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Cynthia Darling, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Preventive & Restor Dent Sci
SchoolSchool of Dentistry
Address707 Parnassus Ave
San Francisco CA 94143
Phone415-476-5016
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0001-5519-4058 Additional info
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    Near-IR Transillumination and Reflectance Imaging: As an scientific researcher, I have carried out fundamental measurements of sound and demineralized dental hard tissues at NIR wavelengths, investigated the optical properties of developmental defects, looked at differences in the NIR optical properties of deciduous enamel, discovered that optical attenuation in dental enamel increases markedly with loss of mobile water, explored the image contrast of dental caries at other NIR wavelengths besides 1300-nm and developed and calibrated a ultra-high resolution digital X-ray microradiography system that is able to quantify lesion severity of enamel and dentin by measurement of the relative mineral loss. In addition to those studies I have constructed a fully automated Mueller-matrix imaging system that can be used to completely describe the interaction of polarized light with dental hard tissues which will be used to study how different types of polarized light is depolarized by dental hard tissues and dental materials.

    Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT): Our ongoing research in vitro and in vivo studies seek to validate PS-OCT as a clinical tool for the accurate and early clinical assessment of tooth demineralization and remineralization. PS-OCT is ideally suited for acquiring cross sectional images of lesion structure. Changes in lesion structure occur upon remineralization and we have published the first papers showing that PS-OCT can be used to monitor such changes both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore it can potentially be used for monitoring lesion severity and for assessing the activity of early carious lesions without the use of ionizing radiation. These in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the great potential of PS-OCT as a valuable tool for both clinical diagnosis of lesions and for clinical studies. We have carried out the first clinical studies showing that PS-OCT and cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) can be used to monitor the development of early demineralization, the effect of fluoride (glass ionomer cements and fluoride varnish) and lesion activity, and have developed automated methods for assessing the severity of demineralization that can be used both in vitro and in vivo.

    Real-Time Imaging of Laser Ablation and Composite Removal: The highlights of this proposed research is the development of laser-based methods for the selective removal of caries lesions and composite restorative materials using image guidance and spectral feedback to control the laser scanning system. Our group has carried out the development of near-IR, fluorescence and OCT image analysis methods for programming the laser system for selective removal of caries lesions and to develop OCT imaging as a diagnostic of laser ablation. We have also looked at NIR imaging to monitor laser ablation through dental enamel in real-time to directly visualize peripheral thermal and mechanical damage.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Image-Guided Ablation of Dental Calculus From Root Surfaces Using a DPSS Er:YAG Laser. Lasers Surg Med. 2020 Mar; 52(3):247-258. Fried WA, Chan KH, Darling CL, Curtis DA, Fried D. PMID: 31236996.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Near-infrared imaging of demineralization on the occlusal surfaces of teeth without the interference of stains. J Biomed Opt. 2019 03; 24(3):1-8. Ng C, Almaz E, Simon J, Fried D, Darling C. PMID: 30834721.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    3. Selective removal of dental calculus with a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2019 Feb; 10857. Fried WA, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 31000908.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    4. The contrast of demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces from 405 to 1950-nm with varying depth. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2019 Feb; 10857. Mohajerani N, Chan KH, Yang VB, Fried D, Darling CL. PMID: 30923417.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    5. Use of a DPSS Er:YAG laser for the selective removal of composite from tooth surfaces. Biomed Opt Express. 2018 Oct 01; 9(10):5026-5036. Fried WA, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 30319919.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    6. Photochemical crosslinking of caries-affected dentin combined with total- or self-etch systems. Am J Transl Res. 2018; 10(9):2990-2995. Ahn Y, Lamy R, Darling CL, Stewart JM, Pinzon LM. PMID: 30323885.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    7. SWIR reflectance imaging of demineralization on the occlusal surfaces of teeth beyond 1700 nm. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2018 Jan-Feb; 10473. Ng C, Simon JC, Fried D, Darling CL. PMID: 30686852.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    8. Multispectral near-infrared reflectance and transillumination imaging of occlusal carious lesions: Variation in lesion contrast with lesion depth. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2018 Jan-Feb; 10473. Simon JC, Curtis DA, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 29497229.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    9. Influence of multi-wavelength laser irradiation of enamel and dentin surfaces at 0.355, 2.94, and 9.4?µm on surface morphology, permeability, and acid resistance. Lasers Surg Med. 2017 12; 49(10):913-927. Chang NN, Jew JM, Simon JC, Chen KH, Lee RC, Fried WA, Cho J, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 28699676.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    10. Near-IR and CP-OCT imaging of suspected occlusal caries lesions. Lasers Surg Med. 2017 03; 49(3):215-224. Simon JC, Kang H, Staninec M, Jang AT, Chan KH, Darling CL, Lee RC, Fried D. PMID: 28339115.