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    Paula Braveman, MD, MPH

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentFamily Community Medicine
    Address3333 Calif. St,Laurel Heights
    San Francisco CA 94118
    Phone415-476-6839
    vCardDownload vCard

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      University of California, San FranciscoM.D. Medicine1979

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      Paula Braveman, MD, MPH is Professor of Family and Community Medicine and Director of the Center on Social Disparities in Health at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). For more than 25 years, Dr. Braveman has studied and published extensively on health equity and the social determinants of health, and has worked to bring attention to these issues in the U.S. and internationally. Her research has focused on measuring, documenting, understanding, and addressing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities, particularly in maternal and infant health. During the 1990s she collaborated with World Health Organization staff in Geneva to develop a global initiative on equity in health and health care. She has been the Research Director for a national commission on the social determinants of health in the U.S. supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Throughout her career, she has collaborated with local, state, federal, and international health agencies to see rigorous research translated into practice with the goal of achieving greater equity in health. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 2002 and has served on the Advisory Council of the National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparities of NIH.


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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Sanchez-Vaznaugh EV, Braveman PA, Egerter S, Marchi KS, Heck K, Curtis M. Latina Birth Outcomes in California: Not so Paradoxical. Matern Child Health J. 2016 Sep; 20(9):1849-60. PMID: 27025385; PMCID: PMC5007144 [Available on 09/01/17].
      2. Margerison-Zilko C, Cubbin C, Jun J, Marchi K, Braveman P. Post-partum Residential Mobility Among a Statewide Representative Sample of California Women, 2003-2007. Matern Child Health J. 2016 Jan; 20(1):139-48. PMID: 26210781.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Margerison-Zilko C, Cubbin C, Jun J, Marchi K, Fingar K, Braveman P. Beyond the cross-sectional: neighborhood poverty histories and preterm birth. Am J Public Health. 2015 Jun; 105(6):1174-80. PMID: 25880941.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Braveman PA, Heck K, Egerter S, Marchi KS, Dominguez TP, Cubbin C, Fingar K, Pearson JA, Curtis M. The role of socioeconomic factors in Black-White disparities in preterm birth. Am J Public Health. 2015 Apr; 105(4):694-702. PMID: 25211759.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Braveman P. What is health equity: and how does a life-course approach take us further toward it? Matern Child Health J. 2014 Feb; 18(2):366-72. PMID: 23397099.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Braveman P, Gottlieb L. The social determinants of health: it's time to consider the causes of the causes. Public Health Rep. 2014 Jan-Feb; 129 Suppl 2:19-31. PMID: 24385661; PMCID: PMC3863696.
      7. Braveman P. What are health disparities and health equity? We need to be clear. Public Health Rep. 2014 Jan-Feb; 129 Suppl 2:5-8. PMID: 24385658; PMCID: PMC3863701.
      8. Minnis AM, Marchi K, Ralph L, Biggs MA, Combellick S, Arons A, Brindis CD, Braveman P. Limited socioeconomic opportunities and Latina teen childbearing: a qualitative study of family and structural factors affecting future expectations. J Immigr Minor Health. 2013 Apr; 15(2):334-40. PMID: 22678305; PMCID: PMC3479330.
      9. Braveman P. Health in Europe--a view from across the Atlantic. Lancet. 2013 Apr 13; 381(9874):1257-9. PMID: 23541060.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Pollack CE, Cubbin C, Sania A, Hayward M, Vallone D, Flaherty B, Braveman PA. Do wealth disparities contribute to health disparities within racial/ethnic groups? J Epidemiol Community Health. 2013 May; 67(5):439-45. PMID: 23427209; PMCID: PMC3686361.
      11. Braveman P. We are failing on health equity because we are failing on equity. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2012 Dec; 36(6):515. PMID: 23216484.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Gottlieb LM, Fielding JE, Braveman PA. Health impact assessment: necessary but not sufficient for healthy public policy. Public Health Rep. 2012 Mar-Apr; 127(2):156-62. PMID: 22379215; PMCID: PMC3268800.
