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Sandy Schwarcz, MD, MPH

Title(s)Professor, Epidemiology & Biostatistics
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Phone415-476-5786
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoPost-Doc Fellow/Scholar1987 Medicine

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Rice B, Boulle A, Schwarcz S, Shroufi A, Rutherford G, Hargreaves J. The Continuing Value of CD4 Cell Count Monitoring for Differential HIV Care and Surveillance. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2019 Mar 20; 5(1):e11136. PMID: 30892272.
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    2. Hessol NA, Whittemore H, Vittinghoff E, Hsu LC, Ma D, Scheer S, Schwarcz SK. Incidence of first and second primary cancers diagnosed among people with HIV, 1985-2013: a population-based, registry linkage study. Lancet HIV. 2018 11; 5(11):e647-e655. PMID: 30245004.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Chen MJ, Scheer S, Nguyen TQ, Kohn RP, Schwarcz SK. HIV Coinfection Among Persons Diagnosed As Having Sexually Transmitted Diseases, San Francisco, 2007 to 2014. Sex Transm Dis. 2018 08; 45(8):563-572. PMID: 30001298.
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    4. Rice B, Boulle A, Baral S, Egger M, Mee P, Fearon E, Reniers G, Todd J, Schwarcz S, Weir S, Rutherford G, Hargreaves J. Strengthening Routine Data Systems to Track the HIV Epidemic and Guide the Response in Sub-Saharan Africa. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2018 Apr 03; 4(2):e36. PMID: 29615387.
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    5. Scheer S, Hsu L, Schwarcz S, Pipkin S, Havlir D, Buchbinder S, Hessol NA. Trends in the San Francisco Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic in the "Getting to Zero" Era. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 03 19; 66(7):1027-1034. PMID: 29099913.
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    6. Hessol NA, Ma D, Scheer S, Hsu LC, Schwarcz SK. Changing temporal trends in non-AIDS cancer mortality among people diagnosed with AIDS: San Francisco, California, 1996-2013. Cancer Epidemiol. 2018 02; 52:20-27. PMID: 29175052.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Hessol NA, Schwarcz SK, Hsu LC, Shumway M, Machtinger EL. Gender differences in causes of death among persons with HIV/AIDS in San Francisco, California, 1996-2013. Int J STD AIDS. 2018 02; 29(2):135-146. PMID: 28728525.
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    8. Harklerode R, Schwarcz S, Hargreaves J, Boulle A, Todd J, Xueref S, Rice B. Feasibility of Establishing HIV Case-Based Surveillance to Measure Progress Along the Health Sector Cascade: Situational Assessments in Tanzania, South Africa, and Kenya. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2017 Jul 10; 3(3):e44. PMID: 28694240.
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    9. Waruru A, Muttai H, Ng'ang'a L, Ackers M, Kim A, Miruka F, Erick O, Okonji J, Ayuaya T, Schwarcz S. Positive Predictive Value of the WHO Clinical and Immunologic Criteria to Predict Viral Load Failure among Adults on First, or Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Kenya. PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0158881. PMID: 27383834.
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    10. Grasso MA, Schwarcz S, Galbraith JS, Musyoki H, Kambona C, Kellogg TA. Estimating the Prevalence and Predictors of Incorrect Condom Use Among Sexually Active Adults in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey. Sex Transm Dis. 2016 Feb; 43(2):87-93. PMID: 26766524.
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    11. Schwarcz S, Hsu LC, Scheer S. Disparities and Trends in Viral Suppression During a Transition to a "Test and Treat" Approach to the HIV Epidemic, San Francisco, 2008-2012. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Dec 15; 70(5):529-37. PMID: 26569177.
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    12. Pollett S, Wood N, Boscardin WJ, Bengtsson H, Schwarcz S, Harriman K, Winter K, Rutherford G. Validating the Use of Google Trends to Enhance Pertussis Surveillance in California. PLoS Curr. 2015 Oct 19; 7. PMID: 26543674.
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    13. Khanijow K, Hirozawa A, Ancock B, Hsu LC, Bamberger J, Schwarcz SK. Difference in Survival between Housed and Homeless individuals with HIV, San Francisco, 2002-2011. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2015 Aug; 26(3):1005-18. PMID: 26320929.
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    14. Schwarcz SK, Rutherford GW, Horvath H. Training for Better Management: Avante Zamb├ęzia, PEPFAR and Improving the Quality of Administrative Services Comment on "Implementation of a Health Management Mentoring Program: Year-1 Evaluation of Its Impact on Health System Strengthening in Zamb├ęzia Province, Mozambique". Int J Health Policy Manag. 2015 Jul 23; 4(11):773-5. PMID: 26673340.
