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Barbara Drew, RN, PhD, FAAN

Address2 Koret Way, Nursing
San Francisco CA 94143
Phone415-476-4302
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoPh.D.1990 Nursing
    University of California, San FranciscoM.S.1980 Nursing
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    American Heart Association2014Distinguished Scientist Award
    National Institute for Nursing Research, NIH2014NINR Director’s Lecture
    UCSF2013David Mortara Distinguished Professor
    International Society for Computerized Electrocardiology2010Kenichi Harumi Plenary Address
    UCSF2010Lillian & Dudley Aldous Professor in Nursing Science (Endowed Chair)
    UCSF Division of the Academic Senate2009Distinguished Teaching Award
    UCSF School of Nursing 200626thHelen Nahm Research Lecture Award
    Institute of Nursing Science, University of Basel, Switzerland2006Fulbright Senior Scientist Award
    UCSF Graduate Students’ Association 2003Outstanding Faculty Mentorship Award
    American Heart Association2001Katherine A. Lembright Award Lecture for achievement in cardiovascular nursing research, Council on
    American Association of Critical-Care Nurses 2002Distinguished Research Lecturer Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    My program of research focuses on expanding information obtained from electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings to improve clinical decision-making and patient outcomes in hospital and pre-hospital settings. I helped develop a monitoring strategy, “reduced lead set” technology, a method to derive a multi-lead electrocardiogram from a reduced number of electrodes. I was invited to present my research in reduced lead set technology at the Einthoven Foundation’s Celebration of 100 years of the Electrocardiogram in the Netherlands in 2002. Einthoven won a Nobel Prize for inventing the ECG machine in 1902, and this celebration acknowledged scientists who had made important and lasting contributions to the field.
    Results of studies from my research laboratory (ECG Monitoring Research Lab in the School of Nursing) have informed the development of ST-segment (ischemia) monitoring algorithms for cardiac monitors. We discovered causes of false ischemia monitoring alarms, such as changes in a patient’s body position, which can alter waveforms and mimic the electrocardiographic changes of myocardial ischemia. Our publications provided evidence for the importance of ischemia monitoring in patients presenting to the emergency room with chest pain or treated in hospital units for acute coronary syndromes. A series of studies from my laboratory have shown that transient ischemia following treatment for acute coronary syndromes is: (1) usually missed with routine “arrhythmia” monitoring leads, (2) associated with poor hospital outcomes and, (3) most often (80%) clinically silent (asymptomatic). In addition, we were the first to publish that automated ST segment ischemia monitoring provided prognostic information above and beyond the initial standard 12-lead ECG in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
    Realizing that the under-utilization of ischemia monitoring by clinicians in emergency rooms and hospital units was due to a lack of clarity about how to perform it, I organized an international group of experts to develop a practice guideline. The resultant report was entitled, Multi-lead ST-segment monitoring in patients with acute coronary syndromes: A consensus statement for healthcare professionals, published in 1999. This guideline has influenced clinical practice internationally.
    Recent studies have focused on ECG monitoring in emergency rooms and pre-hospital settings. I helped design computer software for an ambulance device capable of monitoring patients for ischemia using reduced lead set technology and automatically transmitting abnormal ECGs by cell phone to the destination hospital. Results from our study show that this pre-hospital monitoring strategy increases paramedic utilization of pre-hospital ECG, reduces time from 911call to first ECG, and reduces hospital time to treatment for acute coronary syndrome.
    I have also worked recently on another goal of hospital ECG monitoring: QT interval monitoring. By monitoring QT intervals in patients who are started on potentially pro-arrhythmic drugs, it may be possible to prevent the complication of torsade de pointes, a cause of sudden cardiac death in hospital settings. I advised engineers to design an automated QT interval measurement strategy that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2008. After implementing the QT monitoring system in the 5 critical care units at Stanford Hospitals & Clinics, we found that a high proportion (24%) of patients had dangerous QT interval prolongation episodes and that they were 3 times more likely to have in-hospital death. I believe this upgrade to cardiac monitors will save nursing time by eliminating the need for manual measurements and provide more frequent, reliable, and accurate measurement of the QT interval and may prevent cardiac arrests in hospital settings.
    In collaboration with a professor at Yale School of Nursing, we have been funded by NHLBI for a 5-yr, multi-center randomized clinical trial to implement the American Heart Association Practice Standards for ECG Monitoring in Hospital Settings and to determine whether it will improve nurse monitoring behaviors, quality of care, and patient outcomes. We developed interactive educational computer modules recommending the best practices for arrhythmia, ischemia, and QT interval monitoring for use in the study.
