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Michael Callaham, MD

Title(s)Professor Emeritus, Emergency Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address533 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-353-1238
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0003-2284-256X Additional info
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)Chair, Emergency Medicine


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San Francisco Clinical Fellowship School of Medicine
    University of California, San FranciscoM.D.1970 Medicine
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    National Academy of Science2008elected, Institute of Medicine

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Major leadership:
    Includes past President of World Association of Medical Editors
    Current Editor in Chief, Annals of Emergency Medicine
    Founding Chair, Department of Emergency Medicine, UCSF

    For the first part of my career my research interests included various types of clinical research including pre-hospital controlled trials on topics such as epinephrine dosing and mechanical aids in CPR and ACLS. In recent years I have begun to feel that the traditional RCT approach is too narrowly focused and will never keep up, much less catch up, with the vast majority of medical problems whose treatment is not evidence based, or whose evidence is out of date.

    Because of my editorial and publishing experience, as well as my experiences as an organizer of a number of International Peer Review Congresses (Jama and BMJ), my research interests now have turned to trying to better understand the scientific peer review publication process through research into methods of educating peer reviewers, as well as research into bias and its impact on scientific publication. I am still engaged in this area of research because no effective interventions for improving peer review have yet been identified (contrary to the beliefs of many), and the workings (and thus the remediation) of bias due to conflict of interest are unexplored terrain - at least, unexplored by physicians. My most current research interest focuses on the impact of disclosure of conflicts of interest.

