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Cynthia Darling, PhD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentPreventive & Restor Dent Sci
Address707 Parnassus Ave
San Francisco CA 94143
Phone415-476-5016
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    Near-IR Transillumination and Reflectance Imaging: As an scientific researcher, I have carried out fundamental measurements of sound and demineralized dental hard tissues at NIR wavelengths, investigated the optical properties of developmental defects, looked at differences in the NIR optical properties of deciduous enamel, discovered that optical attenuation in dental enamel increases markedly with loss of mobile water, explored the image contrast of dental caries at other NIR wavelengths besides 1300-nm and developed and calibrated a ultra-high resolution digital X-ray microradiography system that is able to quantify lesion severity of enamel and dentin by measurement of the relative mineral loss. In addition to those studies I have constructed a fully automated Mueller-matrix imaging system that can be used to completely describe the interaction of polarized light with dental hard tissues which will be used to study how different types of polarized light is depolarized by dental hard tissues and dental materials.

    Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT): Our ongoing research in vitro and in vivo studies seek to validate PS-OCT as a clinical tool for the accurate and early clinical assessment of tooth demineralization and remineralization. PS-OCT is ideally suited for acquiring cross sectional images of lesion structure. Changes in lesion structure occur upon remineralization and we have published the first papers showing that PS-OCT can be used to monitor such changes both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore it can potentially be used for monitoring lesion severity and for assessing the activity of early carious lesions without the use of ionizing radiation. These in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the great potential of PS-OCT as a valuable tool for both clinical diagnosis of lesions and for clinical studies. We have carried out the first clinical studies showing that PS-OCT and cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) can be used to monitor the development of early demineralization, the effect of fluoride (glass ionomer cements and fluoride varnish) and lesion activity, and have developed automated methods for assessing the severity of demineralization that can be used both in vitro and in vivo.

    Real-Time Imaging of Laser Ablation and Composite Removal: The highlights of this proposed research is the development of laser-based methods for the selective removal of caries lesions and composite restorative materials using image guidance and spectral feedback to control the laser scanning system. Our group has carried out the development of near-IR, fluorescence and OCT image analysis methods for programming the laser system for selective removal of caries lesions and to develop OCT imaging as a diagnostic of laser ablation. We have also looked at NIR imaging to monitor laser ablation through dental enamel in real-time to directly visualize peripheral thermal and mechanical damage.


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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Fried WA, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. Use of a DPSS Er:YAG laser for the selective removal of composite from tooth surfaces. Biomed Opt Express. 2018 Oct 01; 9(10):5026-5036. PMID: 30319919.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Ahn Y, Lamy R, Darling CL, Stewart JM, Pinzon LM. Photochemical crosslinking of caries-affected dentin combined with total- or self-etch systems. Am J Transl Res. 2018; 10(9):2990-2995. PMID: 30323885.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Simon JC, Curtis DA, Darling CL, Fried D. Multispectral near-infrared reflectance and transillumination imaging of occlusal carious lesions: Variation in lesion contrast with lesion depth. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2018 Jan-Feb; 10473. PMID: 29497229.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Chang NN, Jew JM, Simon JC, Chen KH, Lee RC, Fried WA, Cho J, Darling CL, Fried D. Influence of multi-wavelength laser irradiation of enamel and dentin surfaces at 0.355, 2.94, and 9.4?µm on surface morphology, permeability, and acid resistance. Lasers Surg Med. 2017 Dec; 49(10):913-927. PMID: 28699676.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Simon JC, Kang H, Staninec M, Jang AT, Chan KH, Darling CL, Lee RC, Fried D. Near-IR and CP-OCT imaging of suspected occlusal caries lesions. Lasers Surg Med. 2017 Mar; 49(3):215-224. PMID: 28339115.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Berg RA, Simon JC, Fried D, Darling CL. Optical changes of dentin in the near-IR as a function of mineral content. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2017 Jan 28; 10044. PMID: 28450756.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Chang NN, Jew J, Simon JC, Chan KH, Lee RC, Fried WA, Cho J, Darling CL, Fried D. Influence of Multi-Wavelength Laser Irradiation of Enamel and Dentin Surfaces on Surface Morphology and Permeability. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2017 Jan 28; 10044. PMID: 28680191.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Simon JC, Darling CL, Fried D. Assessment of cavitation in artificial approximal dental lesions with near-IR imaging. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2017 Jan 28; 10044. PMID: 28626283.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Fried WA, Simon JC, Darling CL, Le O, Fried D. High-Contrast Reflectance Imaging of Composite Restorations Color-Matched to Tooth Structure at 1000-2300-nm. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2017 Jan 28; 10044. PMID: 28626287.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Jew J, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. Selective removal of natural caries lesions from dentin and tooth occlusal surfaces using a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2017 Jan 28; 10044. PMID: 28450757.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Kang H, Darling CL, Fried D. Use of an optical clearing agent to enhance the visibility of subsurface structures and lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. J Biomed Opt. 2016 Aug; 21(8):081206. PMID: 27071709; PMCID: PMC4828753 [Available on 04/12/17].