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    15. Djawe K, Buchacz K, Hsu L, Chen MJ, Selik RM, Rose C, Williams T, Brooks JT, Schwarcz S. Mortality Risk After AIDS-Defining Opportunistic Illness Among HIV-Infected Persons--San Francisco, 1981-2012. J Infect Dis. 2015 Nov 01; 212(9):1366-75. PMID: 26044289.
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    16. Schwarcz SK, Vu A, Hsu LC, Hessol NA. Changes in causes of death among persons with AIDS: San Francisco, California, 1996-2011. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2014 Oct; 28(10):517-23. PMID: 25275657.
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    17. Odhiambo JO, Kellogg TA, Kim AA, Ng'ang'a L, Mukui I, Umuro M, Mohammed I, De Cock KM, Kimanga DO, Schwarcz S. Antiretroviral treatment scale-up among persons living with HIV in Kenya: results from a nationally representative survey. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 May 01; 66 Suppl 1:S116-22. PMID: 24732815.
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    18. Waruiru W, Kim AA, Kimanga DO, Ng'ang'a J, Schwarcz S, Kimondo L, Ng'ang'a A, Umuro M, Mwangi M, Ojwang' JK, Maina WK. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012: rationale, methods, description of participants, and response rates. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 May 01; 66 Suppl 1:S3-12. PMID: 24732819.
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    19. Wafula R, Masyuko S, Ng'ang'a L, Kim AA, Gichangi A, Mukui I, Batuka J, Ngugi EW, Maina WK, Schwarcz S. Engagement in HIV care among Kenyan adults and adolescents: results from a national population-based survey. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 May 01; 66 Suppl 1:S98-105. PMID: 24732825.
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    20. Hsu LC, Truong HM, Vittinghoff E, Zhi Q, Scheer S, Schwarcz S. Trends in early initiation of antiretroviral therapy and characteristics of persons with HIV initiating therapy in San Francisco, 2007-2011. J Infect Dis. 2014 May 01; 209(9):1310-4. PMID: 24218501.
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    21. Muthulingam D, Chin J, Hsu L, Scheer S, Schwarcz S. Disparities in engagement in care and viral suppression among persons with HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 May 01; 63(1):112-9. PMID: 23392459.
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    22. Schwarcz L, Chen MJ, Vittinghoff E, Hsu L, Schwarcz S. Declining incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses: results from 16 years of population-based AIDS surveillance. AIDS. 2013 Feb 20; 27(4):597-605. PMID: 23079812.
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    23. Wong KK, Bulimo WD, Magana J, Achilla RA, Schwarcz SK, Simwa M, Majanja JM, Wadegu MO, Osuna FA, Mukunzi SO, Mwangi JK, Wangui JM, Muthoni JN, Njiri JO, Obura BD, Opot BH, Mitei KK, Barani J, Lifumo S, Schnabel DC. Epidemiology of 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 among Kenyans aged 2 months to 18 years, 2009-2010. J Infect Dis. 2012 Dec 15; 206 Suppl 1:S68-73. PMID: 23169975.
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    24. Schwarcz SK, Chen YH, Murphy JL, Paul JP, Skinta MD, Scheer S, Vittinghoff E, Dilley JW. A randomized control trial of personalized cognitive counseling to reduce sexual risk among HIV-infected men who have sex with men. AIDS Care. 2013; 25(1):1-10. PMID: 22568569.
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    25. Skinta MD, Murphy JL, Paul JP, Schwarcz SK, Dilley JW. Thoughts, attitudes, and feelings of HIV-positive MSM associated with high transmission-risk sex. Health Educ Behav. 2012 Jun; 39(3):315-23. PMID: 22102322.
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    26. Schwarcz SK, Hsu L, Chin CS, Richards TA, Frank H, Wenzel C, Dilley J. Do people who develop AIDS within 12 months of HIV diagnosis delay HIV testing? Public Health Rep. 2011 Jul-Aug; 126(4):552-9. PMID: 21800749.
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    27. Schwarcz S, Richards TA, Frank H, Wenzel C, Hsu LC, Chin CS, Murphy J, Dilley J. Identifying barriers to HIV testing: personal and contextual factors associated with late HIV testing. AIDS Care. 2011 Jul; 23(7):892-900. PMID: 21424942.
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    28. Pipkin S, Scheer S, Okeigwe I, Schwarcz S, Harris DH, Hessol NA. The effect of HAART and calendar period on Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: results of a match between an AIDS and cancer registry. AIDS. 2011 Feb 20; 25(4):463-71. PMID: 21139489.
