Melissa Conrad, PhD

Title(s)Assistant Professor, Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address1001 Potrero Ave, #3400
San Francisco CA 94110
Phone628-206-8846
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-9984-8030 Additional info
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    New York University School of Medicine, New York, NYPhD2012Biomedical Sciences
    New York University, New York, NYMS2007General Biology
    Georgetown University, Washington, DCBS2002Biology
    University of California, San Francisco, CA2021Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Champion Training

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    My research focuses on the evolution of antimalarial drug resistance in Uganda and the molecular epidemiology of malaria transmission. Working closely with a team of researchers in Uganda, our group evaluates antimalarial resistance in Plasmodium falciparum collected from sites across Uganda. Using molecular and ex vivo approaches, we surveil for emerging or spreading drug resistance, evaluate novel markers of resistance and seek to better understand mechanisms of resistance. In addition, we perform membrane feeding assays in which mosquitoes are fed malaria-infected blood with the goal of better understanding the human infectious reservoir of malaria and which populations can be targeted to best reduce ongoing malaria transmission.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    The impact of antimalarials and insecticide resistance on malaria transmission in Uganda
    NIH K01TW010868Sep 21, 2018 - Mar 31, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Susceptibility of Ugandan Plasmodium falciparum Isolates to the Antimalarial Drug Pipeline. Microbiol Spectr. 2023 May 09; e0523622. Kreutzfeld O, Tumwebaze PK, Okitwi M, Orena S, Byaruhanga O, Katairo T, Conrad MD, Rasmussen SA, Legac J, Aydemir O, Giesbrecht D, Forte B, Campbell P, Smith A, Kano H, Nsobya SL, Blasco B, Duffey M, Bailey JA, Cooper RA, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 37158739.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    2. Decreased susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to both dihydroartemisinin and lumefantrine in northern Uganda. Nat Commun. 2022 Oct 26; 13(1):6353. Tumwebaze PK, Conrad MD, Okitwi M, Orena S, Byaruhanga O, Katairo T, Legac J, Garg S, Giesbrecht D, Smith SR, Ceja FG, Nsobya SL, Bailey JA, Cooper RA, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 36289202; PMCID: PMC9605985.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    3. East Africa International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research: Summary of Key Research Findings. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2022 Oct 11; 107(4_Suppl):21-32. Nankabirwa NJ, Rek RJ, Arinaitwe AE, Namuganga NJ, Nsobya NS, Asua AV, Mawejje MH, Epstein EA, Greenhouse GB, Rodriguez-Barraquer RI, Briggs BJ, Krezanoski KP, Rosenthal RP, Conrad CM, Smith SD, Staedke SS, Drakeley DC, Bousema BT, Andolina AC, Donnelly DM, Kamya KM, Dorsey DG. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    4. Susceptibilities of Ugandan Plasmodium falciparum Isolates to Proteasome Inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2022 10 18; 66(10):e0081722. Garg S, Kreutzfeld O, Chelebieva S, Tumwebaze PK, Byaruhanga O, Okitwi M, Orena S, Katairo T, Nsobya SL, Conrad MD, Aydemir O, Legac J, Gould AE, Bayles BR, Bailey JA, Duffey M, Lin G, Kirkman LA, Cooper RA, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 36094216; PMCID: PMC9578402.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    5. Asymptomatic School-Aged Children Are Important Drivers of Malaria Transmission in a High Endemicity Setting in Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2022 09 04; 226(4):708-713. Rek J, Blanken SL, Okoth J, Ayo D, Onyige I, Musasizi E, Ramjith J, Andolina C, Lanke K, Arinaitwe E, Olwoch P, Collins KA, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Drakeley C, Staedke SG, Bousema T, Conrad MD. PMID: 35578987; PMCID: PMC9441202.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    6. Impact of Short-Term Storage on Ex Vivo Antimalarial Susceptibilities of Fresh Ugandan Plasmodium falciparum Isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2022 04 19; 66(4):e0143721. Okitwi M, Orena S, Thomas K, Tumwebaze PK, Byaruhanga O, Nsobya SL, Conrad MD, Bayles BR, Rosenthal PJ, Cooper RA. PMID: 35266828; PMCID: PMC9017344.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    7. House design and risk of malaria, acute respiratory infection and gastrointestinal illness in Uganda: A cohort study. PLOS Glob Public Health. 2022; 2(3):e0000063. Musiime AK, Krezanoski PJ, Smith DL, Kilama M, Conrad MD, Otto G, Kyagamba P, Asiimwe J, Rek J, Nankabirwa JI, Arinaitwe E, Akol AM, Kamya MR, Staedke SG, Drakeley C, Bousema T, Lindsay SW, Dorsey G, Tusting LS. PMID: 36962263; PMCID: PMC10022195.