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Neal Benowitz, MD

TitleProfessor Emeritus
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentMedicine
Address1001 Potrero Ave
San Francisco CA 94110
Phone415-206-8324
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoResidency School of Medicine - Internal Medicine

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Neal Benowitz has been conducting research at SFGH since 1973. His research focus is on the human pharmacology of nicotine in relation to pathogenesis of and individual differences in vulnerability to tobacco-related disease, and the use of pharmacologic data as a basis for public health policies to prevent and reduce such disease. He has served on a number of national and international committees addressing issues in tobacco-related diseases and smoking cessation, including several sponsored by the Institute of Medicine. He has authored over 500 publications, including a state-of-the-art review on nicotine addiction in the New England Journal of Medicine in June 2010.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Clinical Pharmacology of Electronic Cigarettes
    NIH/NIDA R01DA039264Jun 1, 2015 - May 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Technology Innovations for Supporting Health in Alaska Native People
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL117736Apr 1, 2013 - Mar 31, 2019
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of the Nicotine Metabolism Effect on Tobacco Dependence
    NIH/NIDA R01DA031193May 1, 2012 - Mar 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Pharmacogenetics of Nicotine Addiction Treatment
    NIH/NIDA U01DA020830Sep 15, 2005 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Drug Dependence Clinical Research Program
    NIH/NIDA P30DA012393Sep 1, 1999 - Jun 30, 2020
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Cancer Center Support Grant
    NIH/NCI P30CA082103Aug 5, 1999 - May 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Safety of Nicotine Reduction Strategy
    NIH/NCI R01CA078603Jun 1, 1999 - Nov 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NICOTINE METABOLISM IN PREGNANCY
    NIH/NIDA R01DA009761Jul 1, 1995 - Jun 30, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PHARMACOLOGY OF NICOTINE IN HUMAN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL029476Sep 1, 1982 - Aug 31, 1986
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NICOTINE AND TAR INTAKE DURING CIGARETTE SMOKING
    NIH/NCI R01CA032389Jul 1, 1982 - Jun 30, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Nicotine
    NIH/NIDA R01DA002277Mar 1, 1979 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS OF NICOTINE
    NIH/NIDA R37DA002277Mar 1, 1979 - Jun 30, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    DRUG DEPENDENCE CLINICAL RESEARCH PROGRAM
    NIH/NIDA P50DA001696Feb 1, 1978 - Aug 31, 2000
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Clinical Pharmacology, Drug Action and Pharmacogenetics
    NIH/NIGMS T32GM007546Jul 1, 1977 - Jun 30, 2020
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    General Clinical Research Center
    NIH/NCRR M01RR000083Oct 1, 1974 - Nov 30, 2007
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Global Health
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Hatsukami DK, Luo X, Jensen JA, al'Absi M, Allen SS, Carmella SG, Chen M, Cinciripini PM, Denlinger-Apte R, Drobes DJ, Koopmeiners JS, Lane T, Le CT, Leischow S, Luo K, McClernon FJ, Murphy SE, Paiano V, Robinson JD, Severson H, Sipe C, Strasser AA, Strayer LG, Tang MK, Vandrey R, Hecht SS, Benowitz NL, Donny EC. Effect of Immediate vs Gradual Reduction in Nicotine Content of Cigarettes on Biomarkers of Smoke Exposure: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2018 09 04; 320(9):880-891. PMID: 30193275.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Khachatoorian C, Jacob Iii P, Benowitz NL, Talbot P. Electronic cigarette chemicals transfer from a vape shop to a nearby business in a multiple-tenant retail building. Tob Control. 2018 Aug 29. PMID: 30158206.