    Currently, I am conducting a pilot study in post-heart-transplant patients to determine whether an increase in the QT interval measured with a home ECG device and transmitted to my research laboratory is an early biomarker for acute cardiac allograft rejection. If this noninvasive biomarker proves sensitive for the detection of acute rejection, then I will submit a proposal for a randomized clinical trial comparing it with routine invasive endomyocardial biopsies.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Home ECG Monitoring to Detect Allograft Rejection Following Heart Transplantation
    NIH/NINR R01NR012003Mar 15, 2011 - Jan 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Tele-electrocardiography in Emergency Cardiac Care
    NIH/NINR R01NR007881Sep 15, 2003 - Jun 30, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NOVEL METHOD TO DIAGNOSE ACUTE MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL069753Sep 30, 1993 - Jun 30, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NURSING STRATEGY FOR CARDIAC ISCHEMIA MONITORING
    NIH/NINR R01NR003436Sep 30, 1993 - Jul 31, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    DIFFERENTIATION OF WIDE QRS COMPLEX TACHYCARDIAS
    NIH/NINR F31NR006230Jul 15, 1988
    Role: Principal Investigator
    General Clinical Research Center
    NIH/NCRR M01RR000079Dec 1, 1974 - Mar 31, 2009
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Featured Videos
    Collapse Featured Publications

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Tinoco A, Drew B, Hu X, Mortara D, Cooper BA, Pelter MM. ECG-derived Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing in healthy and hospitalized populations. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2017 Jun 15. PMID: 28618169.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Carter EV, Castillo C, Chen B, Doering LV, Drew B, Hickey KT, Pickham D, Sciacca RR. Corrigendum to "QTc prolongation may be a late biomarker of orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) rejection" [J Electrocardiol 49 (2016) 928-929]. J Electrocardiol. 2017 Mar - Apr; 50(2):268. PMID: 28284291.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Funk M, Fennie KP, Stephens KE, May JL, Winkler CG, Drew B. Association of Implementation of Practice Standards for Electrocardiographic Monitoring With Nurses' Knowledge, Quality of Care, and Patient Outcomes: Findings From the Practical Use of the Latest Standards of Electrocardiography (PULSE) Trial. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2017 Feb; 10(2). PMID: 28174175.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Carter EV, Castillo C, Chen B, Doering LV, Drew B, Hickey KT, Pickham D, Sciacca RR. QTc Prolongation May Be a Late Biomarker of Orthotopic Heart Transplantation (OHT) Rejection. J Electrocardiol. 2016 Nov - Dec; 49(6):928-929. PMID: 27968785.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Fidler R, Sommargren C, Drew B, Hu X. Signal Quality Differences Between Mason-likar and Lund Electrode Configurations. J Electrocardiol. 2016 Nov - Dec; 49(6):934. PMID: 27968796.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Drew B, Sommargren CE, Tolan GD, Macfarlane PW, Wagner GS, Strauss DG, Burke MC, Kligfield PD, Rowlandson I, Lux RL. In memoriam: A tribute to the work and lives of Ron Selvester and Rory Childers. J Electrocardiol. 2015 Nov-Dec; 48(6):1088-98. PMID: 26422547.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Fidler R, Bond R, Finlay D, Guldenring D, Gallagher A, Pelter M, Drew B, Hu X. Human factors approach to evaluate the user interface of physiologic monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 2015 Nov-Dec; 48(6):982-7. PMID: 26375330.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Sandau KE, Sendelbach S, Fletcher L, Frederickson J, Drew B, Funk M. Computer-assisted interventions to improve QTc documentation in patients receiving QT-prolonging drugs. Am J Crit Care. 2015 Mar; 24(2):e6-e15. PMID: 25727282.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Zègre-Hemsey JK, Sommargren CE, Asafu-Adjei JK, Drew B. Normal prehospital electrocardiography is linked to long-term survival in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome. J Electrocardiol. 2015 Jul-Aug; 48(4):520-6. PMID: 25683824; PMCID: PMC4484314.
    10. Drew B, Dracup K, Criley JM, Fung G, Marcus F, Mortara D, Laks M, Scheinman M. Reply: nurse practitioners (and other physician extenders) are not an appropriate replacement for expert physician electrocardiogram readers in routine clinical practice. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Jan 06; 65(1):107-8. PMID: 25572520.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Bond RR, Kligfield PD, Zhu T, Finlay DD, Drew B, Guldenring D, Breen C, Clifford GD, Wagner GS. Novel approach to documenting expert ECG interpretation using eye tracking technology: a historical and biographical representation of the late Dr Rory Childers in action. J Electrocardiol. 2015 Jan-Feb; 48(1):43-4. PMID: 25465863.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Drew B, Harris P, Zègre-Hemsey JK, Mammone T, Schindler D, Salas-Boni R, Bai Y, Tinoco A, Ding Q, Hu X. Insights into the problem of alarm fatigue with physiologic monitor devices: a comprehensive observational study of consecutive intensive care unit patients. PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e110274. PMID: 25338067; PMCID: PMC4206416.
    13. Bai Y, Do DH, Harris PR, Schindler D, Boyle NG, Drew B, Hu X. Integrating monitor alarms with laboratory test results to enhance patient deterioration prediction. J Biomed Inform. 2015 Feb; 53:81-92. PMID: 25240252.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Harris PR, Stein PK, Fung GL, Drew B. Heart rate variability measured early in patients with evolving acute coronary syndrome and 1-year outcomes of rehospitalization and mortality. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2014; 10:451-64. PMID: 25143740; PMCID: PMC4132256.
    15. Drew B, Dracup K, Childers R, Criley JM, Fung G, Marcus F, Mortara D, Laks M, Scheinman M. Finding ECG readers in clinical practice: is it time to change the paradigm? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Aug 05; 64(5):528. PMID: 25082590; PMCID: PMC4466111.
    16. Salas-Boni R, Bai Y, Harris PR, Drew B, Hu X. False ventricular tachycardia alarm suppression in the ICU based on the discrete wavelet transform in the ECG signal. J Electrocardiol. 2014 Nov-Dec; 47(6):775-80. PMID: 25172188.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Harris PR, Sommargren CE, Stein PK, Fung GL, Drew B. Heart rate variability measurement and clinical depression in acute coronary syndrome patients: narrative review of recent literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014; 10:1335-47. PMID: 25071372; PMCID: PMC4111661.
    18. Bond RR, Zhu T, Finlay DD, Drew B, Kligfield PD, Guldenring D, Breen C, Gallagher AG, Daly MJ, Clifford GD. Assessing computerized eye tracking technology for gaining insight into expert interpretation of the 12-lead electrocardiogram: an objective quantitative approach. J Electrocardiol. 2014 Nov-Dec; 47(6):895-906. PMID: 25110276.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Pickham D, Flowers E, Drew B. Hyperglycemia is associated with corrected QT prolongation and mortality in acutely ill patients. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2014 May-Jun; 29(3):264-70. PMID: 23364575; PMCID: PMC4140190.
    20. Hasanien AA, Drew B, Howie-Esquivel J. Prevalence and prognostic significance of long QT interval in patients with acute coronary syndrome: review of the literature. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2014 May-Jun; 29(3):271-9. PMID: 23839573.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Pickham D, Hickey K, Doering L, Chen B, Castillo C, Drew B. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in the first year after heart transplantation. J Electrocardiol. 2014 Mar-Apr; 47(2):135-9. PMID: 24119878; PMCID: PMC3951586.
