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Michael Callaham, MD

Title(s)Professor Emeritus, Emergency Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Phone415-353-1885
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0003-2284-256X Additional info
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)Chair, Emergency Medicine


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San Francisco Clinical Fellowship School of Medicine
    University of California, San FranciscoM.D.1970 Medicine
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    National Academy of Science2008elected, Institute of Medicine

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Major leadership:
    Includes past President of World Association of Medical Editors
    Current Editor in Chief, Annals of Emergency Medicine
    Founding Chair, Department of Emergency Medicine, UCSF

    For the first part of my career my research interests included various types of clinical research including pre-hospital controlled trials on topics such as epinephrine dosing and mechanical aids in CPR and ACLS. In recent years I have begun to feel that the traditional RCT approach is too narrowly focused and will never keep up, much less catch up, with the vast majority of medical problems whose treatment is not evidence based, or whose evidence is out of date.

    Because of my editorial and publishing experience, as well as my experiences as an organizer of a number of International Peer Review Congresses (Jama and BMJ), my research interests now have turned to trying to better understand the scientific peer review publication process through research into methods of educating peer reviewers, as well as research into bias and its impact on scientific publication. I am still engaged in this area of research because no effective interventions for improving peer review have yet been identified (contrary to the beliefs of many), and the workings (and thus the remediation) of bias due to conflict of interest are unexplored terrain - at least, unexplored by physicians. My most current research interest focuses on the impact of disclosure of conflicts of interest.

