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Neal Benowitz, MD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentMedicine
Address1001 Potrero Ave, SFGH 30
San Francisco CA 94110
Phone415-206-8324
vCardDownload vCard

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoResidency School of Medicine - Internal Medicine

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Neal Benowitz has been conducting research at SFGH since 1973. His research focus is on the human pharmacology of nicotine in relation to pathogenesis of and individual differences in vulnerability to tobacco-related disease, and the use of pharmacologic data as a basis for public health policies to prevent and reduce such disease. He has served on a number of national and international committees addressing issues in tobacco-related diseases and smoking cessation, including several sponsored by the Institute of Medicine. He has authored over 500 publications, including a state-of-the-art review on nicotine addiction in the New England Journal of Medicine in June 2010.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Clinical Pharmacology of Electronic Cigarettes
    NIH/NIDA R01DA039264Jun 1, 2015 - May 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Technology Innovations for Supporting Health in Alaska Native People
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL117736Apr 1, 2013 - Mar 31, 2019
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of the Nicotine Metabolism Effect on Tobacco Dependence
    NIH/NIDA R01DA031193May 1, 2012 - Mar 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Pharmacogenetics of Nicotine Addiction Treatment
    NIH/NIDA U01DA020830Sep 15, 2005 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Drug Dependence Clinical Research Program
    NIH/NIDA P30DA012393Sep 1, 1999 - Jun 30, 2020
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Cancer Center Support Grant
    NIH/NCI P30CA082103Aug 5, 1999 - May 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Safety of Nicotine Reduction Strategy
    NIH/NCI R01CA078603Jun 1, 1999 - Nov 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NICOTINE METABOLISM IN PREGNANCY
    NIH/NIDA R01DA009761Jul 1, 1995 - Jun 30, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PHARMACOLOGY OF NICOTINE IN HUMAN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL029476Sep 1, 1982 - Aug 31, 1986
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NICOTINE AND TAR INTAKE DURING CIGARETTE SMOKING
    NIH/NCI R01CA032389Jul 1, 1982 - Jun 30, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Nicotine
    NIH/NIDA R01DA002277Mar 1, 1979 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF NICOTINE
    NIH/NIDA R37DA002277Mar 1, 1979 - Jun 30, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    DRUG DEPENDENCE CLINICAL RESEARCH PROGRAM
    NIH/NIDA P50DA001696Feb 1, 1978 - Aug 31, 2000
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Clinical Pharmacology, Drug Action and Pharmacogenetics
    NIH/NIGMS T32GM007546Jul 1, 1977 - Jun 30, 2020
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    General Clinical Research Center
    NIH/NCRR M01RR000083Oct 1, 1974 - Nov 30, 2007
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Global Health
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Benowitz N, Pipe A, West R, Hays JT, Tonstad S, McRae T, Lawrence D, St Aubin L, Anthenelli RM. Cardiovascular Safety of Varenicline, Bupropion, and Nicotine Patch in Smokers: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Apr 09. PMID: 29630702.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Rezk-Hanna M, Benowitz N. Cardiovascular Effects of Hookah Smoking: Potential Implications for Cardiovascular Risk. Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Apr 05. PMID: 29660041.
      View in: PubMed
    3. West R, Evins AE, Benowitz N, Russ C, McRae T, Lawrence D, St Aubin L, Krishen A, Maravic MC, Anthenelli RM. Factors associated with the efficacy of smoking cessation treatments and predictors of smoking abstinence in EAGLES. Addiction. 2018 Mar 06. PMID: 29508470.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Rubinstein ML, Delucchi K, Benowitz N, Ramo DE. Adolescent Exposure to Toxic Volatile Organic Chemicals From E-Cigarettes. Pediatrics. 2018 Apr; 141(4). PMID: 29507165.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Dermody SS, McClernon FJ, Benowitz N, Luo X, Tidey JW, Smith TT, Vandrey R, Hatsukami D, Donny EC. Effects of reduced nicotine content cigarettes on individual withdrawal symptoms over time and during abstinence. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2018 Mar 05. PMID: 29504780.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Hang B, Wang Y, Huang Y, Wang P, Langley SA, Bi L, Sarker AH, Schick SF, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Destaillats H, Tang X, Xia Y, Jen KY, Gundel LA, Mao JH, Snijders AM. Short-term early exposure to thirdhand cigarette smoke increases lung cancer incidence in mice. Clin Sci (Lond). 2018 Feb 28; 132(4):475-488. PMID: 29440622.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Benowitz N, Nardone N, Jain S, Dempsey DA, Addo N, St Helen G, Jacob P. Comparison of Urine 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)Pyridyl-1-Butanol and Cotinine for Assessment of Active and Passive Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018 Mar; 27(3):254-261. PMID: 29475963.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Pulvers K, Emami AS, Nollen NL, Romero DR, Strong DR, Benowitz N, Ahluwalia JS. Tobacco Consumption and Toxicant Exposure of Cigarette Smokers Using Electronic Cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Jan 05; 20(2):206-214. PMID: 28003511.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Song MA, Benowitz N, Berman M, Brasky TM, Cummings KM, Hatsukami DK, Marian C, O'Connor R, Rees VW, Woroszylo C, Shields PG. Cigarette Filter Ventilation and its Relationship to Increasing Rates of Lung Adenocarcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017 Dec 01; 109(12). PMID: 28525914.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Kosmider L, Delijewski M, Koszowski B, Sobczak A, Benowitz N, Goniewicz ML. Slower nicotine metabolism among postmenopausal Polish smokers. Pharmacol Rep. 2017 Nov 22; 70(3):434-438. PMID: 29627689.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Chenoweth MJ, Ware JJ, Zhu AZX, Cole CB, Cox LS, Nollen N, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz N, Schnoll RA, Hawk LW, Cinciripini PM, George TP, Lerman C, Knight J, Tyndale RF. Genome-wide association study of a nicotine metabolism biomarker in African American smokers: impact of chromosome 19 genetic influences. Addiction. 2018 Mar; 113(3):509-523. PMID: 28921760.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Panzer AR, Lynch SV, Langelier C, Christie JD, McCauley K, Nelson M, Cheung CK, Benowitz N, Cohen MJ, Calfee CS. Lung Microbiota is Related to Smoking Status and to Development of ARDS in Critically Ill Trauma Patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 Oct 16. PMID: 29035085.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Havel CM, Benowitz N, Jacob P, St Helen G. An Electronic Cigarette Vaping Machine for the Characterization of Aerosol Delivery and Composition. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Oct 01; 19(10):1224-1231. PMID: 27281605.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Benowitz N, Jain S, Dempsey DA, Nardone N, Helen GS, Jacob P. Urine Cotinine Screening Detects Nearly Ubiquitous Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Sep 01; 19(9):1048-1054. PMID: 28031377.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Fix BV, O'Connor RJ, Benowitz N, Heckman BW, Cummings KM, Fong GT, Thrasher JF. Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR) Prospectively Predicts Smoking Relapse: Longitudinal Findings From ITC Surveys in Five Countries. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Sep 01; 19(9):1040-1047. PMID: 28387850.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Clark L, Cox LS, Khariwala SS, Pulvers K, Benowitz N, Ahluwalia JS. Tobacco toxicant exposure in cigarette smokers who use or do not use other tobacco products. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Oct 01; 179:330-336. PMID: 28843083.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Benowitz N. Comprehensive Nicotine Regulation to End the Combustible Tobacco Epidemic. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Nov 21; 167(10):736-737. PMID: 28806818.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Logue JM, Sleiman M, Montesinos VN, Russell ML, Litter MI, Benowitz N, Gundel LA, Destaillats H. Emissions from Electronic Cigarettes: Assessing Vapers' Intake of Toxic Compounds, Secondhand Exposures, and the Associated Health Impacts. Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Aug 15; 51(16):9271-9279. PMID: 28766331.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Kassem NOF, Kassem NO, Liles S, Jackson SR, Chatfield DA, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Hovell MF. Urinary NNAL in hookah smokers and non-smokers after attending a hookah social event in a hookah lounge or a private home. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017 Oct; 89:74-82. PMID: 28716579.
