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Richard Ward

TitleClinical Research Coordinator
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentDean's Office
Address155 N Fresno St
Fresno CA 93701
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Liu Y, Zeng H, Pediani JD, Ward R, Chen LY, Wu N, Ma L, Tang M, Yang Y, An S, Guo XX, Hao Q, Xu TR. Visualization of the activation of the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) using novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer biosensors and their potential application to the study of H3R pharmacology. FEBS J. 2018 Apr 26. PMID: 29701013.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Liu Y, Chen LY, Zeng H, Ward R, Wu N, Ma L, Mu X, Li QL, Yang Y, An S, Guo XX, Hao Q, Xu TR. Assessing the real-time activation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor and the associated structural changes using a FRET biosensor. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018 Jun; 99:114-124. PMID: 29626639.
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    3. Carneiro LABC, Ward R. Functionalization of paramagnetic nanoparticles for protein immobilization and purification. Anal Biochem. 2018 01 01; 540-541:45-51. PMID: 29154787.
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    4. Meleiro LP, Carli S, Fonseca-Maldonado R, da Silva Torricillas M, Zimbardi ALRL, Ward R, Jorge JA, Furriel RPM. Overexpression of a Cellobiose-Glucose-Halotolerant Endoglucanase from Scytalidium thermophilum. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2018 May; 185(1):316-333. PMID: 29150773.
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    5. Meleiro LP, Salgado JCS, Maldonado RF, Carli S, Moraes LAB, Ward R, Jorge JA, Furriel RPM. Engineering the GH1 ß-glucosidase from Humicola insolens: Insights on the stimulation of activity by glucose and xylose. PLoS One. 2017; 12(11):e0188254. PMID: 29145480.
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    6. Marsango S, Ward R, Alvarez-Curto E, Milligan G. Muscarinic receptor oligomerization. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Nov 14. PMID: 29146505.
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    7. Fonseca-Maldonado R, Meleiro LP, Mendes LFS, Alves LF, Carli S, Morero LD, Basso LGM, Costa-Filho AJ, Ward R. Lignocellulose binding of a Cel5A-RtCBM11 chimera with enhanced ß-glucanase activity monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2017; 10:269. PMID: 29163671.
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    8. Pediani JD, Ward R, Marsango S, Milligan G. Spatial Intensity Distribution Analysis: Studies of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Oligomerisation. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2018 Feb; 39(2):175-186. PMID: 29032835.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Ward R, Pediani JD, Harikumar KG, Miller LJ, Milligan G. Spatial intensity distribution analysis quantifies the extent and regulation of homodimerization of the secretin receptor. Biochem J. 2017 05 24; 474(11):1879-1895. PMID: 28424368.
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    10. Marsango S, Caltabiano G, Jiménez-Rosés M, Millan MJ, Pediani JD, Ward R, Milligan G. A Molecular Basis for Selective Antagonist Destabilization of Dopamine D3 Receptor Quaternary Organization. Sci Rep. 2017 May 18; 7(1):2134. PMID: 28522847.
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    11. Guo H, An S, Ward R, Yang Y, Liu Y, Guo XX, Hao Q, Xu TR. Methods used to study the oligomeric structure of G-protein-coupled receptors. Biosci Rep. 2017 04 30; 37(2). PMID: 28062602.
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    12. Zambelli VO, Chioato L, Gutierrez VP, Ward R, Cury Y. Structural determinants of the hyperalgesic activity of myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A2. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 2017; 23:7. PMID: 28203248.
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    13. Silva SB, Pinheiro MP, Fuzo CA, Silva SR, Ferreira TL, Lourenzoni MR, Nonato MC, Vieira DS, Ward R. The role of local residue environmental changes in thermostable mutants of the GH11 xylanase from Bacillus subtilis. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017 Apr; 97:574-584. PMID: 28109807.
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    14. Ribeiro LF, Tullman J, Nicholes N, Silva SR, Vieira DS, Ostermeier M, Ward R. A xylose-stimulated xylanase-xylose binding protein chimera created by random nonhomologous recombination. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2016; 9:119. PMID: 27274356; PMCID: PMC4896006.
    15. Pediani JD, Ward R, Godin AG, Marsango S, Milligan G. Dynamic Regulation of Quaternary Organization of the M1 Muscarinic Receptor by Subtype-selective Antagonist Drugs. J Biol Chem. 2016 Jun 17; 291(25):13132-46. PMID: 27080256; PMCID: PMC4933229.
