Susan Kools, RN, PhD, FAAN

Title(s)Professor Emeritus, Family Health Care Nursing
SchoolSchool of Nursing
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoPh.D.1993 Nursing
    University of California, San FranciscoM.S.1984 Nursing
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    University of California, San Francisco2012Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Award
    American Academy of Nursing2007Fellow

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    As a child and adolescent psychiatric nurse scientist, I have studied vulnerable adolescents for almost 30 years. I am an international expert in adolescence and qualitative research methods. The focus of my program of research is the mental health and development of adolescents. My aim is to promote a greater understanding of developmentally appropriate interventions and contexts for care for young people. I have primarily studied adolescents in foster care and its influence on health and well being. I have explored adolescent illness experiences, including pediatric hyperlipidemia, congenital heart disease, hospitalization in Hong Kong and China, and HIV prevention in Malawi, Africa.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    UVa MHIRT: Training Future Leaders to Address Global Rural Health Disparities
    NIH T37MD008659Sep 25, 2014 - May 31, 2021
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Improving Health and Development of Foster Adolescents
    NIH R01NR008243Sep 15, 2003 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Pregnant and abandoned: qualitative assessment of COVID-19 pandemic educational challenges faced by pregnant college students in Uganda. Gender and Education. 2023 Oct 26; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print):1-18. Nyakato NV, Kemigisha KE, Mugabi MF, Namatovu NS, Michielsen MK, Kools KS. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    2. A Focused Checklist for Constructing Equitable, Diverse, and Inclusive Simulation Experiences. Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 2022 Oct 1; 71:87-91. Craig CS, Whitlow WM, Quatrara QB, Kastello KJ, Ackard AR, Mitchell ME, Kools KS. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    3. Cultivating inclusive learning environments that foster nursing education program resiliency during the Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Professional Nursing. 2021 Sep 1; 37(5):942-947. Dowling DT, Metzger MM, Kools KS. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    4. "I'm not Gonna Die Because of an STD": Female African American Adolescents' Perspectives on how they Protected Themselves from Sexual Risks While in Foster Care. J Pediatr Nurs. 2021 Jan-Feb; 56:47-53. Ross C, Kools S, Sieving R. PMID: 33181373.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    5. “It was only me against the world.” Female African American Adolescents’ Perspectives on Their Sexual and Reproductive Health Learning and Experiences While in Foster Care: Implications for Positive Youth Development. Children and Youth Services Review. 2020 Nov 1; 118:105463. Ross RC, Kools KS, Laughon LK. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    6. Women's Land Rights and Maternal Healthcare in Southwestern Uganda: Exploring the Implications of Women's Decision-Making Regarding Sale and Use of Land on Access to Maternal Healthcare. Afr J Reprod Health. 2020 Mar; 24(1):62-80. Nyakato VN, Rwabukwali C, Kools S. PMID: 32358938.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. Living in Fear and Prioritizing Safety: Exploring Women's Lives After Traumatic Brain Injury From Intimate Partner Violence. Qual Health Res. 2018 09; 28(11):1708-1718. Ivany AS, Bullock L, Schminkey D, Wells K, Sharps P, Kools S. PMID: 30027811; PMCID: PMC6322924.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    8. Perceptions of sexual abstinence among Muslim adolescent girls in southern Thailand. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2018 Apr 30; 32(3). Piriyasart J, Songwathana P, Kools S. PMID: 29708881.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    
    9. Close Friendships and Mental Health of Korean American Adolescents: The Moderating Effect of Personality. Psychology. 2018 Jan 1; 09(01):101-113. Kim KM, Chen CJ, Kools KS, Weiss WS. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    10. Ecological Factors that Impact Adjustment Processes and Development of Ugandan Adolescent Immigrant Females. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2018 Jan 1; 27(1):34-46. Green GE, Chesla CK, Beyene BY, Kools KS. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    11. Reconnecting to Spirituality: Christian-Identified Adolescents and Emerging Adult Young Men's Journey from Diagnosis of HIV to Coping. J Relig Health. 2017 Feb; 56(1):188-204. Smith ST, Blanchard J, Kools S, Butler D. PMID: 27216031.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Interprofessional education in the clinical setting: A qualitative look at the preceptor's perspective in training advanced practice nursing students. Nurse Educ Pract. 2016 Nov; 21:29-36. Chen AK, Rivera J, Rotter N, Green E, Kools S. PMID: 27710811.