    22. Winkler C, Funk M, Schindler DM, Hemsey JZ, Lampert R, Drew B. Arrhythmias in patients with acute coronary syndrome in the first 24 hours of hospitalization. Heart Lung. 2013 Nov-Dec; 42(6):422-7. PMID: 23972554; PMCID: PMC3848954.
    23. Harris PR, Stein PK, Fung GL, Drew B. Prognostic value of heart rate turbulence for risk assessment in patients with unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2013; 9:465-73. PMID: 23976860; PMCID: PMC3747117.
    24. Hasanien AA, Drew B, Howie-Esquivel J, Fung G, Harris P. Prevalence and prognostic significance of long QT interval among patients with chest pain: selecting an optimum QT rate correction formula. J Electrocardiol. 2013 Jul-Aug; 46(4):336-42. PMID: 23597403; PMCID: PMC3700626.
    25. Zègre Hemsey JK, Dracup K, Fleischmann KE, Sommargren CE, Paul SM, Drew B. Prehospital electrocardiographic manifestations of acute myocardial ischemia independently predict adverse hospital outcomes. J Emerg Med. 2013 May; 44(5):955-61. PMID: 23357378; PMCID: PMC3725326.
    26. Slakey DP, Simms E, Drew B, Yazdi F, Roberts B. Complications of liver resection: laparoscopic versus open procedures. JSLS. 2013 Jan-Mar; 17(1):46-55. PMID: 23743371; PMCID: PMC3662744.
    27. Pickham D, Mortara D, Drew B. Time dependent history improves QT interval estimation in atrial fibrillation. J Electrocardiol. 2012 Nov-Dec; 45(6):556-60. PMID: 23040546.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Turakhia MP, Estes NA, Drew B, Granger CB, Wang PJ, Knight BP, Page RL. Latency of ECG displays of hospital telemetry systems: a science advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2012 Sep 25; 126(13):1665-9. PMID: 22927339.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Khush KK, Menza R, Nguyen J, Goldstein BA, Zaroff JG, Drew B. Electrocardiographic characteristics of potential organ donors and associations with cardiac allograft use. Circ Heart Fail. 2012 Jul 01; 5(4):475-83. PMID: 22615333; PMCID: PMC3400714.
    30. Wilson JR, Singh A, Craven C, Verrier MC, Drew B, Ahn H, Ford M, Fehlings MG. Early versus late surgery for traumatic spinal cord injury: the results of a prospective Canadian cohort study. Spinal Cord. 2012 Nov; 50(11):840-3. PMID: 22565550.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Pickham D, Shinn JA, Chan GK, Funk M, Drew B. Quasi-experimental study to improve nurses' QT-interval monitoring: results of QTIP study. Am J Crit Care. 2012 May; 21(3):195-200; quiz 201. PMID: 22549576.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Siebens K, Miljoen H, De Geest S, Drew B, Vrints C. Development and implementation of a critical pathway for patients with chest pain through action research. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2012 Dec; 11(4):466-71. PMID: 21676654.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Carter EV, Hickey KT, Pickham DM, Doering LV, Chen B, Harris PR, Drew B. Feasibility and compliance with daily home electrocardiogram monitoring of the QT interval in heart transplant recipients. Heart Lung. 2012 Jul-Aug; 41(4):368-73. PMID: 22459508; PMCID: PMC3387335.
    34. Doering LV, Hickey K, Pickham D, Chen B, Drew B. Remote noninvasive allograft rejection monitoring for heart transplant recipients: study protocol for the novel evaluation with home electrocardiogram and remote transmission (NEW HEART) study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2012 Mar 02; 12:14. PMID: 22386040; PMCID: PMC3323456.
    35. Pickham D, Helfenbein E, Shinn JA, Chan G, Funk M, Weinacker A, Liu JN, Drew B. High prevalence of corrected QT interval prolongation in acutely ill patients is associated with mortality: results of the QT in Practice (QTIP) Study. Crit Care Med. 2012 Feb; 40(2):394-9. PMID: 22001585.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Zègre Hemsey JK, Drew B. Prehospital electrocardiography: a review of the literature. J Emerg Nurs. 2012 Jan; 38(1):9-14. PMID: 22137883.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Zègre Hemsey JK, Dracup K, Fleischmann K, Sommargren CE, Drew B. Prehospital 12-lead ST-segment monitoring improves the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. J Electrocardiol. 2012 May-Jun; 45(3):266-71. PMID: 22115367; PMCID: PMC3305819.
    38. Drew B, Sommargren CE, Schindler DM, Benedict K, Zegre-Hemsey J, Glancy JP. A simple strategy improves prehospital electrocardiogram utilization and hospital treatment for patients with acute coronary syndrome (from the ST SMART Study). Am J Cardiol. 2011 Feb 01; 107(3):347-52. PMID: 21256997.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Drew B. Standardization of electrode placement for continuous patient monitoring: introduction of an assessment tool to compare proposed electrocardiogram lead configurations. J Electrocardiol. 2011 Mar-Apr; 44(2):115-8. PMID: 21216412.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Fleischmann KE, Zègre-Hemsey J, Drew B. The new universal definition of myocardial infarction criteria improve electrocardiographic diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. J Electrocardiol. 2011 Jan-Feb; 44(1):69-73. PMID: 21168005; PMCID: PMC3073862.
    41. Pickham D, Helfenbein E, Shinn JA, Chan G, Funk M, Drew B. How many patients need QT interval monitoring in critical care units? Preliminary report of the QT in Practice study. J Electrocardiol. 2010 Nov-Dec; 43(6):572-6. PMID: 21040827.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Funk M, Winkler CG, May JL, Stephens K, Fennie KP, Rose LL, Turkman YE, Drew B. Unnecessary arrhythmia monitoring and underutilization of ischemia and QT interval monitoring in current clinical practice: baseline results of the Practical Use of the Latest Standards for Electrocardiography trial. J Electrocardiol. 2010 Nov-Dec; 43(6):542-7. PMID: 20832819; PMCID: PMC2970641.