      View in: PubMed
    20. St Helen G, Dempsey DA, Havel CM, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Impact of e-liquid flavors on nicotine intake and pharmacology of e-cigarettes. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 09 01; 178:391-398. PMID: 28704768.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Gubner NR, Guydish J, Humfleet GL, Benowitz N, Hall SM. Nicotine biomarkers and rate of nicotine metabolism among cigarette smokers taking buprenorphine for opioid dependency. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 09 01; 178:267-270. PMID: 28683421.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Schick SF, Blount BC, Jacob P, Saliba NA, Bernert JT, El Hellani A, Jatlow P, Pappas RS, Wang L, Foulds J, Ghosh A, Hecht SS, Gomez JC, Martin JR, Mesaros C, Srivastava S, St Helen G, Tarran R, Lorkiewicz PK, Blair IA, Kimmel HL, Doerschuk CM, Benowitz N, Bhatnagar A. Biomarkers of exposure to new and emerging tobacco delivery products. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017 Sep 01; 313(3):L425-L452. PMID: 28522563.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Taghavi T, St Helen G, Benowitz N, Tyndale RF. Effect of UGT2B10, UGT2B17, FMO3, and OCT2 genetic variation on nicotine and cotinine pharmacokinetics and smoking in African Americans. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2017 Apr; 27(4):143-154. PMID: 28178031.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Benowitz N, Fraiman JB. Cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2017 Aug; 14(8):447-456. PMID: 28332500.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Hang B, Snijders AM, Huang Y, Schick SF, Wang P, Xia Y, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Destaillats H, Gundel LA, Mao JH. Early exposure to thirdhand cigarette smoke affects body mass and the development of immunity in mice. Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 03; 7:41915. PMID: 28157226.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Jacob P, Benowitz N, Destaillats H, Gundel L, Hang B, Martins-Green M, Matt GE, Quintana PJ, Samet JM, Schick SF, Talbot P, Aquilina NJ, Hovell MF, Mao JH, Whitehead TP. Thirdhand Smoke: New Evidence, Challenges, and Future Directions. Chem Res Toxicol. 2017 01 17; 30(1):270-294. PMID: 28001376.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Vo KT, Horng H, Smollin CG, Benowitz N. Severe Carisoprodol Withdrawal After a 14-Year Addiction and Acute Overdose. J Emerg Med. 2017 May; 52(5):680-683. PMID: 27979642.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Rupprecht LE, Koopmeiners JS, Dermody SS, Oliver JA, al'Absi M, Benowitz N, Denlinger-Apte R, Drobes DJ, Hatsukami D, McClernon FJ, Pacek LR, Smith TT, Sved AF, Tidey J, Vandrey R, Donny EC. Reducing nicotine exposure results in weight gain in smokers randomised to very low nicotine content cigarettes. Tob Control. 2017 03; 26(e1):e43-e48. PMID: 27856940.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Bronars C, Patten C, Koller K, Hatsukami D, Flanagan CA, Decker PA, Hanson A, Wolfe A, Hughes C, Benowitz N, Murphy NJ, Thomas T. Perceived risks and reasons to smoke cigarettes during pregnancy among Alaska native women. Ethn Health. 2018 Jan; 23(1):33-42. PMID: 27842438.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Shields PG, Herbst RS, Arenberg D, Benowitz N, Bierut L, Luckart JB, Cinciripini P, Collins B, David S, Davis J, Hitsman B, Hyland A, Lang M, Leischow S, Park ER, Purcell WT, Selzle J, Silber A, Spencer S, Tanvetyanon T, Tiep B, Tindle HA, Tucker-Seeley R, Urbanic J, Hooper MW, Weksler B, Whitlock CW, Wood DE, Burns J, Scavone J. Smoking Cessation, Version 1.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2016 11; 14(11):1430-1468. PMID: 27799513.
      View in: PubMed
    31. St Helen G, Ross KC, Dempsey DA, Havel CM, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Nicotine Delivery and Vaping Behavior During ad Libitum E-cigarette Access. Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Oct; 2(4):363-376. PMID: 28393086.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Strasser AA, Souprountchouk V, Kaufmann A, Blazekovic S, Leone F, Benowitz N, Schnoll RA. Nicotine Replacement, Topography, and Smoking Phenotypes of E-cigarettes. Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Oct; 2(4):352-362. PMID: 27942543.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Brown-Johnson CG, Oppezzo M, Benowitz N, Prochaska JJ. "You have the right to protect your health": Perceptions of Secondhand Smoke and Exposure Mitigation Strategies in Low-Income Patients With Heart Disease, San Francisco, 2011-2012. Prev Chronic Dis. 2016 08 25; 13:E116. PMID: 27560724; PMCID: PMC5003531.
    34. Benowitz N, Donny EC, Hatsukami DK. Reduced nicotine content cigarettes, e-cigarettes and the cigarette end game. Addiction. 2017 Jan; 112(1):6-7. PMID: 27555354.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Goniewicz ML, Gawron M, Smith DM, Peng M, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Exposure to Nicotine and Selected Toxicants in Cigarette Smokers Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes: A Longitudinal Within-Subjects Observational Study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Feb; 19(2):160-167. PMID: 27613896.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Tidey JW, Pacek LR, Koopmeiners JS, Vandrey R, Nardone N, Drobes DJ, Benowitz N, Dermody SS, Lemieux A, Denlinger RL, Cassidy R, al'Absi M, Hatsukami DK, Donny EC. Effects of 6-Week Use of Reduced-Nicotine Content Cigarettes in Smokers With and Without Elevated Depressive Symptoms. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Jan; 19(1):59-67. PMID: 27613885.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Nardone N, Donny EC, Hatsukami DK, Koopmeiners JS, Murphy SE, Strasser AA, Tidey JW, Vandrey R, Benowitz N. Estimations and predictors of non-compliance in switchers to reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Addiction. 2016 Dec; 111(12):2208-2216. PMID: 27367436.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Benowitz N, St Helen G, Dempsey DA, Jacob P, Tyndale RF. Disposition kinetics and metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in African American smokers: impact of CYP2A6 genetic variation and enzymatic activity. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2016 07; 26(7):340-50. PMID: 27035242; PMCID: PMC4892970 [Available on 07/01/17].
    39. Martin EM, Clapp PW, Rebuli ME, Pawlak EA, Glista-Baker E, Benowitz N, Fry RC, Jaspers I. E-cigarette use results in suppression of immune and inflammatory-response genes in nasal epithelial cells similar to cigarette smoke. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016 07 01; 311(1):L135-44. PMID: 27288488.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Flanagan CA, Koller KR, Wolfe AW, Thomas TK, Benowitz N, Renner CC, Hughes C, Hatsukami DK, Bronars C, Murphy NJ, Day G, Decker PA, Patten CA. Fetal Exposure to Carcinogens With Tobacco Use in Pregnancy: Phase 1 MAW Study Findings. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 11; 18(11):2162-2168. PMID: 27190400.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Ross KC, Gubner NR, Tyndale RF, Hawk LW, Lerman C, George TP, Cinciripini P, Schnoll RA, Benowitz N. Racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and nicotine intake from cigarette smoking. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2016 09; 148:1-7. PMID: 27180107.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Baurley JW, Edlund CK, Pardamean CI, Conti DV, Krasnow R, Javitz HS, Hops H, Swan GE, Benowitz N, Bergen AW. Genome-Wide Association of the Laboratory-Based Nicotine Metabolite Ratio in Three Ancestries. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 09; 18(9):1837-1844. PMID: 27113016; PMCID: PMC4978985.
    43. Anthenelli RM, Benowitz N, West R, St Aubin L, McRae T, Lawrence D, Ascher J, Russ C, Krishen A, Evins AE. Neuropsychiatric safety and efficacy of varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine patch in smokers with and without psychiatric disorders (EAGLES): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lancet. 2016 Jun 18; 387(10037):2507-20. PMID: 27116918.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Gubner NR, Kozar-Konieczna A, Szoltysek-Boldys I, Slodczyk-Mankowska E, Goniewicz J, Sobczak A, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Goniewicz ML. Cessation of alcohol consumption decreases rate of nicotine metabolism in male alcohol-dependent smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 06 01; 163:157-64. PMID: 27107849; PMCID: PMC4880506 [Available on 06/01/17].
    45. Denlinger RL, Smith TT, Murphy SE, Koopmeiners JS, Benowitz N, Hatsukami DK, Pacek LR, Colino C, Cwalina SN, Donny EC. Nicotine and Anatabine Exposure from Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes. Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Apr; 2(2):186-203. PMID: 29600258.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Ross KC, Dempsey DA, St Helen G, Delucchi K, Benowitz N. The Influence of Puff Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Rate of Nicotine Metabolism on Daily Nicotine Exposure in African American Smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016 06; 25(6):936-43. PMID: 27030603; PMCID: PMC4891233 [Available on 06/01/17].
