Anil Makam, MD, MAS

Title(s)Assistant Professor, Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Lehigh UniversityBS2003Biochemistry
    Drexel University College of MedicineMD2007Medicine
    UT SouthwesternResidency2010Internal Medicine
    UCSFFellowship2013Primary Care Research Fellowship
    UCSFMAS2013Clinical Research
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Bay Area Clinical Research Symposium2012Best Oral Presentation by Jr. Investigator
    California-Hawaii Regional SGIM Annual Meeting2013Best Research Poster
    SGIM Annual Meeting2013Lipkin Award Finalist (not awarded)
    American Thoracic Society2016Behavioral Health & Health Services Research Abstract Scholarship
    UT Southwestern Medical Center; NIH/NCATS2014  - 2016KL2 Clinical and Translational Research Scholar
    NHLBI2014  - 2018NIH Loan Repayment Program Award
    SGIM Annual Meeting2014Hamolsky Junior Faculty Research Award Finalist (not awarded)
    Hopkins GIM Housestaff Research National Competition2017(mentor) Housestaff Research Award Honorable Mention
    Society of Hospital Medicine Annual Conference2018(mentor) Research, Innovation, Vignettes (RIV) Competition Honorable Mention in Innovation
    American Geriatrics Society2018New Investigator Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Anil Makam, MD, MAS, is an academic hospital medicine physician and a health services researcher. His research is at the intersection of geriatrics, hospital medicine, and post-acute care, specifically focusing on the role of long-term acute care hospitals (LTACs). His research interest stemmed from his simple observation that Dallas had many LTACs whereas San Francisco had very few, yet he cared for similarly sick and frail hospitalized older adults in both places. His research is funded by an NIA GEMSSTAR grant (2016-2018) and an NIA K23 Career Development Award (2016-2021). Dr. Makam applies health services research and epidemiological methods using Medicare claims, EHR data, and prospective observational cohort data to examine predictors and variation in LTAC use, comparative effectiveness of the LTAC model of care versus alternative care settings, and patterns of recovery for older adults transferred to LTACs.

    Dr. Makam is also deeply passionate about evidence-based medicine and critical appraisal of the clinical scientific literature. He published his framework for the practice of EBM in a State-of-the-Art Review article in Circulation. He has also published a number of studies on EBM, high value care, and overuse of common medical practices. Prior to joining the faculty at UCSF, he has had extensive experience teaching EBM and critical appraisal to trainees and faculty.

    Dr. Makam’s research has been published in leading medical journals, including JAMA, JAMA Internal Medicine, Circulation, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, BMJ Quality & Safety, Journal of General Internal Medicine, and the Journal of Hospital Medicine; has been cited by the Institute of Medicine and Wikipedia articles; and has been featured in prominent news outlets, including NPR. He has received several research awards, including the New Investigator Award in 2018 by the American Geriatrics Society. He is Co-Director of Academic Development & Research for the Division of Hospital Medicine at Chan Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital. Nationally, he is an Associate Editor for the Journal of Hospital Medicine. Lastly, he has an active presence on Twitter.