    16. Liu Y, An S, Ward R, Yang Y, Guo XX, Li W, Xu TR. G protein-coupled receptors as promising cancer targets. Cancer Lett. 2016 07 01; 376(2):226-39. PMID: 27000991.
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    17. Alponti JS, Fonseca Maldonado R, Ward R. Thermostabilization of Bacillus subtilis GH11 xylanase by surface charge engineering. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016 Jun; 87:522-8. PMID: 26955749.
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    18. de Lima EA, Machado CB, Zanphorlin LM, Ward R, Sato HH, Ruller R. GH53 Endo-Beta-1,4-Galactanase from a Newly Isolated Bacillus licheniformis CBMAI 1609 as an Enzymatic Cocktail Supplement for Biomass Saccharification. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2016 Jun; 179(3):415-26. PMID: 26879978.
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    19. Duarte A, Cotter SC, Reavey CE, Ward R, De Gasperin O, Kilner RM. Social immunity of the family: parental contributions to a public good modulated by brood size. Evol Ecol. 2016; 30:123-135. PMID: 26900202.
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    20. An S, Yang Y, Ward R, Liu Y, Guo XX, Xu TR. A-Raf: A new star of the family of raf kinases. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2015; 50(6):520-31. PMID: 26508523.
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    21. Vici AC, da Cruz AF, Facchini FD, de Carvalho CC, Pereira MG, Fonseca-Maldonado R, Ward R, Pessela BC, Fernandez-Lorente G, Torres FA, Jorge JA, Polizeli ML. Beauveria bassiana Lipase A expressed in Komagataella (Pichia) pastoris with potential for biodiesel catalysis. Front Microbiol. 2015; 6:1083. PMID: 26500628; PMCID: PMC4595793.
    22. Liu Y, Yang Y, Ward R, An S, Guo XX, Li W, Xu TR. Biased signalling: the instinctive skill of the cell in the selection of appropriate signalling pathways. Biochem J. 2015 Sep 01; 470(2):155-67. PMID: 26348905.
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    23. Ribeiro LF, Nicholes N, Tullman J, Ribeiro LF, Fuzo CA, Vieira DS, Furtado GP, Ostermeier M, Ward R. Insertion of a xylanase in xylose binding protein results in a xylose-stimulated xylanase. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2015; 8:118. PMID: 26279676; PMCID: PMC4536891.
    24. Ward R, Pediani JD, Godin AG, Milligan G. Regulation of oligomeric organization of the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor observed by spatial intensity distribution analysis. J Biol Chem. 2015 May 15; 290(20):12844-57. PMID: 25825490; PMCID: PMC4432300.
    25. Machado CB, Citadini AP, Goldbeck R, de Lima EA, Figueiredo FL, da Silva TM, Hoffmam ZB, de Sousa AS, Squina FM, de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli M, Ruller R, Ward R. Increased biomass saccharification by supplementation of a commercial enzyme cocktail with endo-arabinanase from Bacillus licheniformis. Biotechnol Lett. 2015 Jul; 37(7):1455-62. PMID: 25801671.
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    26. Liste MJ, Caltabiano G, Ward R, Alvarez-Curto E, Marsango S, Milligan G. The molecular basis of oligomeric organization of the human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2015 Jun; 87(6):936-53. PMID: 25769304.
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    27. Furtado GP, Santos CR, Cordeiro RL, Ribeiro LF, de Moraes LA, Damásio AR, Polizeli Mde L, Lourenzoni MR, Murakami MT, Ward R. Enhanced xyloglucan-specific endo-ß-1,4-glucanase efficiency in an engineered CBM44-XegA chimera. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015 Jun; 99(12):5095-107. PMID: 25605422.
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    28. An S, Yang Y, Ward R, Liu Y, Guo XX, Xu TR. Raf-interactome in tuning the complexity and diversity of Raf function. FEBS J. 2015 Jan; 282(1):32-53. PMID: 25333451.
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    29. Bago R, Malik N, Munson MJ, Prescott AR, Davies P, Sommer E, Shpiro N, Ward R, Cross D, Ganley IG, Alessi DR. Characterization of VPS34-IN1, a selective inhibitor of Vps34, reveals that the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding SGK3 protein kinase is a downstream target of class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Biochem J. 2014 Nov 01; 463(3):413-27. PMID: 25177796.
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    30. Guazzaroni ME, Silva-Rocha R, Ward R. Synthetic biology approaches to improve biocatalyst identification in metagenomic library screening. Microb Biotechnol. 2015 Jan; 8(1):52-64. PMID: 25123225; PMCID: PMC4321373.