    47. Nelson MD, Rezk-Hanna M, Rader F, Mason OR, Tang X, Shidban S, Rosenberry R, Benowitz N, Tashkin DP, Elashoff RM, Lindner JR, Victor RG. Acute Effect of Hookah Smoking on the Human Coronary Microcirculation. Am J Cardiol. 2016 Jun 01; 117(11):1747-54. PMID: 27067622.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Benowitz N, Burbank AD. Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: Implications for electronic cigarette use. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2016 08; 26(6):515-23. PMID: 27079891.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Brondfield M, Wu L, Benowitz N. Minoxidil-Associated Pleuropericardial Effusion. J Gen Intern Med. 2016 Sep; 31(9):1105. PMID: 26951281; PMCID: PMC4978667 [Available on 09/01/17].
    50. Northrup TF, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Hoh E, Quintana PJ, Hovell MF, Matt GE, Stotts AL. Thirdhand Smoke: State of the Science and a Call for Policy Expansion. Public Health Rep. 2016 Mar-Apr; 131(2):233-8. PMID: 26957657; PMCID: PMC4765971 [Available on 03/01/17].
    51. Nollen NL, Cox LS, Yu Q, Ellerbeck EF, Scheuermann TS, Benowitz N, Tyndale RF, Mayo MS, Ahluwalia JS. A clinical trial to examine disparities in quitting between African-American and White adult smokers: Design, accrual, and baseline characteristics. Contemp Clin Trials. 2016 Mar; 47:12-21. PMID: 26667382; PMCID: PMC4818177 [Available on 03/01/17].
    52. Northrup TF, Khan AM, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Hoh E, Hovell MF, Matt GE, Stotts AL. Thirdhand smoke contamination in hospital settings: assessing exposure risk for vulnerable paediatric patients. Tob Control. 2016 11; 25(6):619-623. PMID: 26635031.
      View in: PubMed
    53. St Helen G, Havel C, Dempsey DA, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Nicotine delivery, retention and pharmacokinetics from various electronic cigarettes. Addiction. 2016 Mar; 111(3):535-44. PMID: 26430813; PMCID: PMC4749433 [Available on 03/01/17].
    54. Donny EC, Denlinger RL, Tidey JW, Koopmeiners JS, Benowitz N, Vandrey RG, al'Absi M, Carmella SG, Cinciripini PM, Dermody SS, Drobes DJ, Hecht SS, Jensen J, Lane T, Le CT, McClernon FJ, Montoya ID, Murphy SE, Robinson JD, Stitzer ML, Strasser AA, Tindle H, Hatsukami DK. Randomized Trial of Reduced-Nicotine Standards for Cigarettes. N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct; 373(14):1340-9. PMID: 26422724; PMCID: PMC4642683.
    55. Morris PB, Ference BA, Jahangir E, Feldman DN, Ryan JJ, Bahrami H, El-Chami MF, Bhakta S, Winchester DE, Al-Mallah MH, Sanchez Shields M, Deedwania P, Mehta LS, Phan BA, Benowitz N. Cardiovascular Effects of Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarettes: Clinical Perspectives From the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Section Leadership Council and Early Career Councils of the American College of Cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Sep 22; 66(12):1378-91. PMID: 26383726.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Prochaska JJ, Benowitz N. Smoking cessation and the cardiovascular patient. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2015 Sep; 30(5):506-11. PMID: 26196657; PMCID: PMC4624444.
    57. Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Siew ED, Janz DR, Bernard GR, May AK, Jacob P, Havel C, Benowitz N, Ware LB. Cigarette Smoke Exposure and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2015 Sep; 43(9):1790-7. PMID: 26010690; PMCID: PMC4737582.
    58. Prochaska JJ, Benowitz N. The Past, Present, and Future of Nicotine Addiction Therapy. Annu Rev Med. 2016; 67:467-86. PMID: 26332005.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Benowitz N, Nardone N, Dains KM, Hall SM, Stewart S, Dempsey D, Jacob P. Effect of reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes on cigarette smoking behavior and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure: 2-year follow up. Addiction. 2015 Oct; 110(10):1667-75. PMID: 26198394; PMCID: PMC4565734 [Available on 10/01/16].
    60. Bergen AW, Michel M, Nishita D, Krasnow R, Javitz HS, Conneely KN, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Hops H, Zhu AZ, Baurley JW, McClure JB, Hall SM, Baker TB, Conti DV, Benowitz N, Lerman C, Tyndale RF, Swan GE. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption. PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0126113. PMID: 26132489; PMCID: PMC4488893.
    61. Tyndale RF, Zhu AZ, George TP, Cinciripini P, Hawk LW, Schnoll RA, Swan GE, Benowitz N, Heitjan DF, Lerman C. Lack of Associations of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genetic Variants with Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcomes in Caucasian Smokers despite Associations with Baseline Smoking. PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0128109. PMID: 26010901; PMCID: PMC4444267.
    62. Tanner JA, Novalen M, Jatlow P, Huestis MA, Murphy SE, Kaprio J, Kankaanpää A, Galanti L, Stefan C, George TP, Benowitz N, Lerman C, Tyndale RF. Nicotine metabolite ratio (3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) in plasma and urine by different analytical methods and laboratories: implications for clinical implementation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Aug; 24(8):1239-46. PMID: 26014804; PMCID: PMC4526326.
    63. Ebbert JO, Severson HH, Danaher BG, Benowitz N, Schroeder DR. Nicotine Metabolite Ratio Is Associated With Lozenge Use But Not Quitting in Smokeless Tobacco Users. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Mar; 18(3):366-70. PMID: 25977408.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Zhu AZ, Cox LS, Ahluwalia JS, Renner CC, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz N, Tyndale RF. Genetic and phenotypic variation in UGT2B17, a testosterone-metabolizing enzyme, is associated with BMI in males. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2015 May; 25(5):263-9. PMID: 25794161; PMCID: PMC4382380.
    65. Whitehead TP, Havel C, Metayer C, Benowitz N, Jacob P. Tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in dust from homes of smokeless tobacco users, active smokers, and nontobacco users. Chem Res Toxicol. 2015 May 18; 28(5):1007-14. PMID: 25794360; PMCID: PMC4827423.
    66. Whitsel LP, Benowitz N, Bhatnagar A, Bullen C, Goldstein F, Matthias-Gray L, Grossmeier J, Harris J, Isaac F, Loeppke R, Manley M, Moseley K, Niemiec T, O'Brien V, Palma-Davis L, Pronk N, Pshock J, Stave GM, Terry P. Guidance to employers on integrating e-cigarettes/electronic nicotine delivery systems into tobacco worksite policy. J Occup Environ Med. 2015 Mar; 57(3):334-43. PMID: 25742539.
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    67. Grana R, Benowitz N, Glantz S. Response to letter regarding article, "Electronic cigarettes: a scientific review". Circulation. 2015 Feb 10; 131(6):e342. PMID: 25815391.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Lerman C, Schnoll RA, Hawk LW, Cinciripini P, George TP, Wileyto EP, Swan GE, Benowitz N, Heitjan DF, Tyndale RF. Use of the nicotine metabolite ratio as a genetically informed biomarker of response to nicotine patch or varenicline for smoking cessation: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Feb; 3(2):131-138. PMID: 25588294; PMCID: PMC4480925.
    69. Bandiera FC, Ross KC, Taghavi S, Delucchi K, Tyndale RF, Benowitz N. Nicotine Dependence, Nicotine Metabolism, and the Extent of Compensation in Response to Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Sep; 17(9):1167-72. PMID: 25555385; PMCID: PMC4542742.
    70. Japuntich SJ, Eilers MA, Shenhav S, Park ER, Winickoff JP, Benowitz N, Rigotti NA. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among hospitalized nonsmokers with coronary heart disease. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Jan; 175(1):133-6. PMID: 25383761.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Benowitz N, Gan Q, Goniewicz ML, Lu W, Xu J, Li X, Jacob P, Glantz S. Different profiles of carcinogen exposure in Chinese compared with US cigarette smokers. Tob Control. 2015 Dec; 24(e4):e258-63. PMID: 25535294.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Hatsukami DK, Donny EC, Koopmeiners JS, Benowitz N. Compensatory smoking from gradual and immediate reduction in cigarette nicotine content. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Feb; 24(2):472-6. PMID: 25515551; PMCID: PMC4324025.