    43. Drew B, Ackerman MJ, Funk M, Gibler WB, Kligfield P, Menon V, Philippides GJ, Roden DM, Zareba W. Prevention of torsade de pointes in hospital settings: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Mar 02; 55(9):934-47. PMID: 20185054; PMCID: PMC3057430.
    44. Siebens K, Miljoen H, Fieuws S, Drew B, De Geest S, Vrints C. Implementation of the guidelines for the management of patients with chest pain through a critical pathway approach improves length of stay and patient satisfaction but not anxiety. Crit Pathw Cardiol. 2010 Mar; 9(1):30-4. PMID: 20215908.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Drew B, Ackerman MJ, Funk M, Gibler WB, Kligfield P, Menon V, Philippides GJ, Roden DM, Zareba W. Prevention of torsade de pointes in hospital settings: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation. 2010 Mar 02; 121(8):1047-60. PMID: 20142454; PMCID: PMC3056123.
    46. Wood KA, Stewart AL, Drew B, Scheinman MM, Frolicher ES. Development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Patient Perspective of Arrhythmia Questionnaire. Res Nurs Health. 2009 Oct; 32(5):504-16. PMID: 19701927; PMCID: PMC2953868.
    47. Wood KA, Stewart AL, Drew B, Scheinman MM, Froëlicher ES. Patient perception of symptoms and quality of life following ablation in patients with supraventricular tachycardia. Heart Lung. 2010 Jan-Feb; 39(1):12-20. PMID: 20109982; PMCID: PMC2817962.
    48. Frendl DM, Palmeri ST, Clapp JR, Hampton D, Sejersten M, Young D, Drew B, Farrell R, Innes J, Russell J, Rowlandson GI, Purim-Shem-Tov Y, Underhill BK, Zhou S, Wagner GS. Overcoming barriers to developing seamless ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction care systems in the United States: recommendations from a comprehensive Prehospital 12-lead Electrocardiogram Working Group. J Electrocardiol. 2009 Sep-Oct; 42(5):426-31. PMID: 19446840.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Lee E, Drew B, Selvester RH, Michaels AD. Sequence of electrocardiographic and acoustic cardiographic changes and angina during coronary occlusion and reperfusion in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2009 Apr; 14(2):137-46. PMID: 19419398.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Lee E, Drew B, Selvester RH, Michaels AD. Diastolic heart sounds as an adjunctive diagnostic tool with ST criteria for acute myocardial ischemia. Acute Card Care. 2009; 11(4):229-35. PMID: 19995262.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Lee E, Michaels AD, Selvester RH, Drew B. Frequency of diastolic third and fourth heart sounds with myocardial ischemia induced during percutaneous coronary intervention. J Electrocardiol. 2009 Jan-Feb; 42(1):39-45. PMID: 19012901.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Drew B, Finlay DD. Standardization of reduced and optimal lead sets for continuous electrocardiogram monitoring: where do we stand? J Electrocardiol. 2008 Nov-Dec; 41(6):458-65. PMID: 18817928.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Ting HH, Krumholz HM, Bradley EH, Cone DC, Curtis JP, Drew B, Field JM, French WJ, Gibler WB, Goff DC, Jacobs AK, Nallamothu BK, O'Connor RE, Schuur JD. Implementation and integration of prehospital ECGs into systems of care for acute coronary syndrome: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research, Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, and Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation. 2008 Sep 02; 118(10):1066-79. PMID: 18703464.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Pickham D, Drew B. QT/QTc interval monitoring in the emergency department. J Emerg Nurs. 2008 Oct; 34(5):428-34. PMID: 18804716.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Drew B, Kligfield P. Standardizing electrocardiographic leads: introduction to a symposium. J Electrocardiol. 2008 May-Jun; 41(3):187-9. PMID: 18433610.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Drew B. Pseudo myocardial injury patterns because of nonstandard electrocardiogram electrode placement. J Electrocardiol. 2008 May-Jun; 41(3):202-4. PMID: 18353344.
      View in: PubMed
    57. McCord J, Jneid H, Hollander JE, de Lemos JA, Cercek B, Hsue P, Gibler WB, Ohman EM, Drew B, Philippides G, Newby LK. Management of cocaine-associated chest pain and myocardial infarction: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Acute Cardiac Care Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation. 2008 Apr 08; 117(14):1897-907. PMID: 18347214.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Schindler DM, Lux RL, Shusterman V, Drew B. Karhunen-Loève representation distinguishes ST-T wave morphology differences in emergency department chest pain patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction versus nonacute coronary syndrome. J Electrocardiol. 2007 Nov-Dec; 40(6 Suppl):S145-9. PMID: 17993312; PMCID: PMC2128770.
    59. Shusterman V, Goldberg A, Schindler DM, Fleischmann KE, Lux RL, Drew B. Dynamic tracking of ischemia in the surface electrocardiogram. J Electrocardiol. 2007 Nov-Dec; 40(6 Suppl):S179-86. PMID: 17993319; PMCID: PMC2121619.
    60. Drew B, Schindler DM, Zegre JK, Fleischmann KE, Lux RL. Estimated body surface potential maps in emergency department patients with unrecognized transient myocardial ischemia. J Electrocardiol. 2007 Nov-Dec; 40(6 Suppl):S15-20. PMID: 17993313; PMCID: PMC2148494.