    31. Ruller R, Alponti J, Deliberto LA, Zanphorlin LM, Machado CB, Ward R. Concommitant adaptation of a GH11 xylanase by directed evolution to create an alkali-tolerant/thermophilic enzyme. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2014 Aug; 27(8):255-62. PMID: 25096197.
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    32. Ribeiro LF, De Lucas RC, Vitcosque GL, Ribeiro LF, Ward R, Rubio MV, Damásio AR, Squina FM, Gregory RC, Walton PH, Jorge JA, Prade RA, Buckeridge MS, Polizeli Mde L. A novel thermostable xylanase GH10 from Malbranchea pulchella expressed in Aspergillus nidulans with potential applications in biotechnology. Biotechnol Biofuels. 2014; 7:115. PMID: 25788980; PMCID: PMC4364333.
    33. Zakrys L, Ward R, Pediani JD, Godin AG, Graham GJ, Milligan G. Roundabout 1 exists predominantly as a basal dimeric complex and this is unaffected by binding of the ligand Slit2. Biochem J. 2014 Jul 01; 461(1):61-73. PMID: 24673457.
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    34. de Giuseppe PO, Souza Tde A, Souza FH, Zanphorlin LM, Machado CB, Ward R, Jorge JA, Furriel Rdos P, Murakami MT. Structural basis for glucose tolerance in GH1 ß-glucosidases. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2014 Jun; 70(Pt 6):1631-9. PMID: 24914974.
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    35. Bowman A, Hammond CM, Stirling A, Ward R, Shang W, El-Mkami H, Robinson DA, Svergun DI, Norman DG, Owen-Hughes T. The histone chaperones Vps75 and Nap1 form ring-like, tetrameric structures in solution. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 May; 42(9):6038-51. PMID: 24688059.
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    36. Fonseca-Maldonado R, Maller A, Bonneil E, Thibault P, Botelho-Machado C, Ward R, Polizeli Mde L. Biochemical properties of glycosylation and characterization of a histidine acid phosphatase (phytase) expressed in Pichia pastoris. Protein Expr Purif. 2014 Jul; 99:43-9. PMID: 24680732.
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    37. Dow JM, Grahl S, Ward R, Evans R, Byron O, Norman DG, Palmer T, Sargent F. Characterization of a periplasmic nitrate reductase in complex with its biosynthetic chaperone. FEBS J. 2014 Jan; 281(1):246-60. PMID: 24314029; PMCID: PMC4159696.
    38. Ribeiro LF, Bressan F, Furtado GP, Meireles F, Ward R. D-xylose detection in Escherichia coli by a xylose binding protein-dependent response. J Biotechnol. 2013 Dec; 168(4):440-5. PMID: 24161920.
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    39. Yang Y, Li H, Ward R, Gao L, Wei JF, Xu TR. Novel oxytocin receptor agonists and antagonists: a patent review (2002 - 2013). Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2014 Jan; 24(1):29-46. PMID: 24094047.
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    40. Xu TR, Yang Y, Ward R, Gao L, Liu Y. Orexin receptors: multi-functional therapeutic targets for sleeping disorders, eating disorders, drug addiction, cancers and other physiological disorders. Cell Signal. 2013 Dec; 25(12):2413-23. PMID: 23917208.
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    41. Fonseca-Maldonado R, Vieira DS, Alponti JS, Bonneil E, Thibault P, Ward R. Engineering the pattern of protein glycosylation modulates the thermostability of a GH11 xylanase. J Biol Chem. 2013 Aug 30; 288(35):25522-34. PMID: 23846692; PMCID: PMC3757213.
    42. Hudson BD, Due-Hansen ME, Christiansen E, Hansen AM, Mackenzie AE, Murdoch H, Pandey SK, Ward R, Marquez R, Tikhonova IG, Ulven T, Milligan G. Defining the molecular basis for the first potent and selective orthosteric agonists of the FFA2 free fatty acid receptor. J Biol Chem. 2013 Jun 14; 288(24):17296-312. PMID: 23589301; PMCID: PMC3682533.
    43. Ward R, Milligan G. Structural and biophysical characterisation of G protein-coupled receptor ligand binding using resonance energy transfer and fluorescent labelling techniques. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Jan; 1838(1 Pt A):3-14. PMID: 23590995.
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    44. Ward R, Xu TR, Milligan G. GPCR oligomerization and receptor trafficking. Methods Enzymol. 2013; 521:69-90. PMID: 23351734.