    73. Benowitz N, Nardone N, Hatsukami DK, Donny EC. Biochemical estimation of noncompliance with smoking of very low nicotine content cigarettes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Feb; 24(2):331-5. PMID: 25416718; PMCID: PMC4323626.
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    163. Zapawa LM, Hughes JR, Benowitz N, Rigotti NA, Shiffman S. Cautions and warnings on the US OTC label for nicotine replacement: what's a doctor to do? Addict Behav. 2011 Apr; 36(4):327-32. PMID: 21220188.
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    164. Frey P, Waters DD, DeMicco DA, Breazna A, Samuels L, Pipe A, Wun CC, Benowitz N. Impact of smoking on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary disease receiving contemporary medical therapy (from the Treating to New Targets [TNT] and the Incremental Decrease in End Points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering [IDEAL] trials). Am J Cardiol. 2011 Jan 15; 107(2):145-50. PMID: 21129718.
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    165. Benowitz N, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Havel C, Wilson M, Jacob P. Urine menthol as a biomarker of mentholated cigarette smoking. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Dec; 19(12):3013-9. PMID: 20962297; PMCID: PMC3005539.
    166. Hatsukami DK, Perkins KA, Lesage MG, Ashley DL, Henningfield JE, Benowitz N, Backinger CL, Zeller M. Nicotine reduction revisited: science and future directions. Tob Control. 2010 Oct; 19(5):e1-10. PMID: 20876072; PMCID: PMC4618689.
    167. Piano MR, Benowitz N, Fitzgerald GA, Corbridge S, Heath J, Hahn E, Pechacek TF, Howard G. Impact of smokeless tobacco products on cardiovascular disease: implications for policy, prevention, and treatment: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010 Oct 12; 122(15):1520-44. PMID: 20837898.
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    168. Benowitz N, Goniewicz ML, Eisner MD, Lazcano-Ponce E, Zielinska-Danch W, Koszowski B, Sobczak A, Havel C, Jacob P. Urine cotinine underestimates exposure to the tobacco-derived lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in passive compared with active smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Nov; 19(11):2795-800. PMID: 20805316; PMCID: PMC2976834.
    169. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Benowitz N. Carbamazepine but not valproate induces CYP2A6 activity in smokers with mental illness. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Oct; 19(10):2582-9. PMID: 20719908; PMCID: PMC2952059.
    170. Mumenthaler MS, Benowitz N, Taylor JL, Friedman L, Noda A, Yesavage JA. Nicotine deprivation and pilot performance during simulated flight. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2010 Jul; 81(7):660-4. PMID: 20597245.
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    171. Aquilina NJ, Delgado-Saborit JM, Meddings C, Baker S, Harrison RM, Jacob P, Wilson M, Yu L, Duan M, Benowitz N. Environmental and biological monitoring of exposures to PAHs and ETS in the general population. Environ Int. 2010 Oct; 36(7):763-71. PMID: 20591483; PMCID: PMC3148021.
    172. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Lu SE, Kumar S, Shen J, Foulds J, Kipen H, Benowitz N. Higher nicotine levels in schizophrenia compared with controls after smoking a single cigarette. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010 Aug; 12(8):855-9. PMID: 20584771; PMCID: PMC2910875.
    173. Benowitz N. Nicotine addiction. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 17; 362(24):2295-303. PMID: 20554984; PMCID: PMC2928221.
    174. Gan Q, Lu W, Xu J, Li X, Goniewicz M, Benowitz N, Glantz SA. Chinese 'low-tar' cigarettes do not deliver lower levels of nicotine and carcinogens. Tob Control. 2010 Oct; 19(5):374-9. PMID: 20507920; PMCID: PMC2978929.
    175. Benowitz N, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Yu L, Jacob P. Estimation of nicotine dose after low-level exposure using plasma and urine nicotine metabolites. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 May; 19(5):1160-6. PMID: 20447913; PMCID: PMC2867075.
    176. Foianini A, Joseph Wiegand T, Benowitz N. What is the role of lidocaine or phenytoin in tricyclic antidepressant-induced cardiotoxicity? Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010 May; 48(4):325-30. PMID: 20507243.
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    177. Gandhi KK, Williams JM, Menza M, Galazyn M, Benowitz N. Higher serum caffeine in smokers with schizophrenia compared to smoking controls. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Jul 01; 110(1-2):151-5. PMID: 20227198; PMCID: PMC2885547.
    178. Hukkanen J, Ukkola O, Benowitz N. Varenicline and pheochromocytoma. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Mar 02; 152(5):335-6. PMID: 20194248.
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    179. Benowitz N. Secondhand smoke and infectious disease in adults: A global women's health concern: Comment on "Passive Smoking and Tuberculosis". Arch Intern Med. 2010 Feb 08; 170(3):292-3. PMID: 20142577.
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    180. Mwenifumbo JC, Zhou Q, Benowitz N, Sellers EM, Tyndale RF. New CYP2A6 gene deletion and conversion variants in a population of Black African descent. Pharmacogenomics. 2010 Feb; 11(2):189-98. PMID: 20136358; PMCID: PMC2922202.
    181. Hukkanen J, Jacob Iii P, Peng M, Dempsey D, Benowitz N. Effects of nicotine on cytochrome P450 2A6 and 2E1 activities. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Feb; 69(2):152-9. PMID: 20233178; PMCID: PMC2824476.
    182. Rigotti NA, Pipe AL, Benowitz N, Arteaga C, Garza D, Tonstad S. Efficacy and safety of varenicline for smoking cessation in patients with cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial. Circulation. 2010 Jan 19; 121(2):221-9. PMID: 20048210; PMCID: PMC4096941.
    183. Ho MK, Faseru B, Choi WS, Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Thomas JL, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz N, Tyndale RF. Utility and relationships of biomarkers of smoking in African-American light smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Dec; 18(12):3426-34. PMID: 19959692; PMCID: PMC2791893.
    184. Goniewicz ML, Havel CM, Peng MW, Jacob P, Dempsey D, Yu L, Zielinska-Danch W, Koszowski B, Czogala J, Sobczak A, Benowitz N. Elimination kinetics of the tobacco-specific biomarker and lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Dec; 18(12):3421-5. PMID: 19959691; PMCID: PMC2804843.
    185. Gan Q, Yang J, Yang G, Goniewicz M, Benowitz N, Glantz SA. Chinese "herbal" cigarettes are as carcinogenic and addictive as regular cigarettes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Dec; 18(12):3497-501. PMID: 19959701; PMCID: PMC2789338.
    186. Bernert JT, Jacob P, Holiday DB, Benowitz N, Sosnoff CS, Doig MV, Feyerabend C, Aldous KM, Sharifi M, Kellogg MD, Langman LJ. Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: a round-robin study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Dec; 11(12):1458-66. PMID: 19933777; PMCID: PMC3167685.
    187. Hovell MF, Zakarian JM, Matt GE, Liles S, Jones JA, Hofstetter CR, Larson SN, Benowitz N. Counseling to reduce children's secondhand smoke exposure and help parents quit smoking: a controlled trial. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Dec; 11(12):1383-94. PMID: 19875762; PMCID: PMC2784487.
    188. Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Benowitz N, Jacob P, Swan GE. Genetic influences on individual differences in nicotine glucuronidation. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2009 Oct; 12(5):507-13. PMID: 19803778; PMCID: PMC3202423.
    189. Benowitz N, Schultz KE, Haller CA, Wu AH, Dains KM, Jacob P. Prevalence of smoking assessed biochemically in an urban public hospital: a rationale for routine cotinine screening. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Oct 01; 170(7):885-91. PMID: 19713287; PMCID: PMC2765360.
    190. Wang YG, Swick TJ, Carter LP, Thorpy MJ, Benowitz N. Safety overview of postmarketing and clinical experience of sodium oxybate (Xyrem): abuse, misuse, dependence, and diversion. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009 Aug 15; 5(4):365-71. PMID: 19968016; PMCID: PMC2725257.
    191. Eisner MD, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Balmes J, Blanc PD. Longer term exposure to secondhand smoke and health outcomes in COPD: impact of urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Aug; 11(8):945-53. PMID: 19587064; PMCID: PMC2711983.