      13. Braveman P. Health inequalities by class and race in the US: what can we learn from the patterns? Soc Sci Med. 2012 Mar; 74(5):665-7. PMID: 22226603.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Woolf SH, Braveman P. Where health disparities begin: the role of social and economic determinants--and why current policies may make matters worse. Health Aff (Millwood). 2011 Oct; 30(10):1852-9. PMID: 21976326.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Braveman P. Accumulating knowledge on the social determinants of health and infectious disease. Public Health Rep. 2011 Sep-Oct; 126 Suppl 3:28-30. PMID: 21836734; PMCID: PMC3150126.
      16. Braveman PA, Kumanyika S, Fielding J, Laveist T, Borrell LN, Manderscheid R, Troutman A. Health disparities and health equity: the issue is justice. Am J Public Health. 2011 Dec; 101 Suppl 1:S149-55. PMID: 21551385; PMCID: PMC3222512.
      17. Cubbin C, Pollack C, Flaherty B, Hayward M, Sania A, Vallone D, Braveman P. Assessing alternative measures of wealth in health research. Am J Public Health. 2011 May; 101(5):939-47. PMID: 21252050; PMCID: PMC3076388.
      18. Braveman PA, Egerter SA, Mockenhaupt RE. Broadening the focus: the need to address the social determinants of health. Am J Prev Med. 2011 Jan; 40(1 Suppl 1):S4-18. PMID: 21146778.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Blumenshine PM, Egerter SA, Libet ML, Braveman PA. Father's education: an independent marker of risk for preterm birth. Matern Child Health J. 2011 Jan; 15(1):60-7. PMID: 20082129; PMCID: PMC3017319.
      20. Cubbin C, Vesely SK, Braveman PA, Oman RF. Socioeconomic factors and health risk behaviors among adolescents. Am J Health Behav. 2011 Jan-Feb; 35(1):28-39. PMID: 20950156.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Braveman PA, Egerter SA, Woolf SH, Marks JS. When do we know enough to recommend action on the social determinants of health? Am J Prev Med. 2011 Jan; 40(1 Suppl 1):S58-66. PMID: 21146780.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Braveman P, Egerter S, Williams DR. The social determinants of health: coming of age. Annu Rev Public Health. 2011; 32:381-98. PMID: 21091195.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Braveman P. Social conditions, health equity, and human rights. Health Hum Rights. 2010; 12(2):31-48. PMID: 21178188.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Marchi KS, Fisher-Owen SA, Weintraub JA, Yu Z, Braveman PA. Most pregnant women in California do not receive dental care: findings from a population-based study. Public Health Rep. 2010 Nov-Dec; 125(6):831-42. PMID: 21121228; PMCID: PMC2966664.
      25. Blumenshine P, Egerter S, Barclay CJ, Cubbin C, Braveman PA. Socioeconomic disparities in adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2010 Sep; 39(3):263-72. PMID: 20709259.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Cubbin C, Brindis CD, Jain S, Santelli J, Braveman P. Neighborhood poverty, aspirations and expectations, and initiation of sex. J Adolesc Health. 2010 Oct; 47(4):399-406. PMID: 20864010.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Braveman PA, Cubbin C, Egerter S, Williams DR, Pamuk E. Socioeconomic disparities in health in the United States: what the patterns tell us. Am J Public Health. 2010 Apr 1; 100 Suppl 1:S186-96. PMID: 20147693; PMCID: PMC2837459.
      28. Braveman P, Barclay C. Health disparities beginning in childhood: a life-course perspective. Pediatrics. 2009 Nov; 124 Suppl 3:S163-75. PMID: 19861467.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Braveman P. A health disparities perspective on obesity research. Prev Chronic Dis. 2009 Jul; 6(3):A91. PMID: 19527592; PMCID: PMC2722388.
      30. Dehlendorf C, Marchi K, Vittinghoff E, Braveman P. Sociocultural determinants of teenage childbearing among Latinas in California. Matern Child Health J. 2010 Mar; 14(2):194-201. PMID: 19172385; PMCID: PMC2825323.