    61. Sommargren CE, Drew B. Preventing torsades de pointes by careful cardiac monitoring in hospital settings. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2007 Jul-Sep; 18(3):285-93. PMID: 18019519.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Drew B. Pulling it all together: case studies on ECG monitoring. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2007 Jul-Sep; 18(3):305-17. PMID: 18019521.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Miller JN, Drew B. Atrial electrograms after cardiac surgery: survey of clinical practice. Am J Crit Care. 2007 Jul; 16(4):350-6; quiz 357; discussion 358-9. PMID: 17595365.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Solis P, Amsterdam EA, Bufalino V, Drew B, Jacobs AK. Development of systems of care for ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients: policy recommendations. Circulation. 2007 Jul 10; 116(2):e73-6. PMID: 17538035.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Drew B. Critical care nurses in industry: deserters or leaders? Am J Crit Care. 2007 May; 16(3):204-5. PMID: 17460308.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Siebens K, Moons P, De Geest S, Miljoen H, Drew B, Vrints C. The role of nurses in a chest pain unit. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2007 Dec; 6(4):265-72. PMID: 17349824.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Drew B, Sommargren CE, Schindler DM, Zegre J, Benedict K, Krucoff MW. Novel electrocardiogram configurations and transmission procedures in the prehospital setting: effect on ischemia and arrhythmia determination. J Electrocardiol. 2006 Oct; 39(4 Suppl):S157-60. PMID: 17015064.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Drew B. Pitfalls and artifacts in electrocardiography. Cardiol Clin. 2006 Aug; 24(3):309-15, vii. PMID: 16939825.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Banki N, Kopelnik A, Tung P, Lawton MT, Gress D, Drew B, Dae M, Foster E, Parmley W, Zaroff J. Prospective analysis of prevalence, distribution, and rate of recovery of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2006 Jul; 105(1):15-20. PMID: 16871878.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Drew B, Funk M. Practice standards for ECG monitoring in hospital settings: executive summary and guide for implementation. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2006 Jun; 18(2):157-68, ix. PMID: 16728301.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Harris IS, Lee E, Yeghiazarians Y, Drew B, Michaels AD. Phonocardiographic timing of third and fourth heart sounds during acute myocardial infarction. J Electrocardiol. 2006 Jul; 39(3):305-9. PMID: 16777517.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Kothavale A, Banki NM, Kopelnik A, Yarlagadda S, Lawton MT, Ko N, Smith WS, Drew B, Foster E, Zaroff JG. Predictors of left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2006; 4(3):199-205. PMID: 16757824.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Banki NM, Kopelnik A, Dae MW, Miss J, Tung P, Lawton MT, Drew B, Foster E, Smith W, Parmley WW, Zaroff JG. Acute neurocardiogenic injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Circulation. 2005 Nov 22; 112(21):3314-9. PMID: 16286583.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Drew B, Pelter MM, Lee E, Zegre J, Schindler D, Fleischmann KE. Designing prehospital ECG systems for acute coronary syndromes. Lessons learned from clinical trials involving 12-lead ST-segment monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 2005 Oct; 38(4 Suppl):180-5. PMID: 16226097.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Gibler WB, Cannon CP, Blomkalns AL, Char DM, Drew B, Hollander JE, Jaffe AS, Jesse RL, Newby LK, Ohman EM, Peterson ED, Pollack CV. Practical implementation of the Guidelines for Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Aug; 46(2):185-97. PMID: 16046952.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Tung PP, Olmsted E, Kopelnik A, Banki NM, Drew B, Ko N, Lawton MT, Smith W, Foster E, Young WL, Zaroff JG. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels are associated with early cardiac dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2005 Jul; 36(7):1567-9. PMID: 15947264.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Gibler WB, Cannon CP, Blomkalns AL, Char DM, Drew B, Hollander JE, Jaffe AS, Jesse RL, Newby LK, Ohman EM, Peterson ED, Pollack CV. Practical implementation of the guidelines for unstable angina/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the emergency department: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Acute Cardiac Care), Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, and Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group, in Collaboration With the Society of Chest Pain Centers. Circulation. 2005 May 24; 111(20):2699-710. PMID: 15911720.
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    78. Drew B, Califf RM, Funk M, Kaufman ES, Krucoff MW, Laks MM, Macfarlane PW, Sommargren C, Swiryn S, Van Hare GF. AHA scientific statement: practice standards for electrocardiographic monitoring in hospital settings: an American Heart Association Scientific Statement from the Councils on Cardiovascular Nursing, Clinical Cardiology, and Cardiovascular Disease in the Young: endorsed by the International Society of Computerized electrocardiology and the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2005 Mar-Apr; 20(2):76-106. PMID: 15855856.
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    79. Khush K, Kopelnik A, Tung P, Banki N, Dae M, Lawton M, Smith W, Drew B, Foster E, Zaroff J. Age and aneurysm position predict patterns of left ventricular dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2005 Feb; 18(2):168-74. PMID: 15682055.
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    80. Kopelnik A, Fisher L, Miss JC, Banki N, Tung P, Lawton MT, Ko N, Smith WS, Drew B, Foster E, Zaroff J. Prevalence and implications of diastolic dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2005; 3(2):132-8. PMID: 16174882.
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    81. Drew B, Califf RM, Funk M, Kaufman ES, Krucoff MW, Laks MM, Macfarlane PW, Sommargren C, Swiryn S, Van Hare GF. Practice standards for electrocardiographic monitoring in hospital settings: an American Heart Association scientific statement from the Councils on Cardiovascular Nursing, Clinical Cardiology, and Cardiovascular Disease in the Young: endorsed by the International Society of Computerized Electrocardiology and the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Circulation. 2004 Oct 26; 110(17):2721-46. PMID: 15505110.
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    82. Tung P, Kopelnik A, Banki N, Ong K, Ko N, Lawton MT, Gress D, Drew B, Foster E, Parmley W, Zaroff J. Predictors of neurocardiogenic injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2004 Feb; 35(2):548-51. PMID: 14739408.
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    83. Lux R, Bilbao M, Pelter M, Fleischmann K, Zegre J, Schindler D, Drew B. Optimal leads, estimation, and continuous monitoring improve detection of acute MI and transient ischemia. J Electrocardiol. 2004; 37 Suppl:240-3. PMID: 15534848.
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    84. Drew B, Dempsey ED, Joo TH, Sommargren CE, Glancy JP, Benedict K, Krucoff MW. Pre-hospital synthesized 12-lead ECG ischemia monitoring with trans-telephonic transmission in acute coronary syndromes: pilot study results of the ST SMART trial. J Electrocardiol. 2004; 37 Suppl:214-21. PMID: 15534844.
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    85. Booker KJ, Holm K, Drew B, Lanuza DM, Hicks FD, Carrigan T, Wright M, Moran J. Frequency and outcomes of transient myocardial ischemia in critically ill adults admitted for noncardiac conditions. Am J Crit Care. 2003 Nov; 12(6):508-16; discussion 517. PMID: 14619356.
