Gideon St Helen, PhD

Title(s)Associate Professor, Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address1001 Potrero Ave
San Francisco CA 94110
Phone628-206-2687
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Cigarette Harm Reduction with Scheduled Electronic Cigarette Use
    NIH U01DA045519Aug 15, 2018 - Jul 31, 2022
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Clinical Pharmacology of Electronic Cigarettes
    NIH 3R01DA039264-02S1Jun 1, 2016 - May 31, 2017
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Integrated Health, Behavioral and Economic Research on Current and Emerging Tobacco Products
    NIH 9U54HL147127-06Sep 19, 2013 - Jun 30, 2023
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Clinical Trials

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Biomarkers of nicotine exposure correlate with the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist among adolescents in California, United States. Addict Behav. 2022 05; 128:107235. Chaffee BW, Halpern-Felsher B, Jacob P, St Helen G. PMID: 35033980; PMCID: PMC8897155.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    2. Clinical Pharmacology of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS): Implications for Benefits and Risks in the Promotion of the Combusted Tobacco Endgame. J Clin Pharmacol. 2021 08; 61 Suppl 2:S18-S36. Benowitz NL, St Helen G, Liakoni E. PMID: 34396553.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Twenty-Four-Hour Cardiovascular Effects of Electronic Cigarettes Compared With Cigarette Smoking in Dual Users. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020 12; 9(23):e017317. Benowitz NL, St Helen G, Nardone N, Addo N, Zhang JJ, Harvanko AM, Calfee CS, Jacob P. PMID: 33208019; PMCID: PMC7763797.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. The impact of e-cigarette and cigarette prices on e-cigarette and cigarette sales in California. Prev Med Rep. 2020 Dec; 20:101244. Yao T, Sung HY, Huang J, Chu L, St Helen G, Max W. PMID: 33240784; PMCID: PMC7674118.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    5. Relationships Between Race, Gender, and Spot Urine Levels of Biomarkers of Tobacco Exposure Vary Based on How Creatinine Is Handled in Analyses. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 10 29; 22(11):2109-2113. Carroll DM, Cigan S, Ikuemonisan J, Hammonds T, Stepanov I, St Helen G, Benowitz N, Hatsukami DK. PMID: 32598452; PMCID: PMC7593361.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    6. Comprehensive Parent-Metabolite PBPK/PD Modeling Insights into Nicotine Replacement Therapy Strategies. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2020 09; 59(9):1119-1134. Kovar L, Selzer D, Britz H, Benowitz N, St Helen G, Kohl Y, Bals R, Lehr T. PMID: 32166575; PMCID: PMC7467963.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. A ban targeting only open-system e-cigarettes is unlikely to prevent a future EVALI-like outbreak among e-cigarette users. Addiction. 2021 05; 116(5):995-997. St Helen G. PMID: 32812673.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    8. Effects of Nicotine Metabolic Rate on Cigarette Reinforcement. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 07 16; 22(8):1419-1423. Liakoni E, Nardone N, St Helen G, Dempsey DA, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. PMID: 31725872; PMCID: PMC7364822.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. Biomarkers of Exposure for Dual Use of Electronic Cigarettes and Combustible Cigarettes: Nicotelline, NNAL, and Total Nicotine Equivalents. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 06 12; 22(7):1107-1113. Jacob P, St Helen G, Yu L, Nardone N, Havel C, Cheung P, Benowitz NL. PMID: 31833541; PMCID: PMC7291810.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    10. Twenty-four-hour subjective and pharmacological effects of ad-libitum electronic and combustible cigarette use among dual users. Addiction. 2020 06; 115(6):1149-1159. Harvanko AM, St Helen G, Nardone N, Addo N, Benowitz NL. PMID: 31837232; PMCID: PMC7255919.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    11. Urine Metabolites for Estimating Daily Intake of Nicotine From Cigarette Smoking. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 02 06; 22(2):288-292. Benowitz NL, St Helen G, Nardone N, Cox LS, Jacob P. PMID: 30852610; PMCID: PMC7297087.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    12. Differences in nicotine intake and effects from electronic and combustible cigarettes among dual users. Addiction. 2020 04; 115(4):757-767. St Helen G, Nardone N, Addo N, Dempsey D, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. PMID: 31691397; PMCID: PMC7339816.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Sources and Biomarkers of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents. Acad Pediatr. 2020 May - Jun; 20(4):493-500. Nardone N, Jain S, Addo N, St Helen G, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. PMID: 31866460; PMCID: PMC7967984.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    14. Comparison of Systemic Exposure to Toxic and/or Carcinogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) during Vaping, Smoking, and Abstention. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2020 02; 13(2):153-162. St Helen G, Liakoni E, Nardone N, Addo N, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. PMID: 31554628; PMCID: PMC7007368.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. Quantitative biochemical screening for marijuana use and concordance with tobacco use in urban adolescents. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 12 01; 205:107583. Benowitz N, Nardone N, St Helen G, Addo N, Jacob P, Liakoni E, Jain S, Hooshfar S, Lynch K. PMID: 31600618; PMCID: PMC6893148.