    12. Simon JC, Lucas SA, Staninec M, Tom H, Chan KH, Darling CL, Cozin MJ, Lee RC, Fried D. Near-IR transillumination and reflectance imaging at 1,300?nm and 1,500-1,700?nm for in vivo caries detection. Lasers Surg Med. 2016 Nov; 48(9):828-836. PMID: 27389018.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Lee RC, Darling CL, Staninec M, Ragadio A, Fried D. Activity assessment of root caries lesions with thermal and near-IR imaging methods. J Biophotonics. 2017 Mar; 10(3):433-445. PMID: 27060450.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Chan KH, Tom H, Lee RC, Kang H, Simon JC, Staninec M, Darling CL, Pelzner RB, Fried D. Clinical monitoring of smooth surface enamel lesions using CP-OCT during nonsurgical intervention. Lasers Surg Med. 2016 Dec; 48(10):915-923. PMID: 26955902.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Almaz EC, Simon JC, Fried D, Darling CL. Influence of stains on lesion contrast in the pits and fissures of tooth occlusal surfaces from 800-1600-nm. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2016 Feb 13; 9692. PMID: 26997740.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Kang H, Darling CL, Fried D. Enhancement of OCT images with vinyl polysiloxane (VPS). Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2016 Feb 13; 9692. PMID: 27011417.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Yi I, Chan KH, Tsuji GH, Staninec M, Darling CL, Fried D. Selective removal of esthetic composite restorations with spectral guided laser ablation. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2016 Feb 13; 9692. PMID: 26997742.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Simon JC, Darling CL, Fried D. A system for simultaneous near-infrared reflectance and transillumination imaging of occlusal carious lesions. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2016 Feb 13; 9692. PMID: 27006524.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Fried WA, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. Selective removal of dental composite with a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2016 Feb 13; 9692. PMID: 26997741.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Lee RC, Darling CL, Fried D. Assessment of remineralized dentin lesions with thermal and near-infrared reflectance imaging. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2016 Feb 13; 9692. PMID: 27006522.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Simon JC, A Lucas S, Lee RC, Darling CL, Staninec M, Vaderhobli R, Pelzner R, Fried D. Near-infrared imaging of secondary caries lesions around composite restorations at wavelengths from 1300-1700-nm. Dent Mater. 2016 Apr; 32(4):587-95. PMID: 26876234; PMCID: PMC4801720 [Available on 04/01/17].
    22. Tom H, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. Near-IR image-guided laser ablation of demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces. Lasers Surg Med. 2016 Jan; 48(1):52-61. PMID: 26763111; PMCID: PMC4779057.
    23. Lee RC, Darling CL, Fried D. Assessment of remineralization via measurement of dehydration rates with thermal and near-IR reflectance imaging. J Dent. 2015 Aug; 43(8):1032-42. PMID: 25862275; PMCID: PMC4509858.
    24. Lee RC, Darling CL, Fried D. Assessment of remineralization in simulated enamel lesions via dehydration with near-IR reflectance imaging. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2015 Feb 24; 9306. PMID: 25914494.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Yan R, Chan KH, Tom H, Simon JC, Darling CL, Fried D. Selective removal of dental caries with a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2015 Feb 24; 9306. PMID: 25914496.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Kang H, Darling CL, Tom H, Fried D. Enhanced detection of dentinal lesions in OCT images using the RKT transformation. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2015 Feb 24; 9306. PMID: 25914493.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Simon JC, Lucas S, Lee R, Darling CL, Staninec M, Vanderhobli R, Pelzner R, Fried D. In vitro near-infrared imaging of natural secondary caries. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2015 Feb 24; 9306. PMID: 25914495.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Chung LC, Tom H, Chan KH, Simon JC, Fried D, Darling CL. Image-guided removal of occlusal caries lesions with a ?= 9.3-µm CO2 laser using near-IR transillumination. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2015 Feb 24; 9306. PMID: 25914498.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Chan KH, Tom H, Darling CL, Fried D. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2015 Feb 24; 9306. PMID: 25914499.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Chan KH, Tom H, Darling CL, Fried D. A method for monitoring enamel erosion using laser irradiated surfaces and optical coherence tomography. Lasers Surg Med. 2014 Nov; 46(9):672-8. PMID: 25147133; PMCID: PMC4675665.