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Role of Long-Term Acute Care Hospitals
    NIH R03AG053291Aug 15, 2016 - Apr 30, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Post-acute care in the elderly: the role of long-term acute care hospitals
    NIH K23AG052603Apr 1, 2016 - Mar 31, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Availability of Palliative Care in Long-Term Acute Care Hospitals. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2021 May 07. Sumarsono N, Sudore RL, Smith AK, Pantilat SZ, Anderson WG, Makam AN. PMID: 33965406.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Policy in Clinical Practice: Choosing Post-Acute Care in the New Decade. J Hosp Med. 2021 Mar; 16(3):171-174. Makam AN, Grabowski DC. PMID: 33617438.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Appropriateness of Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Transfer: A Multicenter Study of Medicare ACO Beneficiaries. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2021 Feb 19. Schumacher RC, Chiu M, de Leon J, Krause K, Makam AN. PMID: 33617790.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    4. Man vs. Machine: Comparing Physician vs. Electronic Health Record-Based Model Predictions for 30-Day Hospital Readmissions. J Gen Intern Med. 2021 Jan 14. Nguyen OK, Washington C, Clark CR, Miller ME, Patel VA, Halm EA, Makam AN. PMID: 33443694.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    5. Caring for Hospitalized Incarcerated Patients: Physician and Nurse Experience. J Gen Intern Med. 2021 Jan 06. Brooks KC, Makam AN, Haber LA. PMID: 33409890.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    6. Factors Associated with Duration of Rehabilitation Among Older Adults with Prolonged Hospitalization. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2020 Dec 22. Nguyen DQ, Ifejika NL, Reistetter TA, Makam AN. PMID: 33393088.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    7. Comparative effectiveness of long-term acute care hospital versus skilled nursing facility transfer. BMC Health Serv Res. 2020 Nov 11; 20(1):1032. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Miller ME, Shah SJ, Kapinos KA, Halm EA. PMID: 33176767.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    8. Inclusion of Performance Parameters and Patient Context in the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Heart Failure. J Card Fail. 2021 Feb; 27(2):190-197. Goyal P, Unlu O, Kennel PJ, Schumacher RC, Gilstrap LG, Krishnaswami A, Allen LA, Maurer MS, Rich MW, Makam A. PMID: 33065263.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    9. Can we predict early 7-day readmissions using a standard 30-day hospital readmission risk prediction model? BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2020 09 15; 20(1):227. Saleh SN, Makam AN, Halm EA, Nguyen OK. PMID: 32933505.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Reply to Comment on: The Clinical Course After Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Admission Among Older Medicare Beneficiaries. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2020 03; 68(3):667-668. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Halm EA. PMID: 31903543.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    11. The Clinical Course after Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Admission among Older Medicare Beneficiaries. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019 11; 67(11):2282-2288. Makam AN, Tran T, Miller ME, Xuan L, Nguyen OK, Halm EA. PMID: 31449686.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Evidence-Based Medicine and the American Thoracic Society Guidelines-Reply. JAMA Intern Med. 2019 07 01; 179(7):1004-1005. Schumacher RC, Nguyen OK, Makam AN. PMID: 31260021.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    13. Improving Respiratory Rate Accuracy in the Hospital: A Quality Improvement Initiative. J Hosp Med. 2019 11 01; 14(11):673-677. Keshvani N, Berger K, Gupta A, DePaola S, Nguyen OK, Makam AN. PMID: 31251168.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Comparison of Scheduled vs Emergency-Only Dialysis in Undocumented Immigrants With End-stage Renal Disease-Reply. JAMA Intern Med. 2019 05 01; 179(5):728-729. Nguyen OK, Makam AN. PMID: 31058944.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. Utility of Blood Cultures in Pneumonia. Am J Med. 2019 10; 132(10):1233-1238. Zhang D, Yang D, Makam AN. PMID: 30986394.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. Evidence-Based Medicine and the American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guidelines. JAMA Intern Med. 2019 04 01; 179(4):584-586. Schumacher RC, Nguyen OK, Deshpande K, Makam AN. PMID: 30776054.