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    86. Birnbaum Y, Drew B. The electrocardiogram in ST elevation acute myocardial infarction: correlation with coronary anatomy and prognosis. Postgrad Med J. 2003 Sep; 79(935):490-504. PMID: 13679544; PMCID: PMC1742828.
    87. Pelter MM, Adams MG, Drew B. Transient myocardial ischemia is an independent predictor of adverse in-hospital outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated in the telemetry unit. Heart Lung. 2003 Mar-Apr; 32(2):71-8. PMID: 12734529.
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    88. Adams-Hamoda MG, Caldwell MA, Stotts NA, Drew B. Factors to consider when analyzing 12-lead electrocardiograms for evidence of acute myocardial ischemia. Am J Crit Care. 2003 Jan; 12(1):9-16; quiz 17-8. PMID: 12526232.
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    89. Drew B, Phaneuf S, Dirks A, Selman C, Gredilla R, Lezza A, Barja G, Leeuwenburgh C. Effects of aging and caloric restriction on mitochondrial energy production in gastrocnemius muscle and heart. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003 Feb; 284(2):R474-80. PMID: 12388443.
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    90. Drew B. Celebrating the 100th birthday of the electrocardiogram: lessons learned from research in cardiac monitoring. Am J Crit Care. 2002 Jul; 11(4):378-86; quiz 387-8. PMID: 12102439.
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    91. Pelter MM, Adams MG, Drew B. Association of transient myocardial ischemia with adverse in-hospital outcomes for angina patients treated in a telemetry unit or a coronary care unit. Am J Crit Care. 2002 Jul; 11(4):318-25. PMID: 12102432.
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    92. Drew B, Pelter MM, Adams MG. Frequency, characteristics, and clinical significance of transient ST segment elevation in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Eur Heart J. 2002 Jun; 23(12):941-7. PMID: 12069448.
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    93. Booker KJ, Drew B, Lux RL, Johanson P, Krucoff MW, Hampton D, Hubelbank M, Feild DQ, Stadler RW, Mortara DM. The first ISCE Board of "Trustees" overview panel session: ischemia monitoring, state of the art. International Society of Computerized Electrocardiology. J Electrocardiol. 2002; 35 Suppl:207-30. PMID: 12539121.
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    94. Drew B, Pelter MM, Brodnick DE, Yadav AV, Dempel D, Adams MG. Comparison of a new reduced lead set ECG with the standard ECG for diagnosing cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia. J Electrocardiol. 2002; 35 Suppl:13-21. PMID: 12539095.
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    95. Adams MG, Drew B. Efficacy of 2 strategies to detect body position ST-segment changes during continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 2002; 35 Suppl:193-200. PMID: 12539117.
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    96. Sommargren CE, Zaroff JG, Banki N, Drew B. Electrocardiographic repolarization abnormalities in subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Electrocardiol. 2002; 35 Suppl:257-62. PMID: 12539136.
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    97. Drew B, Adams MG. Clinical consequences of ST-segment changes caused by body position mimicking transient myocardial ischemia: hazards of ST-segment monitoring? J Electrocardiol. 2001 Jul; 34(3):261-4. PMID: 11455517.
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    98. Puntillo KA, Benner P, Drought T, Drew B, Stotts N, Stannard D, Rushton C, Scanlon C, White C. End-of-life issues in intensive care units: a national random survey of nurses' knowledge and beliefs. Am J Crit Care. 2001 Jul; 10(4):216-29. PMID: 11432210.
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    99. Wung SF, Drew B. New electrocardiographic criteria for posterior wall acute myocardial ischemia validated by a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty model of acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2001 Apr 15; 87(8):970-4; A4. PMID: 11305988.
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    100. Ide B, Drew B. How a rhythm strip aids in clinical diagnosis. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2001; 16(2):88. PMID: 11370487.
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    101. Booker KJ, Holm K, Drew B, Ide B. Lead wire reversal during 12-lead EKG monitoring. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2001; 16(1):35-6. PMID: 11252877.
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    102. Caldwell MA, Froelicher ES, Drew B. Prehospital delay time in acute myocardial infarction: an exploratory study on relation to hospital outcomes and cost. Am Heart J. 2000 May; 139(5):788-96. PMID: 10783211.
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    103. Crater SW, Taylor CA, Maas AC, Loeffler AK, Pope JE, Drew B, Krucoff MW. Real-time application of continuous 12-lead ST-segment monitoring: 3 case studies. Crit Care Nurse. 2000 Apr; 20(2):93-9. PMID: 11873756.
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    104. Ide B, Drew B. How is atrial tachycardia differentiated from atrial flutter? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2000; 15(4):151, 153. PMID: 11098529.
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    105. Chan GK, Drew B, Ide B. What life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism results in prominent U waves on the EKG? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2000; 15(2):69-70. PMID: 10804599.
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    106. Ide B, Drew B. Has this patient lost his lead? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2000; 15(3):113. PMID: 10951954.
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    107. Matsumoto CG, Drew B, Ide B. Why should nurses closely monitor the ECG during insertion or exchange of a central venous catheter? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2000; 15(1):29, 31. PMID: 10723791.
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    108. Daly BJ, Hooks J, Youngner SJ, Drew B, Prince-Paul M. Thoughts of hastening death among hospice patients. J Clin Ethics. 2000; 11(1):56-65. PMID: 10904891.
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    109. Wung SF, Lux RL, Drew B. Thoracic location of the lead with maximal ST-segment deviation during posterior and right ventricular ischemia: comparison of 18-lead ECG with 192 estimated body surface leads. J Electrocardiol. 2000; 33 Suppl:167-74. PMID: 11265718.
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    110. Drew B, Krucoff MW. Multilead ST-segment monitoring in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a consensus statement for healthcare professionals. ST- Segment Monitoring Practice Guideline International Working Group. Am J Crit Care. 1999 Nov; 8(6):372-86; quiz 387-8. PMID: 10553178.