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    16. Relationship between skin melanin index and nicotine pharmacokinetics in African American smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 11 01; 204:107474. Liakoni E, St Helen G, Dempsey DA, Jacob P, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. PMID: 31521954; PMCID: PMC7272190.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Differences in exposure to toxic and/or carcinogenic volatile organic compounds between Black and White cigarette smokers. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2021 03; 31(2):211-223. St Helen G, Benowitz NL, Ko J, Jacob P, Gregorich SE, Pérez-Stable EJ, Murphy SE, Hecht SS, Hatsukami DK, Donny EC. PMID: 31406274; PMCID: PMC7012700.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. JUUL electronic cigarettes: Nicotine exposure and the user experience. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 10 01; 203:83-87. Nardone N, Helen GS, Addo N, Meighan S, Benowitz NL. PMID: 31408770; PMCID: PMC7339945.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. Waterpipe (hookah) tobacco use in pregnancy: use, preferences and perceptions of flavours. Tob Control. 2020 02; 29(Suppl 2):s62-s71. Stroud L, Werner E, Matteson K, Carey M, Helen GS, Eissenberg T, Scott-Sheldon LAJ. PMID: 31320397; PMCID: PMC6980448.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. Black Light Smokers: How Nicotine Intake and Carcinogen Exposure Differ Across Various Biobehavioral Factors. J Natl Med Assoc. 2019 Oct; 111(5):509-520. St Helen G, Benowitz NL, Ahluwalia JS, Tyndale RF, Addo N, Gregorich SE, Pérez-Stable EJ, Cox LS. PMID: 31084916; PMCID: PMC6842416.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Effects of Nicotine Metabolic Rate on Withdrawal Symptoms and Response to Cigarette Smoking After Abstinence. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2019 03; 105(3):641-651. Liakoni E, Edwards KC, St Helen G, Nardone N, Dempsey DA, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. PMID: 30242831; PMCID: PMC7967935.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Revolution or redux? Assessing IQOS through a precursor product. Tob Control. 2018 11; 27(Suppl 1):s102-s110. Elias J, Dutra LM, St Helen G, Ling PM. PMID: 30305324; PMCID: PMC6238084.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. IQOS: examination of Philip Morris International's claim of reduced exposure. Tob Control. 2018 11; 27(Suppl 1):s30-s36. St Helen G, Jacob Iii P, Nardone N, Benowitz NL. PMID: 30158205; PMCID: PMC6252487.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Public Health Consequences of e-Cigarette Use. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 07 01; 178(7):984-986. St Helen G, Eaton DL. PMID: 29801158; PMCID: PMC6260959.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    25. Impact of e-liquid flavors on e-cigarette vaping behavior. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018 Aug 01; 189:42-48. St Helen G, Shahid M, Chu S, Benowitz NL. PMID: 29879680; PMCID: PMC6211798.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Comparison of Urine 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)Pyridyl-1-Butanol and Cotinine for Assessment of Active and Passive Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018 03; 27(3):254-261. Benowitz NL, Nardone N, Jain S, Dempsey DA, Addo N, St Helen G, Jacob P. PMID: 29475963; PMCID: PMC5835192.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    27. Tobacco papers and tobacco industry ties in regulatory toxicology and pharmacology. J Public Health Policy. 2018 Feb; 39(1):34-48. Velicer C, St Helen G, Glantz SA. PMID: 29116189; PMCID: PMC5775030.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    28. An Electronic Cigarette Vaping Machine for the Characterization of Aerosol Delivery and Composition. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Oct 01; 19(10):1224-1231. Havel CM, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, St Helen G. PMID: 27281605; PMCID: PMC5896538.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Urine Cotinine Screening Detects Nearly Ubiquitous Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Sep 01; 19(9):1048-1054. Benowitz NL, Jain S, Dempsey DA, Nardone N, Helen GS, Jacob P. PMID: 28031377; PMCID: PMC5896471.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    30. Impact of e-liquid flavors on nicotine intake and pharmacology of e-cigarettes. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 09 01; 178:391-398. St Helen G, Dempsey DA, Havel CM, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. PMID: 28704768; PMCID: PMC5565733.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. Biomarkers of exposure to new and emerging tobacco delivery products. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017 Sep 01; 313(3):L425-L452. Schick SF, Blount BC, Jacob P, Saliba NA, Bernert JT, El Hellani A, Jatlow P, Pappas RS, Wang L, Foulds J, Ghosh A, Hecht SS, Gomez JC, Martin JR, Mesaros C, Srivastava S, St Helen G, Tarran R, Lorkiewicz PK, Blair IA, Kimmel HL, Doerschuk CM, Benowitz NL, Bhatnagar A. PMID: 28522563; PMCID: PMC5626373.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27  Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    32. Effect of UGT2B10, UGT2B17, FMO3, and OCT2 genetic variation on nicotine and cotinine pharmacokinetics and smoking in African Americans. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2017 04; 27(4):143-154. Taghavi T, St Helen G, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. PMID: 28178031; PMCID: PMC5346034.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. Nicotine Delivery and Vaping Behavior During ad Libitum E-cigarette Access. Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Oct; 2(4):363-376. St Helen G, Ross KC, Dempsey DA, Havel CM, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. PMID: 28393086; PMCID: PMC5381821.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34  