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    29. Schwarcz SK, Hsu LC, Vittinghoff E, Vu A, Bamberger JD, Katz MH. Impact of housing on the survival of persons with AIDS. BMC Public Health. 2009 Jul 07; 9:220. PMID: 19583862.
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    30. Truong HM, Kellogg T, Schwarcz S, Delgado V, Grant RM, Louie B, Ngo H, McFarland W. Frequent international travel by men who have sex with men recently diagnosed with HIV-1: potential for transmission of primary HIV-1 drug resistance. J Travel Med. 2008 Nov-Dec; 15(6):454-6. PMID: 19090802.
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    31. Scheer S, Kellogg T, Klausner JD, Schwarcz S, Colfax G, Bernstein K, Louie B, Dilley JW, Hecht J, Truong HM, Katz MH, McFarland W. HIV is hyperendemic among men who have sex with men in San Francisco: 10-year trends in HIV incidence, HIV prevalence, sexually transmitted infections and sexual risk behaviour. Sex Transm Infect. 2008 Nov; 84(6):493-8. PMID: 19028954.
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    32. Dilley JW, Loeb L, Marson K, Chen S, Schwarcz S, Paul J, McFarland W. Sexual compulsiveness and change in unprotected anal intercourse: unexpected results from a randomized controlled HIV counseling intervention study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 May 01; 48(1):113-4. PMID: 18438179.
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    33. Spindler HH, Scheer S, Chen SY, Klausner JD, Katz MH, Valleroy LA, Schwarcz SK. Viagra, methamphetamine, and HIV risk: results from a probability sample of MSM, San Francisco. Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Aug; 34(8):586-91. PMID: 17334264.
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    34. Schwarcz S, Scheer S, McFarland W, Katz M, Valleroy L, Chen S, Catania J. Prevalence of HIV infection and predictors of high-transmission sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men. Am J Public Health. 2007 Jun; 97(6):1067-75. PMID: 17463384.
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    35. Schwarcz S, Spindler H, Scheer S, Valleroy L, Lansky A. Assessing representativeness of sampling methods for reaching men who have sex with men: a direct comparison of results obtained from convenience and probability samples. AIDS Behav. 2007 Jul; 11(4):596-602. PMID: 17436073.
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    36. Hessol NA, Pipkin S, Schwarcz S, Cress RD, Bacchetti P, Scheer S. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on non-AIDS-defining cancers among adults with AIDS. Am J Epidemiol. 2007 May 15; 165(10):1143-53. PMID: 17344204.
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    37. Schwarcz S, Weinstock H, Louie B, Kellogg T, Douglas J, Lalota M, Dickinson G, Torian L, Wendell D, Paul S, Goza G, Ruiz J, Boyett B, McCormick L, Bennett D. Characteristics of persons with recently acquired HIV infection: application of the serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion in 10 US cities. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Jan 01; 44(1):112-5. PMID: 17075386.
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    38. Schwarcz S, Hsu L, Dilley JW, Loeb L, Nelson K, Boyd S. Late diagnosis of HIV infection: trends, prevalence, and characteristics of persons whose HIV diagnosis occurred within 12 months of developing AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Dec 01; 43(4):491-4. PMID: 17031318.
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    39. Jain S, Schwarcz S, Katz M, Gulati R, McFarland W. Elevated risk of death for African Americans with AIDS, San Francisco, 1996-2002. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2006 Aug; 17(3):493-503. PMID: 16960317.
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    40. Razani N, Schwarcz S, Klausner JD, Kohn RP, McFarland W. How well do trends in HIV prevalence in young people reflect HIV incidence? Results from 10 years of HIV serosurveillance in San Francisco. AIDS. 2006 Jun 12; 20(9):1332-3. PMID: 16816565.
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    41. Ikard K, Janney J, Hsu LC, Isenberg DJ, Scalco MB, Schwarcz S, Beer L, Wendell DA, Franks PE, Kahn JG. Estimation of unmet need for HIV primary medical care: a framework and three case studies. AIDS Educ Prev. 2005 Dec; 17(6 Suppl B):26-38. PMID: 16401180.
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    42. Dilley JW, Schwarcz S, Loeb L, Hsu L, Nelson K, Scheer S. The decline of incident cases of HIV-associated neurological disorders in San Francisco, 1991-2003. AIDS. 2005 Mar 24; 19(6):634-5. PMID: 15802986.
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    43. Schwarcz S, Scheer S. HIV testing behaviors and knowledge of HIV reporting regulations among male-to-female transgenders. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Oct 01; 37(2):1326-7. PMID: 15385743.