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    1. In reply. Ann Emerg Med. 2020 04; 75(4):555-556. Callaham ML. PMID: 32216892.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Gender Bias and Peer Review: Annals Seeks Greater Diversity. Ann Emerg Med. 2019 12; 74(6):736-739. Callaham M. PMID: 31779950.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    3. Effect of revealing authors' conflicts of interests in peer review: randomized controlled trial. BMJ. 2019 11 06; 367:l5896. John LK, Loewenstein G, Marder A, Callaham ML. PMID: 31694810.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. Industry payments to physician journal editors. PLoS One. 2019; 14(2):e0211495. Wong VSS, Avalos LN, Callaham ML. PMID: 30730904.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    5. In reply. Ann Emerg Med. 2018 06; 71(6):799-800. Callaham ML. PMID: 29776507.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    6. What Does It Take to Change an Editor's Mind? Identifying Minimally Important Difference Thresholds for Peer Reviewer Rating Scores of Scientific Articles. Ann Emerg Med. 2018 09; 72(3):314-318.e2. Callaham M, John LK. PMID: 29310871.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. Editor in Chief Overview: A Controversy About Freestanding Emergency Departments. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 12; 70(6):843-845. Callaham ML. PMID: 28935281.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    8. Comparing Freestanding Emergency Departments, Hospital-Based Emergency Departments, and Urgent Care in Texas: Apples, Oranges, or Lemons? Ann Emerg Med. 2017 12; 70(6):858-861. Schuur JD, Yealy DM, Callaham ML. PMID: 28935277.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    9. The Prudent Layperson's Complicated and Uncertain Road to Urgent Care. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 12; 70(6):871-874. Callaham ML. PMID: 28935282.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. In reply. Ann Emerg Med. 2015 Jul; 66(1):91. Callaham ML. PMID: 26097030.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    11. Evidence in support of a back-to-basics approach in out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation vs "advanced" treatment. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Feb; 175(2):205-6. Callaham M. PMID: 25420113.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Expert opinion: supplementing the gaps in evidence-based medicine. Ann Emerg Med. 2015 Jan; 65(1):61-2. Callaham ML. PMID: 25529154.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Annals of Emergency Medicine Journal Club. Measuring and explaining computed tomography use in the United States and Canada: a consideration of health economics and use versus appropriateness, and interpreting potential conflict of interest: answers to the November 2013 Journal Club questions. Ann Emerg Med. 2014 Apr; 63(4):479-89. Schriger DL, Callaham ML, Barrett TW. PMID: 24655448.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Measuring and explaining computed tomography use in the United States and Canada: a consideration of health economics, use versus appropriateness, and interpreting potential conflict of interest: November 2013 Annals of Emergency Medicine Journal Club. Ann Emerg Med. 2013 Nov; 62(5):545-546. Schriger DL, Callaham ML, Barrett TW. PMID: 24161113.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. Does mentoring new peer reviewers improve review quality? A randomized trial. BMC Med Educ. 2012 Aug 28; 12:83. Houry D, Green S, Callaham M. PMID: 22928960.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. Medical journal editors lacked familiarity with scientific publication issues despite training and regular exposure. J Clin Epidemiol. 2012 Mar; 65(3):247-52. Wong VS, Callaham ML. PMID: 22071342.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Perceptions of conflict of interest disclosures among peer reviewers. PLoS One. 2011; 6(11):e26900. Lippert S, Callaham ML, Lo B. PMID: 22073216.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Journal performance report for 2010. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Sep; 58(3):223-4. Callaham ML. PMID: 21871231.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    19. Procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department: recommendations for physician credentialing, privileging, and practice. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Oct; 58(4):365-70. O'Connor RE, Sama A, Burton JH, Callaham ML, House HR, Jaquis WP, Tibbles PM, Bromley M, Green SM. PMID: 21802778.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. HIV screening in emergency departments. Editors' introduction. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Jul; 58(1 Suppl 1):S2. Moran GJ, Callaham ML. PMID: 21684402.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    21. A survey of past participants in the Annals of Emergency Medicine editorial board fellowship program. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Feb; 57(2):161-4. Reynolds TA, Callaham M. PMID: 21251523.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    22. Annals of Emergency Medicine. Longitudinal trends in the performance of scientific peer reviewers. 2011. Callaham, M and McCulloch, C.
    23. Longitudinal trends in the performance of scientific peer reviewers. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Feb; 57(2):141-8. Callaham M, McCulloch C. PMID: 21074894.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    
    24. Implementation of a journal peer reviewer stratification system based on quality and reliability. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Feb; 57(2):149-152.e4. Green SM, Callaham ML. PMID: 20947204.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    
    25. Journal performance report for 2009. Ann Emerg Med. 2010 Sep; 56(3):A25-6. Callaham ML. PMID: 20728768.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    26. Testing new ideas: is a picture worth a thousand words? Ann Emerg Med. 2009 Sep; 54(3):337-8. Yealy DM, Callaham ML. PMID: 19695416.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Are the uninsured responsible for the increase in emergency department visits in the United States? Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Aug; 52(2):108-15. Weber EJ, Showstack JA, Hunt KA, Colby DC, Grimes B, Bacchetti P, Callaham ML. PMID: 18407374.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. World Association of Medical Editors: support of the Croatian Medical Journal's editorial independence. Croat Med J. 2008 Feb; 49(1):100. Callaham M, Sahne P, Winker M, Overbeke J, Habibzadeh F, Ferris L. PMID: 18293465.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Training of peer reviewers: validation of a 5-point rating scale. PLoS Med. 2007 Apr; 4(4):e166. Callaham M. PMID: 17456001.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. The relationship of previous training and experience of journal peer reviewers to subsequent review quality. PLoS Med. 2007 Jan; 4(1):e40. Callaham ML, Tercier J. PMID: 17411314.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. A normative model of peer review: qualitative assessment of manuscript reviewers’ attitudes towards peer review. 2007. Tercier, John, & Callaham, Michael L.(2007).View Publication.