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. "I Am Normal": Claiming Normalcy in Christian-Identified HIV-Infected Adolescent and Emerging Adult Males. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2016 Nov - Dec; 27(6):835-848. Smith ST, Dawson-Rose C, Blanchard J, Kools S, Butler D. PMID: 27301910.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Mental Health Problems among Korean American Adolescents. Psychology. 2016 Jan 1; 07(14):1872-1882. Kim KM, Chen CJ, Kools KS, Weiss WS. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    15. The Impact of Personality Traits and Acculturation on the Mental Health of Korean American Adolescents. Psychology. 2016 Jan 1; 07(09):1256-1265. Kim KM, Chen CJ, Kools KS, Weiss WS. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    16. Parent education discharge instruction program for care of children at home after cardiac surgery in Southern India. Cardiol Young. 2016 Aug; 26(6):1213-20. Staveski SL, Parveen VP, Madathil SB, Kools S, Franck LS. PMID: 26894411.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. "It's Back! My Remission Is Over": Online Communication of Disease Progression Among Adolescents With Cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2016 May-Jun; 33(3):209-17. Keim-Malpass J, Stegenga K, Loudin B, Kennedy C, Kools S. PMID: 26483425.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Nurse and parent perceptions associated with the Parent Education Discharge Instruction Programme in southern India. Cardiol Young. 2016 Aug; 26(6):1168-75. Staveski SL, Parveen VP, Madathil SB, Kools S, Franck LS. PMID: 26455596.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. Calculus formation: nurses' decision-making in abortion-related care. Res Nurs Health. 2015 Jun; 38(3):222-31. McLemore MR, Kools S, Levi AJ. PMID: 25820100.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. 4. East African Immigrant Females and Transitions in Identity Development: Understanding Developmental Protective and Risk Factors in Adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2015 Feb 1; 56(2):s2-s3. Green GE, Kools KS, Chesla CC. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    21. Hospital nurses working wounded: motivations and obstacles to return to work as experienced by nurses with injuries. Work. 2015 Jan 01; 50(2):295-304. Mullen K, Gillen M, Kools S, Blanc P. PMID: 24284694.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Pediatric cardiac surgery Parent Education Discharge Instruction (PEDI) program: a pilot study. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2015 Jan; 6(1):18-25. Staveski SL, Zhelva B, Paul R, Conway R, Carlson A, Soma G, Kools S, Franck LS. PMID: 25548339.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Differences in caregiver-reported health problems and health care use in maltreated adolescents and a comparison group from the same urban environment. Res Nurs Health. 2015 Feb; 38(1):60-70. Schneiderman JU, Kools S, Negriff S, Smith S, Trickett PK. PMID: 25557881; PMCID: PMC4297563.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Cultural humility and working with marginalized populations in developing countries. Glob Health Promot. 2015 Mar; 22(1):52-9. Kools S, Chimwaza A, Macha S. PMID: 24842988.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Barriers and facilitators to the involvement of nurses in abortion care provision. Contraception. 2013 Sep 1; 88(3):441-442. McLemore MM, Kools KS. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    26. Correlates of emotional distress in out-of-home youth. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2013 May; 26(2):110-8. Harpin S, Kenyon DB, Kools S, Bearinger LH, Ireland M. PMID: 23607822.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Separation and reunification: the experiences of adolescents living in transnational families. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2013 Mar; 43(3):48-68. Schapiro NA, Kools SM, Weiss SJ, Brindis CD. PMID: 23419833.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Adolescent fathers in the justice system: hoping for a boy and making him a man. Qual Health Res. 2013 Apr; 23(4):435-49. Shade K, Kools S, Pinderhughes H, Weiss SJ. PMID: 23264534.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Dancing around death: hospitalist-patient communication about serious illness. Qual Health Res. 2013 Jan; 23(1):3-13. Anderson WG, Kools S, Lyndon A. PMID: 23034778; PMCID: PMC3502664.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. Health profiles of adolescents in foster care. J Pediatr Nurs. 2013 May-Jun; 28(3):213-22. Kools S, Paul SM, Jones R, Monasterio E, Norbeck J. PMID: 23036596; PMCID: PMC3540143.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. Asian American adolescents' willingness to donate organs and engage in family discussion about organ donation and transplantation. Prog Transplant. 2012 Mar; 22(1):33-40, 70. Trompeta JA, Cooper BA, Ascher NL, Kools SM, Kennedy CM, Chen JL. PMID: 22489441.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    32. 1. The Nature and Impact of Trauma on 1.5 Generation Immigrant Youth During Parental Separation and Reunification. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2012 Feb 1; 50(2):s3-s4. Schapiro SN, Kools KS, Weiss WS, Brindis BC. .