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    45. Pliotas C, Ward R, Branigan E, Rasmussen A, Hagelueken G, Huang H, Black SS, Booth IR, Schiemann O, Naismith JH. Conformational state of the MscS mechanosensitive channel in solution revealed by pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) spectroscopy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 02; 109(40):E2675-82. PMID: 23012406.
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    46. Laarman AJ, Mijnheer G, Mootz JM, van Rooijen WJ, Ruyken M, Malone CL, Heezius EC, Ward R, Milligan G, van Strijp JA, de Haas CJ, Horswill AR, van Kessel KP, Rooijakkers SH. Staphylococcus aureus Staphopain A inhibits CXCR2-dependent neutrophil activation and chemotaxis. EMBO J. 2012 Aug 29; 31(17):3607-19. PMID: 22850671; PMCID: PMC3433787.
    47. Fonseca-Maldonado R, Ferreira TL, Ward R. The bactericidal effect of human secreted group IID phospholipase A2 results from both hydrolytic and non-hydrolytic activities. Biochimie. 2012 Jun; 94(6):1437-40. PMID: 22490726.
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    48. Xu TR, Ward R, Pediani JD, Milligan G. Intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensors of the orexin OX1 and OX2 receptors identify slow kinetics of agonist activation. J Biol Chem. 2012 Apr 27; 287(18):14937-49. PMID: 22389503; PMCID: PMC3340242.
    49. Aragão EA, Vieira DS, Chioato L, Ferreira TL, Lourenzoni MR, Silva SR, Ward R. Characterization of suramin binding sites on the human group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics simulation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012 Mar 01; 519(1):17-22. PMID: 22248627.
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    50. Santos CR, Paiva JH, Sforça ML, Neves JL, Navarro RZ, Cota J, Akao PK, Hoffmam ZB, Meza AN, Smetana JH, Nogueira ML, Polikarpov I, Xavier-Neto J, Squina FM, Ward R, Ruller R, Zeri AC, Murakami MT. Dissecting structure-function-stability relationships of a thermostable GH5-CBM3 cellulase from Bacillus subtilis 168. Biochem J. 2012 Jan 01; 441(1):95-104. PMID: 21880019.
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    51. Damásio AR, Ribeiro LF, Ribeiro LF, Furtado GP, Segato F, Almeida FB, Crivellari AC, Buckeridge MS, Souza TA, Murakami MT, Ward R, Prade RA, Polizeli ML. Functional characterization and oligomerization of a recombinant xyloglucan-specific endo-ß-1,4-glucanase (GH12) from Aspergillus niveus. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012 Mar; 1824(3):461-7. PMID: 22230786.
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    52. Freeman AD, Ward R, El Mkami H, Lilley DM, Norman DG. Analysis of conformational changes in the DNA junction-resolving enzyme T7 endonuclease I on binding a four-way junction using EPR. Biochemistry. 2011 Nov 22; 50(46):9963-72. PMID: 22008089.
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    53. Ribeiro LF, Furtado GP, Lourenzoni MR, Costa-Filho AJ, Santos CR, Nogueira SC, Betini JA, Polizeli Mde L, Murakami MT, Ward R. Engineering bifunctional laccase-xylanase chimeras for improved catalytic performance. J Biol Chem. 2011 Dec 16; 286(50):43026-38. PMID: 22006920; PMCID: PMC3234842.
    54. Chioato L, Aragão EA, Ferreira TL, Ward R. Active site mutants of human secreted Group IIA Phospholipase A2 lacking hydrolytic activity retain their bactericidal effect. Biochimie. 2012 Jan; 94(1):132-6. PMID: 21986368.
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    55. Xu TR, Ward R, Pediani JD, Milligan G. The orexin OX(1) receptor exists predominantly as a homodimer in the basal state: potential regulation of receptor organization by both agonist and antagonist ligands. Biochem J. 2011 Oct 01; 439(1):171-83. PMID: 21770891.
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    56. Ward R, Pediani JD, Milligan G. Heteromultimerization of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor and orexin OX(1) receptor generates a unique complex in which both protomers are regulated by orexin A. J Biol Chem. 2011 Oct 28; 286(43):37414-28. PMID: 21908614; PMCID: PMC3199489.
    57. Vieira DS, Ward R. Conformation analysis of a surface loop that controls active site access in the GH11 xylanase A from Bacillus subtilis. J Mol Model. 2012 Apr; 18(4):1473-9. PMID: 21785938.
