Maria Glymour, ScD, MS

InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentEpidemiology & Biostatistics
Address550 16th. Street
San Francisco CA 94158
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    Research Interests
    * Social determinants of health in aging
    * Cognitive aging, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia
    * Socioeconomic and geographic determinants of stroke incidence and outcomes
    * Causal inference in social epidemiology

    My research focuses on how social factors experienced across the lifecourse, from infancy to adulthood, influence cognitive function, dementia, stroke, and other health outcomes in old age. I am especially interested in education and other exposures amenable to policy interventions. Current cohorts of elderly in the US were exposed to profound social changes during the 20th century when we revolutionized access to high school. One thread of my research examines how changes in schooling laws and school quality in the 20th century might have influenced the health and cognitive functioning of current cohorts of elderly. My results suggest that extra schooling has substantial benefits for memory function in the elderly independent of any “innate” characteristics.

    My recent work has also focused on understanding the social and geographic patterning of stroke and stroke recovery. In the United States, there is a longstanding pattern of excess stroke incidence and mortality suffered by residents of southern states. We are examining whether this might be attributable to early life exposure, rather than adult place of residence. By studying stroke, I hope to improve understanding of factors that influence neurologic risk and resilience and how these conditions are shaped by social inequalities from childhood through adulthood. In particular, the intersection of stroke and dementia is an inadequately understood area.

    A separate theme of my research focuses on overcoming methodological problems encountered in analyses of social determinants of health, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia. For many reasons, research focusing on lifecourse epidemiology as well as cognitive aging introduces substantial methodological challenges. Sometimes, these are conceptual challenges, and clear causal thinking can help! Many of these challenges are being addressed in the MELODEM (MEthods in LOngitudinal research on DEMentia) initiative, an international group of researchers focusing on analytic challenges in research on dementia and cognitive aging. MELODEM is organized into working groups on measurement, selection/survival, time-scale definitions, complex confounding, high-dimensional data.

    I have advocated the use of causal directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) as a standard research tool to represent our causal hypotheses and help elucidate potential biases in proposed analyses. In other cases, the methodological problems require more analytical solutions that have been developed elsewhere in epidemiology or in other disciplines, but are rarely applied to these research questions. Instrumental variables analyses of natural or induced experiments are one promising example. Genetic variations have recently been advanced as possible instrumental variables to estimate the health effects of a wide range of phenotypes, an approach sometimes called “Mendelian Randomization.” Using genetic polymorphisms as instrumental variables could provide a very powerful tool for social epidemiology, but the inferences from such analyses rest on strong assumptions. Thus I am currently working with a team to explore approaches to evaluating the plausibility of those assumptions in applications for social epidemiology.

    I currently serve as the Director for the UCSF PhD program in Epidemiology and Translational Science (http://epibiostat.ucsf.edu/doctoral-program-epidemiology-translational-science). With Drs. Mary Haan and Bob Hiatt, I co-lead the UCSF T32 training grant on Aging and Chronic Disease (https://epibiostat.ucsf.edu/training-research-aging-and-chronic-disease), which offers financial support for pre- and post-doctoral researchers.
    Trainees interested in research collaborations related to the social epidemiology of stroke, dementia, and aging are welcome to send me an email or set up an appointment: http://mglymour.youcanbook.me/

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Zeki Al Hazzouri A, Mayeda ER, Elfassy T, Lee A, Odden MC, Thekkethala D, Wright CB, Glymour M, Haan MN. Perceived Walking Speed, Measured Tandem Walk, Incident Stroke, and Mortality in Older Latino Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 May 01; 72(5):676-682. PMID: 27549992.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Chang SC, Glymour M, Cornelis M, Walter S, Rimm EB, Tchetgen Tchetgen E, Kawachi I, Kubzansky LD. Social Integration and Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women: The Role of Lifestyle Behaviors. Circ Res. 2017 Jun 09; 120(12):1927-1937. PMID: 28373350.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Glymour M, Rudolph KE. Causal inference challenges in social epidemiology: Bias, specificity, and imagination. Soc Sci Med. 2016 10; 166:258-265. PMID: 27575286.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Sumner JA, Kubzansky LD, Kabrhel C, Roberts AL, Chen Q, Winning A, Gilsanz P, Rimm EB, Glymour M, Koenen KC. Associations of Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms With Venous Thromboembolism Over 22 Years in Women. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 May 12; 5(5). PMID: 27172912; PMCID: PMC4889189.