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Association of Scheduled vs Emergency-Only Dialysis With Health Outcomes and Costs in Undocumented Immigrants With End-stage Renal Disease. JAMA Intern Med. 2019 02 01; 179(2):175-183. Nguyen OK, Vazquez MA, Charles L, Berger JR, Quiñones H, Fuquay R, Sanders JM, Kapinos KA, Halm EA, Makam AN. PMID: 30575859.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Effect of Site-Neutral Payment Policy on Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Use. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2018 11; 66(11):2104-2111. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Kirby B, Miller ME, Xuan L, Halm EA. PMID: 30281783.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Use of Non-Mechanically Ventilated Hospitalized Older Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2018 11; 66(11):2112-2119. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Xuan L, Miller ME, Halm EA. PMID: 30295927.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. Shortcomings of Research Regarding Long-term Acute Care Hospitals and Skilled Nursing Facilities-Reply. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 06 01; 178(6):866-867. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Halm EA. PMID: 29868749.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    21. Predicting 30-Day Hospital Readmissions in Acute Myocardial Infarction: The AMI "READMITS" (Renal Function, Elevated Brain Natriuretic Peptide, Age, Diabetes Mellitus, Nonmale Sex, Intervention with Timely Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, and Low Systolic Blood Pressure) Score. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 04 17; 7(8). Nguyen OK, Makam AN, Clark C, Zhang S, Das SR, Halm EA. PMID: 29666065.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. The Influence of Financial Strain on Health Decision-Making. J Gen Intern Med. 2018 04; 33(4):406-408. Nguyen OK, Higashi RT, Makam AN, Mijares JC, Lee SC. PMID: 29340939.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Factors Associated With Variation in Long-term Acute Care Hospital vs Skilled Nursing Facility Use Among Hospitalized Older Adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 03 01; 178(3):399-405. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Xuan L, Miller ME, Goodwin JS, Halm EA. PMID: 29404575.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Acute Myocardial Infarction Readmission Risk Prediction Models: A Systematic Review of Model Performance. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2018 01; 11(1):e003885. Smith LN, Makam AN, Darden D, Mayo H, Das SR, Halm EA, Nguyen OK. PMID: 29321135.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. A Depressing Diagnostic Error. Am J Med. 2018 05; 131(5):e191-e192. Chaulk AL, Wang JI, Makam AN. PMID: 29284114.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. What Are the Opportunity Costs of Self-Financing Medical Education? Acad Med. 2017 12; 92(12):1655. Nguyen OK, Makam AN. PMID: 29210740.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    27. Roadmap for improving the accuracy of respiratory rate measurements. BMJ Qual Saf. 2018 08; 27(8):e5. Keshvani N, Berger K, Nguyen OK, Makam AN. PMID: 29122976.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Is everyone really breathing 20 times a minute? Assessing epidemiology and variation in recorded respiratory rate in hospitalised adults. BMJ Qual Saf. 2017 Oct; 26(10):832-836. Badawy J, Nguyen OK, Clark C, Halm EA, Makam AN. PMID: 28652259.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Incidence, Predictors, and Outcomes of Hospital-Acquired Anemia. J Hosp Med. 2017 05; 12(5):317-322. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Clark C, Halm EA. PMID: 28459899.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. Predicting 30-Day Pneumonia Readmissions Using Electronic Health Record Data. J Hosp Med. 2017 04; 12(4):209-216. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Clark C, Zhang S, Xie B, Weinreich M, Mortensen EM, Halm EA. PMID: 28411288.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. An Evidence-Based Medicine Approach to Antihyperglycemic Therapy in Diabetes Mellitus to Overcome Overtreatment. Circulation. 2017 Jan 10; 135(2):180-195. Makam AN, Nguyen OK. PMID: 28069712.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    32. Predicting the Risk of Readmission in Pneumonia. A Systematic Review of Model Performance. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 09; 13(9):1607-14. Weinreich M, Nguyen OK, Wang D, Mayo H, Mortensen EM, Halm EA, Makam AN. PMID: 27299853.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. Vital Signs Are Still Vital: Instability on Discharge and the Risk of Post-Discharge Adverse Outcomes. J Gen Intern Med. 2017 01; 32(1):42-48. Nguyen OK, Makam AN, Clark C, Zhang S, Xie B, Velasco F, Amarasingham R, Halm EA. PMID: 27503438.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Further Limitations of the HOSPITAL Score in US Hospitals. