birdsong: stabilizing effects of age and anterior forebrain lesions. J Neurosci. 2001 Apr 01; 21(7):2501-17. Brainard MS, Doupe AJ. PMID: 11264324; PMCID: PMC6762407.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 59     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    41. Song selectivity and sensorimotor signals in vocal learning and production. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Oct 24; 97(22):11836-42. Solis MM, Brainard MS, Hessler NA, Doupe AJ. PMID: 11050217; PMCID: PMC34357.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    42. Auditory feedback in learning and maintenance of vocal behaviour. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2000 Oct; 1(1):31-40. Brainard MS, Doupe AJ. PMID: 11252766.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 100     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    43. Interruption of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit prevents plasticity of learned vocalizations. Nature. 2000 Apr 13; 404(6779):762-6. Brainard MS, Doupe AJ. PMID: 10783889.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 157     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    44. Images in neuroscience. Brain development, V: Experience affects brain development. Am J Psychiatry. 1998 Aug; 155(8):1000. Brainard MS, Knudsen EI. PMID: 9699684.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    45. Sensitive periods for visual calibration of the auditory space map in the barn owl optic tectum. J Neurosci. 1998 May 15; 18(10):3929-42. Brainard MS, Knudsen EI. PMID: 9570820; PMCID: PMC6793138.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 58     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    46. Newly learned auditory responses mediated by NMDA receptors in the owl inferior colliculus. Science. 1996 Jan 26; 271(5248):525-8. Feldman DE, Brainard MS, Knudsen EI. PMID: 8560271.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Dynamics of visually guided auditory plasticity in the optic tectum of the barn owl. J Neurophysiol. 1995 Feb; 73(2):595-614. Brainard MS, Knudsen EI. PMID: 7760121.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    48. Creating a unified representation of visual and auditory space in the brain. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1995; 18:19-43. Knudsen EI, Brainard MS. PMID: 7605060.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. Neural substrates of sound localization. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1994 Aug; 4(4):557-62. Brainard MS. PMID: 7812145.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    50. Experience-dependent plasticity in the inferior colliculus: a site for visual calibration of the neural representation of auditory space in the barn owl. J Neurosci. 1993 Nov; 13(11):4589-608. Brainard MS, Knudsen EI. PMID: 8229186; PMCID: PMC6576356.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 64     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    51. Neural derivation of sound source location: resolution of spatial ambiguities in binaural cues. J Acoust Soc Am. 1992 Feb; 91(2):1015-27. Brainard MS, Knudsen EI, Esterly SD. PMID: 1556303.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Visual instruction of the neural map of auditory space in the developing optic tectum. Science. 1991 Jul 05; 253(5015):85-7. Knudsen EI, Brainard MS. PMID: 2063209.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 68     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Single-channel analysis of four distinct classes of potassium channels in Drosophila muscle. J Neurosci. 1988 Dec; 8(12):4765-79. Zagotta WN, Brainard MS, Aldrich RW. PMID: 3199204; PMCID: PMC6569560.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Animals
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