    5. Clouston SA, Glymour M, Terrera GM. Educational inequalities in aging-related declines in fluid cognition and the onset of cognitive pathology. Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2015 Sep 01; 1(3):303-310. PMID: 26309906.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Walter S, Vansteelandt S, Martinussen T, Glymour M. Instrumental variable estimation in a survival context. Epidemiology. 2015 May; 26(3):402-10. PMID: 25692223; PMCID: PMC4387894.
    7. Litt JS, Glymour M, Hauser-Cram P, Hehir T, McCormick MC. The effect of the Infant Health and Development Program on special education use at school age. J Pediatr. 2015 Feb; 166(2):457-62.e1. PMID: 25449222.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Bhan N, Kawachi I, Glymour M, Subramanian SV. Time Trends in Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Asthma Prevalence in the United States From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Study (1999-2011). Am J Public Health. 2015 Jun; 105(6):1269-75. PMID: 25320897.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Walter S, Glymour M, Avendano M. The health effects of US unemployment insurance policy: does income from unemployment benefits prevent cardiovascular disease? PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e101193. PMID: 25025281; PMCID: PMC4098914.
    10. Glymour M. Alcohol and cardiovascular disease. BMJ. 2014 Jul 10; 349:g4334. PMID: 25011451.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Capistrant BD, Wang Q, Liu SY, Glymour M. Stroke-associated differences in rates of activity of daily living loss emerge years before stroke onset. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Jun; 61(6):931-8. PMID: 23668393; PMCID: PMC4312665.
    12. Howard VJ, McClure LA, Glymour M, Cunningham SA, Kleindorfer DO, Crowe M, Wadley VG, Peace F, Howard G, Lackland DT. Effect of duration and age at exposure to the Stroke Belt on incident stroke in adulthood. Neurology. 2013 Apr 30; 80(18):1655-61. PMID: 23616168; PMCID: PMC3716470.
    13. Glymour M, Benjamin EJ, Kosheleva A, Gilsanz P, Curtis LH, Patton KK. Early life predictors of atrial fibrillation-related mortality: evidence from the health and retirement study. Health Place. 2013 May; 21:133-9. PMID: 23454734; PMCID: PMC3640834.
    14. Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Walter S, Glymour M. Commentary: building an evidence base for mendelian randomization studies: assessing the validity and strength of proposed genetic instrumental variables. Int J Epidemiol. 2013 Feb; 42(1):328-31. PMID: 23508417; PMCID: PMC3600630.
    15. Capistrant BD, Gilsanz P, Moon JR, Kosheleva A, Patton KK, Glymour M. Does the association between depressive symptoms and cardiovascular mortality risk vary by race? Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study. Ethn Dis. 2013; 23(2):155-60. PMID: 23530295; PMCID: PMC3616329.
    16. Gilman SE, Fitzmaurice GM, Bruce ML, Ten Have T, Glymour M, Carliner H, Alexopoulos GS, Mulsant BH, Reynolds CF, Cohen A. Economic inequalities in the effectiveness of a primary care intervention for depression and suicidal ideation. Epidemiology. 2013 Jan; 24(1):14-22. PMID: 23232609; PMCID: PMC3523272.
