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Ariel Linden, DrPH

TitleResearch Specialist
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentMedicine
Address
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    University of California, Los AngelesDrPH1997Health Services

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    Dr. Linden is a health services researcher with expertise in research methods. His particular area of interest is in developing and applying causal inferential techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. His recent work has focused on applying machine learning techniques to improve causal inference and risk prediction. Dr. Linden has written over 100 journal articles and developed 26 statistical packages for implementation with Stata software.


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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Cross DA, Nong P, Harris-Lemak C, Cohen GR, Linden A, Adler-Milstein J. Practice strategies to improve primary care for chronic disease patients under a pay-for-value program. Healthc (Amst). 2018 Sep 06. PMID: 30197304.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Linden A. Using randomization tests to assess treatment effects in multiple-group interrupted time series analysis. J Eval Clin Pract. 2018 Jul 12. PMID: 30003627.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Linden A, Yarnold PR. Using machine learning to evaluate treatment effects in multiple-group interrupted time series analysis. J Eval Clin Pract. 2018 Jun 11. PMID: 29888469.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Linden A. Using forecast modelling to evaluate treatment effects in single-group interrupted time series analysis. J Eval Clin Pract. 2018 May 11. PMID: 29749091.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Linden A. Using group-based trajectory modelling to enhance causal inference in interrupted time series analysis. J Eval Clin Pract. 2018 Apr 15. PMID: 29658192.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Linden A. Using permutation tests to enhance causal inference in interrupted time series analysis. J Eval Clin Pract. 2018 Feb 20. PMID: 29460383.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Linden A. Combining synthetic controls and interrupted time series analysis to improve causal inference in program evaluation. J Eval Clin Pract. 2018 Apr; 24(2):447-453. PMID: 29356225.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Linden A. A matching framework to improve causal inference in interrupted time-series analysis. J Eval Clin Pract. 2018 Apr; 24(2):408-415. PMID: 29266646.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Linden A, Yarnold PR. Estimating causal effects for survival (time-to-event) outcomes by combining classification tree analysis and propensity score weighting. J Eval Clin Pract. 2018 Apr; 24(2):380-387. PMID: 29230910.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Linden A, Yarnold PR. Identifying causal mechanisms in health care interventions using classification tree analysis. J Eval Clin Pract. 2018 Apr; 24(2):353-361. PMID: 29105259.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Kullgren JT, Krupka E, Schachter A, Linden A, Miller J, Acharya Y, Alford J, Duffy R, Adler-Milstein J. Precommitting to choose wisely about low-value services: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial. BMJ Qual Saf. 2017 Oct 24. PMID: 29066616.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Linden A, Yarnold PR. Minimizing imbalances on patient characteristics between treatment groups in randomized trials using classification tree analysis. J Eval Clin Pract. 2017 Dec; 23(6):1309-1315. PMID: 28675602.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Linden A, Yarnold PR. Modeling time-to-event (survival) data using classification tree analysis. J Eval Clin Pract. 2017 Dec; 23(6):1299-1308. PMID: 28670833.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Linden A, Yarnold PR. Using classification tree analysis to generate propensity score weights. J Eval Clin Pract. 2017 Aug; 23(4):703-712. PMID: 28371206.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Linden A. Improving causal inference with a doubly robust estimator that combines propensity score stratification and weighting. J Eval Clin Pract. 2017 Aug; 23(4):697-702. PMID: 28116816.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Linden A. A comparison of approaches for stratifying on the propensity score to reduce bias. J Eval Clin Pract. 2017 Aug; 23(4):690-696. PMID: 28074629.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Linden A.. A comprehensive set of post-estimation measures to enrich interrupted time series analysis. Stata Journal. 2017; 17(1):73–88.