      31. Braveman P, Marchi K, Egerter S, Kim S, Metzler M, Stancil T, Libet M. Poverty, near-poverty, and hardship around the time of pregnancy. Matern Child Health J. 2010 Jan; 14(1):20-35. PMID: 19037715.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Afable-Munsuz A, Braveman P. Pregnancy intention and preterm birth: differential associations among a diverse population of women. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2008 Jun; 40(2):66-73. PMID: 18577138.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Nuru-Jeter A, Dominguez TP, Hammond WP, Leu J, Skaff M, Egerter S, Jones CP, Braveman P. "It's the skin you're in": African-American women talk about their experiences of racism. an exploratory study to develop measures of racism for birth outcome studies. Matern Child Health J. 2009 Jan; 13(1):29-39. PMID: 18463971; PMCID: PMC3051354.
      34. Blumenshine P, Reingold A, Egerter S, Mockenhaupt R, Braveman P, Marks J. Pandemic influenza planning in the United States from a health disparities perspective. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 May; 14(5):709-15. PMID: 18439350; PMCID: PMC2600245.
      35. Braveman P. When do we know enough to recommend action? The need to be bold but not reckless. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007 Nov; 61(11):931. PMID: 17933948; PMCID: PMC2465621.
      36. Kim S, Egerter S, Cubbin C, Takahashi ER, Braveman P. Potential implications of missing income data in population-based surveys: an example from a postpartum survey in California. Public Health Rep. 2007 Nov-Dec; 122(6):753-63. PMID: 18051668; PMCID: PMC1997243.
      37. Braveman P. Do we have real poverty in the United States of America? Prev Chronic Dis. 2007 Oct; 4(4):A84. PMID: 17875259; PMCID: PMC2099282.
      38. Pollack CE, Chideya S, Cubbin C, Williams B, Dekker M, Braveman P. Should health studies measure wealth? A systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2007 Sep; 33(3):250-64. PMID: 17826585.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Cubbin C, Marchi K, Lin M, Bell T, Marshall H, Miller C, Braveman P. Is neighborhood deprivation independently associated with maternal and infant health? Evidence from Florida and Washington. Matern Child Health J. 2008 Jan; 12(1):61-74. PMID: 17562150.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Braveman PA. We also need bold experiments: a response to Starfield's "Commentary: Pathways of influence on equity in health". Soc Sci Med. 2007 Apr; 64(7):1363-6; discussion 1371-2. PMID: 17276567.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Ostlin P, Braveman P, Dachs N. Priorities for research to take forward the health equity policy agenda. Bull World Health Organ. 2005 Dec; 83(12):948-53. PMID: 16462988; PMCID: PMC2626494.
      42. Braveman P. Health disparities and health equity: concepts and measurement. Annu Rev Public Health. 2006; 27:167-94. PMID: 16533114.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Heck KE, Braveman P, Cubbin C, Chávez GF, Kiely JL. Socioeconomic status and breastfeeding initiation among California mothers. Public Health Rep. 2006 Jan-Feb; 121(1):51-9. PMID: 16416698; PMCID: PMC1497787.
      44. Lansky A, Barfield WD, Marchi KS, Egerter SA, Galbraith AA, Braveman PA. Early postnatal care among healthy newborns in 19 States: pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system, 2000. Matern Child Health J. 2006 May; 10(3):277-84. PMID: 16382330.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Braveman PA, Cubbin C, Egerter S, Chideya S, Marchi KS, Metzler M, Posner S. Socioeconomic status in health research: one size does not fit all. JAMA. 2005 Dec 14; 294(22):2879-88. PMID: 16352796.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Braveman P. The question is not: "is race or class more important?". J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005 Dec; 59(12):1029. PMID: 16286488; PMCID: PMC1732972.
      47. Nolen LB, Braveman P, Dachs JN, Delgado I, Gakidou E, Moser K, Rolfe L, Vega J, Zarowsky C. Strengthening health information systems to address health equity challenges. Bull World Health Organ. 2005 Aug; 83(8):597-603. PMID: 16184279; PMCID: PMC2626311.
      48. Cubbin C, Santelli J, Brindis CD, Braveman P. Neighborhood context and sexual behaviors among adolescents: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2005 Sep; 37(3):125-34. PMID: 16150660.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Braveman PA, Egerter SA, Cubbin C, Marchi KS. An approach to studying social disparities in health and health care. Am J Public Health. 2004 Dec; 94(12):2139-48. PMID: 15569966; PMCID: PMC1448604.