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    33. Choosing fatherhood: how teens in the justice system embrace or reject a father identity. J Community Health Nurs. 2012; 29(2):91-105. Shade K, Kools S, Pinderhughes H, Weiss SJ. PMID: 22536913.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Asian-American adolescents' willingness to donate organs and engage in family discussion about organ donation and transplantation. Progress in Transplantation. 2012; 22(1):1-10. Trompeta, J. A., Cooper, B. A., Ascher, N. L., & Kools, S. M., Chen, J. L., Kennedy, C.
    35. Misconceptions about missed conceptions: the meanings of emergency contraceptive pills use among young adult couples. J Fam Nurs. 2011 Nov; 17(4):463-84. Beaulieu R, Kools S, Kennedy HP, Humphreys J. PMID: 22084483.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. A conceptual model of incarcerated adolescent fatherhood: adolescent identity development and the concept of intersectionality. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2011 May; 24(2):98-104. Shade K, Kools S, Weiss SJ, Pinderhughes H. PMID: 21501286.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Young adult couples' decision making regarding emergency contraceptive pills. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2011 Mar; 43(1):41-8. Beaulieu R, Kools SM, Kennedy HP, Humphreys J. PMID: 21342423.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. 'The wind of openness': Religious organizations, Malawi youth and HIV. International Journal of Child and Adolescent Health. 2011; 4(3):141-153. Rankin, S., Kools, S., Nyagondwe Fiedler, R., Schell, E., Phiri, J., & Mguntha, A.
    39. Cultural competencies for graduate nursing education. Journal of Professional Nursing. 2011; 27(3):133-139. Clark, L., Calvillo, E., dela Cruz, F. A., Fongwa, M., Kools, S., Lowe, J., & Mastel-Smith, B .
    40. Health risk behavior of youth in foster care. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2009 May; 22(2):77-85. Gramkowski B, Kools S, Paul S, Boyer CB, Monasterio E, Robbins N. PMID: 19490278; PMCID: PMC3436904.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Dimensions of health in young people in foster care. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2009 Apr-Jun; 21(2):221-33. Kools S, Paul SM, Norbeck JS, Robbins NR. PMID: 19702202; PMCID: PMC3436751.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    
    42. Phone Cards and Webcams: Latino Immigrant Youth and Transnational Parenting in the 21st Century. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2009 Feb 1; 44(2):s24. Schapiro SN, Pinderhughes PH, Kools KS. .
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    43. The condom divide: disenfranchisement of Malawi women by church and state. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2008 Sep-Oct; 37(5):596-604; quiz 604-6. Rankin SH, Lindgren T, Kools SM, Schell E. PMID: 18811780; PMCID: PMC2562253.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. Pediatric hyperlipidemia: child and adolescent disease understandings and perceptions about dietary adherence. J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2008 Jul; 13(3):168-79. Kools S, Kennedy C, Engler M, Engler M. PMID: 18638047.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. From heritage to postmodern grounded theorizing: 40 years of grounded theory. Studies in Symbolic Interaction. 2008; 32:71-84. Kools, S.