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    11. Optical changes of dentin in the near-IR as a function of mineral content. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2017 Jan 28; 10044. Berg RA, Simon JC, Fried D, Darling CL. PMID: 28450756.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    12. Selective removal of natural caries lesions from dentin and tooth occlusal surfaces using a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2017 Jan 28; 10044. Jew J, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 28450757.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    13. Influence of Multi-Wavelength Laser Irradiation of Enamel and Dentin Surfaces on Surface Morphology and Permeability. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2017 Jan 28; 10044. Chang NN, Jew J, Simon JC, Chan KH, Lee RC, Fried WA, Cho J, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 28680191.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    14. Assessment of cavitation in artificial approximal dental lesions with near-IR imaging. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2017 Jan 28; 10044. Simon JC, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 28626283.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    15. High-Contrast Reflectance Imaging of Composite Restorations Color-Matched to Tooth Structure at 1000-2300-nm. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2017 Jan 28; 10044. Fried WA, Simon JC, Darling CL, Le O, Fried D. PMID: 28626287.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    16. Use of an optical clearing agent to enhance the visibility of subsurface structures and lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. J Biomed Opt. 2016 Aug; 21(8):081206. Kang H, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 27071709.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Near-IR transillumination and reflectance imaging at 1,300?nm and 1,500-1,700?nm for in vivo caries detection. Lasers Surg Med. 2016 11; 48(9):828-836. Simon JC, Lucas SA, Staninec M, Tom H, Chan KH, Darling CL, Cozin MJ, Lee RC, Fried D. PMID: 27389018.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Activity assessment of root caries lesions with thermal and near-IR imaging methods. J Biophotonics. 2017 Mar; 10(3):433-445. Lee RC, Darling CL, Staninec M, Ragadio A, Fried D. PMID: 27060450.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    19. Clinical monitoring of smooth surface enamel lesions using CP-OCT during nonsurgical intervention. Lasers Surg Med. 2016 12; 48(10):915-923. Chan KH, Tom H, Lee RC, Kang H, Simon JC, Staninec M, Darling CL, Pelzner RB, Fried D. PMID: 26955902.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    20. Influence of stains on lesion contrast in the pits and fissures of tooth occlusal surfaces from 800-1600-nm. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2016 Feb 13; 9692. Almaz EC, Simon JC, Fried D, Darling CL. PMID: 26997740.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    21. Selective removal of esthetic composite restorations with spectral guided laser ablation. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2016 Feb 13; 9692. Yi I, Chan KH, Tsuji GH, Staninec M, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 26997742.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    22. A system for simultaneous near-infrared reflectance and transillumination imaging of occlusal carious lesions. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2016 Feb 13; 9692. Simon JC, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 27006524.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    23. Enhancement of OCT images with vinyl polysiloxane (VPS). Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2016 Feb 13; 9692. Kang H, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 27011417.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    24. Selective removal of dental composite with a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2016 Feb 13; 9692. Fried WA, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 26997741.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    25. Assessment of remineralized dentin lesions with thermal and near-infrared reflectance imaging. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2016 Feb 13; 9692. Lee RC, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 27006522.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    26. Near-infrared imaging of secondary caries lesions around composite restorations at wavelengths from 1300-1700-nm. Dent Mater. 2016 Apr; 32(4):587-95. Simon JC, A Lucas S, Lee RC, Darling CL, Staninec M, Vaderhobli R, Pelzner R, Fried D. PMID: 26876234.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Near-IR image-guided laser ablation of demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces. Lasers Surg Med. 2016 Jan; 48(1):52-61. Tom H, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 26763111.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Assessment of remineralization via measurement of dehydration rates with thermal and near-IR reflectance imaging. J Dent. 2015 Aug; 43(8):1032-42. Lee RC, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 25862275.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    29. Enhanced detection of dentinal lesions in OCT images using the RKT transformation. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2015 Feb 24; 9306. Kang H, Darling CL, Tom H, Fried D. PMID: 25914493.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    30. Assessment of remineralization in simulated enamel lesions via dehydration with near-IR reflectance imaging. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2015 Feb 24; 9306. Lee RC, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 25914494.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    31. In vitro near-infrared imaging of natural secondary caries. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2015 Feb 24; 9306. Simon JC, Lucas S, Lee R, Darling CL, Staninec M, Vanderhobli R, Pelzner R, Fried D. PMID: 25914495.