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Callaham M. Gender Bias and Peer Review: Annals Seeks Greater Diversity. Ann Emerg Med. 2019 Dec; 74(6):736-739. PMID: 31779950.
      View in: PubMed
    2. John LK, Loewenstein G, Marder A, Callaham ML. Effect of revealing authors' conflicts of interests in peer review: randomized controlled trial. BMJ. 2019 11 06; 367:l5896. PMID: 31694810.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Wong VSS, Avalos LN, Callaham ML. Industry payments to physician journal editors. PLoS One. 2019; 14(2):e0211495. PMID: 30730904.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Callaham ML. In reply. Ann Emerg Med. 2018 06; 71(6):799-800. PMID: 29776507.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Callaham M, John LK. What Does It Take to Change an Editor's Mind? Identifying Minimally Important Difference Thresholds for Peer Reviewer Rating Scores of Scientific Articles. Ann Emerg Med. 2018 09; 72(3):314-318.e2. PMID: 29310871.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Schuur JD, Yealy DM, Callaham ML. Comparing Freestanding Emergency Departments, Hospital-Based Emergency Departments, and Urgent Care in Texas: Apples, Oranges, or Lemons? Ann Emerg Med. 2017 12; 70(6):858-861. PMID: 28935277.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Callaham ML. Editor in Chief Overview: A Controversy About Freestanding Emergency Departments. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 12; 70(6):843-845. PMID: 28935281.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Callaham ML. The Prudent Layperson's Complicated and Uncertain Road to Urgent Care. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 12; 70(6):871-874. PMID: 28935282.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Callaham ML. In reply. Ann Emerg Med. 2015 Jul; 66(1):91. PMID: 26097030.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Callaham M. Evidence in support of a back-to-basics approach in out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation vs "advanced" treatment. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Feb; 175(2):205-6. PMID: 25420113.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Callaham ML. Expert opinion: supplementing the gaps in evidence-based medicine. Ann Emerg Med. 2015 Jan; 65(1):61-2. PMID: 25529154.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Schriger DL, Callaham ML, Barrett TW. Annals of Emergency Medicine Journal Club. Measuring and explaining computed tomography use in the United States and Canada: a consideration of health economics and use versus appropriateness, and interpreting potential conflict of interest: answers to the November 2013 Journal Club questions. Ann Emerg Med. 2014 Apr; 63(4):479-89. PMID: 24655448.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Schriger DL, Callaham ML, Barrett TW. Measuring and explaining computed tomography use in the United States and Canada: a consideration of health economics, use versus appropriateness, and interpreting potential conflict of interest: November 2013 Annals of Emergency Medicine Journal Club. Ann Emerg Med. 2013 Nov; 62(5):545-546. PMID: 24161113.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Houry D, Green S, Callaham M. Does mentoring new peer reviewers improve review quality? A randomized trial. BMC Med Educ. 2012 Aug 28; 12:83. PMID: 22928960.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Wong VS, Callaham ML. Medical journal editors lacked familiarity with scientific publication issues despite training and regular exposure. J Clin Epidemiol. 2012 Mar; 65(3):247-52. PMID: 22071342.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Lippert S, Callaham ML, Lo B. Perceptions of conflict of interest disclosures among peer reviewers. PLoS One. 2011; 6(11):e26900. PMID: 22073216.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Callaham ML. Journal performance report for 2010. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Sep; 58(3):223-4. PMID: 21871231.
      View in: PubMed
    18. O'Connor RE, Sama A, Burton JH, Callaham ML, House HR, Jaquis WP, Tibbles PM, Bromley M, Green SM. Procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department: recommendations for physician credentialing, privileging, and practice. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Oct; 58(4):365-70. PMID: 21802778.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Moran GJ, Callaham ML. HIV screening in emergency departments. Editors' introduction. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Jul; 58(1 Suppl 1):S2. PMID: 21684402.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Reynolds TA, Callaham M. A survey of past participants in the Annals of Emergency Medicine editorial board fellowship program. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Feb; 57(2):161-4. PMID: 21251523.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Callaham, M and McCulloch, C.Annals of Emergency Medicine. Longitudinal trends in the performance of scientific peer reviewers. 2011.
    22. Callaham M, McCulloch C. Longitudinal trends in the performance of scientific peer reviewers. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Feb; 57(2):141-8. PMID: 21074894.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Green SM, Callaham ML. Implementation of a journal peer reviewer stratification system based on quality and reliability. Ann Emerg Med. 2011 Feb; 57(2):149-152.e4. PMID: 20947204.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Callaham ML. Journal performance report for 2009. Ann Emerg Med. 2010 Sep; 56(3):A25-6. PMID: 20728768.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Yealy DM, Callaham ML. Testing new ideas: is a picture worth a thousand words? Ann Emerg Med. 2009 Sep; 54(3):337-8. PMID: 19695416.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Weber EJ, Showstack JA, Hunt KA, Colby DC, Grimes B, Bacchetti P, Callaham ML. Are the uninsured responsible for the increase in emergency department visits in the United States? Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Aug; 52(2):108-15. PMID: 18407374.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Callaham M, Sahne P, Winker M, Overbeke J, Habibzadeh F, Ferris L. World Association of Medical Editors: support of the Croatian Medical Journal's editorial independence. Croat Med J. 2008 Feb; 49(1):100. PMID: 18293465.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Callaham M. Training of peer reviewers: validation of a 5-point rating scale. PLoS Med. 2007 Apr; 4(4):e166. PMID: 17456001.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Callaham ML, Tercier J. The relationship of previous training and experience of journal peer reviewers to subsequent review quality. PLoS Med. 2007 Jan; 4(1):e40. PMID: 17411314.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Tercier, John, & Callaham, Michael L.(2007).A normative model of peer review: qualitative assessment of manuscript reviewers’ attitudes towards peer review. 2007.
    31. Tercier, John, & Callaham, Michael L.Peer Review: Consensus and Contradiction, a Qualitative Approach. 2007.
    32. Hunt KA, Weber EJ, Showstack JA, Colby DC, Callaham ML. Characteristics of frequent users of emergency departments. Ann Emerg Med. 2006 Jul; 48(1):1-8. PMID: 16781914.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Callaham ML. Journal updates for 2005. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Jan; 45(1):2-3. PMID: 15635298.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Weber EJ, Showstack JA, Hunt KA, Colby DC, Callaham ML. Does lack of a usual source of care or health insurance increase the likelihood of an emergency department visit? Results of a national population-based study. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Jan; 45(1):4-12. PMID: 15635299.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Callaham ML. Journal policy on ethics in scientific publication. Ann Emerg Med. 2003 Jan; 41(1):82-9. PMID: 12514687.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Weber EJ, Silverman RA, Callaham ML, Pollack CV, Woodruff PG, Clark S, Camargo CA. A prospective multicenter study of factors associated with hospital admission among adults with acute asthma. Am J Med. 2002 Oct 01; 113(5):371-8. PMID: 12401531.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Callaham ML. Research into peer review and scientific publication: journals look in the mirror. Ann Emerg Med. 2002 Sep; 40(3):313-6. PMID: 12192356.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Callaham ML, Schriger DL. Effect of structured workshop training on subsequent performance of journal peer reviewers. Ann Emerg Med. 2002 Sep; 40(3):323-8. PMID: 12192358.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Quinn J, Cummings S, Callaham M, Sellers K. Suturing versus conservative management of lacerations of the hand: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2002 Aug 10; 325(7359):299. PMID: 12169503.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Callaham ML, Knopp RK, Gallagher EJ. Effect of written feedback by editors on quality of reviews: two randomized trials. JAMA. 2002 Jun 05; 287(21):2781-3. PMID: 12038910.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Weber EJ, Katz PP, Waeckerle JF, Callaham ML. Author perception of peer review: impact of review quality and acceptance on satisfaction. JAMA. 2002 Jun 05; 287(21):2790-3. PMID: 12038913.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Callaham M, Wears RL, Weber E. Journal prestige, publication bias, and other characteristics associated with citation of published studies in peer-reviewed journals. JAMA. 2002 Jun 05; 287(21):2847-50. PMID: 12038930.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Waeckerle JF, Callaham ML, Levene M. State of the Journal. Ann Emerg Med. 1998 Jan; 31(1):1-2. PMID: 28140005.
      View in: PubMed