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    111. Lau KY, Wung SF, Adams MG, Zellner C, Drew B. Frequency of ischemia during intracoronary ultrasound in women with and without coronary artery disease. Crit Care Nurse. 1999 Oct; 19(5):48-56. PMID: 10808812.
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    112. Adams MG, Pelter MM, Wung SF, Taylor CA, Drew B. Frequency of silent myocardial ischemia with 12-lead ST segment monitoring in the coronary care unit: are there sex-related differences? Heart Lung. 1999 Mar-Apr; 28(2):81-6. PMID: 10076107.
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    113. Drew B, Pelter MM, Wung SF, Adams MG, Taylor C, Evans GT, Foster E. Accuracy of the EASI 12-lead electrocardiogram compared to the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram for diagnosing multiple cardiac abnormalities. J Electrocardiol. 1999; 32 Suppl:38-47. PMID: 10688301.
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    114. Wung SF, Drew B. Comparison of 18-lead ECG and selected body surface potential mapping leads in determining maximally deviated ST lead and efficacy in detecting acute myocardial ischemia during coronary occlusion. J Electrocardiol. 1999; 32 Suppl:30-7. PMID: 10688300.
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    115. Fukoka Y, Ide B, Drew B. What is the most serious complication for patients with anorexia nervosa? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999; 14(2):75-6. PMID: 10457962.
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    116. Kramer MJ, Ide B, Drew B. What is the most common arrhythmia following cardiac revascularization? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999; 14(4):159, 161. PMID: 10689730.
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    117. Banks AD, Drew B, Ide B. Does recording of a patient's ST segment "fingerprint" during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) help to exclude coronary artery reocclusion as the cause of transient ischemia following the procedure? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999; 14(3):115-6. PMID: 10549051.
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    118. Drew B, Ide B. Could inaccurate lead placement cause misdiagnosis of the culprit artery in patients with acute myocardial infarction? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999; 14(1):33-4. PMID: 10431318.
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    119. Pelter MM, Adams MG, Wung SF, Paul SM, Drew B. Peak time of occurrence of myocardial ischemia in the coronary care unit. Am J Crit Care. 1998 Nov; 7(6):411-7. PMID: 9805113.
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    120. Drew B, Pelter MM, Adams MG, Wung SF, Chou TM, Wolfe CL. 12-lead ST-segment monitoring vs single-lead maximum ST-segment monitoring for detecting ongoing ischemia in patients with unstable coronary syndromes. Am J Crit Care. 1998 Sep; 7(5):355-63. PMID: 9740885.
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    121. Drew B, Wung SF, Adams MG, Pelter MM. Bedside diagnosis of myocardial ischemia with ST-segment monitoring technology: measurement issues for real-time clinical decision making and trial designs. J Electrocardiol. 1998; 30 Suppl:157-65. PMID: 9535494.
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    122. Drew B, Ide B. Differential diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1998; 13(3):46-7. PMID: 9950025.
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    123. Ide B, Drew B. The many rhythms of digitalis toxicity. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1998; 13(1):41. PMID: 9614688.
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    124. Drew B, Ide B. Use of the EKG in risk stratification. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1998; 13(2):32-3. PMID: 9802115.
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    125. Ide B, Drew B. Cardiac arrhythmias with aging. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1998; 13(4):31. PMID: 10234752.
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    126. Caldwell MA, Pelter M, Drew B. Estimating ischemic burden: comparison of two formulas. Am J Crit Care. 1997 Nov; 6(6):463-6. PMID: 9354225.
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    127. Adams MG, Drew B. Body position effects on the ECG: implication for ischemia monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 1997 Oct; 30(4):285-91. PMID: 9375904.
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    128. Daly BJ, Berry D, Fitzpatrick JJ, Drew B, Montgomery K. Assisted suicide: implications for nurses and nursing. Nurs Outlook. 1997 Sep-Oct; 45(5):209-14. PMID: 9364530.
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    129. Drew B, Adams MG, McEldowney DK, Lau KY, Wung SF, Wolfe CL, Ports TA, Chou TM. Frequency, duration, magnitude, and consequences of myocardial ischemia during intracoronary ultrasonography. Am Heart J. 1997 Sep; 134(3):474-8. PMID: 9327705.
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    130. Hewer I, Drew B, Karp K, Stotts N. The utilization of automated ST segment analysis in the determination of myocardial ischemia. AANA J. 1997 Aug; 65(4):351-6. PMID: 9281916.
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    131. Wood KA, Eisenberg SJ, Kalman JM, Drew B, Saxon LA, Lee RJ, Lesh MD, Scheinman MM. Risk of thromboembolism in chronic atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Apr 15; 79(8):1043-7. PMID: 9114761.
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    132. Pelter MM, Adams MG, Drew B. Computer versus manual measurement of ST-segment deviation. J Electrocardiol. 1997 Apr; 30(2):151-6. PMID: 9141612.
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    133. Drew B, Adams MG, Pelter MM, Wung SF, Caldwell MA. Comparison of standard and derived 12-lead electrocardiograms for diagnosis of coronary angioplasty-induced myocardial ischemia. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Mar 01; 79(5):639-44. PMID: 9068524.
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    134. Wood KA, Drew B, Scheinman MM. Frequency of disabling symptoms in supraventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Jan 15; 79(2):145-9. PMID: 9193013.
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    135. Ide B, Drew B. Hyperkalemia: a dangerous diagnosis for patients with congestive heart failure. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1997; 12(4):36-7. PMID: 9433734.
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    136. Drew B, Ide B. An unexpected ST segment deviation during an exercise treadmill test. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1997; 12(3):40-1. PMID: 9287367.
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    137. Drew B, Ide B. Is it safe to inject adenosine through a central line? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1997; 12(1):47-8. PMID: 9058465.
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    138. Ide B, Drew B. What's wrong with this atrial fibrillation? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1997; 12(2):40. PMID: 9195648.
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    139. Caldwell MA, Pelter MM, Drew B. Chest pain is an unreliable measure of ischemia in men and women during PTCA. Heart Lung. 1996 Nov-Dec; 25(6):423-9. PMID: 8950120.