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    8. Decreased Susceptibility to Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors Associated With Genetic Polymorphisms in Ugandan Plasmodium falciparum Isolates. J Infect Dis. 2022 02 15; 225(4):696-704. Kreutzfeld O, Tumwebaze PK, Byaruhanga O, Katairo T, Okitwi M, Orena S, Rasmussen SA, Legac J, Conrad MD, Nsobya SL, Aydemir O, Bailey JA, Duffey M, Cooper RA, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 34460932; PMCID: PMC8844592.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    9. Associations between Varied Susceptibilities to PfATP4 Inhibitors and Genotypes in Ugandan Plasmodium falciparum Isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 09 17; 65(10):e0077121. Kreutzfeld O, Rasmussen SA, Ramanathan AA, Tumwebaze PK, Byaruhanga O, Katairo T, Asua V, Okitwi M, Orena S, Legac J, Conrad MD, Nsobya SL, Aydemir O, Bailey J, Duffey M, Bayles BR, Vaidya AB, Cooper RA, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 34339273; PMCID: PMC8448140.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    10. Balanced impacts of fitness and drug pressure on the evolution of PfMDR1 polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum. Malar J. 2021 Jun 30; 20(1):292. Duvalsaint M, Conrad MD, Tukwasibwe S, Tumwebaze PK, Legac J, Cooper RA, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 34193148; PMCID: PMC8247092.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    11. Drug susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum in eastern Uganda: a longitudinal phenotypic and genotypic study. Lancet Microbe. 2021 09; 2(9):e441-e449. Tumwebaze PK, Katairo T, Okitwi M, Byaruhanga O, Orena S, Asua V, Duvalsaint M, Legac J, Chelebieva S, Ceja FG, Rasmussen SA, Conrad MD, Nsobya SL, Aydemir O, Bailey JA, Bayles BR, Rosenthal PJ, Cooper RA. PMID: 34553183; PMCID: PMC8454895.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    12. Changing Prevalence of Potential Mediators of Aminoquinoline, Antifolate, and Artemisinin Resistance Across Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2021 03 29; 223(6):985-994. Asua V, Conrad MD, Aydemir O, Duvalsaint M, Legac J, Duarte E, Tumwebaze P, Chin DM, Cooper RA, Yeka A, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Nsobya SL, Bailey J, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 33146722; PMCID: PMC8006419.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    13. Deletions of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes were uncommon in rapid diagnostic test-negative Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Uganda. Malar J. 2021 Jan 02; 20(1):4. Nsobya SL, Walakira A, Namirembe E, Kiggundu M, Nankabirwa JI, Ruhamyankaka E, Arinaitwe E, Conrad MD, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 33386076; PMCID: PMC7777526.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    14. Associations between Malaria-Preventive Regimens and Plasmodium falciparum Drug Resistance-Mediating Polymorphisms in Ugandan Pregnant Women. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 11 17; 64(12). Nayebare P, Asua V, Conrad MD, Kajubi R, Kakuru A, Nankabirwa JI, Muhanguzi D, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Nsobya S, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 33020152; PMCID: PMC7674052.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    15. Identification and characterization of immature Anopheles and culicines (Diptera: Culicidae) at three sites of varying malaria transmission intensities in Uganda. Malar J. 2020 Jun 23; 19(1):221. Musiime AK, Smith DL, Kilama M, Geoffrey O, Kyagamba P, Rek J, Conrad MD, Nankabirwa JI, Arinaitwe E, Akol AM, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Staedke SG, Drakeley C, Lindsay SW. PMID: 32576188; PMCID: PMC7313098.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    16. Impact of vector control interventions on malaria transmission intensity, outdoor vector biting rates and Anopheles mosquito species composition in Tororo, Uganda. Malar J. 2019 Dec 27; 18(1):445. Musiime AK, Smith DL, Kilama M, Rek J, Arinaitwe E, Nankabirwa JI, Kamya MR, Conrad MD, Dorsey G, Akol AM, Staedke SG, Lindsay SW, Egonyu JP. PMID: 31881898; PMCID: PMC6935116.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    17. The Diversity of the Plasmodium falciparum K13 Propeller Domain Did Not Increase after Implementation of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy in Uganda. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 10; 63(10). Conrad MD, Nsobya SL, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 31358588; PMCID: PMC6761569.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    18. Antimalarial drug resistance in Africa: the calm before the storm? Lancet Infect Dis. 2019 10; 19(10):e338-e351. Conrad MD, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 31375467.