    31. Lee RC, Kang H, Darling CL, Fried D. Automated assessment of the remineralization of artificial enamel lesions with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Biomed Opt Express. 2014 Sep 01; 5(9):2950-62. PMID: 25401009; PMCID: PMC4230881.
    32. Nee A, Chan K, Kang H, Staninec M, Darling CL, Fried D. Longitudinal monitoring of demineralization peripheral to orthodontic brackets using cross polarization optical coherence tomography. J Dent. 2014 May; 42(5):547-55. PMID: 24561340; PMCID: PMC4007269.
    33. Logan CM, Co KU, Fried WA, Simon JC, Staninec M, And DF, Darling CL. Multispectral Near-Infrared Imaging of Composite Restorations in Extracted Teeth. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 20; 8929:89290R. PMID: 25309098.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Simon JC, Lucas SA, Staninec M, Tom H, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. Transillumination and reflectance probes for in vivo near-IR imaging of dental caries. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 18; 8929:89290D. PMID: 24817803.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Fried WA, Simon JC, Lucas S, Chan KH, Darling CL, Staninec M, Fried D. Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 18; 8929:89290Q. PMID: 24817806.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Chan AC, Darling CL, Chan KH, Fried D. Attenuation of near-IR light through dentin at wavelengths from 1300-1650-nm. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 18; 8929:89290M. PMID: 24839373.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Lamantia NR, Tom H, Chan KH, Simon JC, Darling CL, Fried D. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 18; 8929. PMID: 24791129.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Kang H, Darling CL, Fried D. Enhancing the detection of hidden occlusal caries lesions with OCT using high index liquids. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 18; 8929:89290O. PMID: 24817805.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Tom H, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. Near-IR imaging of demineralization under sealants. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 18; 8929:89290S. PMID: 24817807.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Lee RC, Darling CL, Fried D. Automated detection of remineralization in simulated enamel lesions with PS-OCT. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 18; 8929:89290E. PMID: 25075267.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Tom H, Simon JC, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. Near-infrared imaging of demineralization under sealants. J Biomed Opt. 2014; 19(7):77003. PMID: 25036214; PMCID: PMC4103580.
    42. Simon JC, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity. Lasers Surg Med. 2014 Mar; 46(3):203-15. PMID: 24375543; PMCID: PMC3961544.
    43. Chan KH, Chan AC, Fried WA, Simon JC, Darling CL, Fried D. Use of 2D images of depth and integrated reflectivity to represent the severity of demineralization in cross-polarization optical coherence tomography. J Biophotonics. 2015 Jan; 8(1-2):36-45. PMID: 24307350; PMCID: PMC4674292.
    44. Fried WA, Fried D, Chan KH, Darling CL. High contrast reflectance imaging of simulated lesions on tooth occlusal surfaces at near-IR wavelengths. Lasers Surg Med. 2013 Oct; 45(8):533-41. PMID: 23857066; PMCID: PMC4472445.
    45. Fried D, Staninec M, Darling CL, Chan KH, Pelzner RB. Clinical Monitoring of Early Caries Lesions using Cross Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2013 Mar 25; 8566. PMID: 24353384.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Kang H, Chan K, Darling CL, Fried D. Monitoring the Remineralization of Early Simulated Lesions using a pH Cycling Model with CP-OCT. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2013 Mar 25; 8566. PMID: 24353383.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Fried WA, Fried D, Chan KH, Darling CL. Imaging Early Demineralization on Tooth Occlusal Surfaces with a High Definition InGaAs Camera. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2013 Mar 25; 8566. PMID: 24357911.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Chan KH, Chan AC, Darling CL, Fried D. Methods for Monitoring Erosion Using Optical Coherence Tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2013 Mar 25; 8566:856606. PMID: 24465117.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Kang H, Darling CL, Fried D. Nondestructive Monitoring of the Repair of Natural Occlusal Lesions using Cross - Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2012 Feb 09; 8208. PMID: 23538837.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Fried D, Staninec M, Darling C, Kang H, Chan K. Monitoring tooth demineralization using a cross polarization optical coherence tomographic system with an integrated MEMS scanner. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2012 Feb 09; 8208. PMID: 24357905.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Darling CL, Staninec M, Chan KH, Kang H, Fried D. Remineralization of Root Caries Monitored Using Cross-Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2012 Feb 09; 8208. PMID: 24357904.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Kang H, Darling CL, Fried D. Nondestructive monitoring of the repair of enamel artificial lesions by an acidic remineralization model using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Dent Mater. 2012 May; 28(5):488-94. PMID: 22204914; PMCID: PMC3319335.