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    140. Drew B, Adams MG, Pelter MM, Wung SF. ST segment monitoring with a derived 12-lead electrocardiogram is superior to routine cardiac care unit monitoring. Am J Crit Care. 1996 May; 5(3):198-206. PMID: 8722923.
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    141. Ide B, Drew B. Does AV dissociation always mean heart block? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1996; 11(4):47-8. PMID: 8969006.
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    142. Pelter MM, Adams MG, Drew B. Computer versus manual measurement of ST-segment deviation. J Electrocardiol. 1996; 29 Suppl:78-82. PMID: 9238382.
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    143. Drew B, Ide B. Diagnosing ischemia from the bedside monitor. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1996; 11(1):45-6. PMID: 8657711.
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    144. Drew B, Ide B. "Relative" sinus bradycardia. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1996; 11(3):47-8. PMID: 8878302.
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    145. Pelter MM, Adams MG, Drew B. ST segment deviation during myocardial ischemia: are there gender differences? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1996; 11(3):4-9. PMID: 8878294.
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    146. Drew B, Scheinman MM. ECG criteria to distinguish between aberrantly conducted supraventricular tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia: practical aspects for the immediate care setting. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1995 Dec; 18(12 Pt 1):2194-208. PMID: 8771133.
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    147. Drew B, Ide B. Monitoring paced rhythms. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1995; 10(4):44-5. PMID: 8584552.
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    148. Drew B, Ide B. Right ventricular infarction. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1995; 10(2):45-6. PMID: 7651952.
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    149. Drew B, Ide B. Regular atrial fibrillation spells trouble. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1995; 10(3):44-5. PMID: 7479664.
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    150. Drew B, Adams MG, Wung SF, Dower GE. Value of a derived 12-lead ECG for detecting transient myocardial ischemia. J Electrocardiol. 1995; 28 Suppl:211. PMID: 8656115.
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    151. Drew B, Ide B, Witherell CL, Tong EM. Pediatric tachycardias. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1995; 10(1):46, 48. PMID: 7770444.
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    152. Drew B, Koops RR, Adams MG, Dower GE. Derived 12-lead ECG. Comparison with the standard ECG during myocardial ischemia and its potential application for continuous ST-segment monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 1994; 27 Suppl:249-55. PMID: 7884370.
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    153. Drew B, Ide B. Aberration versus ectopy. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1994; 9(3):46. PMID: 7971941.
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    154. Carson KJ, Drew B. Electrocardiographic changes in critically ill adults during intrahospital transport. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1994; 9(4):4-12. PMID: 7846003.
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    155. Drew B, Ide B. T wave alternans. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1994; 9(4):45. PMID: 7846007.
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    156. Drew B, Ide B. Causes of sinus pauses. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1994; 9(1):48. PMID: 8058697.
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    157. McIntosh-Yellin NL, Drew B, Scheinman MM. Safety and efficacy of central intravenous bolus administration of adenosine for termination of supraventricular tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Sep; 22(3):741-5. PMID: 8354807.
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    158. Drew B, Tisdale LA. ST segment monitoring for coronary artery reocclusion following thrombolytic therapy and coronary angioplasty: identification of optimal bedside monitoring leads. Am J Crit Care. 1993 Jul; 2(4):280-92. PMID: 8358474.
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    159. Tisdale LA, Drew B. ST segment monitoring for myocardial ischemia. AACN Clin Issues Crit Care Nurs. 1993 Feb; 4(1):34-43. PMID: 8452742.
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    160. Drew B. Bedside electrocardiogram monitoring. AACN Clin Issues Crit Care Nurs. 1993 Feb; 4(1):25-33. PMID: 8452741.
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    161. Drew B, Ide B. How can you distinguish supraventricular tachycardia with a bundle branch block from ventricular tachycardia? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1993; 8(1):48. PMID: 8372089.
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    162. Drew B. Using cardiac leads the right way. Nursing. 1992 May; 22(5):50-4. PMID: 1584495.
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    163. Drew B, Scheinman MM, Evans GT. Comparison of a vectorcardiographically derived 12-lead electrocardiogram with the conventional electrocardiogram during wide QRS complex tachycardia, and its potential application for continuous bedside monitoring. Am J Cardiol. 1992 Mar 01; 69(6):612-8. PMID: 1536110.
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    164. Drew B. Bedside electrocardiographic monitoring: state of the art for the 1990s. Heart Lung. 1991 Nov; 20(6):610-23. PMID: 1960065.
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    165. Drew B, Ide B, Sparacino PS. Accuracy of bedside electrocardiographic monitoring: a report on current practices of critical care nurses. Heart Lung. 1991 Nov; 20(6):597-607. PMID: 1960064.
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    166. Drew B, Scheinman MM. Value of electrocardiographic leads MCL1, MCL6 and other selected leads in the diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991 Oct; 18(4):1025-33. PMID: 1894848.
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    167. Drew B, Scheinman MM, Dracup K. MCL1 and MCL6 compared to V1 and V6 in distinguishing aberrant supraventricular from ventricular ectopic beats. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1991 Sep; 14(9):1375-83. PMID: 1720531.
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    168. Drew B. Bedside diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1991 Aug; 14(2):19-29. PMID: 2059867.
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    169. Arteaga WJ, Drew B. Device therapy for ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation: the implantable cardioverter defibrillator and antitachycardia pacing. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1991 Aug; 14(2):60-71. PMID: 2059870.
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    170. Drew B. Cardiac rhythm responses. 2. Review of 22 years of nursing research. Heart Lung. 1989 Mar; 18(2):184-91. PMID: 2647680.
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    171. Drew B. Cardiac rhythm responses. 1. An important phenomenon for nursing practice, science, and research. Heart Lung. 1989 Jan; 18(1):8-16. PMID: 2912928.
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    172. Drew B. Differentiation of wide QRS complex tachycardias: implications for critical care nursing. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1987 Oct-Dec; 2(4):130-8. PMID: 3422983.
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