    17. Mukherjee S, Kim S, Gibbons LE, Nho K, Risacher SL, Glymour M, Habeck C, Lee GJ, Mormino E, Ertekin-Taner N, Montine TJ, Decarli C, Saykin AJ, Crane PK. Genetic architecture of resilience of executive functioning. Brain Imaging Behav. 2012 Dec; 6(4):621-33. PMID: 22711244.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Osypuk TL, Tchetgen EJ, Acevedo-Garcia D, Earls FJ, Lincoln A, Schmidt NM, Glymour M. Differential mental health effects of neighborhood relocation among youth in vulnerable families: results from a randomized trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Dec; 69(12):1284-94. PMID: 23045214; PMCID: PMC3629812.
    19. Mungas D, Crane PK, Gibbons LE, Manly JJ, Glymour M, Jones RN. Advanced psychometric analysis and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: reports from the 2011 Friday Harbor conference. Brain Imaging Behav. 2012 Dec; 6(4):485-8. PMID: 23232798; PMCID: PMC3532555.
    20. Habeck C, Risacher S, Lee GJ, Glymour M, Mormino E, Mukherjee S, Kim S, Nho K, DeCarli C, Saykin AJ, Crane PK. Relationship between baseline brain metabolism measured using [¹8F]FDG PET and memory and executive function in prodromal and early Alzheimer's disease. Brain Imaging Behav. 2012 Dec; 6(4):568-83. PMID: 23179062.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Nho K, Risacher SL, Crane PK, DeCarli C, Glymour M, Habeck C, Kim S, Lee GJ, Mormino E, Mukherjee S, Shen L, West JD, Saykin AJ. Voxel and surface-based topography of memory and executive deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Brain Imaging Behav. 2012 Dec; 6(4):551-67. PMID: 23070747.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Glymour M, Osypuk TL. Promoting health and improving survival into very old age. BMJ. 2012 Sep 26; 345:e6452. PMID: 23015392.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Roberts AL, Glymour M, Koenen KC. Does maltreatment in childhood affect sexual orientation in adulthood? Arch Sex Behav. 2013 Feb; 42(2):161-71. PMID: 22976519; PMCID: PMC3535560.
    24. Glymour M, Chêne G, Tzourio C, Dufouil C. Brain MRI markers and dropout in a longitudinal study of cognitive aging: the Three-City Dijon Study. Neurology. 2012 Sep 25; 79(13):1340-8. PMID: 22972647; PMCID: PMC3448743.
    25. Liu SY, Kawachi I, Glymour M. Education and inequalities in risk scores for coronary heart disease and body mass index: evidence for a population strategy. Epidemiology. 2012 Sep; 23(5):657-64. PMID: 22814529.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Wang Q, Capistrant BD, Ehntholt A, Glymour M. Long-term rate of change in memory functioning before and after stroke onset. Stroke. 2012 Oct; 43(10):2561-6. PMID: 22935399; PMCID: PMC3675175.
    27. Osypuk TL, Schmidt NM, Bates LM, Tchetgen-Tchetgen EJ, Earls FJ, Glymour M. Gender and crime victimization modify neighborhood effects on adolescent mental health. Pediatrics. 2012 Sep; 130(3):472-81. PMID: 22908105; PMCID: PMC3428753.
    28. Rist PM, Kang JH, Buring JE, Glymour M, Grodstein F, Kurth T. Migraine and cognitive decline among women: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2012 Aug 08; 345:e5027. PMID: 22875950; PMCID: PMC3414433.
    29. Liu SY, Chavan NR, Glymour M. Type of high-school credentials and older age ADL and IADL limitations: is the GED credential equivalent to a diploma? Gerontologist. 2013 Apr; 53(2):326-33. PMID: 22859434.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Glymour M, Weuve J, Robins J. Specifying the correlation structure in inverse-probability- weighting estimation for repeated measures. Epidemiology. 2012 Jul; 23(4):644-6. PMID: 22659551.