    53. Staninec M, Douglas SM, Darling CL, Chan K, Kang H, Lee RC, Fried D. Non-destructive clinical assessment of occlusal caries lesions using near-IR imaging methods. Lasers Surg Med. 2011 Dec; 43(10):951-9. PMID: 22109697; PMCID: PMC3241877.
    54. Chung S, Fried D, Staninec M, Darling CL. Multispectral near-IR reflectance and transillumination imaging of teeth. Biomed Opt Express. 2011 Oct 01; 2(10):2804-14. PMID: 22025986; PMCID: PMC3191447.
    55. Kang H, Darling CL, Fried D. Repair of Artificial Lesions using an Acidic Remineralization Model Monitored with Cross - Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2011 Jan 23; 7884(78840Q). PMID: 21785533.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Fried D, Staninec M, Darling CL, Lee C, Kang H, Chan KH. In vivo Near-IR Imaging of Occlusal Lesions at 1310-nm. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2011 Jan 23; 7884(78840B). PMID: 21785532.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Chung S, Fried D, Staninec M, Darling CL. Near infrared imaging of teeth at wavelengths between 1200 and 1600 nm. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2011 Jan 01; 7884. PMID: 22399836.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Darling CL, Chan KH, Fried D. Polarization Resolved Near-IR Imaging of Sound and Carious Dental Enamel. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2011 Jan 01; 7884. PMID: 22399837.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Louie T, Lee C, Hsu D, Hirasuna K, Manesh S, Staninec M, Darling CL, Fried D. Clinical assessment of early tooth demineralization using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. Lasers Surg Med. 2010 Dec; 42(10):738-45. PMID: 21246578; PMCID: PMC3058417.
    60. Kang H, Jiao JJ, Lee C, Le MH, Darling CL, Fried D. Nondestructive Assessment of Early Tooth Demineralization Using Cross-Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography. IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron. 2010 Jul; 16(4):870-876. PMID: 21660217.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Lee C, Lee D, Darling CL, Fried D. Nondestructive assessment of the severity of occlusal caries lesions with near-infrared imaging at 1310 nm. J Biomed Opt. 2010 Jul-Aug; 15(4):047011. PMID: 20799842; PMCID: PMC2929264.
    62. Staninec M, Lee C, Darling CL, Fried D. In vivo near-IR imaging of approximal dental decay at 1,310 nm. Lasers Surg Med. 2010 Apr; 42(4):292-8. PMID: 20432277; PMCID: PMC3195334.
    63. Lee C, Darling CL, Fried D. In vitro near-infrared imaging of occlusal dental caries using germanium enhanced CMOS camera. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2010 Mar 01; 7549. PMID: 22162916.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Darling CL, Jiao JJ, Lee C, Kang H, Fried D. Near-IR Polarization Imaging of Sound and Carious Dental Enamel. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2010; 7549:75490L. PMID: 22228980.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Le MH, Darling CL, Fried D. Automated analysis of lesion depth and integrated reflectivity in PS-OCT scans of tooth demineralization. Lasers Surg Med. 2010 Jan; 42(1):62-8. PMID: 20077486; PMCID: PMC3192502.
    66. Kang H, Jiao JJ, Lee C, Darling CL, Fried D. Imaging early demineralization with PS-OCT. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2010 Jan 01; 7549. PMID: 22399835.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Douglas SM, Fried D, Darling CL. Imaging Natural Occlusal Caries Lesions with Optical Coherence Tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2010; 7549:75490N. PMID: 22228981.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Manesh SK, Darling CL, Fried D. Nondestructive assessment of dentin demineralization using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography after exposure to fluoride and laser irradiation. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2009 Aug; 90(2):802-12. PMID: 19283826; PMCID: PMC2707504.