    192. Thomas PD, Mi H, Swan GE, Lerman C, Benowitz N, Tyndale RF, Bergen AW, Conti DV. A systems biology network model for genetic association studies of nicotine addiction and treatment. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009 Jul; 19(7):538-51. PMID: 19525886.
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    193. Benowitz N, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Herrera B, Yu L, Jacob P. Urine nicotine metabolite concentrations in relation to plasma cotinine during low-level nicotine exposure. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Aug; 11(8):954-60. PMID: 19525206; PMCID: PMC2734286.
    194. He Y, Bergen AW, Hops H, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Webster C, Benowitz N, Swan GE. Genome-wide linkage of cotinine pharmacokinetics suggests candidate regions on chromosomes 9 and 11. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009 Jun 05; 150B(4):554-9. PMID: 18785207; PMCID: PMC2693302.
    195. Dukic VM, Niessner M, Pickett KE, Benowitz N, Wakschlag LS. Calibrating self-reported measures of maternal smoking in pregnancy via bioassays using a Monte Carlo approach. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 06; 6(6):1744-59. PMID: 19578458; PMCID: PMC2705215.
    196. Bergen AW, Conti DV, Van Den Berg D, Lee W, Liu J, Li D, Guo N, Mi H, Thomas PD, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Krasnow R, He Y, Nishita D, Jiang R, McClure JB, Tildesley E, Hops H, Tyndale RF, Benowitz N, Lerman C, Swan GE. Dopamine genes and nicotine dependence in treatment-seeking and community smokers. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Sep; 34(10):2252-64. PMID: 19494806; PMCID: PMC3558036.
    197. Swan GE, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Bergen AW, He Y, Tyndale RF, Benowitz N. Genetic and environmental influences on the ratio of 3'hydroxycotinine to cotinine in plasma and urine. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009 May; 19(5):388-98. PMID: 19300303; PMCID: PMC2849278.
    198. Bondy SJ, Zhang B, Kreiger N, Selby P, Benowitz N, Travis H, Florescu A, Greenspan NR, Ferrence R. Impact of an indoor smoking ban on bar workers' exposure to secondhand smoke. J Occup Environ Med. 2009 May; 51(5):612-9. PMID: 19369895.
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    199. Benowitz N, Dains KM, Hall SM, Stewart S, Wilson M, Dempsey D, Jacob P. Progressive commercial cigarette yield reduction: biochemical exposure and behavioral assessment. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Mar; 18(3):876-83. PMID: 19258480; PMCID: PMC2802575.
    200. Rubinstein ML, Benowitz N, Auerback GM, Moscicki AB. Withdrawal in adolescent light smokers following 24-hour abstinence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Feb; 11(2):185-9. PMID: 19246428; PMCID: PMC2658900.
    201. Benowitz N, Hukkanen J, Jacob P. Nicotine chemistry, metabolism, kinetics and biomarkers. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2009; (192):29-60. PMID: 19184645; PMCID: PMC2953858.
    202. Benowitz N. Pharmacology of nicotine: addiction, smoking-induced disease, and therapeutics. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009; 49:57-71. PMID: 18834313; PMCID: PMC2946180.
    203. Benowitz N, Bernert JT, Caraballo RS, Holiday DB, Wang J. Optimal serum cotinine levels for distinguishing cigarette smokers and nonsmokers within different racial/ethnic groups in the United States between 1999 and 2004. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Jan 15; 169(2):236-48. PMID: 19019851.
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    204. Schnoll RA, Patterson F, Wileyto EP, Tyndale RF, Benowitz N, Lerman C. Nicotine metabolic rate predicts successful smoking cessation with transdermal nicotine: a validation study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Mar; 92(1):6-11. PMID: 19000709; PMCID: PMC2657225.
    205. Jacob P, Havel C, Lee DH, Yu L, Eisner MD, Benowitz N. Subpicogram per milliliter determination of the tobacco-specific carcinogen metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2008 Nov 01; 80(21):8115-21. PMID: 18841944; PMCID: PMC3167662.
    206. Benowitz N. Nicotine and postoperative management of pain. Anesth Analg. 2008 Sep; 107(3):739-41. PMID: 18713874.
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    207. Perkins KA, Lerman C, Coddington S, Jetton C, Karelitz JL, Wilson A, Jennings JR, Ferrell R, Bergen AW, Benowitz N. Gene and gene by sex associations with initial sensitivity to nicotine in nonsmokers. Behav Pharmacol. 2008 Sep; 19(5-6):630-40. PMID: 18690117; PMCID: PMC2743299.
    208. Perkins KA, Lerman C, Grottenthaler A, Ciccocioppo MM, Milanak M, Conklin CA, Bergen AW, Benowitz N. Dopamine and opioid gene variants are associated with increased smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood. Behav Pharmacol. 2008 Sep; 19(5-6):641-9. PMID: 18690118; PMCID: PMC2717609.
    209. Sohn M, Benowitz N, Stotts N, Christopherson D, Kim KS, Jang YS, Ahn MS, Froelicher ES. Smoking behavior in men hospitalized with cardiovascular disease in Korea: a cross-sectional descriptive study. Heart Lung. 2008 Sep-Oct; 37(5):366-79. PMID: 18790337.
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    210. Rubinstein ML, Benowitz N, Auerback GM, Moscicki AB. Rate of nicotine metabolism and withdrawal symptoms in adolescent light smokers. Pediatrics. 2008 Sep; 122(3):e643-7. PMID: 18762498; PMCID: PMC2722964.
    211. Rubinstein ML, Benowitz N, Auerback GM, Moscicki AB. A randomized trial of nicotine nasal spray in adolescent smokers. Pediatrics. 2008 Sep; 122(3):e595-600. PMID: 18762494; PMCID: PMC2744418.
    212. Tutka P, Dempsey DA, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Kroetz DL. Nicotine metabolism in pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Aug; 10(8):1385-90. PMID: 18686186; PMCID: PMC2923225.
    213. Xing J, Chen M, Wood CG, Lin J, Spitz MR, Ma J, Amos CI, Shields PG, Benowitz N, Gu J, de Andrade M, Swan GE, Wu X. Mitochondrial DNA content: its genetic heritability and association with renal cell carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Aug 06; 100(15):1104-12. PMID: 18664653; PMCID: PMC2720693.
    214. Conti DV, Lee W, Li D, Liu J, Van Den Berg D, Thomas PD, Bergen AW, Swan GE, Tyndale RF, Benowitz N, Lerman C. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta2 subunit gene implicated in a systems-based candidate gene study of smoking cessation. Hum Mol Genet. 2008 Sep 15; 17(18):2834-48. PMID: 18593715; PMCID: PMC2525499.
    215. Weiss ST, McLeod HL, Flockhart DA, Dolan ME, Benowitz N, Johnson JA, Ratain MJ, Giacomini KM. Creating and evaluating genetic tests predictive of drug response. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2008 07; 7(7):568-74. PMID: 18587383; PMCID: PMC2682785.
    216. Piper ME, McCarthy DE, Bolt DM, Smith SS, Lerman C, Benowitz N, Fiore MC, Baker TB. Assessing dimensions of nicotine dependence: an evaluation of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Jun; 10(6):1009-20. PMID: 18584464; PMCID: PMC2614360.
    217. Haller C, Kearney T, Bent S, Ko R, Benowitz N, Olson K. Dietary supplement adverse events: report of a one-year poison center surveillance project. J Med Toxicol. 2008 Jun; 4(2):84-92. PMID: 18570167; PMCID: PMC3550135.
    218. Triche EW, Grosso LM, Belanger K, Darefsky AS, Benowitz N, Bracken MB. Chocolate consumption in pregnancy and reduced likelihood of preeclampsia. Epidemiology. 2008 May; 19(3):459-64. PMID: 18379424; PMCID: PMC2782959.
    219. Benowitz N. Neurobiology of nicotine addiction: implications for smoking cessation treatment. Am J Med. 2008 Apr; 121(4 Suppl 1):S3-10. PMID: 18342164.
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    220. Haller CA, Duan M, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Human pharmacology of a performance-enhancing dietary supplement under resting and exercise conditions. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Jun; 65(6):833-40. PMID: 18341680; PMCID: PMC2485232.
    221. Grosso LM, Triche E, Benowitz N, Bracken MB. Prenatal caffeine assessment: fetal and maternal biomarkers or self-reported intake? Ann Epidemiol. 2008 Mar; 18(3):172-8. PMID: 18083538; PMCID: PMC2275917.