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    32. Selective removal of dental caries with a diode-pumped Er:YAG laser. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2015 Feb 24; 9306. Yan R, Chan KH, Tom H, Simon JC, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 25914496.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    33. Image-guided removal of occlusal caries lesions with a ?= 9.3-µm CO2 laser using near-IR transillumination. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2015 Feb 24; 9306. Chung LC, Tom H, Chan KH, Simon JC, Fried D, Darling CL. PMID: 25914498.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    34. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2015 Feb 24; 9306. Chan KH, Tom H, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 25914499.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    35. A method for monitoring enamel erosion using laser irradiated surfaces and optical coherence tomography. Lasers Surg Med. 2014 Nov; 46(9):672-8. Chan KH, Tom H, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 25147133.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    36. Automated assessment of the remineralization of artificial enamel lesions with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Biomed Opt Express. 2014 Sep 01; 5(9):2950-62. Lee RC, Kang H, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 25401009.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    37. Longitudinal monitoring of demineralization peripheral to orthodontic brackets using cross polarization optical coherence tomography. J Dent. 2014 May; 42(5):547-55. Nee A, Chan K, Kang H, Staninec M, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 24561340.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Multispectral Near-Infrared Imaging of Composite Restorations in Extracted Teeth. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 20; 8929:89290R. Logan CM, Co KU, Fried WA, Simon JC, Staninec M, And DF, Darling CL. PMID: 25309098.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    39. Transillumination and reflectance probes for in vivo near-IR imaging of dental caries. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 18; 8929:89290D. Simon JC, Lucas SA, Staninec M, Tom H, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 24817803.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    40. Near-IR imaging of demineralization under sealants. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 18; 8929:89290S. Tom H, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 24817807.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    41. High contrast optical imaging methods for image guided laser ablation of dental caries lesions. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 18; 8929. Lamantia NR, Tom H, Chan KH, Simon JC, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 24791129.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    42. Enhancing the detection of hidden occlusal caries lesions with OCT using high index liquids. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 18; 8929:89290O. Kang H, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 24817805.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    43. Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 18; 8929:89290Q. Fried WA, Simon JC, Lucas S, Chan KH, Darling CL, Staninec M, Fried D. PMID: 24817806.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    44. Attenuation of near-IR light through dentin at wavelengths from 1300-1650-nm. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 18; 8929:89290M. Chan AC, Darling CL, Chan KH, Fried D. PMID: 24839373.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    45. Automated detection of remineralization in simulated enamel lesions with PS-OCT. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 Feb 18; 8929:89290E. Lee RC, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 25075267.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    46. Near-infrared imaging of demineralization under sealants. J Biomed Opt. 2014; 19(7):77003. Tom H, Simon JC, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 25036214.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity. Lasers Surg Med. 2014 Mar; 46(3):203-15. Simon JC, Chan KH, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 24375543.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    48. Use of 2D images of depth and integrated reflectivity to represent the severity of demineralization in cross-polarization optical coherence tomography. J Biophotonics. 2015 Jan; 8(1-2):36-45. Chan KH, Chan AC, Fried WA, Simon JC, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 24307350.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    49. High contrast reflectance imaging of simulated lesions on tooth occlusal surfaces at near-IR wavelengths. Lasers Surg Med. 2013 Oct; 45(8):533-41. Fried WA, Fried D, Chan KH, Darling CL. PMID: 23857066.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    50. Methods for Monitoring Erosion Using Optical Coherence Tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2013 Mar 25; 8566:856606. Chan KH, Chan AC, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 24465117.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    51. Imaging Early Demineralization on Tooth Occlusal Surfaces with a High Definition InGaAs Camera. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2013 Mar 25; 8566. Fried WA, Fried D, Chan KH, Darling CL. PMID: 24357911.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    52. Monitoring the Remineralization of Early Simulated Lesions using a pH Cycling Model with CP-OCT. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2013 Mar 25; 8566. Kang H, Chan K, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 24353383.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    53. Clinical Monitoring of Early Caries Lesions using Cross Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2013 Mar 25; 8566. Fried D, Staninec M, Darling CL, Chan KH, Pelzner RB. PMID: 24353384.