      50. Phares TM, Morrow B, Lansky A, Barfield WD, Prince CB, Marchi KS, Braveman PA, Williams LM, Kinniburgh B. Surveillance for disparities in maternal health-related behaviors--selected states, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2000-2001. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2004 Jul 2; 53(4):1-13. PMID: 15229409.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Braveman P, Gruskin S. Poverty, equity, human rights and health. Bull World Health Organ. 2003; 81(7):539-45. PMID: 12973647; PMCID: PMC2572503.
      52. Braveman PA. Monitoring equity in health and healthcare: a conceptual framework. J Health Popul Nutr. 2003 Sep; 21(3):181-92. PMID: 14717564.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Chung EK, Hung YY, Marchi K, Chavez GF, Braveman P. Infant sleep position: associated maternal and infant factors. Ambul Pediatr. 2003 Sep-Oct; 3(5):234-9. PMID: 12974664.
        View in: PubMed
      54. McCoy D, Bambas L, Acurio D, Baya B, Bhuiya A, Chowdhury AM, Grisurapong S, Liu Y, Ngom P, Ngulube TJ, Ntuli A, Sanders D, Vega J, Shukla A, Braveman PA. Global Equity Gauge Alliance: reflections on early experiences. J Health Popul Nutr. 2003 Sep; 21(3):273-87. PMID: 14717573.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Heck KE, Schoendorf KC, Chávez GF, Braveman P. Does postpartum length of stay affect breastfeeding duration? A population-based study. Birth. 2003 Sep; 30(3):153-9. PMID: 12911797.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Taveras EM, Capra AM, Braveman PA, Jensvold NG, Escobar GJ, Lieu TA. Clinician support and psychosocial risk factors associated with breastfeeding discontinuation. Pediatrics. 2003 Jul; 112(1 Pt 1):108-15. PMID: 12837875.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Rittenhouse DR, Braveman P, Marchi K. Improvements in prenatal insurance coverage and utilization of care in California: an unsung public health victory. Matern Child Health J. 2003 Jun; 7(2):75-86. PMID: 12870623.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Braveman P, Gruskin S. Defining equity in health. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 Apr; 57(4):254-8. PMID: 12646539; PMCID: PMC1732430.
      59. Galbraith AA, Egerter SA, Marchi KS, Chavez G, Braveman PA. Newborn early discharge revisited: are California newborns receiving recommended postnatal services? Pediatrics. 2003 Feb; 111(2):364-71. PMID: 12563065.
        View in: PubMed
      60. Braveman P, Cubbin C. Optimal SES indicators cannot be prescribed across all outcomes. Am J Public Health. 2003 Jan; 93(1):12-3; author reply 13. PMID: 12511373; PMCID: PMC1447682.
      61. Cubbin C, Braveman PA, Marchi KS, Chavez GF, Santelli JS, Gilbert BJ. Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in unintended pregnancy among postpartum women in California. Matern Child Health J. 2002 Dec; 6(4):237-46. PMID: 12512765.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Braveman P. MSJAMA. Measuring health equity within countries: the challenge of limited information. JAMA. 2002 Oct 2; 288(13):1650. PMID: 12350200.
        View in: PubMed
      63. Braveman P, Tarimo E. Social inequalities in health within countries: not only an issue for affluent nations. Soc Sci Med. 2002 Jun; 54(11):1621-35. PMID: 12113445.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Egerter S, Braveman P, Marchi K. Timing of insurance coverage and use of prenatal care among low-income women. Am J Public Health. 2002 Mar; 92(3):423-7. PMID: 11867324; PMCID: PMC1447093.
      65. Pearl M, Braveman P, Abrams B. The relationship of neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics to birthweight among 5 ethnic groups in California. Am J Public Health. 2001 Nov; 91(11):1808-14. PMID: 11684609; PMCID: PMC1446884.
      66. Braveman P, Starfield B, Geiger HJ. World Health Report 2000: how it removes equity from the agenda for public health monitoring and policy. BMJ. 2001 Sep 22; 323(7314):678-81. PMID: 11566834; PMCID: PMC1121239.