    222. Figueiredo VC, Szklo M, Szklo AS, Benowitz N, Lozana JA, Casado L, Masson E, Samet J. Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil. Rev Saude Publica. 2007 Dec; 41(6):954-62. PMID: 17992352.
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    223. Ring HZ, Valdes AM, Nishita DM, Prasad S, Jacob P, Tyndale RF, Swan GE, Benowitz N. Gene-gene interactions between CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 in nicotine metabolism. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Dec; 17(12):1007-15. PMID: 18004205.
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    224. Benowitz N, Hall SM, Stewart S, Wilson M, Dempsey D, Jacob P. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure with smoking of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarette. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Nov; 16(11):2479-85. PMID: 18006940.
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    225. Lin J, Swan GE, Shields PG, Benowitz N, Gu J, Amos CI, de Andrade M, Spitz MR, Wu X. Mutagen sensitivity and genetic variants in nucleotide excision repair pathway: genotype-phenotype correlation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Oct; 16(10):2065-71. PMID: 17932354.
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    226. Lazcano-Ponce E, Benowitz N, Sanchez-Zamorano LM, Barbosa-Sanchez L, Valdes-Salgado R, Jacob P, Diaz R, Hernandez-Avila M. Secondhand smoke exposure in Mexican discotheques. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Oct; 9(10):1021-6. PMID: 17852765.
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    227. Etter JF, Lukas RJ, Benowitz N, West R, Dresler CM. Cytisine for smoking cessation: a research agenda. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008 Jan 01; 92(1-3):3-8. PMID: 17825502.
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    228. Hutchison KE, Allen DL, Filbey FM, Jepson C, Lerman C, Benowitz N, Stitzel J, Bryan A, McGeary J, Haughey HM. CHRNA4 and tobacco dependence: from gene regulation to treatment outcome. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Sep; 64(9):1078-86. PMID: 17768273.
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    229. Lerman C, LeSage MG, Perkins KA, O'Malley SS, Siegel SJ, Benowitz N, Corrigall WA. Translational research in medication development for nicotine dependence. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2007 Sep; 6(9):746-62. PMID: 17690709.
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    230. Sohn M, Stotts NA, Benowitz N, Christopherson D, Kim KS, Jang YS, Ahn MS, Froelicher ES. Beliefs about health, smoking, and future smoking cessation among South Korean men hospitalized for cardiovascular disease. Heart Lung. 2007 Sep-Oct; 36(5):339-47. PMID: 17845880.
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    231. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Steinberg ML, Foulds J, Ziedonis DM, Benowitz N. Higher nicotine and carbon monoxide levels in menthol cigarette smokers with and without schizophrenia. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Aug; 9(8):873-81. PMID: 17654300.
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    232. Stepanov I, Hecht SS, Lindgren B, Jacob P, Wilson M, Benowitz N. Relationship of human toenail nicotine, cotinine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol to levels of these biomarkers in plasma and urine. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jul; 16(7):1382-6. PMID: 17627002.
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    233. Benowitz N. Cigarette smoking and the personalization of irinotecan therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Jul 01; 25(19):2646-7. PMID: 17563392.
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    234. Swan GE, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Krasnow RE, Wilhelmsen KC, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Genetic and environmental sources of variation in heart rate response to infused nicotine in twins. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jun; 16(6):1057-64. PMID: 17548663.
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    235. Lee AM, Jepson C, Shields PG, Benowitz N, Lerman C, Tyndale RF. CYP2B6 genotype does not alter nicotine metabolism, plasma levels, or abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jun; 16(6):1312-4. PMID: 17548706.
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    236. Altman RB, Benowitz N, Gurwitz D, Lunshof J, Relling M, Lamba J, Wieben E, Mooney S, Giacomini K, Weiss S, Johnson JA, McLeod H, Flockhart D, Weinshilboum R, Shuldiner AR, Roden D, Krauss RM, Ratain M. Genetic nondiscrimination legislation: a critical prerequisite for pharmacogenomics data sharing. Pharmacogenomics. 2007 May; 8(5):519. PMID: 17465717.
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    237. Dukic VM, Niessner M, Benowitz N, Hans S, Wakschlag L. Modeling the relationship of cotinine and self-reported measures of maternal smoking during pregnancy: a deterministic approach. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Apr; 9(4):453-65. PMID: 17454700.
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    238. Kandel DB, Hu MC, Schaffran C, Udry JR, Benowitz N. Urine nicotine metabolites and smoking behavior in a multiracial/multiethnic national sample of young adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Apr 15; 165(8):901-10. PMID: 17322544.
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    239. Jacob P, Wilson M, Benowitz N. Determination of phenolic metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine as their pentafluorobenzyl ether derivatives using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2007 Jan 15; 79(2):587-98. PMID: 17222024.
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    240. Levi M, Dempsey DA, Benowitz N, Sheiner LB. Prediction methods for nicotine clearance using cotinine and 3-hydroxy-cotinine spot saliva samples II. Model application. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2007 Feb; 34(1):23-34. PMID: 17206525.
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    241. Levi M, Dempsey DA, Benowitz N, Sheiner LB. Population pharmacokinetics of nicotine and its metabolites I. Model development. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2007 Feb; 34(1):5-21. PMID: 17206524.
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    242. Mabry PL, Tooze JA, Moser RP, Augustson EM, Malcolm RJ, Benowitz N. Nicotine, cotinine, withdrawal, and craving patterns during smoking and nicotine nasal spray use: results from a pilot study with African American men. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Jan; 9(1):65-82. PMID: 17365738.
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    243. Matt GE, Hovell MF, Quintana PJ, Zakarian J, Liles S, Meltzer SB, Benowitz N. The variability of urinary cotinine levels in young children: implications for measuring ETS exposure. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Jan; 9(1):83-92. PMID: 17365739.
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    244. Rubinstein ML, Thompson PJ, Benowitz N, Shiffman S, Moscicki AB. Cotinine levels in relation to smoking behavior and addiction in young adolescent smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Jan; 9(1):129-35. PMID: 17365743.
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    245. Benowitz N, Jacob P, Herrera B. Nicotine intake and dose response when smoking reduced-nicotine content cigarettes. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Dec; 80(6):703-14. PMID: 17178270.
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    246. Roden DM, Altman RB, Benowitz N, Flockhart DA, Giacomini KM, Johnson JA, Krauss RM, McLeod HL, Ratain MJ, Relling MV, Ring HZ, Shuldiner AR, Weinshilboum RM, Weiss ST. Pharmacogenomics: challenges and opportunities. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Nov 21; 145(10):749-57. PMID: 17116919.
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    247. Benowitz N, Swan GE, Jacob P, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Tyndale RF. CYP2A6 genotype and the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Nov; 80(5):457-67. PMID: 17112802.
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    248. Hukkanen J, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Effect of grapefruit juice on cytochrome P450 2A6 and nicotine renal clearance. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Nov; 80(5):522-30. PMID: 17112808.
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    249. Blackford AL, Yang G, Hernandez-Avila M, Przewozniak K, Zatonski W, Figueiredo V, Avila-Tang E, Ma J, Benowitz N, Samet JM. Cotinine concentration in smokers from different countries: relationship with amount smoked and cigarette type. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Oct; 15(10):1799-804. PMID: 17021350.
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    250. Johnstone E, Benowitz N, Cargill A, Jacob R, Hinks L, Day I, Murphy M, Walton R. Determinants of the rate of nicotine metabolism and effects on smoking behavior. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Oct; 80(4):319-30. PMID: 17015050.
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    251. Repace J, Hughes E, Benowitz N. Exposure to second-hand smoke air pollution assessed from bar patrons' urinary cotinine. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Oct; 8(5):701-11. PMID: 17008197.
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    252. Thai D, Dyer JE, Benowitz N, Haller CA. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and ethanol effects and interactions in humans. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 Oct; 26(5):524-9. PMID: 16974199; PMCID: PMC2766839.
    253. Pletcher MJ, Hulley BJ, Houston T, Kiefe CI, Benowitz N, Sidney S. Menthol cigarettes, smoking cessation, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary function: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Sep 25; 166(17):1915-22. PMID: 17000950.
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    254. Murphy NG, Albin C, Tai W, Benowitz N. Anabasine toxicity from a topical folk remedy. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2006 Sep; 45(7):669-71. PMID: 16928847.