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    58. Souza TA, Trindade DM, Tonoli CC, Santos CR, Ward R, Arni RK, Oliveira AH, Murakami MT. Molecular adaptability of nucleoside diphosphate kinase b from trypanosomatid parasites: stability, oligomerization and structural determinants of nucleotide binding. Mol Biosyst. 2011 Jul; 7(7):2189-95. PMID: 21528129.
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    59. Smith NJ, Ward R, Stoddart LA, Hudson BD, Kostenis E, Ulven T, Morris JC, Tränkle C, Tikhonova IG, Adams DR, Milligan G. Extracellular loop 2 of the free fatty acid receptor 2 mediates allosterism of a phenylacetamide ago-allosteric modulator. Mol Pharmacol. 2011 Jul; 80(1):163-73. PMID: 21498659; PMCID: PMC3127537.
    60. Ward R, Pediani JD, Milligan G. Ligand-induced internalization of the orexin OX(1) and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors assessed via N-terminal SNAP and CLIP-tagging. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Mar; 162(6):1439-52. PMID: 21175569; PMCID: PMC3058174.
    61. Bowman A, Ward R, Wiechens N, Singh V, El-Mkami H, Norman DG, Owen-Hughes T. The histone chaperones Nap1 and Vps75 bind histones H3 and H4 in a tetrameric conformation. Mol Cell. 2011 Feb 18; 41(4):398-408. PMID: 21329878.
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    62. Schmidt J, Smith NJ, Christiansen E, Tikhonova IG, Grundmann M, Hudson BD, Ward R, Drewke C, Milligan G, Kostenis E, Ulven T. Selective orthosteric free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) agonists: identification of the structural and chemical requirements for selective activation of FFA2 versus FFA3. J Biol Chem. 2011 Mar 25; 286(12):10628-40. PMID: 21220428; PMCID: PMC3060514.
    63. Ward R, Alvarez-Curto E, Milligan G. Using the Flp-In™ T-Rex™ system to regulate GPCR expression. Methods Mol Biol. 2011; 746:21-37. PMID: 21607850.
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    64. Ruller R, Silva-Rocha R, Silva A, Cruz Schneider MP, Ward R. A practical teaching course in directed protein evolution using the green fluorescent protein as a model. Biochem Mol Biol Educ. 2011 Jan-Feb; 39(1):21-7. PMID: 21433249.
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    65. Alvarez-Curto E, Ward R, Pediani JD, Milligan G. Ligand regulation of the quaternary organization of cell surface M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors analyzed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging and homogeneous time-resolved FRET. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jul 23; 285(30):23318-30. PMID: 20489201; PMCID: PMC2906324.
    66. Bowman A, Ward R, El-Mkami H, Owen-Hughes T, Norman DG. Probing the (H3-H4)2 histone tetramer structure using pulsed EPR spectroscopy combined with site-directed spin labelling. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan; 38(2):695-707. PMID: 19914933.
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    67. da Silva TM, Michelin M, Damásio AR, Maller A, Almeida FB, Ruller R, Ward R, Rosa JC, Jorge JA, Terenzi HF, Polizeli Mde L. Purification and biochemical characterization of a novel alpha-glucosidase from Aspergillus niveus. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2009 Nov; 96(4):569-78. PMID: 19757138.
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    68. Tonoli CC, Vieira PS, Ward R, Arni RK, de Oliveira AH, Murakami MT. Production, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase b from Leishmania major. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2009 Nov 01; 65(Pt 11):1116-9. PMID: 19923730; PMCID: PMC2777038.
    69. Aragão EA, Randazzo-Moura P, Rostelato-Ferreira S, Rodrigues-Simioni L, Ward R. Shared structural determinants for the calcium-independent liposome membrane permeabilization and sarcolemma depolarization in Bothropstoxin-I, a LYS49-PLA(2) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009 Dec; 41(12):2588-93. PMID: 19729073.
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    70. da Silva TM, Maller A, Damásio AR, Michelin M, Ward R, Hirata IY, Jorge JA, Terenzi HF, de Polizeli ML. Properties of a purified thermostable glucoamylase from Aspergillus niveus. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009 Dec; 36(12):1439-46. PMID: 19697071.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Ferreira TL, Ward R. The interaction of bothropstoxin-I (Lys49-PLA(2)) with liposome membranes. Toxicon. 2009 Sep 15; 54(4):525-30. PMID: 19500612.