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 82     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    19. Changing Molecular Markers of Antimalarial Drug Sensitivity across Uganda. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 03; 63(3). Asua V, Vinden J, Conrad MD, Legac J, Kigozi SP, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Nsobya SL, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 30559133; PMCID: PMC6395896.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    20. Modeling Prevention of Malaria and Selection of Drug Resistance with Different Dosing Schedules of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Preventive Therapy during Pregnancy in Uganda. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 02; 63(2). Wallender E, Zhang N, Conrad M, Kakuru A, Muhindo M, Tumwebaze P, Kajubi R, Mota D, Legac J, Jagannathan P, Havlir D, Kamya M, Dorsey G, Aweeka F, Rosenthal PJ, Savic RM. PMID: 30530597; PMCID: PMC6355581.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Changing Antimalarial Drug Sensitivities in Uganda. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 12; 61(12). Rasmussen SA, Ceja FG, Conrad MD, Tumwebaze PK, Byaruhanga O, Katairo T, Nsobya SL, Rosenthal PJ, Cooper RA. PMID: 28923866; PMCID: PMC5700361.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCTClinical Trials
    22. Impact of Intermittent Preventive Treatment During Pregnancy on Plasmodium falciparum Drug Resistance-Mediating Polymorphisms in Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2017 11 15; 216(8):1008-1017. Conrad MD, Mota D, Foster M, Tukwasibwe S, Legac J, Tumwebaze P, Whalen M, Kakuru A, Nayebare P, Wallender E, Havlir DV, Jagannathan P, Huang L, Aweeka F, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 28968782; PMCID: PMC5853776.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    23. Comparative Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Resistance-Associated Genetic Polymorphisms in Parasites Infecting Humans and Mosquitoes in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Nov; 97(5):1576-1580. Conrad MD, Mota D, Musiime A, Kilama M, Rek J, Kamya M, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 29016309; PMCID: PMC5817777.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    24. Artemether-Lumefantrine and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Exert Inverse Selective Pressure on Plasmodium Falciparum Drug Sensitivity-Associated Haplotypes in Uganda. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017; 4(1):ofw229. Taylor AR, Flegg JA, Holmes CC, Guérin PJ, Sibley CH, Conrad MD, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 28480232; PMCID: PMC5413987.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19  
    25. Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine in Ugandan Schoolchildren Selects for Plasmodium falciparum Transporter Polymorphisms That Modify Drug Sensitivity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 10; 60(10):5649-54. Nankabirwa JI, Conrad MD, Legac J, Tukwasibwe S, Tumwebaze P, Wandera B, Brooker SJ, Staedke SG, Kamya MR, Nsobya SL, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 27401569; PMCID: PMC5038325.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    26. Artesunate/Amodiaquine Versus Artemether/Lumefantrine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Uganda: A Randomized Trial. J Infect Dis. 2016 Apr 01; 213(7):1134-42. Yeka A, Kigozi R, Conrad MD, Lugemwa M, Okui P, Katureebe C, Belay K, Kapella BK, Chang MA, Kamya MR, Staedke SG, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 26597254; PMCID: PMC4836737.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 49     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Lack of Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Uganda Based on Parasitological and Molecular Assays. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Aug; 59(8):5061-4. Cooper RA, Conrad MD, Watson QD, Huezo SJ, Ninsiima H, Tumwebaze P, Nsobya SL, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 26033725; PMCID: PMC4505276.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    28. Impact of antimalarial treatment and chemoprevention on the drug sensitivity of malaria parasites isolated from ugandan children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015; 59(6):3018-30. Tumwebaze P, Conrad MD, Walakira A, LeClair N, Byaruhanga O, Nakazibwe C, Kozak B, Bloome J, Okiring J, Kakuru A, Bigira V, Kapisi J, Legac J, Gut J, Cooper RA, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Dorsey G, Greenhouse B, Nsobya SL, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 25753626; PMCID: PMC4432194.