    34. Disposition kinetics and metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in African American smokers: impact of CYP2A6 genetic variation and enzymatic activity. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2016 07; 26(7):340-50. Benowitz NL, St Helen G, Dempsey DA, Jacob P, Tyndale RF. PMID: 27035242; PMCID: PMC4892970.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    35. The Influence of Puff Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Rate of Nicotine Metabolism on Daily Nicotine Exposure in African American Smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016 06; 25(6):936-43. Ross KC, Dempsey DA, St Helen G, Delucchi K, Benowitz NL. PMID: 27030603; PMCID: PMC4891233.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    36. Nicotine delivery, retention and pharmacokinetics from various electronic cigarettes. Addiction. 2016 Mar; 111(3):535-44. St Helen G, Havel C, Dempsey DA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. PMID: 26430813; PMCID: PMC4749433.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 77     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Exposure of pregnant women to cookstove-related household air pollution in urban and periurban Trujillo, Peru. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2015; 70(1):10-8. St Helen G, Aguilar-Villalobos M, Adetona O, Cassidy B, Bayer CW, Hendry R, Hall DB, Naeher LP. PMID: 24215174.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    38. Intake of toxic and carcinogenic volatile organic compounds from secondhand smoke in motor vehicles. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Dec; 23(12):2774-82. St Helen G, Jacob P, Peng M, Dempsey DA, Hammond SK, Benowitz NL. PMID: 25398951; PMCID: PMC4257856.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    39. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure after water pipe smoking in hookah bars. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Jun; 23(6):1055-66. St Helen G, Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Havel C, Peng M, Jacob P. PMID: 24836469; PMCID: PMC4047652.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    40. Genetic and pharmacokinetic determinants of response to transdermal nicotine in white, black, and Asian nonsmokers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Dec; 94(6):687-94. Dempsey DA, St Helen G, Jacob P, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. PMID: 23933970; PMCID: PMC3834081.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Stability of the nicotine metabolite ratio in smokers of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Nov; 15(11):1939-42. St Helen G, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. PMID: 23674838; PMCID: PMC3790625.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    42. Biomarkers of secondhand smoke exposure in automobiles. Tob Control. 2014 Jan; 23(1):51-7. Jones IA, St Helen G, Meyers MJ, Dempsey DA, Havel C, Jacob P, Northcross A, Hammond SK, Benowitz NL. PMID: 23349229; PMCID: PMC3670969.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    43. Dose-independent kinetics with low level exposure to nicotine and cotinine. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Jan; 75(1):277-9. Benowitz NL, Dempsey D, Tyndale RF, St Helen G, Jacob P. PMID: 22574797; PMCID: PMC3555070.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. Racial differences in the relationship between tobacco dependence and nicotine and carcinogen exposure. Addiction. 2013 Mar; 108(3):607-17. St Helen G, Dempsey D, Wilson M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. PMID: 22971134; PMCID: PMC3553231.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Utility of urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) to demonstrate increased lung epithelial permeability in non-smokers exposed to outdoor secondhand smoke. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2013 Mar; 23(2):183-9. St Helen G, Holland NT, Balmes JR, Hall DB, Bernert JT, Vena JE, Wang JS, Naeher LP. PMID: 22805990; PMCID: PMC3507333.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    46. Reproducibility of the nicotine metabolite ratio in cigarette smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 Jul; 21(7):1105-14. St Helen G, Novalen M, Heitjan DF, Dempsey D, Jacob P, Aziziyeh A, Wing VC, George TP, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. PMID: 22552800; PMCID: PMC3392523.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 60     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Exposure to secondhand smoke outside of a bar and a restaurant and tobacco exposure biomarkers in nonsmokers. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Jul; 120(7):1010-6. St Helen G, Bernert JT, Hall DB, Sosnoff CS, Xia Y, Balmes JR, Vena JE, Wang JS, Holland NT, Naeher LP. PMID: 22484462; PMCID: PMC3404659.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    48. Exposure and kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cigarette smokers. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012 Apr 16; 25(4):952-64. St Helen G, Goniewicz ML, Dempsey D, Wilson M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. PMID: 22428611; PMCID: PMC3330130.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. Particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide from secondhand smoke outside bars and restaurants in downtown Athens, Georgia. J Environ Health. 2011 Oct; 74(3):8-17. St Helen G, Hall DB, Kudon LH, Pearce J, Baptiste S, Ferguson S, Green T, Naeher LP. PMID: 22010328.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    50. Assessment of exposure to secondhand smoke at outdoor bars and family restaurants in Athens, Georgia, using salivary cotinine. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2009 Nov; 6(11):698-704. Hall JC, Bernert JT, Hall DB, St Helen G, Kudon LH, Naeher LP. PMID: 19757294.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
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