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    72. de Oliveira AH, Ferreira TL, Ward R. Reduced pH induces an inactive non-native conformation of the monomeric bothropstoxin-I (Lys49-PLA2). Toxicon. 2009 Sep 01; 54(3):373-8. PMID: 19450617.
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    73. Vieira DS, Degrève L, Ward R. Characterization of temperature dependent and substrate-binding cleft movements in Bacillus circulans family 11 xylanase: a molecular dynamics investigation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 Oct; 1790(10):1301-6. PMID: 19409448.
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    74. Fonseca RG, Ferreira TL, Ward R. Refolding and purification of the human secreted group IID phospholipase A2 expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif. 2009 Oct; 67(2):82-7. PMID: 19376232.
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    75. Vieira DS, Aragão EA, Lourenzoni MR, Ward R. Mapping of suramin binding sites on the group IIA human secreted phospholipase A2. Bioorg Chem. 2009 Apr; 37(2):41-5. PMID: 19251299.
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    76. Ward R, Jenkins L, Milligan G. Selectivity and functional consequences of interactions of family A G protein-coupled receptors with neurochondrin and periplakin. J Neurochem. 2009 Apr; 109(1):182-92. PMID: 19166508.
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    77. Rigos CF, Nobre TM, Zaniquelli ME, Ward R, Ciancaglini P. The association of Na,K-ATPase subunits studied by circular dichroism, surface tension and dilatational elasticity. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2008 Sep 15; 325(2):478-84. PMID: 18597766.
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    78. Ruller R, Deliberto L, Ferreira TL, Ward R. Thermostable variants of the recombinant xylanase A from Bacillus subtilis produced by directed evolution show reduced heat capacity changes. Proteins. 2008 Mar; 70(4):1280-93. PMID: 17876824.
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    79. Smiseth PT, Ward R, Moore AJ. Parents influence asymmetric sibling competition: experimental evidence with partially dependent young. Ecology. 2007 Dec; 88(12):3174-82. PMID: 18229851.
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    80. Aragão EA, Chioato L, Ward R. Permeabilization of E. coli K12 inner and outer membranes by bothropstoxin-I, A LYS49 phospholipase A2 from Bothrops jararacussu. Toxicon. 2008 Mar 15; 51(4):538-46. PMID: 18160090.
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    81. Ferreira TL, Ruller R, Chioato L, Ward R. Insights on calcium-independent phospholipid membrane damage by Lys49-PLA2 using tryptophan scanning mutagenesis of bothropstoxin-I from Bothrops jararacussu. Biochimie. 2008 Sep; 90(9):1397-406. PMID: 18036350.
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    82. Michelin M, Ruller R, Ward R, Moraes LA, Jorge JA, Terenzi HF, Polizeli Mde L. Purification and biochemical characterization of a thermostable extracellular glucoamylase produced by the thermotolerant fungus Paecilomyces variotii. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008 Jan; 35(1):17-25. PMID: 17938981.
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    83. Chioato L, Aragão EA, Lopes Ferreira T, Medeiros AI, Faccioli LH, Ward R. Mapping of the structural determinants of artificial and biological membrane damaging activities of a Lys49 phospholipase A2 by scanning alanine mutagenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007 May; 1768(5):1247-57. PMID: 17346668.
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    84. Bugs MR, Bortoleto-Bugs RK, Cornélio ML, Ward R. An ultraviolet photoacoustic spectroscopy study of the interaction between Lys49-phospholipase A2 and amphiphilic molecules. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Feb 23; 353(4):889-94. PMID: 17210121.
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    85. Francke F, Ward R, Jenkins L, Kellett E, Richter D, Milligan G, Bächner D. Interaction of neurochondrin with the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 interferes with G protein-coupled signal transduction but not agonist-mediated internalization. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 27; 281(43):32496-507. PMID: 16945926.
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    86. Costa-Neto CM, Parreiras-E-Silva LT, Ruller R, Oliveira EB, Miranda A, Oliveira L, Ward R. Molecular modeling of the human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) based on spectroscopic and computational analyses. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 01; 347(3):634-40. PMID: 16842744.
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    87. de Oliveira AH, Ruiz JC, Cruz AK, Greene LJ, Rosa JC, Ward R. Subproteomic analysis of soluble proteins of the microsomal fraction from two Leishmania species. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2006 Sep; 1(3):300-8. PMID: 20483262.
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    88. de Oliveira AH, Ruiz JC, Cruz AK, Greene LJ, Rosa JC, Ward R. Expression in E. coli and purification of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase b from Leishmania major. Protein Expr Purif. 2006 Oct; 49(2):244-50. PMID: 16809050.