    18. Linden A. Persistent threats to validity in single-group interrupted time series analysis with a cross over design. J Eval Clin Pract. 2017 Apr; 23(2):419-425. PMID: 27804216.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Linden A. Challenges to validity in single-group interrupted time series analysis. J Eval Clin Pract. 2017 Apr; 23(2):413-418. PMID: 27630090.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Linden A, Yarnold PR. Combining machine learning and propensity score weighting to estimate causal effects in multivalued treatments. J Eval Clin Pract. 2016 Dec; 22(6):871-881. PMID: 27421786.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Linden A, Yarnold PR. Combining machine learning and matching techniques to improve causal inference in program evaluation. J Eval Clin Pract. 2016 Dec; 22(6):864-870. PMID: 27353301.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Linden A, Yarnold PR, Nallamothu BK. Using machine learning to model dose-response relationships. J Eval Clin Pract. 2016 Dec; 22(6):856-863. PMID: 27240883.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Linden A, Yarnold PR. Using machine learning to identify structural breaks in single-group interrupted time series designs. J Eval Clin Pract. 2016 Dec; 22(6):851-855. PMID: 27091355.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Linden A, Yarnold PR. Using machine learning to assess covariate balance in matching studies. J Eval Clin Pract. 2016 Dec; 22(6):844-850. PMID: 27004916.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Linden A, Yarnold PR. Using data mining techniques to characterize participation in observational studies. J Eval Clin Pract. 2016 Dec; 22(6):835-843. PMID: 26805004.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Linden A. Estimating Measurement Error of the Patient Activation Measure for Respondents with Partially Missing Data. Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:270168. PMID: 26636096; PMCID: PMC4655275.
    27. Linden A, Uysal SD, Ryan A, Adams JL. Estimating causal effects for multivalued treatments: a comparison of approaches. Stat Med. 2016 Feb 20; 35(4):534-52. PMID: 26482211.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Linden A.. Conducting interrupted time-series analysis for single- and multiple-group comparisons. Stata Journal. 2015; 15(2):480-500.
    29. Linden A. Graphical displays for assessing covariate balance in matching studies. J Eval Clin Pract. 2015 Apr; 21(2):242-7. PMID: 25545944.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Linden A, Butterworth S. A comprehensive hospital-based intervention to reduce readmissions for chronically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Manag Care. 2014 Oct; 20(10):783-92. PMID: 25365681.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Linden A. Combining propensity score-based stratification and weighting to improve causal inference in the evaluation of health care interventions. J Eval Clin Pract. 2014 Dec; 20(6):1065-71. PMID: 25266868.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Linden A. Assessing regression to the mean effects in health care initiatives. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013 Sep 28; 13:119. PMID: 24073634; PMCID: PMC3849564.
    33. Linden A, Samuels SJ. Using balance statistics to determine the optimal number of controls in matching studies. J Eval Clin Pract. 2013 Oct; 19(5):968-75. PMID: 23910956.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Elissen AM, Adams JL, Spreeuwenberg M, Duimel-Peeters IG, Spreeuwenberg C, Linden A, Vrijhoef HJ. Advancing current approaches to disease management evaluation: capitalizing on heterogeneity to understand what works and for whom. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013 Mar 14; 13:40. PMID: 23497125; PMCID: PMC3626873.
    35. Linden A, Samuels SJ. Estimating measurement error when annualizing health care costs. J Eval Clin Pract. 2013 Oct; 19(5):933-7. PMID: 22844978.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Linden A, Adams JL. Combining the regression discontinuity design and propensity score-based weighting to improve causal inference in program evaluation. J Eval Clin Pract. 2012 Apr; 18(2):317-25. PMID: 22304484.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Linden A. Identifying spin in health management evaluations. J Eval Clin Pract. 2011 Dec; 17(6):1223-30. PMID: 21210897.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Linden A, Adams JL. Applying a propensity score-based weighting model to interrupted time series data: improving causal inference in programme evaluation. J Eval Clin Pract. 2011 Dec; 17(6):1231-8. PMID: 20973870.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Linden A. Designing a prospective study when randomization is not feasible. Eval Health Prof. 2011 Jun; 34(2):164-80. PMID: 20696741.