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    29. Absence of putative artemisinin resistance mutations among Plasmodium falciparum in Sub-Saharan Africa: a molecular epidemiologic study. J Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 01; 211(5):680-8. Taylor SM, Parobek CM, DeConti DK, Kayentao K, Coulibaly SO, Greenwood BM, Tagbor H, Williams J, Bojang K, Njie F, Desai M, Kariuki S, Gutman J, Mathanga DP, Mårtensson A, Ngasala B, Conrad MD, Rosenthal PJ, Tshefu AK, Moormann AM, Vulule JM, Doumbo OK, Ter Kuile FO, Meshnick SR, Bailey JA, Juliano JJ. PMID: 25180240; PMCID: PMC4402372.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 180     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    30. Polymorphisms in K13 and falcipain-2 associated with artemisinin resistance are not prevalent in Plasmodium falciparum isolated from Ugandan children. PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e105690. Conrad MD, Bigira V, Kapisi J, Muhindo M, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 25144768; PMCID: PMC4140830.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 78     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsCTClinical Trials
    31. Temporal changes in prevalence of molecular markers mediating antimalarial drug resistance in a high malaria transmission setting in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Jul; 91(1):54-61. Mbogo GW, Nankoberanyi S, Tukwasibwe S, Baliraine FN, Nsobya SL, Conrad MD, Arinaitwe E, Kamya M, Tappero J, Staedke SG, Dorsey G, Greenhouse B, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 24799371; PMCID: PMC4080569.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    32. Validation of the ligase detection reaction fluorescent microsphere assay for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum resistance mediating polymorphisms in Uganda. Malar J. 2014 Mar 14; 13:95. Nankoberanyi S, Mbogo GW, LeClair NP, Conrad MD, Tumwebaze P, Tukwasibwe S, Kamya MR, Tappero J, Nsobya SL, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 24629020; PMCID: PMC4004386.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    33. Comparative impacts over 5 years of artemisinin-based combination therapies on Plasmodium falciparum polymorphisms that modulate drug sensitivity in Ugandan children. J Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 01; 210(3):344-53. Conrad MD, LeClair N, Arinaitwe E, Wanzira H, Kakuru A, Bigira V, Muhindo M, Kamya MR, Tappero JW, Greenhouse B, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 24610872; PMCID: PMC4110461.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 72     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    34. Optimization of a ligase detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere assay for characterization of resistance-mediating polymorphisms in African samples of Plasmodium falciparum. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Aug; 51(8):2564-70. LeClair NP, Conrad MD, Baliraine FN, Nsanzabana C, Nsobya SL, Rosenthal PJ. PMID: 23720790; PMCID: PMC3719660.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    35. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis reinfection in HIV-positive women. Sex Transm Infect. 2013 Sep; 89(6):473-8. Conrad MD, Kissinger P, Schmidt N, Martin DH, Carlton JM. PMID: 23694936; PMCID: PMC3755760.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    36. Getting trichy: tools and approaches to interrogating Trichomonas vaginalis in a post-genome world. Trends Parasitol. 2013 Jan; 29(1):17-25. Conrad MD, Bradic M, Warring SD, Gorman AW, Carlton JM. PMID: 23219217; PMCID: PMC3534864.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    37. Extensive genetic diversity, unique population structure and evidence of genetic exchange in the sexually transmitted parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012; 6(3):e1573. Conrad MD, Gorman AW, Schillinger JA, Fiori PL, Arroyo R, Malla N, Dubey ML, Gonzalez J, Blank S, Secor WE, Carlton JM. PMID: 22479659; PMCID: PMC3313929.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 39     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    38. P4-S3.09 The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV) in globally distributed Trichomonas vaginalis isolates. Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2011 Jul 1; 87(Suppl 1):a315. Lezeau LL, Conrad CM, Gorman GA, Carlton CJ. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    39. P4-S3.07 Population genomics of Trichomonas vaginalis reveals a globally distributed two-phylotype population structure. Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2011 Jul 1; 87(Suppl 1):a314. Conrad CM, Gorman GA, Schilinger SJ, Sullivan SS, Upcroft UJ, Gonzalez GJ, Fiori FP, Arroyo AR, Ravel RJ, Secor SW, Carlton CJ. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
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