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    89. Ward R, McCrohan CR, White KN. Influence of aqueous aluminium on the immune system of the freshwater crayfish Pacifasticus leniusculus. Aquat Toxicol. 2006 May 01; 77(2):222-8. PMID: 16436302.
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    90. Ruller R, Rosa JC, Faça VM, Greene LJ, Ward R. Efficient constitutive expression of Bacillus subtilis xylanase A in Escherichia coli DH5alpha under the control of the Bacillus BsXA promoter. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2006 Jan; 43(Pt 1):9-15. PMID: 15982188.
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    91. Damiano VB, Ward R, Gomes E, Alves-Prado HF, Da Silva R. Purification and characterization of two xylanases from alkalophilic and thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis 77-2. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2006; 129-132:289-302. PMID: 16915648.
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    92. Rigos CF, de Lima Santos H, Ward R, Ciancaglini P. Lipid bilayer stabilization of the Na,K-ATPase reconstituted in DPPC/DPPE liposomes. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2006; 44(3):438-45. PMID: 16679531.
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    93. Novotny J, Durchankova D, Ward R, Carrillo JJ, Svoboda P, Milligan G. Functional interactions between the alpha1b-adrenoceptor and Galpha11 are compromised by de-palmitoylation of the G protein but not of the receptor. Cell Signal. 2006 Aug; 18(8):1244-51. PMID: 16297597.
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    94. Murakami MT, Arni RK, Vieira DS, Degrève L, Ruller R, Ward R. Correlation of temperature induced conformation change with optimum catalytic activity in the recombinant G/11 xylanase A from Bacillus subtilis strain 168 (1A1). FEBS Lett. 2005 Nov 21; 579(28):6505-10. PMID: 16289057.
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    95. Ward R, Milligan G. A key serine for the GTPase-activating protein function of regulator of G protein signaling proteins is not a general target for 14-3-3 interactions. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Dec; 68(6):1821-30. PMID: 16160139.
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    96. Hauk P, Negrotto S, Romero EC, Vasconcellos SA, Genovez ME, Ward R, Schattner M, Goméz RM, Ho PL. Expression and characterization of HlyX hemolysin from Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni: potentiation of hemolytic activity by LipL32. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Aug 12; 333(4):1341-7. PMID: 15990088.
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    97. Watanabe L, Soares AM, Ward R, Fontes MR, Arni RK. Structural insights for fatty acid binding in a Lys49-phospholipase A2: crystal structure of myotoxin II from Bothrops moojeni complexed with stearic acid. Biochimie. 2005 Feb; 87(2):161-7. PMID: 15760708.
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    98. Ambrosio AL, Nonato MC, de Araújo HS, Arni R, Ward R, Ownby CL, de Souza DH, Garratt RC. A molecular mechanism for Lys49-phospholipase A2 activity based on ligand-induced conformational change. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 25; 280(8):7326-35. PMID: 15596433.
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    99. Herzig V, Ward R, Dos Santos WF. Ontogenetic changes in Phoneutria nigriventer (Araneae, Ctenidae) spider venom. Toxicon. 2004 Nov; 44(6):635-40. PMID: 15501289.
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    100. Bortoleto-Bugs RK, Neto AA, Ward R. Activation of Ca2+-independent membrane-damaging activity in Lys49-phospholipase A2 promoted by amphiphilic molecules. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Sep 17; 322(2):364-72. PMID: 15325239.
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    101. Sá JM, Chioato L, Ferreira TL, De Oliveira AH, Ruller R, Rosa JC, Greene LJ, Ward R. Topology of the substrate-binding site of a Lys49-phospholipase A2 influences Ca2+-independent membrane-damaging activity. Biochem J. 2004 Aug 15; 382(Pt 1):191-8. PMID: 15147240; PMCID: PMC1133930.
    102. Heydorn A, Ward R, Jorgensen R, Rosenkilde MM, Frimurer TM, Milligan G, Kostenis E. Identification of a novel site within G protein alpha subunits important for specificity of receptor-G protein interaction. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Aug; 66(2):250-9. PMID: 15266015.
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    103. Flanagan JU, Maréchal JD, Ward R, Kemp CA, McLaughlin LA, Sutcliffe MJ, Roberts GC, Paine MJ, Wolf CR. Phe120 contributes to the regiospecificity of cytochrome P450 2D6: mutation leads to the formation of a novel dextromethorphan metabolite. Biochem J. 2004 Jun 01; 380(Pt 2):353-60. PMID: 14992686; PMCID: PMC1224184.