      67. Braveman P, Cubbin C, Marchi K, Egerter S, Chavez G. Measuring socioeconomic status/position in studies of racial/ethnic disparities: maternal and infant health. Public Health Rep. 2001 Sep-Oct; 116(5):449-63. PMID: 12042609; PMCID: PMC1497365.
      68. Escobar GJ, Braveman PA, Ackerson L, Odouli R, Coleman-Phox K, Capra AM, Wong C, Lieu TA. A randomized comparison of home visits and hospital-based group follow-up visits after early postpartum discharge. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep; 108(3):719-27. PMID: 11533342.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Almeida C, Braveman P, Gold MR, Szwarcwald CL, Ribeiro JM, Miglionico A, Millar JS, Porto S, Costa NR, Rubio VO, Segall M, Starfield B, Travassos C, Travessos C, Uga A, Valente J, Viacava F. Methodological concerns and recommendations on policy consequences of the World Health Report 2000. Lancet. 2001 May 26; 357(9269):1692-7. PMID: 11425394.
        View in: PubMed
      70. Braveman PA. Epidemiology and (neo-)colonialism. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001 Mar; 55(3):160-1. PMID: 11160168; PMCID: PMC1731841.
      71. Nothnagle M, Marchi K, Egerter S, Braveman P. Risk factors for late or no prenatal care following Medicaid expansions in California. Matern Child Health J. 2000 Dec; 4(4):251-9. PMID: 11272345.
        View in: PubMed
      72. Baumeister L, Marchi K, Pearl M, Williams R, Braveman P. The validity of information on "race" and "Hispanic ethnicity" in California birth certificate data. Health Serv Res. 2000 Oct; 35(4):869-83. PMID: 11055453; PMCID: PMC1089157.
      73. Braveman P, Marchi K, Egerter S, Pearl M, Neuhaus J. Barriers to timely prenatal care among women with insurance: the importance of prepregnancy factors. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Jun; 95(6 Pt 1):874-80. PMID: 10831984.
        View in: PubMed
      74. Lieu TA, Braveman PA, Escobar GJ, Fischer AF, Jensvold NG, Capra AM. A randomized comparison of home and clinic follow-up visits after early postpartum hospital discharge. Pediatrics. 2000 May; 105(5):1058-65. PMID: 10790463.
        View in: PubMed
      75. Acheson D, Alleyne GA, Casas JA, Castillo-Salgado C, Barzach M, Braveman P, Dahlgren G, Gupta GR, Liu Y, Orosz E. Round table discussion. Health inequalities and the health of the poor. Bull World Health Organ. 2000; 78(1):75-85. PMID: 10686735; PMCID: PMC2560603.
      76. Braveman P, Krieger N, Lynch J. Health inequalities and social inequalities in health. Bull World Health Organ. 2000; 78(2):232-4; discussion 234-5. PMID: 10743295; PMCID: PMC2560692.
      77. Braveman P. Combining forces against inequity and poverty rather than splitting hairs Bull World Health Organ. 2000; 78(1):78-9. PMID: 10686738.
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      78. Braveman P, Egerter S, Marchi K. The prevalence of low income among childbearing women in California: implications for the private and public sectors. Am J Public Health. 1999 Jun; 89(6):868-74. PMID: 10358677; PMCID: PMC1508648.
      79. Lieu TA, Wikler C, Capra AM, Martin KE, Escobar GJ, Braveman PA. Clinical outcomes and maternal perceptions of an updated model of perinatal care. Pediatrics. 1998 Dec; 102(6):1437-44. PMID: 9832582.
        View in: PubMed
      80. Egerter SA, Braveman PA, Marchi KS. Follow-up of newborns and their mothers after early hospital discharge. Clin Perinatol. 1998 Jun; 25(2):471-81. PMID: 9647005.
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      81. Braveman P, Pearl M, Egerter S, Marchi K, Williams R. Validity of insurance information on California birth certificates. Am J Public Health. 1998 May; 88(5):813-6. PMID: 9585754; PMCID: PMC1508950.