      View in: PubMed
    3. St Helen G, Jacob Iii P, Nardone N, Benowitz NL. IQOS: examination of Philip Morris International's claim of reduced exposure. Tob Control. 2018 Aug 29. PMID: 30158205.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Kalkhoran S, Benowitz NL, Rigotti NA. Prevention and Treatment of Tobacco Use: JACC Health Promotion Series. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 Aug 28; 72(9):1030-1045. PMID: 30139432.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Cummings KM, Morris PB, Benowitz NL. Another Article About E-Cigarettes: Why Should I Care? J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Jul 14; 7(14). PMID: 30007935.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Benowitz NL, Henningfield JE. Nicotine Reduction Strategy: State of the science and challenges to tobacco control policy and FDA tobacco product regulation. Prev Med. 2018 Jun 23. PMID: 29944901.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Neophytou AM, Oh SS, White MJ, Mak ACY, Hu D, Huntsman S, Eng C, Serebrisky D, Borrell LN, Farber HJ, Meade K, Davis A, Avila PC, Thyne SM, Rodríguez-Cintrón W, Rodríguez-Santana JR, Kumar R, Brigino-Buenaventura E, Sen S, Lenoir MA, Williams LK, Benowitz NL, Balmes JR, Eisen EA, Burchard EG. Secondhand smoke exposure and asthma outcomes among African-American and Latino children with asthma. Thorax. 2018 Jun 13. PMID: 29899038.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Fix BV, O'Connor RJ, Heckman BW, Benowitz N, Cummings MK, Fong GT, Thrasher JF. Response to "Rapid Nicotine Ratio and Successful Quitting: Acceptable Explanation" by the Authors of "Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR) Prospectively Predicts Smoking Relapse: Longitudinal Findings from ITC Surveys in Five Countries". Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Jun 07; 20(7):909. PMID: 29878262.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Prochaska JJ, Epperson A, Skan J, Oppezzo M, Barnett P, Delucchi K, Schnellbaecher M, Benowitz NL. The Healing and Empowering Alaskan Lives Toward Healthy-Hearts (HEALTHH) Project: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of an intervention for tobacco use and other cardiovascular risk behaviors for Alaska Native People. Contemp Clin Trials. 2018 Jun 02; 71:40-46. PMID: 29864548.
      View in: PubMed
    10. St Helen G, Shahid M, Chu S, Benowitz NL. Impact of e-liquid flavors on e-cigarette vaping behavior. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018 May 31; 189:42-48. PMID: 29879680.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Wang L, Bernert JT, Benowitz NL, Feng J, Jacob P, McGahee E, Caudill SP, Scherer G, Scherer M, Pluym N, Doig MV, Newland K, Murphy SE, Caron NJ, Sander LC, Shimizu M, Yamazaki H, Kim S, Langman LJ, Pritchett JS, Sniegoski LT, Li Y, Blount B, Pirkle JL. Collaborative Method Performance Study of the Measurement of Nicotine, its Metabolites, and Total Nicotine Equivalents in Human Urine. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018 May 31. PMID: 29853481.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Benowitz NL, Pipe A, West R, Hays JT, Tonstad S, McRae T, Lawrence D, St Aubin L, Anthenelli RM. Cardiovascular Safety of Varenicline, Bupropion, and Nicotine Patch in Smokers: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Apr 09. PMID: 29630702.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Rezk-Hanna M, Benowitz NL. Cardiovascular Effects of Hookah Smoking: Potential Implications for Cardiovascular Risk. Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Apr 05. PMID: 29660041.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Smith TT, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Colby SM, McClernon FJ, Strasser AA, Tidey JW, White CM, Donny EC. Whether to push or pull? Nicotine reduction and non-combusted alternatives - Two strategies for reducing smoking and improving public health. Prev Med. 2018 Mar 29. PMID: 29604326.