    69. Manesh SK, Darling CL, Fried D. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography for the nondestructive assessment of the remineralization of dentin. J Biomed Opt. 2009 Jul-Aug; 14(4):044002. PMID: 19725714.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Staninec M, Darling CL, Goodis HE, Pierre D, Cox DP, Fan K, Larson M, Parisi R, Hsu D, Manesh SK, Ho C, Hosseini M, Fried D. Pulpal effects of enamel ablation with a microsecond pulsed lambda = 9.3-microm CO2 laser. Lasers Surg Med. 2009 Apr; 41(4):256-63. PMID: 19347946; PMCID: PMC3188421.
    71. Lee C, Hsu DJ, Le MH, Darling CL, Fried D. Non-destructive measurement of demineralization & remineralization in the occlusal pits and fissures of extracted 3 molars with PS-OCT. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2009 Mar 06; 7162(1). PMID: 21935289.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Le MH, Darling CL, Fried D. Methods for calculating the severity of demineralization on tooth surfaces from PS-OCT scans. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2009 Feb 18; 7162(1). PMID: 21935290.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Darling CL, Le CQ, Featherstone JD, Fried D. An Automated Digital Microradiography System for Assessing Tooth Demineralization. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2009 Feb 18; 7162(1). PMID: 21935288.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Lee C, Darling CL, Fried D. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomographic imaging of artificial demineralization on exposed surfaces of tooth roots. Dent Mater. 2009 Jun; 25(6):721-8. PMID: 19167052; PMCID: PMC2701248.
    75. Lee D, Fried D, Darling CL. Near-IR Multi-modal Imaging of Natural Occlusal Lesions. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2009; 7162:71620X. PMID: 22228979.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Manesh SK, Darling CL, Fried D. Assessment of Dentin Remineralization with PS-OCT. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2009 Jan 01; 7162. PMID: 21998493.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Hsu DJ, Darling CL, Lachica MM, Fried D. Nondestructive assessment of the inhibition of enamel demineralization by CO2 laser treatment using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. J Biomed Opt. 2008 Sep-Oct; 13(5):054027. PMID: 19021407.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Can AM, Darling CL, Ho C, Fried D. Non-destructive assessment of inhibition of demineralization in dental enamel irradiated by a lambda=9.3-microm CO2 laser at ablative irradiation intensities with PS-OCT. Lasers Surg Med. 2008 Jul; 40(5):342-9. PMID: 18563781.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Hirasuna K, Fried D, Darling CL. Near-infrared imaging of developmental defects in dental enamel. J Biomed Opt. 2008 Jul-Aug; 13(4):044011. PMID: 19021339.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Can AM, Darling CL, Fried D. High-resolution PS-OCT of Enamel Remineralization. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2008 Mar; 6843:68430T1-68430T7. PMID: 21909226.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Hsu DJ, Darling CL, Fried D. Imaging laser irradiated enamel surfaces with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2008 Mar; 6843:8430N-N8430. PMID: 21909224.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Darling CL, Fried D. Real-time near IR (1310 nm) imaging of CO2 laser ablation of enamel. Opt Express. 2008 Feb 18; 16(4):2685-93. PMID: 18542353.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Darling CL, Maffei ME, Fried WA, Fried D. Near-IR imaging of Erbium Laser Ablation with a Water Spray. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2008 Jan 20; 6843(684303). PMID: 21892255.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Manesh SK, Darling CL, Fried D. Imaging natural and artificial demineralization on dentin surfaces with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2008 Jan 01; 6843. PMID: 21998492.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Chong SL, Darling CL, Fried D. Nondestructive measurement of the inhibition of demineralization on smooth surfaces using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Lasers Surg Med. 2007 Jun; 39(5):422-7. PMID: 17565731.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Darling CL, Huynh GD, Fried D. Light scattering properties of natural and artificially demineralized dental enamel at 1310 nm. J Biomed Opt. 2006 May-Jun; 11(3):34023. PMID: 16822072.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Jones RS, Darling CL, Featherstone JD, Fried D. Remineralization of in vitro dental caries assessed with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. J Biomed Opt. 2006 Jan-Feb; 11(1):014016. PMID: 16526893.
      View in: PubMed
    88. Fried D, Featherstone JD, Darling CL, Jones RS, Ngaotheppitak P, Bühler CM. Early caries imaging and monitoring with near-infrared light. Dent Clin North Am. 2005 Oct; 49(4):771-93, vi. PMID: 16150316.
      View in: PubMed
    89. Ngaotheppitak P, Darling CL, Fried D. Measurement of the severity of natural smooth surface (interproximal) caries lesions with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. Lasers Surg Med. 2005 Jul; 37(1):78-88. PMID: 15889402.
      View in: PubMed