    104. Rodrigues MC, Guizzo R, Gobbo-Neto L, Ward R, Lopes NP, dos Santos WF. The biological activity in mammals and insects of the nucleosidic fraction from the spider Parawixia bistriata. Toxicon. 2004 Mar 15; 43(4):375-83. PMID: 15051400.
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    105. Ward R, Milligan G. Analysis of function of receptor-G-protein and receptor-RGS fusion proteins. Methods Mol Biol. 2004; 259:225-47. PMID: 15250496.
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    106. Chioato L, Ward R. Mapping structural determinants of biological activities in snake venom phospholipases A2 by sequence analysis and site directed mutagenesis. Toxicon. 2003 Dec 15; 42(8):869-83. PMID: 15019488.
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    107. Bugs MR, Forato LA, Bortoleto-Bugs RK, Fischer H, Mascarenhas YP, Ward R, Colnago LA. Spectroscopic characterization and structural modeling of prolamin from maize and pearl millet. Eur Biophys J. 2004 Jul; 33(4):335-43. PMID: 14508615.
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    108. Bahia DS, Sartania N, Ward R, Cavalli A, Jones TL, Druey KM, Milligan G. Concerted stimulation and deactivation of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins by chimeric G protein-coupled receptor-regulator of G protein signaling 4 fusion proteins: analysis of the contribution of palmitoylated cysteine residues to the GAP activity of RGS4. J Neurochem. 2003 Jun; 85(5):1289-98. PMID: 12753087.
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    109. Bertaso F, Ward R, Viard P, Milligan G, Dolphin AC. Mechanism of action of Gq to inhibit G beta gamma modulation of CaV2.2 calcium channels: probed by the use of receptor-G alpha tandems. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Apr; 63(4):832-43. PMID: 12644584.
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    110. Osterhout JL, Waheed AA, Hiol A, Ward R, Davey PC, Nini L, Wang J, Milligan G, Jones TL, Druey KM. Palmitoylation regulates regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) 16 function. II. Palmitoylation of a cysteine residue in the RGS box is critical for RGS16 GTPase accelerating activity and regulation of Gi-coupled signalling. J Biol Chem. 2003 May 23; 278(21):19309-16. PMID: 12642592.
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    111. Soares AM, Marcussi S, Stábeli RG, França SC, Giglio JR, Ward R, Arantes EC. Structural and functional analysis of BmjMIP, a phospholipase A2 myotoxin inhibitor protein from Bothrops moojeni snake plasma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Mar 07; 302(2):193-200. PMID: 12604331.
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    112. Ruller R, Ferreira TL, de Oliveira AH, Ward R. Chemical denaturation of a homodimeric lysine-49 phospholipase A2: a stable dimer interface and a native monomeric intermediate. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003 Mar 01; 411(1):112-20. PMID: 12590929.
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    113. Konozy EH, Bernardes ES, Rosa C, Faca V, Greene LJ, Ward R. Isolation, purification, and physicochemical characterization of a D-galactose-binding lectin from seeds of Erythrina speciosa. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003 Feb 15; 410(2):222-9. PMID: 12573281.
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    114. Konozy EH, Mulay R, Faca V, Ward R, Greene LJ, Roque-Barriera MC, Sabharwal S, Bhide SV. Purification, some properties of a D-galactose-binding leaf lectin from Erythrina indica and further characterization of seed lectin. Biochimie. 2002 Oct; 84(10):1035-43. PMID: 12504284.
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    115. Chioato L, De Oliveira AH, Ruller R, Sá JM, Ward R. Distinct sites for myotoxic and membrane-damaging activities in the C-terminal region of a Lys49-phospholipase A2. Biochem J. 2002 Sep 15; 366(Pt 3):971-6. PMID: 12079495; PMCID: PMC1222840.
    116. Ward R, Chioato L, de Oliveira AH, Ruller R, Sá JM. Active-site mutagenesis of a Lys49-phospholipase A2: biological and membrane-disrupting activities in the absence of catalysis. Biochem J. 2002 Feb 15; 362(Pt 1):89-96. PMID: 11829743; PMCID: PMC1222363.
    117. Ward R, Milligan G. Reciprocal mutations of highly conserved residues in transmembrane helices 2 and 7 of the alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor restore agonist activation of G(i1)alpha. Cell Signal. 2002 Feb; 14(2):139-44. PMID: 11781138.
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