    46. Adolescents' pain experiences following acute blunt traumatic injury: struggle for internal control. J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2007 Oct; 12(4):224-37. Crandall M, Kools S, Miaskowski C, Savedra M. PMID: 17956371.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Consequences of frequenting the lesbian bar. Women Health. 2006; 44(2):103-20. Gruskin E, Byrne K, Kools S, Altschuler A. PMID: 17255061.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    48. Parents' refusal of medical treatment for cultural or religious beliefs: an ethnographic study of health care professionals' experiences. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2005 Jan-Feb; 22(1):48-57. Linnard-Palmer L, Kools S. PMID: 15574726.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. Risk factors for childhood obesity in elementary school-age Taiwanese children. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2005; 20(3):96-103. Chen JL, Kennedy C, Yeh CH, Kools S. PMID: 16030409.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    50. Health care transitions for adolescents with congenital heart disease: patient and family perspectives. Nurs Clin North Am. 2004 Dec; 39(4):727-40. Tong EM, Kools S. PMID: 15561156.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    51. Parents' refusal of medical treatment based on religious and/or cultural beliefs: the law, ethical principles, and clinical implications. J Pediatr Nurs. 2004 Oct; 19(5):351-6. Linnard-Palmer L, Kools S. PMID: 15614259.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    52. The symptom experience of hospitalised Chinese children and adolescents and relationship to pre-hospital factors and behaviour problems. Int J Nurs Stud. 2004 Aug; 41(6):661-9. Franck LS, Kools S, Kennedy C, Kong SK, Chen JL, Wong TK. PMID: 15240090.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    53. Psychosocial functioning of hospitalized Chinese adolescents and their families. J Pediatr Nurs. 2004 Apr; 19(2):95-103. Kools S, Kennedy C, Kong SK, Chen JL, Franck L, Wong TK. PMID: 15077207.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    54. Construction managers' perceptions of construction safety practices in small and large firms: a qualitative investigation. Work. 2004; 23(3):233-43. Gillen M, Kools S, McCall C, Sum J, Moulden K. PMID: 15579932.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    55. Parents' perceptions of their infant's pain experience in the NICU. Int J Nurs Stud. 2004 Jan; 41(1):51-8. Gale G, Franck LS, Kools S, Lynch M. PMID: 14670394.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    56. Construction workers' perceptions of management safety practices: a qualitative investigation. Work. 2004; 23(3):245-56. Gillen M, Kools S, Sum J, McCall C, Moulden K. PMID: 15579933.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    57. Culturally appropriate family assessment: analysis of the Family Assessment Device in a pediatric Chinese population. J Nurs Meas. 2003 Spring-Summer; 11(1):41-60. Chen JL, Kennedy C, Kools S, Slaughter RE, Franck L, Kong SK, Wong TK. PMID: 15132011.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    58. A model of recovery from substance abuse and dependence for Korean adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2003 Jan-Mar; 16(1):25-34. Hyun MS, Kools S, Kim SA. PMID: 12790305.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    59. Foster child health and development: implications for primary care. Pediatr Nurs. 2003 Jan-Feb; 29(1):39-41, 44-6. Kools S, Kennedy C. PMID: 12630505.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    60. Issue brief: Mental health and developmental needs of transitioning adolescents in foster care. California Partnership for Children. 2003. Kools, S.
    61. Caregiver understanding of adolescent development in residential treatment. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2002 Oct-Dec; 15(4):151-62. Kools S, Spiers J. PMID: 12562133.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    62. Hospital experiences of young adults with congenital heart disease: divergence in expectations and dissonance in care. Am J Crit Care. 2002 Mar; 11(2):115-25; quiz 126-7. Kools S, Tong EM, Hughes R, Jayne R, Scheibly K, Laughlin J, Gilliss CL. PMID: 11888123.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    63. Children's perceptions of TV and health behavior effects. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2002; 34(3):289-94. Kennedy CM, Strzempko F, Danford C, Kools S. PMID: 12237993.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    64. Family Transitions in Congenital Heart Disease Management: The Impact of Hospitalization in Early Adulthood. Journal of Family Nursing. 1999 Nov 1; 5(4):404-425. Kools KS, Gilliss GC, Tong TE. .
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    65. Developmental issues in adolescent health. Asian Journal of Nursing Studies. 1999; 4(3):11-23. Kools, S.
    66. Family transitions in congenital heart disease management: The impact of hospitalization in early adulthood. Journal of Family Nursing. 1999; 5(4):427-448. Kools, S., Gilliss, C. L., & Tong, E. M.
    67. Adolescent identity development in foster care. Family Relations. 1997; 46(3):1-9. Kools, S.
    68. Dimensional Analysis: Broadening the Conception of Grounded Theory. Qualitative Health Research. 1996 Aug 1; 6(3):312-330. Kools KS, McCarthy MM, Durham DR, Robrecht RL. .
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    69. Dimensional analysis: Broadening the conception of grounded theory. Qualitative Health Research. 1996; 6(3):312-330. Kools, S., McCarthy, M., Durham, R., & Robrecht, L.
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