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    255. Matta SG, Balfour DJ, Benowitz N, Boyd RT, Buccafusco JJ, Caggiula AR, Craig CR, Collins AC, Damaj MI, Donny EC, Gardiner PS, Grady SR, Heberlein U, Leonard SS, Levin ED, Lukas RJ, Markou A, Marks MJ, McCallum SE, Parameswaran N, Perkins KA, Picciotto MR, Quik M, Rose JE, Rothenfluh A, Schafer WR, Stolerman IP, Tyndale RF, Wehner JM, Zirger JM. Guidelines on nicotine dose selection for in vivo research. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Feb; 190(3):269-319. PMID: 16896961.
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    256. Kandel DB, Schaffran C, Griesler PC, Hu MC, Davies M, Benowitz N. Salivary cotinine concentration versus self-reported cigarette smoking: Three patterns of inconsistency in adolescence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Aug; 8(4):525-37. PMID: 16920650; PMCID: PMC2538943.
    257. Hatsukami DK, Benowitz N, Rennard SI, Oncken C, Hecht SS. Biomarkers to assess the utility of potential reduced exposure tobacco products. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Aug; 8(4):600-22. PMID: 16920658.
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    258. Block G, Dietrich M, Norkus E, Jensen C, Benowitz N, Morrow JD, Hudes M, Packer L. Intraindividual variability of plasma antioxidants, markers of oxidative stress, C-reactive protein, cotinine, and other biomarkers. Epidemiology. 2006 Jul; 17(4):404-12. PMID: 16755268.
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    259. Lea RA, Dickson S, Benowitz N. Within-subject variation of the salivary 3HC/COT ratio in regular daily smokers: prospects for estimating CYP2A6 enzyme activity in large-scale surveys of nicotine metabolic rate. J Anal Toxicol. 2006 Jul-Aug; 30(6):386-9. PMID: 16872570.
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    260. Wu X, Spitz MR, Amos CI, Lin J, Shao L, Gu J, de Andrade M, Benowitz N, Shields PG, Swan GE. Mutagen sensitivity has high heritability: evidence from a twin study. Cancer Res. 2006 Jun 15; 66(12):5993-6. PMID: 16778168.
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    261. Eisner MD, Balmes J, Yelin EH, Katz PP, Hammond SK, Benowitz N, Blanc PD. Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes. BMC Pulm Med. 2006 Jun 06; 6:12. PMID: 16756671; PMCID: PMC1524811.
    262. Swan GE, Hops H, Wilhelmsen KC, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Cheng LS, Hudmon KS, Amos CI, Feiler HS, Ring HZ, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, Benowitz N. A genome-wide screen for nicotine dependence susceptibility loci. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006 Jun 05; 141B(4):354-60. PMID: 16671072; PMCID: PMC2563426.
    263. Lerman C, Tyndale R, Patterson F, Wileyto EP, Shields PG, Pinto A, Benowitz N. Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts efficacy of transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Jun; 79(6):600-8. PMID: 16765148.
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    264. Benowitz N, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Swan GE, Jacob P. Female sex and oral contraceptive use accelerate nicotine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 May; 79(5):480-8. PMID: 16678549.
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    265. Le Houezec J, Benowitz N. Smoking habits, nicotine use, and congenital malformations. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 May; 107(5):1166; author reply 1168. PMID: 16648425.
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    266. Al Koudsi N, Mwenifumbo JC, Sellers EM, Benowitz N, Swan GE, Tyndale RF. Characterization of the novel CYP2A6*21 allele using in vivo nicotine kinetics. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Jun; 62(6):481-4. PMID: 16758265.
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    267. Grosso LM, Triche EW, Belanger K, Benowitz N, Holford TR, Bracken MB. Caffeine metabolites in umbilical cord blood, cytochrome P-450 1A2 activity, and intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 01; 163(11):1035-41. PMID: 16641310.
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    268. Hatsukami DK, Benowitz N, Rennard SI, Oncken C, Hecht SS. Biomarkers to assess the utility of potential reduced exposure tobacco products. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Apr; 8(2):169-91. PMID: 16766411.
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    269. Lea R, Benowitz N, Green M, Fowles J, Vishvanath A, Dickson S, Lea M, Woodward A, Chambers G, Phillips D. Ethnic differences in nicotine metabolic rate among New Zealanders. N Z Med J. 2005 Dec 16; 118(1227):U1773. PMID: 16372023.
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    270. Wilhelmsen KC, Swan GE, Cheng LS, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Amos CI, Feiler HS, Hudmon KS, Ring HZ, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, Benowitz N, Hops H. Support for previously identified alcoholism susceptibility Loci in a cohort selected for smoking behavior. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Dec; 29(12):2108-15. PMID: 16385180.
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    271. Haller CA, Benowitz N, Jacob P. Hemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight-loss supplements in humans. Am J Med. 2005 Sep; 118(9):998-1003. PMID: 16164886.
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    272. Hukkanen J, Dempsey D, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Effect of pregnancy on a measure of FMO3 activity. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Aug; 60(2):224-6. PMID: 16042678; PMCID: PMC1884929.
    273. Williams JM, Ziedonis DM, Abanyie F, Steinberg ML, Foulds J, Benowitz N. Increased nicotine and cotinine levels in smokers with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder is not a metabolic effect. Schizophr Res. 2005 Nov 15; 79(2-3):323-35. PMID: 15961287.
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    274. Benowitz N, Jacob P, Bernert JT, Wilson M, Wang L, Allen F, Dempsey D. Carcinogen exposure during short-term switching from regular to "light" cigarettes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Jun; 14(6):1376-83. PMID: 15941944.
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    275. Haller CA, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Short-term metabolic and hemodynamic effects of ephedra and guarana combinations. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Jun; 77(6):560-71. PMID: 15961987.
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    276. Hukkanen J, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine. Pharmacol Rev. 2005 Mar; 57(1):79-115. PMID: 15734728.
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    277. Hukkanen J, Gourlay SG, Kenkare S, Benowitz N. Influence of menstrual cycle on cytochrome P450 2A6 activity and cardiovascular effects of nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Mar; 77(3):159-69. PMID: 15735610.
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    278. Swan GE, Benowitz N, Lessov CN, Jacob P, Tyndale RF, Wilhelmsen K. Nicotine metabolism: the impact of CYP2A6 on estimates of additive genetic influence. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2005 Feb; 15(2):115-25. PMID: 15861035.
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    279. Vukovich MD, Schoorman R, Heilman C, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Caffeine-herbal ephedra combination increases resting energy expenditure, heart rate and blood pressure. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005 Jan-Feb; 32(1-2):47-53. PMID: 15730434.
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    280. Gelal A, Balkan D, Ozzeybek D, Kaplan YC, Gurler S, Guven H, Benowitz N. Effect of menthol on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of felodipine in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan; 60(11):785-90. PMID: 15592925.
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    281. Campuzano JC, Hernandez-Avila M, Jaakkola MS, Lazcano Ponce E, Kuri Morales P, Bautista P, Benowitz N, Ceraso M, Blackford A, Samet JM. Determinants of salivary cotinine levels among current smokers in Mexico. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004 Dec; 6(6):997-1008. PMID: 15801572.
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    282. Arcavi L, Benowitz N. Cigarette smoking and infection. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Nov 08; 164(20):2206-16. PMID: 15534156.
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    283. Swan GE, Benowitz N, Jacob P, Lessov CN, Tyndale RF, Wilhelmsen K, Krasnow RE, McElroy MR, Moore SE, Wambach M. Pharmacogenetics of nicotine metabolism in twins: methods and procedures. Twin Res. 2004 Oct; 7(5):435-48. PMID: 15527659.
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    284. Hughes JR, Benowitz N, Hatsukami D, Mermelstein RJ, Shiffman S. Clarification of SRNT workgroup guidelines for measures in clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004 Oct; 6(5):863-4. PMID: 15700922.
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    285. Dempsey D, Tutka P, Jacob P, Allen F, Schoedel K, Tyndale RF, Benowitz N. Nicotine metabolite ratio as an index of cytochrome P450 2A6 metabolic activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Jul; 76(1):64-72. PMID: 15229465.
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    286. Benowitz N, Herrera B, Jacob P. Mentholated cigarette smoking inhibits nicotine metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Sep; 310(3):1208-15. PMID: 15084646.
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    287. Benowitz N, Dempsey D. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004 Apr; 6 Suppl 2:S189-202. PMID: 15203821.