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 08 01; 176(8):1232-3. Nguyen OK, Halm EA, Makam AN. PMID: 27479675.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    35. Clinical Criteria to Identify Patients With Sepsis. JAMA. 2016 Jul 26; 316(4):453. Makam AN, Nguyen OK. PMID: 27458952.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. National Use of Safety-Net Clinics for Primary Care among Adults with Non-Medicaid Insurance in the United States. PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0151610. Nguyen OK, Makam AN, Halm EA. PMID: 27027617.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Relationship between hospital financial performance and publicly reported outcomes. J Hosp Med. 2016 07; 11(7):481-8. Nguyen OK, Halm EA, Makam AN. PMID: 26929094.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Predicting all-cause readmissions using electronic health record data from the entire hospitalization: Model development and comparison. J Hosp Med. 2016 07; 11(7):473-80. Nguyen OK, Makam AN, Clark C, Zhang S, Xie B, Velasco F, Amarasingham R, Halm EA. PMID: 26929062.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    39. Trends in Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Use in Texas from 2002-2011. Ann Gerontol Geriatr Res. 2015; 2(3). Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Zhou J, Ottenbacher KJ, Halm EA. PMID: 26702452.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    40. The Diagnostic Cascade of Incidental Findings: A Teachable Moment. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Jul; 175(7):1089-90. Nguyen LT, Sullivan CT, Makam AN. PMID: 25938592.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Response to Einhorn and colleagues. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 May; 63(5):1047-8. Makam AN, Steinman MA. PMID: 25989580.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    42. Diagnostic accuracy and effectiveness of automated electronic sepsis alert systems: A systematic review. J Hosp Med. 2015 Jun; 10(6):396-402. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Auerbach AD. PMID: 25758641.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    43. Use of cardiac biomarker testing in the emergency department. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Jan; 175(1):67-75. Makam AN, Nguyen OK. PMID: 25401720.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. Envisioning a social-health information exchange as a platform to support a patient-centered medical neighborhood: a feasibility study. J Gen Intern Med. 2015 Jan; 30(1):60-7. Nguyen OK, Chan CV, Makam A, Stieglitz H, Amarasingham R. PMID: 25092009.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Risk of thiazide-induced metabolic adverse events in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Jun; 62(6):1039-45. Makam AN, Boscardin WJ, Miao Y, Steinman MA. PMID: 24823661.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. Blood culture use in the emergency department in patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 May; 174(5):803-6. Makam AN, Auerbach AD, Steinman MA. PMID: 24614986.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Blood culture use in the emergency department in patients hospitalized with respiratory symptoms due to a nonpneumonia illness. J Hosp Med. 2014 Aug; 9(8):521-4. Makam AN, Auerbach AD, Steinman MA. PMID: 24753399.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    48. Factors associated with primary vein graft occlusion in a multicenter trial with mandated ultrasound surveillance. J Vasc Surg. 2014 Apr; 59(4):996-1002. Oresanya L, Makam AN, Belkin M, Moneta GL, Conte MS. PMID: 24361199.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. The good, the bad and the early adopters: providers' attitudes about a common, commercial EHR. J Eval Clin Pract. 2014 Feb; 20(1):36-42. Makam AN, Lanham HJ, Batchelor K, Moran B, Howell-Stampley T, Kirk L, Cherukuri M, Samal L, Santini N, Leykum LK, Halm EA. PMID: 23962319.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    50. Use and satisfaction with key functions of a common commercial electronic health record: a survey of primary care providers. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2013 Aug 09; 13:86. Makam AN, Lanham HJ, Batchelor K, Samal L, Moran B, Howell-Stampley T, Kirk L, Cherukuri M, Santini N, Leykum LK, Halm EA. PMID: 24070335.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    51. Identifying patients with diabetes and the earliest date of diagnosis in real time: an electronic health record case-finding algorithm. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2013 Aug 01; 13:81. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Moore B, Ma Y, Amarasingham R. PMID: 23915139.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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