      82. Braveman P, Kessel W, Egerter S, Richmond J. Early discharge and evidence-based practice. Good science and good judgment. JAMA. 1997 Jul 23-30; 278(4):334-6. PMID: 9228442.
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      83. Braveman P, Miller C, Egerter S, Bennett T, English P, Katz P, Showstack J. Health service use among low-risk newborns after early discharge with and without nurse home visiting. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1996 Jul-Aug; 9(4):254-60. PMID: 8829074.
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      84. Braveman PA. Short hospital stays for mothers and newborns. J Fam Pract. 1996 May; 42(5):523-5. PMID: 8642372.
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      85. Braveman P, Tarimo E. Health screening, development, and equity. J Public Health Policy. 1996; 17(1):14-27. PMID: 8919957.
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      86. Braveman P, Egerter S, Pearl M, Marchi K, Miller C. Problems associated with early discharge of newborn infants. Early discharge of newborns and mothers: a critical review of the literature. Pediatrics. 1995 Oct; 96(4 Pt 1):716-26. PMID: 7567337.
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      87. Braveman P, Egerter S, Edmonston F, Verdon M. Racial/ethnic differences in the likelihood of cesarean delivery, California. Am J Public Health. 1995 May; 85(5):625-30. PMID: 7733420; PMCID: PMC1615415.
      88. Braveman P, Bennett T. Let's take on the real dragon: profiteering in health care. J Public Health Policy. 1995; 16(3):261-8. PMID: 7499510.
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      89. Bennett T, Braveman P, Egerter S, Kiely JL. Maternal marital status as a risk factor for infant mortality. Fam Plann Perspect. 1994 Nov-Dec; 26(6):252-6, 271. PMID: 7867772.
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      90. Braveman P, Schaaf VM, Egerter S, Bennett T, Schecter W. Insurance-related differences in the risk of ruptured appendix. N Engl J Med. 1994 Aug 18; 331(7):444-9. PMID: 7880234.
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      91. Braveman P, Bennett T, Lewis C, Egerter S, Showstack J. Access to prenatal care following major Medicaid eligibility expansions. JAMA. 1993 Mar 10; 269(10):1285-9. PMID: 8437308.
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      92. Braveman PA, Egerter S, Bennett T, Showstack J. Differences in hospital resource allocation among sick newborns according to insurance coverage. JAMA. 1991 Dec 18; 266(23):3300-8. PMID: 1960830.
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      93. Braveman P, Oliva G, Miller MG, Reiter R, Egerter S. Adverse outcomes and lack of health insurance among newborns in an eight-county area of California, 1982 to 1986. N Engl J Med. 1989 Aug 24; 321(8):508-13. PMID: 2761588.
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      94. Bild DE, Selby JV, Sinnock P, Browner WS, Braveman P, Showstack JA. Lower-extremity amputation in people with diabetes. Epidemiology and prevention. Diabetes Care. 1989 Jan; 12(1):24-31. PMID: 2714164.
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      95. Braveman P, Oliva G, Miller MG, Schaaf VM, Reiter R. Women without health insurance. Links between access, poverty, ethnicity, and health. West J Med. 1988 Dec; 149(6):708-11. PMID: 3074568; PMCID: PMC1026620.
      96. Braveman P, Showstack J, Browner W, Selby J, Teutsch S, Sepe S. Evaluating outcomes of pregnancy in diabetic women. Epidemiologic considerations and recommended indicators. Diabetes Care. 1988 Mar; 11(3):281-7. PMID: 3416684.
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      97. Braveman PA, Mora F. Training physicians for community-oriented primary care in Latin America: model programs in Mexico, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Am J Public Health. 1987 Apr; 77(4):485-90. PMID: 3826469; PMCID: PMC1646944.
      98. Braveman P, Toomey KE. Screening in preventive care for adolescents. West J Med. 1987 Apr; 146(4):490-3. PMID: 3577148; PMCID: PMC1307368.
      99. Braveman P, Siegel D. Nicaragua: a health system developing under conditions of war. Int J Health Serv. 1987; 17(1):169-78. PMID: 3557771.
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      100. Braveman PA, Roemer MI. Health personnel training in the Nicaraguan health system. Int J Health Serv. 1985; 15(4):699-705. PMID: 3908349.
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