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    54. Remineralization of Root Caries Monitored Using Cross-Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2012 Feb 09; 8208. Darling CL, Staninec M, Chan KH, Kang H, Fried D. PMID: 24357904.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    55. Monitoring tooth demineralization using a cross polarization optical coherence tomographic system with an integrated MEMS scanner. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2012 Feb 09; 8208. Fried D, Staninec M, Darling C, Kang H, Chan K. PMID: 24357905.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    56. Nondestructive Monitoring of the Repair of Natural Occlusal Lesions using Cross - Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2012 Feb 09; 8208. Kang H, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 23538837.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    57. Nondestructive monitoring of the repair of enamel artificial lesions by an acidic remineralization model using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Dent Mater. 2012 May; 28(5):488-94. Kang H, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 22204914.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    58. Non-destructive clinical assessment of occlusal caries lesions using near-IR imaging methods. Lasers Surg Med. 2011 Dec; 43(10):951-9. Staninec M, Douglas SM, Darling CL, Chan K, Kang H, Lee RC, Fried D. PMID: 22109697.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    59. Multispectral near-IR reflectance and transillumination imaging of teeth. Biomed Opt Express. 2011 Oct 01; 2(10):2804-14. Chung S, Fried D, Staninec M, Darling CL. PMID: 22025986.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    60. Repair of Artificial Lesions using an Acidic Remineralization Model Monitored with Cross - Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2011 Jan 23; 7884(78840Q). Kang H, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 21785533.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    61. In vivo Near-IR Imaging of Occlusal Lesions at 1310-nm. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2011 Jan 23; 7884(78840B). Fried D, Staninec M, Darling CL, Lee C, Kang H, Chan KH. PMID: 21785532.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    62. Near infrared imaging of teeth at wavelengths between 1200 and 1600 nm. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2011 Jan 01; 7884. Chung S, Fried D, Staninec M, Darling CL. PMID: 22399836.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    63. Polarization Resolved Near-IR Imaging of Sound and Carious Dental Enamel. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2011 Jan 01; 7884. Darling CL, Chan KH, Fried D. PMID: 22399837.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    64. Clinical assessment of early tooth demineralization using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. Lasers Surg Med. 2010 Dec; 42(10):738-45. Louie T, Lee C, Hsu D, Hirasuna K, Manesh S, Staninec M, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 21246578.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    65. Nondestructive Assessment of Early Tooth Demineralization Using Cross-Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography. IEEE J Sel Top Quantum Electron. 2010 Jul; 16(4):870-876. Kang H, Jiao JJ, Lee C, Le MH, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 21660217.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    66. Nondestructive assessment of the severity of occlusal caries lesions with near-infrared imaging at 1310 nm. J Biomed Opt. 2010 Jul-Aug; 15(4):047011. Lee C, Lee D, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 20799842.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    67. In vivo near-IR imaging of approximal dental decay at 1,310 nm. Lasers Surg Med. 2010 Apr; 42(4):292-8. Staninec M, Lee C, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 20432277.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    68. In vitro near-infrared imaging of occlusal dental caries using germanium enhanced CMOS camera. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2010 Mar 01; 7549. Lee C, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 22162916.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    69. Near-IR Polarization Imaging of Sound and Carious Dental Enamel. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2010; 7549:75490L. Darling CL, Jiao JJ, Lee C, Kang H, Fried D. PMID: 22228980.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    70. Imaging Natural Occlusal Caries Lesions with Optical Coherence Tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2010; 7549:75490N. Douglas SM, Fried D, Darling CL. PMID: 22228981.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    71. Imaging early demineralization with PS-OCT. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2010 Jan 01; 7549. Kang H, Jiao JJ, Lee C, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 22399835.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    72. Automated analysis of lesion depth and integrated reflectivity in PS-OCT scans of tooth demineralization. Lasers Surg Med. 2010 Jan; 42(1):62-8. Le MH, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 20077486.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    73. Nondestructive assessment of dentin demineralization using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography after exposure to fluoride and laser irradiation. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2009 Aug; 90(2):802-12. Manesh SK, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 19283826.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    74. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography for the nondestructive assessment of the remineralization of dentin. J Biomed Opt. 2009 Jul-Aug; 14(4):044002. Manesh SK, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 19725714.