      View in: PubMed
    15. West R, Evins AE, Benowitz NL, Russ C, McRae T, Lawrence D, St Aubin L, Krishen A, Maravic MC, Anthenelli RM. Factors associated with the efficacy of smoking cessation treatments and predictors of smoking abstinence in EAGLES. Addiction. 2018 Mar 06. PMID: 29508470.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Rubinstein ML, Delucchi K, Benowitz NL, Ramo DE. Adolescent Exposure to Toxic Volatile Organic Chemicals From E-Cigarettes. Pediatrics. 2018 Apr; 141(4). PMID: 29507165.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Dermody SS, McClernon FJ, Benowitz N, Luo X, Tidey JW, Smith TT, Vandrey R, Hatsukami D, Donny EC. Effects of reduced nicotine content cigarettes on individual withdrawal symptoms over time and during abstinence. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2018 Mar 05. PMID: 29504780.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Hang B, Wang Y, Huang Y, Wang P, Langley SA, Bi L, Sarker AH, Schick SF, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Destaillats H, Tang X, Xia Y, Jen KY, Gundel LA, Mao JH, Snijders AM. Short-term early exposure to thirdhand cigarette smoke increases lung cancer incidence in mice. Clin Sci (Lond). 2018 Feb 28; 132(4):475-488. PMID: 29440622.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Benowitz NL, Nardone N, Jain S, Dempsey DA, Addo N, St Helen G, Jacob P. Comparison of Urine 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)Pyridyl-1-Butanol and Cotinine for Assessment of Active and Passive Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018 Mar; 27(3):254-261. PMID: 29475963.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Pulvers K, Emami AS, Nollen NL, Romero DR, Strong DR, Benowitz NL, Ahluwalia JS. Tobacco Consumption and Toxicant Exposure of Cigarette Smokers Using Electronic Cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res. 2018 Jan 05; 20(2):206-214. PMID: 28003511.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Song MA, Benowitz NL, Berman M, Brasky TM, Cummings KM, Hatsukami DK, Marian C, O'Connor R, Rees VW, Woroszylo C, Shields PG. Cigarette Filter Ventilation and its Relationship to Increasing Rates of Lung Adenocarcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017 Dec 01; 109(12). PMID: 28525914.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Kosmider L, Delijewski M, Koszowski B, Sobczak A, Benowitz NL, Goniewicz ML. Slower nicotine metabolism among postmenopausal Polish smokers. Pharmacol Rep. 2017 Nov 22; 70(3):434-438. PMID: 29627689.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Chenoweth MJ, Ware JJ, Zhu AZX, Cole CB, Cox LS, Nollen N, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Schnoll RA, Hawk LW, Cinciripini PM, George TP, Lerman C, Knight J, Tyndale RF. Genome-wide association study of a nicotine metabolism biomarker in African American smokers: impact of chromosome 19 genetic influences. Addiction. 2018 Mar; 113(3):509-523. PMID: 28921760.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Panzer AR, Lynch SV, Langelier C, Christie JD, McCauley K, Nelson M, Cheung CK, Benowitz NL, Cohen MJ, Calfee CS. Lung Microbiota is Related to Smoking Status and to Development of ARDS in Critically Ill Trauma Patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 Oct 16. PMID: 29035085.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Havel CM, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, St Helen G. An Electronic Cigarette Vaping Machine for the Characterization of Aerosol Delivery and Composition. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Oct 01; 19(10):1224-1231. PMID: 27281605.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Benowitz NL, Jain S, Dempsey DA, Nardone N, Helen GS, Jacob P. Urine Cotinine Screening Detects Nearly Ubiquitous Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Urban Adolescents. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Sep 01; 19(9):1048-1054. PMID: 28031377.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Fix BV, O'Connor RJ, Benowitz N, Heckman BW, Cummings KM, Fong GT, Thrasher JF. Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR) Prospectively Predicts Smoking Relapse: Longitudinal Findings From ITC Surveys in Five Countries. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Sep 01; 19(9):1040-1047. PMID: 28387850.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Clark L, Cox LS, Khariwala SS, Pulvers K, Benowitz NL, Ahluwalia JS. Tobacco toxicant exposure in cigarette smokers who use or do not use other tobacco products. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Oct 01; 179:330-336. PMID: 28843083.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Benowitz NL. Comprehensive Nicotine Regulation to End the Combustible Tobacco Epidemic. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Nov 21; 167(10):736-737. PMID: 28806818.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Logue JM, Sleiman M, Montesinos VN, Russell ML, Litter MI, Benowitz NL, Gundel LA, Destaillats H. Emissions from Electronic Cigarettes: Assessing Vapers' Intake of Toxic Compounds, Secondhand Exposures, and the Associated Health Impacts. Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Aug 15; 51(16):9271-9279. PMID: 28766331.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Kassem NOF, Kassem NO, Liles S, Jackson SR, Chatfield DA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Hovell MF. Urinary NNAL in hookah smokers and non-smokers after attending a hookah social event in a hookah lounge or a private home. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017 Oct; 89:74-82. PMID: 28716579.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Peng AR, Morales M, Wileyto EP, Hawk LW, Cinciripini P, George TP, Benowitz NL, Nollen NL, Lerman C, Tyndale RF, Schnoll R. Measures and predictors of varenicline adherence in the treatment of nicotine dependence. Addict Behav. 2017 Dec; 75:122-129. PMID: 28728040.