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    31. Sabbath EL, Glymour M, Berr C, Singh-Manoux A, Zins M, Goldberg M, Berkman LF. Occupational solvent exposure and cognition: does the association vary by level of education? Neurology. 2012 May 29; 78(22):1754-60. PMID: 22641403; PMCID: PMC3359584.
    32. Moon JR, Glymour M, Subramanian SV, Avendaño M, Kawachi I. Transition to retirement and risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective analysis of the US health and retirement study. Soc Sci Med. 2012 Aug; 75(3):526-30. PMID: 22607954; PMCID: PMC3367095.
    33. Datta GD, Glymour M, Kosheleva A, Chen JT. Prostate cancer mortality and birth or adult residence in the southern United States. Cancer Causes Control. 2012 Jul; 23(7):1039-46. PMID: 22547136.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Glymour M, Tzourio C, Dufouil C. Is cognitive aging predicted by one's own or one's parents' educational level? results from the three-city study. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Apr 15; 175(8):750-9. PMID: 22472116; PMCID: PMC3491976.
    35. Glymour M, Tzourio C, Dufouil C. Glymour et al. Respond to "Is Cognitive Aging Predicted by Educational Level?" Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Apr 2. PMID: 22472115.
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    36. Nandi A, Glymour M, Kawachi I, VanderWeele TJ. Using marginal structural models to estimate the direct effect of adverse childhood social conditions on onset of heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. Epidemiology. 2012 Mar; 23(2):223-32. PMID: 22317806; PMCID: PMC3414366.
    37. Moon JR, Capistrant BD, Kawachi I, Avendaño M, Subramanian SV, Bates LM, Glymour M. Stroke incidence in older US Hispanics: is foreign birth protective? Stroke. 2012 May; 43(5):1224-9. PMID: 22357712; PMCID: PMC3838631.
    38. Liu SY, Linkletter CD, Loucks EB, Glymour M, Buka SL. Decreased births among black female adolescents following school desegregation. Soc Sci Med. 2012 Apr; 74(7):982-8. PMID: 22365940.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Glymour M, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Robins JM. Credible Mendelian randomization studies: approaches for evaluating the instrumental variable assumptions. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Feb 15; 175(4):332-9. PMID: 22247045; PMCID: PMC3366596.
    40. Singh-Manoux A, Kivimaki M, Glymour M, Elbaz A, Berr C, Ebmeier KP, Ferrie JE, Dugravot A. Timing of onset of cognitive decline: results from Whitehall II prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2012 Jan 05; 344:d7622. PMID: 22223828; PMCID: PMC3281313.
    41. Cornelis MC, Glymour M, Chang SC, Tchetgen EJ, Liang L, Koenen KC, Kang JH, Pasquale LR, Rimm EB, Kawachi I, Kubzansky LD. Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) is not associated with optimism in the Nurses' Health Study. Mol Psychiatry. 2012 Dec; 17(12):1157-9. PMID: 22212599; PMCID: PMC3587169.
    42. Weuve J, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Glymour M, Beck TL, Aggarwal NT, Wilson RS, Evans DA, Mendes de Leon CF. Accounting for bias due to selective attrition: the example of smoking and cognitive decline. Epidemiology. 2012 Jan; 23(1):119-28. PMID: 21989136; PMCID: PMC3237815.
    43. Capistrant BD, Moon JR, Glymour M. Spousal caregiving and incident hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2012 Apr; 25(4):437-43. PMID: 22189941; PMCID: PMC3836043.
    44. Capistrant BD, Moon JR, Berkman LF, Glymour M. Current and long-term spousal caregiving and onset of cardiovascular disease. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Oct; 66(10):951-6. PMID: 22080816; PMCID: PMC3855843.
    45. Zahodne LB, Glymour M, Sparks C, Bontempo D, Dixon RA, MacDonald SW, Manly JJ. Education does not slow cognitive decline with aging: 12-year evidence from the victoria longitudinal study. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2011 Nov; 17(6):1039-46. PMID: 21923980; PMCID: PMC3285821.