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    40. Linden A, Biuso TJ, Butterworth SW. Help patients with chronic kidney disease stave off dialysis. J Fam Pract. 2010 Apr; 59(4):212-9. PMID: 20398579.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Linden A, Adams JL. Using propensity score-based weighting in the evaluation of health management programme effectiveness. J Eval Clin Pract. 2010 Feb; 16(1):175-9. PMID: 20367829.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Linden A, Butterworth SW, Prochaska JO. Motivational interviewing-based health coaching as a chronic care intervention. J Eval Clin Pract. 2010 Feb; 16(1):166-74. PMID: 20367828.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Linden A, Adams JL. Evaluating health management programmes over time: application of propensity score-based weighting to longitudinal data. J Eval Clin Pract. 2010 Feb; 16(1):180-5. PMID: 20367830.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Couto JE, Webster L, Romney MC, Leider HL, Linden A. Use of an algorithm applied to urine drug screening to assess adherence to an oxycontin regimen. J Opioid Manag. 2009 Nov-Dec; 5(6):359-64. PMID: 20073409.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Linden A, Adams JL. Improving participant selection in disease management programmes: insights gained from propensity score stratification. J Eval Clin Pract. 2008 Oct; 14(5):914-8. PMID: 19018926.
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    46. Linden A. Disease management: truth in advertising. Health Aff (Millwood). 2008 Sep-Oct; 27(5):1482-3; author reply 1483-4. PMID: 18780941.
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    47. Linden A. Narrow model. Health Aff (Millwood). 2008 May-Jun; 27(3):899-900; author reply 900. PMID: 18474995.
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    48. Linden A. Sample size in disease management program evaluation: the challenge of demonstrating a statistically significant reduction in admissions. Dis Manag. 2008 Apr; 11(2):95-101. PMID: 18393649.
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    49. Rastogi A, Linden A, Nissenson AR. Disease management in chronic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2008 Jan; 15(1):19-28. PMID: 18155106.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Linden A, Adler-Milstein J. Medicare disease management in policy context. Health Care Financ Rev. 2008; 29(3):1-11. PMID: 18567239; PMCID: PMC4195041.
    51. Linden A, Goldberg S. The case-mix of chronic illness hospitalization rates in a managed care population: implications for health management programmes. J Eval Clin Pract. 2007 Dec; 13(6):947-51. PMID: 18070267.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Linden A, Berg GD, Wadhwa S. Evaluation of a medicaid asthma disease management program. Dis Manag. 2007 Oct; 10(5):266-72. PMID: 17961079.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Linden A, Adams JL. Determining if disease management saves money: an introduction to meta-analysis. J Eval Clin Pract. 2007 Jun; 13(3):400-7. PMID: 17518806.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Biuso TJ, Butterworth S, Linden A. A conceptual framework for targeting prediabetes with lifestyle, clinical, and behavioral management interventions. Dis Manag. 2007 Feb; 10(1):6-15. PMID: 17309360.
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    55. Linden A, Trochim WM, Adams JL. Evaluating program effectiveness using the regression point displacement design. Eval Health Prof. 2006 Dec; 29(4):407-23. PMID: 17102063.
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    56. Linden A. Is Israel ready for disease management? Isr Med Assoc J. 2006 Oct; 8(10):667-71. PMID: 17125109.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Butterworth S, Linden A, McClay W, Leo MC. Effect of motivational interviewing-based health coaching on employees' physical and mental health status. J Occup Health Psychol. 2006 Oct; 11(4):358-65. PMID: 17059299.
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    58. Linden A, Adams JL, Roberts N. Strengthening the case for disease management effectiveness: un-hiding the hidden bias. J Eval Clin Pract. 2006 Apr; 12(2):140-7. PMID: 16579822.
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    59. Linden A, Adams JL. Evaluating disease management programme effectiveness: an introduction to instrumental variables. J Eval Clin Pract. 2006 Apr; 12(2):148-54. PMID: 16579823.