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    44. Weinstock HS, Zaidi I, Heneine W, Bennett D, Garcia-Lerma JG, Douglas JM, LaLota M, Dickinson G, Schwarcz S, Torian L, Wendell D, Paul S, Goza GA, Ruiz J, Boyett B, Kaplan JE. The epidemiology of antiretroviral drug resistance among drug-naive HIV-1-infected persons in 10 US cities. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jun 15; 189(12):2174-80. PMID: 15181563.
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    45. Stockman JK, Schwarcz SK, Butler LM, de Jong B, Chen SY, Delgado V, McFarland W. HIV prevention fatigue among high-risk populations in San Francisco. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Apr 01; 35(4):432-4. PMID: 15097163.
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    46. Schwarcz S, Stockman J, Delgado V, Scheer S. Does name-based HIV reporting deter high-risk persons from HIV testing? Results from San Francisco. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Jan 01; 35(1):93-6. PMID: 14707799.
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    47. Ward K, Butler N, Mugabo P, Klausner J, McFarland W, Chen S, Schwarcz S. Provision of syndromic treatment of sexually transmitted infections by community pharmacists: a potentially underutilized HIV prevention strategy. Sex Transm Dis. 2003 Aug; 30(8):609-13. PMID: 12897681.
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    48. Chu PL, McFarland W, Gibson S, Weide D, Henne J, Miller P, Partridge T, Schwarcz S. Viagra use in a community-recruited sample of men who have sex with men, San Francisco. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003 Jun 01; 33(2):191-3. PMID: 12794553.
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    49. McFarland W, Chen S, Hsu L, Schwarcz S, Katz M. Low socioeconomic status is associated with a higher rate of death in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, San Francisco. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003 May 01; 33(1):96-103. PMID: 12792361.
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    50. Louie JK, Hsu LC, Osmond DH, Katz MH, Schwarcz SK. Trends in causes of death among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, San Francisco, 1994-1998. J Infect Dis. 2002 Oct 01; 186(7):1023-7. PMID: 12232845.
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    51. Schwarcz SK, Kellogg TA, McFarland W, Louie B, Klausner J, Withum DG, Katz MH. Characterization of sexually transmitted disease clinic patients with recent human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis. 2002 Oct 01; 186(7):1019-22. PMID: 12232844.
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    52. Chen SY, Gibson S, Katz MH, Klausner JD, Dilley JW, Schwarcz SK, Kellogg TA, McFarland W. Continuing increases in sexual risk behavior and sexually transmitted diseases among men who have sex with men: San Francisco, Calif, 1999-2001, USA. Am J Public Health. 2002 Sep; 92(9):1387-8. PMID: 12197957.
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    53. Schwarcz S, Hsu L, Chu PL, Parisi MK, Bangsberg D, Hurley L, Pearlman J, Marsh K, Katz M. Evaluation of a non-name-based HIV reporting system in San Francisco. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Apr 15; 29(5):504-10. PMID: 11981367.
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    54. Katz MH, Schwarcz SK, Kellogg TA, Klausner JD, Dilley JW, Gibson S, McFarland W. Impact of highly active antiretroviral treatment on HIV seroincidence among men who have sex with men: San Francisco. Am J Public Health. 2002 Mar; 92(3):388-94. PMID: 11867317.
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    55. Schwarcz S, McFarland W, Delgado V, Dilley J, Rinaldi J, Adler B, Withum D. Partner notification for persons recently infected with HIV: experience in San Francisco. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001 Dec 01; 28(4):403-4. PMID: 11707682.
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    56. Hsu LC, Vittinghoff E, Katz MH, Schwarcz SK. Predictors of use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among persons with AIDS in San Francisco, 1996-1999. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001 Dec 01; 28(4):345-50. PMID: 11707671.
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    57. Klevens RM, Fleming PL, Li J, Gaines CG, Gallagher K, Schwarcz S, Karon JM, Ward JW. The completeness, validity, and timeliness of AIDS surveillance data. Ann Epidemiol. 2001 Oct; 11(7):443-9. PMID: 11557175.
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    58. Scheer S, McQuitty M, Denning P, Hormel L, Stephens B, Katz M, Schwarcz S. Undiagnosed and unreported AIDS deaths: results from the San Francisco Medical Examiner. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001 Aug 15; 27(5):467-71. PMID: 11511824.
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    59. Hessol NA, Schwarcz S, Ameli N, Oliver G, Greenblatt RM. Accuracy of self-reports of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related conditions in women. Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Jun 01; 153(11):1128-33. PMID: 11390333.