    46. Kvaavik E, Glymour M, Klepp KI, Tell GS, Batty GD. Parental education as a predictor of offspring behavioural and physiological cardiovascular disease risk factors. Eur J Public Health. 2012 Aug; 22(4):544-50. PMID: 21893507; PMCID: PMC3402716.
    47. Haas SA, Glymour M, Berkman LF. Childhood health and labor market inequality over the life course. J Health Soc Behav. 2011 Sep; 52(3):298-313. PMID: 21896684.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Haas SA, Glymour M, Berkman LF. Policy brief. J Health Soc Behav. 2011 Sep; 52(3):297. PMID: 21896683.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Moon JR, Kondo N, Glymour M, Subramanian SV. Widowhood and mortality: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23465. PMID: 21858130; PMCID: PMC3157386.
    50. Rist PM, Dufouil C, Glymour M, Tzourio C, Kurth T. Migraine and cognitive decline in the population-based EVA study. Cephalalgia. 2011 Sep; 31(12):1291-300. PMID: 21816772; PMCID: PMC3175294.
    51. Patton KK, Benjamin EJ, Kosheleva A, Curtis LH, Glymour M. Early-life antecedents of atrial fibrillation: place of birth and atrial fibrillation-related mortality. Ann Epidemiol. 2011 Oct; 21(10):732-8. PMID: 21798760.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Glymour M, Kosheleva A, Wadley VG, Weiss C, Manly JJ. Geographic distribution of dementia mortality: elevated mortality rates for black and white Americans by place of birth. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2011 Jul-Sep; 25(3):196-202. PMID: 21297428; PMCID: PMC3383774.
    53. Jones RN, Manly J, Glymour M, Rentz DM, Jefferson AL, Stern Y. Conceptual and measurement challenges in research on cognitive reserve. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2011 Jul; 17(4):593-601. PMID: 21411036; PMCID: PMC3289742.
    54. Weuve J, Glymour M, Hu H, Sparrow D, Spiro A, Vokonas PS, Litonjua AA. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second and cognitive aging in men. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Jul; 59(7):1283-92. PMID: 21718272; PMCID: PMC3758858.
    55. Glymour M, Yen JJ, Kosheleva A, Moon JR, Capistrant BD, Patton KK. Elevated depressive symptoms and incident stroke in Hispanic, African-American, and White older Americans. J Behav Med. 2012 Apr; 35(2):211-20. PMID: 21656258; PMCID: PMC3305882.
    56. Singh-Manoux A, Marmot MG, Glymour M, Sabia S, Kivimäki M, Dugravot A. Does cognitive reserve shape cognitive decline? Ann Neurol. 2011 Aug; 70(2):296-304. PMID: 21563209; PMCID: PMC3152621.
    57. White K, Borrell LN, Wong DW, Galea S, Ogedegbe G, Glymour M. Racial/ethnic residential segregation and self-reported hypertension among US- and foreign-born blacks in New York City. Am J Hypertens. 2011 Aug; 24(8):904-10. PMID: 21509051.
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    58. Mayeux R, Reitz C, Brickman AM, Haan MN, Manly JJ, Glymour M, Weiss CC, Yaffe K, Middleton L, Hendrie HC, Warren LH, Hayden KM, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Breitner JC, Morris JC. Operationalizing diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease and other age-related cognitive impairment-Part 1. Alzheimers Dement. 2011 Jan; 7(1):15-34. PMID: 21255741; PMCID: PMC3063444.
    59. Kaufman JS, Glymour M. Splitting the differences: problems in using twin controls to study the effects of BMI on mortality. Epidemiology. 2011 Jan; 22(1):104-6; discussion 107-8. PMID: 21150356.