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    60. Linden AL. What will it take for disease management to demonstrate a return on investment? New perspectives on an old theme. Am J Manag Care. 2006 Apr; 12(4):217-22. PMID: 16610923.
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    61. Linden A, Adams JL, Roberts N. Evaluating disease management programme effectiveness: an introduction to the regression discontinuity design. J Eval Clin Pract. 2006 Apr; 12(2):124-31. PMID: 16579820.
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    62. Linden A, Butterworth SW, Roberts N. Disease management interventions II: What else is in the black box? Dis Manag. 2006 Apr; 9(2):73-85. PMID: 16620193.
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    63. Linden A. Measuring diagnostic and predictive accuracy in disease management: an introduction to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. J Eval Clin Pract. 2006 Apr; 12(2):132-9. PMID: 16579821.
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    64. Linden A, Roberts N. Using visual displays as a tool to demonstrate disease management program effectiveness. Dis Manag. 2005 Oct; 8(5):301-10. PMID: 16212515.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Linden A, Wilson T. Letter regarding article by Galbreath et al, "Long-term healthcare and cost outcomes of disease management in a large, randomized, community-based population with heart failure". Circulation. 2005 Jul 05; 112(1):e11; author reply e11. PMID: 15998687.
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    66. Wilson T, Linden A. Potential bias in "controls" used in a heart failure disease-management program. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Jul; 53(7):1268-9. PMID: 16108960.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Wilson T, Linden A. Financial interests, detailed description of methods, and use of randomized design in a real-world setting. Am J Manag Care. 2005 Jun; 11(6):384; author reply 394. PMID: 15974557.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Wilson T, Linden A. Disease management's economic impact: unproven? Health Aff (Millwood). 2005 Mar-Apr; 24(2):566-7; author reply 567. PMID: 15757944.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Linden A, Wilson T. Care management for heart failure. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Mar 01; 142(5):386; author reply 386. PMID: 15738460.
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    70. Wilson T, Linden A. Asthma disease management: regression to the mean or better? Am J Manag Care. 2005 Mar; 11(3):136; author reply 136-7. PMID: 15786850.
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    71. Linden A, Roberts N. A user's guide to the disease management literature: recommendations for reporting and assessing program outcomes. Am J Manag Care. 2005 Feb; 11(2):113-20. PMID: 15726859.
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    72. Wilson T, Linden A. Measuring diabetes management. Health Aff (Millwood). 2004 Nov-Dec; 23(6):277-8; author reply 278-9. PMID: 15537618.
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    73. Linden A, Adams JL, Roberts N. Generalizing disease management program results: how to get from here to there. Manag Care Interface. 2004 Jul; 17(7):38-45. PMID: 15341247.
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    74. Linden A, Adams JL, Roberts N. Evaluating disease management program effectiveness: an introduction to survival analysis. Dis Manag. 2004; 7(3):180-90. PMID: 15669578.
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    75. Linden A, Adams JL, Roberts N. Using an empirical method for establishing clinical outcome targets in disease management programs. Dis Manag. 2004; 7(2):93-101. PMID: 15228794.
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    76. Linden A, Roberts N. Disease management interventions: what's in the black box? Dis Manag. 2004; 7(4):275-91. PMID: 15671785.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Linden A, Adams JL, Roberts N. Evaluating disease management program effectiveness: an introduction to time-series analysis. Dis Manag. 2003; 6(4):243-55. PMID: 14736348.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Linden A, Roberts N, Keck K. The complete "how to" guide for selecting a disease management vendor. Dis Manag. 2003; 6(1):21-6. PMID: 12899564.
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    79. Linden A, Adams JL, Roberts N. An assessment of the total population approach for evaluating disease management program effectiveness. Dis Manag. 2003; 6(2):93-102. PMID: 14577903.
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    80. Linden A, Holland GJ, Loy SF, Vincent WJ.A physiological comparison of forward vs reverse wheelchair ergometry. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 1993; 11(25):1265-1268.
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