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    288. Haller CA, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Enhanced stimulant and metabolic effects of combined ephedrine and caffeine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Apr; 75(4):259-73. PMID: 15060505.
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    289. Haller CA, Duan M, Benowitz N, Jacob P. Concentrations of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine in commercial dietary supplements. J Anal Toxicol. 2004 Apr; 28(3):145-51. PMID: 15107143.
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    290. Jacob P, Haller CA, Duan M, Yu L, Peng M, Benowitz N. Determination of ephedra alkaloid and caffeine concentrations in dietary supplements and biological fluids. J Anal Toxicol. 2004 Apr; 28(3):152-9. PMID: 15107144.
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    291. Lerman C, Kaufmann V, Rukstalis M, Patterson F, Perkins K, Audrain-McGovern J, Benowitz N. Individualizing nicotine replacement therapy for the treatment of tobacco dependence: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Mar 16; 140(6):426-33. PMID: 15023708.
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    292. Sivarajan Froelicher ES, Miller NH, Christopherson DJ, Martin K, Parker KM, Amonetti M, Lin Z, Sohn M, Benowitz N, Taylor CB, Bacchetti P. High rates of sustained smoking cessation in women hospitalized with cardiovascular disease: the Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS). Circulation. 2004 Feb 10; 109(5):587-93. PMID: 14769679.
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    293. Benowitz N. Smoking less as a treatment goal for those who cannot stop smoking. Am J Med. 2004 Feb 01; 116(3):203-5. PMID: 14749168.
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    294. Sohn M, Hartley C, Froelicher ES, Benowitz N. Tobacco use and dependence. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2003 Nov; 19(4):250-60. PMID: 14702859.
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    295. Benowitz N, Peng M, Jacob P. Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on chlorzoxazone and caffeine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Nov; 74(5):468-74. PMID: 14586387.
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    296. Swan GE, Hudmon KS, Jack LM, Hemberger K, Carmelli D, Khroyan TV, Ring HZ, Hops H, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, McBride D, Benowitz N, Webster C, Wilhelmsen KC, Feiler HS, Koenig B, Caron L, Illes J, Cheng LS. Environmental and genetic determinants of tobacco use: methodology for a multidisciplinary, longitudinal family-based investigation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Oct; 12(10):994-1005. PMID: 14578134; PMCID: PMC2587265.
    297. Miao FJ, Green P, Benowitz N, Levine JD. Vagal modulation of spinal nicotine-induced inhibition of the inflammatory response mediated by descending antinociceptive controls. Neuropharmacology. 2003 Oct; 45(5):605-11. PMID: 12941374.
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    298. Benowitz N, Pomerleau OF, Pomerleau CS, Jacob P. Nicotine metabolite ratio as a predictor of cigarette consumption. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003 Oct; 5(5):621-4. PMID: 14577978.
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    299. Abrams DI, Hilton JF, Leiser RJ, Shade SB, Elbeik TA, Aweeka FT, Benowitz N, Bredt BM, Kosel B, Aberg JA, Deeks SG, Mitchell TF, Mulligan K, Bacchetti P, McCune JM, Schambelan M. Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med. 2003 Aug 19; 139(4):258-66. PMID: 12965981.
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    300. Gelal A, Guven H, Balkan D, Artok L, Benowitz N. Influence of menthol on caffeine disposition and pharmacodynamics in healthy female volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Sep; 59(5-6):417-22. PMID: 12915954.
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    301. Benowitz N. Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology and implications for treatment. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2003 Jul-Aug; 46(1):91-111. PMID: 12920702.
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    302. Patterson F, Benowitz N, Shields P, Kaufmann V, Jepson C, Wileyto P, Kucharski S, Lerman C. Individual differences in nicotine intake per cigarette. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 May; 12(5):468-71. PMID: 12750245.
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    303. Jaakkola MS, Ma J, Yang G, Chin MF, Benowitz N, Ceraso M, Samet JM. Determinants of salivary cotinine concentrations in Chinese male smokers. Prev Med. 2003 Mar; 36(3):282-90. PMID: 12634019.
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    304. Winston L, Benowitz N. Once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides: how much monitoring is truly required? Am J Med. 2003 Feb 15; 114(3):239-40. PMID: 12637142.
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    305. Benowitz N. Basic cardiovascular research and its implications for the medicinal use of nicotine. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Feb 05; 41(3):497-8. PMID: 12575982.
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    306. Henningfield JE, Benowitz N, Ahijevych K, Garrett BE, Connolly GN, Wayne GF. Does menthol enhance the addictiveness of cigarettes? An agenda for research. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003 Feb; 5(1):9-11. PMID: 12745502.
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    307. Dietrich M, Block G, Benowitz N, Morrow JD, Hudes M, Jacob P, Norkus EP, Packer L. Vitamin C supplementation decreases oxidative stress biomarker f2-isoprostanes in plasma of nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Nutr Cancer. 2003; 45(2):176-84. PMID: 12881011.
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    308. Jacob P, Hatsukami D, Severson H, Hall S, Yu L, Benowitz N. Anabasine and anatabine as biomarkers for tobacco use during nicotine replacement therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Dec; 11(12):1668-73. PMID: 12496059.
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    309. Mahrer-Imhof R, Froelicher ES, Li WW, Parker KM, Benowitz N. Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS V): under-use of nicotine replacement therapy. Heart Lung. 2002 Sep-Oct; 31(5):368-73. PMID: 12487015.
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    310. Pitsiu M, Gries JM, Benowitz N, Gourlay SG, Verotta D. Modeling nicotine arterial-venous differences to predict arterial concentrations and input based on venous measurements: application to smokeless tobacco and nicotine gum. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2002 Aug; 29(4):383-402. PMID: 12518710.
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    311. Benowitz N. Smoking cessation trials targeted to racial and economic minority groups. JAMA. 2002 Jul 24-31; 288(4):497-9. PMID: 12132983.
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    312. Haller CA, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Pharmacology of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine after single-dose dietary supplement use. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Jun; 71(6):421-32. PMID: 12087345.
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    313. Wakschlag LS, Pickett KE, Cook E, Benowitz N, Leventhal BL. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and severe antisocial behavior in offspring: a review. Am J Public Health. 2002 Jun; 92(6):966-74. PMID: 12036791; PMCID: PMC1447496.
    314. Benowitz N, Hansson A, Jacob P. Cardiovascular effects of nasal and transdermal nicotine and cigarette smoking. Hypertension. 2002 Jun; 39(6):1107-12. PMID: 12052850.
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    315. Campbell BJ, Rowbotham M, Davies PS, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Systemic absorption of topical lidocaine in normal volunteers, patients with post-herpetic neuralgia, and patients with acute herpes zoster. J Pharm Sci. 2002 May; 91(5):1343-50. PMID: 11977110.
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    316. Dempsey D, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Accelerated metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in pregnant smokers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 May; 301(2):594-8. PMID: 11961061.
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    317. Hsue PY, Salinas CL, Bolger AF, Benowitz N, Waters DD. Acute aortic dissection related to crack cocaine. Circulation. 2002 Apr 02; 105(13):1592-5. PMID: 11927528.
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    318. Kosel BW, Aweeka FT, Benowitz N, Shade SB, Hilton JF, Lizak PS, Abrams DI. The effects of cannabinoids on the pharmacokinetics of indinavir and nelfinavir. AIDS. 2002 Mar 08; 16(4):543-50. PMID: 11872997.
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    319. Schaedeli F, Pitsiu M, Benowitz N, Gourlay SG, Verotta D. Influence of arterial vs. venous sampling site on nicotine tolerance model selection and parameter estimation. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2002 Feb; 29(1):49-66. PMID: 12194535.
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    320. Benowitz N, Pérez-Stable EJ, Herrera B, Jacob P. Slower metabolism and reduced intake of nicotine from cigarette smoking in Chinese-Americans. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Jan 16; 94(2):108-15. PMID: 11792749.
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    321. Hatsukami DK, Slade J, Benowitz N, Giovino GA, Gritz ER, Leischow S, Warner KE. Reducing tobacco harm: research challenges and issues. Nicotine Tob Res. 2002; 4 Suppl 2:S89-101. PMID: 12573171.
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    322. Hall SM, Tunstall CD, Ginsberg D, Benowitz N, Jones RT. Nicotine gum and behavioral treatment: a placebo controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1987 Aug; 55(4):603-605. PMID: 3624619.
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