    32. Peer Review: Consensus and Contradiction, a Qualitative Approach. 2007. Tercier, John, & Callaham, Michael L.View Publication.
    33. Characteristics of frequent users of emergency departments. Ann Emerg Med. 2006 Jul; 48(1):1-8. Hunt KA, Weber EJ, Showstack JA, Colby DC, Callaham ML. PMID: 16781914.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 115     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Journal updates for 2005. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Jan; 45(1):2-3. Callaham ML. PMID: 15635298.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    35. Does lack of a usual source of care or health insurance increase the likelihood of an emergency department visit? Results of a national population-based study. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Jan; 45(1):4-12. Weber EJ, Showstack JA, Hunt KA, Colby DC, Callaham ML. PMID: 15635299.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. Journal policy on ethics in scientific publication. Ann Emerg Med. 2003 Jan; 41(1):82-9. Callaham ML. PMID: 12514687.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. A prospective multicenter study of factors associated with hospital admission among adults with acute asthma. Am J Med. 2002 Oct 01; 113(5):371-8. Weber EJ, Silverman RA, Callaham ML, Pollack CV, Woodruff PG, Clark S, Camargo CA. PMID: 12401531.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Research into peer review and scientific publication: journals look in the mirror. Ann Emerg Med. 2002 Sep; 40(3):313-6. Callaham ML. PMID: 12192356.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    39. Effect of structured workshop training on subsequent performance of journal peer reviewers. Ann Emerg Med. 2002 Sep; 40(3):323-8. Callaham ML, Schriger DL. PMID: 12192358.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    40. Suturing versus conservative management of lacerations of the hand: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2002 Aug 10; 325(7359):299. Quinn J, Cummings S, Callaham M, Sellers K. PMID: 12169503.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    41. Effect of written feedback by editors on quality of reviews: two randomized trials. JAMA. 2002 Jun 05; 287(21):2781-3. Callaham ML, Knopp RK, Gallagher EJ. PMID: 12038910.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    42. Author perception of peer review: impact of review quality and acceptance on satisfaction. JAMA. 2002 Jun 05; 287(21):2790-3. Weber EJ, Katz PP, Waeckerle JF, Callaham ML. PMID: 12038913.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    
    43. Journal prestige, publication bias, and other characteristics associated with citation of published studies in peer-reviewed journals. JAMA. 2002 Jun 05; 287(21):2847-50. Callaham M, Wears RL, Weber E. PMID: 12038930.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 84     Fields:    
    44. Deciphering the authorship code. Ann Emerg Med. 2001 Apr; 37(4):386-8. Callaham ML, Waeckerle JF. PMID: 11275829.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Ability of laypersons to estimate short time intervals in cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med. 2000 Feb; 35(2):147-54. Isaacs E, Callaham ML. PMID: 10650232.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. Who reviews the reviewers? Feasibility of using a fictitious manuscript to evaluate peer reviewer performance. Ann Emerg Med. 1998 Sep; 32(3 Pt 1):310-7. Baxt WG, Waeckerle JF, Berlin JA, Callaham ML. PMID: 9737492.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Effect of attendance at a training session on peer reviewer quality and performance. Ann Emerg Med. 1998 Sep; 32(3 Pt 1):318-22. Callaham ML, Wears RL, Waeckerle JF. PMID: 9737493.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    48. Masking author identity in peer review: what factors influence masking success? PEER Investigators. JAMA. 1998 Jul 15; 280(3):243-5. Cho MK, Justice AC, Winker MA, Berlin JA, Waeckerle JF, Callaham ML, Rennie D. PMID: 9676669.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    
    49. Unpublished research from a medical specialty meeting: why investigators fail to publish. JAMA. 1998 Jul 15; 280(3):257-9. Weber EJ, Callaham ML, Wears RL, Barton C, Young G. PMID: 9676674.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    
    50. Reliability of editors' subjective quality ratings of peer reviews of manuscripts. JAMA. 1998 Jul 15; 280(3):229-31. Callaham ML, Baxt WG, Waeckerle JF, Wears RL. PMID: 9676664.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    
    51. Positive-outcome bias and other limitations in the outcome of research abstracts submitted to a scientific meeting. JAMA. 1998 Jul 15; 280(3):254-7. Callaham ML, Wears RL, Weber EJ, Barton C, Young G. PMID: 9676673.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    
    52. Time to publication of studies was not affected by whether results were positive. BMJ. 1998 May 16; 316(7143):1536. Callaham ML, Weber E, Young G, Wears R, Barton C. PMID: 9582160.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    53. State of the Journal. Ann Emerg Med. 1998 Jan; 31(1):1-2. Waeckerle JF, Callaham ML, Levene M. PMID: 28140005.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    54. Medical journals and the science of peer review: raising the standard. Ann Emerg Med. 1996 Jul; 28(1):75-7. Callaham ML, Waeckerle JF. PMID: 8669742.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    55. A randomized clinical trial of active compression-decompression CPR vs standard CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in two cities. JAMA. 1995 Apr 26; 273(16):1261-8. Schwab TM, Callaham ML, Madsen CD, Utecht TA. PMID: 7715038.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    56. Evaluation of active compression-decompression CPR in victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA. 1994 May 11; 271(18):1405-11. Lurie KG, Shultz JJ, Callaham ML, Schwab TM, Gisch T, Rector T, Frascone RJ, Long L. PMID: 8176802.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
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