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    60. Glymour M, Maselko J, Gilman SE, Patton KK, Avendaño M. Depressive symptoms predict incident stroke independently of memory impairments. Neurology. 2010 Dec 07; 75(23):2063-70. PMID: 21135381; PMCID: PMC2995534.
    61. Glymour M, Mujahid M, Wu Q, White K, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ. Neighborhood disadvantage and self-assessed health, disability, and depressive symptoms: longitudinal results from the health and retirement study. Ann Epidemiol. 2010 Nov; 20(11):856-61. PMID: 20933193; PMCID: PMC3079486.
    62. Glymour M, Kosheleva A, Boden-Albala B. Birth and adult residence in the Stroke Belt independently predict stroke mortality. Neurology. 2009 Dec 01; 73(22):1858-65. PMID: 19949032; PMCID: PMC2796440.
    63. Maselko J, Bates LM, Avendaño M, Glymour M. The intersection of sex, marital status, and cardiovascular risk factors in shaping stroke incidence: results from the health and retirement study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Dec; 57(12):2293-9. PMID: 19874408.
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    64. Helzner EP, Luchsinger JA, Scarmeas N, Cosentino S, Brickman AM, Glymour M, Stern Y. Contribution of vascular risk factors to the progression in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2009 Mar; 66(3):343-8. PMID: 19273753; PMCID: PMC3105324.
    65. DeFries T, Avendaño M, Glymour M. Level and change in cognitive test scores predict risk of first stroke. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Mar; 57(3):499-505. PMID: 19175440.
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    66. Avendano M, Glymour M, Banks J, Mackenbach JP. Health disadvantage in US adults aged 50 to 74 years: a comparison of the health of rich and poor Americans with that of Europeans. Am J Public Health. 2009 Mar; 99(3):540-8. PMID: 19150903; PMCID: PMC2661456.
    67. Glymour M, Avendano M. Can self-reported strokes be used to study stroke incidence and risk factors?: evidence from the health and retirement study. Stroke. 2009 Mar; 40(3):873-9. PMID: 19150869.
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    68. Glymour M, Avendaño M, Haas S, Berkman LF. Lifecourse social conditions and racial disparities in incidence of first stroke. Ann Epidemiol. 2008 Dec; 18(12):904-12. PMID: 19041589; PMCID: PMC2796851.
    69. Glymour M, Weuve J, Chen JT. Methodological challenges in causal research on racial and ethnic patterns of cognitive trajectories: measurement, selection, and bias. Neuropsychol Rev. 2008 Sep; 18(3):194-213. PMID: 18819008; PMCID: PMC3640811.
    70. Glymour M, Manly JJ. Lifecourse social conditions and racial and ethnic patterns of cognitive aging. Neuropsychol Rev. 2008 Sep; 18(3):223-54. PMID: 18815889.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Glymour M, Defries TB, Kawachi I, Avendano M. Spousal smoking and incidence of first stroke: the Health and Retirement Study. Am J Prev Med. 2008 Sep; 35(3):245-8. PMID: 18692737; PMCID: PMC2796850.
    72. Glymour M, Weuve J, Fay ME, Glass T, Berkman LF. Social ties and cognitive recovery after stroke: does social integration promote cognitive resilience? Neuroepidemiology. 2008; 31(1):10-20. PMID: 18535395; PMCID: PMC2794277.
    73. Glymour M, Kawachi I, Jencks CS, Berkman LF. Does childhood schooling affect old age memory or mental status? Using state schooling laws as natural experiments. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2008 Jun; 62(6):532-7. PMID: 18477752; PMCID: PMC2796854.
    74. Ertel KA, Glymour M, Berkman LF. Effects of social integration on preserving memory function in a nationally representative US elderly population. Am J Public Health. 2008 Jul; 98(7):1215-20. PMID: 18511736; PMCID: PMC2424091.
    75. Avendano M, Glymour M. Stroke disparities in older Americans: is wealth a more powerful indicator of risk than income and education? Stroke. 2008 May; 39(5):1533-40. PMID: 18436891; PMCID: PMC3079499.