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    60. Schwarcz S, Kellogg T, McFarland W, Louie B, Kohn R, Busch M, Katz M, Bolan G, Klausner J, Weinstock H. Differences in the temporal trends of HIV seroincidence and seroprevalence among sexually transmitted disease clinic patients, 1989-1998: application of the serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion. Am J Epidemiol. 2001 May 15; 153(10):925-34. PMID: 11384946.
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    61. Scheer S, Chu PL, Klausner JD, Katz MH, Schwarcz SK. Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on diagnoses of sexually transmitted diseases in people with AIDS. Lancet. 2001 Feb 10; 357(9254):432-5. PMID: 11273063.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Rutherford GW, Schwarcz SK, McFarland W. Surveillance for incident HIV infection: new technology and new opportunities. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 Dec 15; 25 Suppl 2:S115-9. PMID: 11256731.
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    63. Schwarcz SK, Hsu LC, Vittinghoff E, Katz MH. Impact of protease inhibitors and other antiretroviral treatments on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome survival in San Francisco, California, 1987-1996. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Jul 15; 152(2):178-85. PMID: 10909955.
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    64. Hsu L, Schwarcz S, Katz M. Comparison of simultaneous active and passive AIDS case reporting in San Francisco. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 Feb 01; 23(2):204-5. PMID: 10737437.
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    65. Schwarcz SK, Hsu LC, Parisi MK, Katz MH. The impact of the 1993 AIDS case definition on the completeness and timeliness of AIDS surveillance. AIDS. 1999 Jun 18; 13(9):1109-14. PMID: 10397542.
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    66. Schwarcz S. A new HIV test to detect recent infections. Focus. 1999 Feb; 14(3):5-6. PMID: 11366789.
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    67. Katz MH, Hsu L, Lingo M, Woelffer G, Schwarcz SK. Impact of socioeconomic status on survival with AIDS. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Aug 01; 148(3):282-91. PMID: 9690366.
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    68. Schwarcz SK, Katz MH, Hirozawa A, Gurley J, Lemp GF. Prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: who are we missing? AIDS. 1997 Aug; 11(10):1263-8. PMID: 9256945.
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    69. Schwarcz SK, Spitters C, Ginsberg MM, Anderson L, Kellogg T, Katz MH. Predictors of human immunodeficiency virus counseling and testing among sexually transmitted disease clinic patients. Sex Transm Dis. 1997 Jul; 24(6):347-52. PMID: 9243742.
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    70. Schwarcz SK, Shefer AM, Zaki SR. Retrospective diagnosis of a fatal case of the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, 1980. West J Med. 1996 Apr; 164(4):348-50. PMID: 8732742.
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    71. Schwarcz SK, Kellogg TA, Kohn RP, Katz MH, Lemp GF, Bolan GA. Temporal trends in human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence and sexual behavior at the San Francisco municipal sexually transmitted disease clinic, 1989-1992. Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Aug 01; 142(3):314-22. PMID: 7631635.
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    72. Fullilove MT, Golden E, Fullilove RE, Lennon R, Porterfield D, Schwarcz S, Bolan G. Crack cocaine use and high-risk behaviors among sexually active black adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 1993 Jun; 14(4):295-300. PMID: 8347641.
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    73. Schwarcz SK, Bolan GA, Kellogg TA, Kohn R, Lemp GF. Comparison of voluntary and blinded human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seroprevalence surveys in a high prevalence sexually transmitted disease clinic population. Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Mar 15; 137(6):600-8. PMID: 8470661.
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    74. Schwarcz SK, Bolan GA, Fullilove M, McCright J, Fullilove R, Kohn R, Rolfs RT. Crack cocaine and the exchange of sex for money or drugs. Risk factors for gonorrhea among black adolescents in San Francisco. Sex Transm Dis. 1992 Jan-Feb; 19(1):7-13. PMID: 1561589.
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    75. Schwarcz SK, Zenilman JM, Schnell D, Knapp JS, Hook EW, Thompson S, Judson FN, Holmes KK. National surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project. JAMA. 1990 Sep 19; 264(11):1413-7. PMID: 2144026.
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    76. Schwarcz SK, Whittington WL. Sexual assault and sexually transmitted diseases: detection and management in adults and children. Rev Infect Dis. 1990 Jul-Aug; 12 Suppl 6:S682-90. PMID: 2201079.
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    77. Rutherford GW, Schwarcz SK, Lemp GF, Barnhart JL, Rauch KJ, Warner WL, Piland TH, Werdegar D. The epidemiology of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in San Francisco. J Infect Dis. 1989 Mar; 159(3):569-72. PMID: 2915169.
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