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    75. Pulpal effects of enamel ablation with a microsecond pulsed lambda = 9.3-microm CO2 laser. Lasers Surg Med. 2009 Apr; 41(4):256-63. Staninec M, Darling CL, Goodis HE, Pierre D, Cox DP, Fan K, Larson M, Parisi R, Hsu D, Manesh SK, Ho C, Hosseini M, Fried D. PMID: 19347946.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    76. Non-destructive measurement of demineralization & remineralization in the occlusal pits and fissures of extracted 3 molars with PS-OCT. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2009 Mar 06; 7162(1). Lee C, Hsu DJ, Le MH, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 21935289.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    77. Methods for calculating the severity of demineralization on tooth surfaces from PS-OCT scans. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2009 Feb 18; 7162(1). Le MH, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 21935290.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    78. An Automated Digital Microradiography System for Assessing Tooth Demineralization. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2009 Feb 18; 7162(1). Darling CL, Le CQ, Featherstone JD, Fried D. PMID: 21935288.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    79. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomographic imaging of artificial demineralization on exposed surfaces of tooth roots. Dent Mater. 2009 Jun; 25(6):721-8. Lee C, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 19167052.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    80. Dentin caries zones: mineral, structure, and properties. J Dent Res. 2009 Jan; 88(1):71-6. Pugach MK, Strother J, Darling CL, Fried D, Gansky SA, Marshall SJ, Marshall GW. PMID: 19131321.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    81. Near-IR Multi-modal Imaging of Natural Occlusal Lesions. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2009; 7162:71620X. Lee D, Fried D, Darling CL. PMID: 22228979.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    82. Assessment of Dentin Remineralization with PS-OCT. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2009 Jan 01; 7162. Manesh SK, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 21998493.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    83. Nondestructive assessment of the inhibition of enamel demineralization by CO2 laser treatment using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. J Biomed Opt. 2008 Sep-Oct; 13(5):054027. Hsu DJ, Darling CL, Lachica MM, Fried D. PMID: 19021407.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    84. Non-destructive assessment of inhibition of demineralization in dental enamel irradiated by a lambda=9.3-microm CO2 laser at ablative irradiation intensities with PS-OCT. Lasers Surg Med. 2008 Jul; 40(5):342-9. Can AM, Darling CL, Ho C, Fried D. PMID: 18563781.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    85. Near-infrared imaging of developmental defects in dental enamel. J Biomed Opt. 2008 Jul-Aug; 13(4):044011. Hirasuna K, Fried D, Darling CL. PMID: 19021339.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    86. Imaging laser irradiated enamel surfaces with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2008 Mar; 6843:8430N-N8430. Hsu DJ, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 21909224.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    87. High-resolution PS-OCT of Enamel Remineralization. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2008 Mar; 6843:68430T1-68430T7. Can AM, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 21909226.
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    88. Real-time near IR (1310 nm) imaging of CO2 laser ablation of enamel. Opt Express. 2008 Feb 18; 16(4):2685-93. Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 18542353.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    89. Near-IR imaging of Erbium Laser Ablation with a Water Spray. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2008 Jan 20; 6843(684303). Darling CL, Maffei ME, Fried WA, Fried D. PMID: 21892255.
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    90. Imaging natural and artificial demineralization on dentin surfaces with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2008 Jan 01; 6843. Manesh SK, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 21998492.
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    91. Nondestructive measurement of the inhibition of demineralization on smooth surfaces using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Lasers Surg Med. 2007 Jun; 39(5):422-7. Chong SL, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 17565731.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    92. Light scattering properties of natural and artificially demineralized dental enamel at 1310 nm. J Biomed Opt. 2006 May-Jun; 11(3):34023. Darling CL, Huynh GD, Fried D. PMID: 16822072.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 60     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    93. Remineralization of in vitro dental caries assessed with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. J Biomed Opt. 2006 Jan-Feb; 11(1):014016. Jones RS, Darling CL, Featherstone JD, Fried D. PMID: 16526893.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    94. Imaging artificial caries on the occlusal surfaces with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Caries Res. 2006; 40(2):81-9. Jones RS, Darling CL, Featherstone JD, Fried D. PMID: 16508263.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    95. Early caries imaging and monitoring with near-infrared light. Dent Clin North Am. 2005 Oct; 49(4):771-93, vi. Fried D, Featherstone JD, Darling CL, Jones RS, Ngaotheppitak P, Bühler CM. PMID: 16150316.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    96. Measurement of the severity of natural smooth surface (interproximal) caries lesions with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. Lasers Surg Med. 2005 Jul; 37(1):78-88. Ngaotheppitak P, Darling CL, Fried D. PMID: 15889402.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 52     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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