    76. Cosentino S, Scarmeas N, Helzner E, Glymour M, Brandt J, Albert M, Blacker D, Stern Y. APOE epsilon 4 allele predicts faster cognitive decline in mild Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2008 May 06; 70(19 Pt 2):1842-9. PMID: 18401023; PMCID: PMC2676693.
    77. Glymour M. Sensitive periods and first difference models: integrating etiologic thinking into econometric techniques: a commentary on Clarkwest's "Neo-materialist theory and the temporal relationship between income inequality and longevity change". Soc Sci Med. 2008 May; 66(9):1895-902; discussion 1903-8. PMID: 18281135.
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    78. Avendano M, Glymour M. Obesity doesn't explain U.S.-Europe disparities. Health Aff (Millwood). 2008 Jan-Feb; 27(1):298. PMID: 18180507.
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    79. Stein Z, Glymour M. Diaphragms and lubricant gel for prevention of HIV. Lancet. 2007 Dec 01; 370(9602):1823; author reply 1823-4. PMID: 18061046.
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    80. Glymour M, Berkman LF, Ertel KA, Fay ME, Glass TA, Furie KL. Lesion characteristics, NIH stroke scale, and functional recovery after stroke. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Sep; 86(9):725-33. PMID: 17709996.
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    81. Glymour M, Avendaño M, Berkman LF. Is the 'stroke belt' worn from childhood?: risk of first stroke and state of residence in childhood and adulthood. Stroke. 2007 Sep; 38(9):2415-21. PMID: 17673716.
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    82. Ertel KA, Glymour M, Glass TA, Berkman LF. Frailty modifies effectiveness of psychosocial intervention in recovery from stroke. Clin Rehabil. 2007 Jun; 21(6):511-22. PMID: 17613582.
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    83. Glymour M. Commentary: Selected samples and nebulous measures: some methodological difficulties in life-course epidemiology. Int J Epidemiol. 2007 Jun; 36(3):566-8. PMID: 17510068.
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    84. Glymour M. Invited commentary: when bad genes look good - APOE*E4, cognitive decline, and diagnostic thresholds. Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Jun 01; 165(11):1239-46; author reply 1247. PMID: 17431011.
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    85. Glymour M, Kawachi I. Review of publication bias in studies on publication bias: here's a proposal for editors that may help reduce publication bias. BMJ. 2005 Sep 17; 331(7517):638. PMID: 16166149; PMCID: PMC1215604.
    86. Glymour M, Weuve J, Berkman LF, Kawachi I, Robins JM. When is baseline adjustment useful in analyses of change? An example with education and cognitive change. Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Aug 01; 162(3):267-78. PMID: 15987729.
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    87. Glass TA, Berkman LF, Hiltunen EF, Furie K, Glymour M, Fay ME, Ware J. The Families In Recovery From Stroke Trial (FIRST): primary study results. Psychosom Med. 2004 Nov-Dec; 66(6):889-97. PMID: 15564354.
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    88. Glymour M, Saha S, Bigby J. Physician race and ethnicity, professional satisfaction, and work-related stress: results from the Physician Worklife Study. J Natl Med Assoc. 2004 Oct; 96(10):1283-9, 1294. PMID: 15540879; PMCID: PMC2568518.
    89. Storb U, Engler P, Klotz E, Weng A, Haasch D, Pinkert C, Doglio L, Glymour M, Brinster R. Rearrangement and expression of immunoglobulin genes in transgenic mice. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1992; 182:137-41. PMID: 1490348.
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    90. Engler P, Haasch D, Pinkert CA, Doglio L, Glymour M, Brinster R, Storb U. A strain-specific modifier on mouse chromosome 4 controls the methylation of independent transgene loci. Cell. 1991 Jun 14; 65(6):939-47. PMID: 2044153.
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