      View in: PubMed
    33. St Helen G, Dempsey DA, Havel CM, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Impact of e-liquid flavors on nicotine intake and pharmacology of e-cigarettes. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 09 01; 178:391-398. PMID: 28704768.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Gubner NR, Guydish J, Humfleet GL, Benowitz NL, Hall SM. Nicotine biomarkers and rate of nicotine metabolism among cigarette smokers taking buprenorphine for opioid dependency. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 09 01; 178:267-270. PMID: 28683421.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Schick SF, Blount BC, Jacob P, Saliba NA, Bernert JT, El Hellani A, Jatlow P, Pappas RS, Wang L, Foulds J, Ghosh A, Hecht SS, Gomez JC, Martin JR, Mesaros C, Srivastava S, St Helen G, Tarran R, Lorkiewicz PK, Blair IA, Kimmel HL, Doerschuk CM, Benowitz NL, Bhatnagar A. Biomarkers of exposure to new and emerging tobacco delivery products. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017 Sep 01; 313(3):L425-L452. PMID: 28522563.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Taghavi T, St Helen G, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Effect of UGT2B10, UGT2B17, FMO3, and OCT2 genetic variation on nicotine and cotinine pharmacokinetics and smoking in African Americans. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2017 Apr; 27(4):143-154. PMID: 28178031.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Benowitz NL, Fraiman JB. Cardiovascular effects of electronic cigarettes. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2017 Aug; 14(8):447-456. PMID: 28332500.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Weinstein JR, Asteria-Peñaloza R, Diaz-Artiga A, Davila G, Hammond SK, Ryde IT, Meyer JN, Benowitz N, Thompson LM. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds among recently pregnant rural Guatemalan women cooking and heating with solid fuels. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2017 06; 220(4):726-735. PMID: 28320639.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Hang B, Snijders AM, Huang Y, Schick SF, Wang P, Xia Y, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Destaillats H, Gundel LA, Mao JH. Early exposure to thirdhand cigarette smoke affects body mass and the development of immunity in mice. Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 03; 7:41915. PMID: 28157226.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Destaillats H, Gundel L, Hang B, Martins-Green M, Matt GE, Quintana PJ, Samet JM, Schick SF, Talbot P, Aquilina NJ, Hovell MF, Mao JH, Whitehead TP. Thirdhand Smoke: New Evidence, Challenges, and Future Directions. Chem Res Toxicol. 2017 01 17; 30(1):270-294. PMID: 28001376.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Vo KT, Horng H, Smollin CG, Benowitz NL. Severe Carisoprodol Withdrawal After a 14-Year Addiction and Acute Overdose. J Emerg Med. 2017 May; 52(5):680-683. PMID: 27979642.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Rupprecht LE, Koopmeiners JS, Dermody SS, Oliver JA, al'Absi M, Benowitz NL, Denlinger-Apte R, Drobes DJ, Hatsukami D, McClernon FJ, Pacek LR, Smith TT, Sved AF, Tidey J, Vandrey R, Donny EC. Reducing nicotine exposure results in weight gain in smokers randomised to very low nicotine content cigarettes. Tob Control. 2017 03; 26(e1):e43-e48. PMID: 27856940.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Bronars C, Patten C, Koller K, Hatsukami D, Flanagan CA, Decker PA, Hanson A, Wolfe A, Hughes C, Benowitz N, Murphy NJ, Thomas T. Perceived risks and reasons to smoke cigarettes during pregnancy among Alaska native women. Ethn Health. 2018 Jan; 23(1):33-42. PMID: 27842438.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Shields PG, Herbst RS, Arenberg D, Benowitz NL, Bierut L, Luckart JB, Cinciripini P, Collins B, David S, Davis J, Hitsman B, Hyland A, Lang M, Leischow S, Park ER, Purcell WT, Selzle J, Silber A, Spencer S, Tanvetyanon T, Tiep B, Tindle HA, Tucker-Seeley R, Urbanic J, Hooper MW, Weksler B, Whitlock CW, Wood DE, Burns J, Scavone J. Smoking Cessation, Version 1.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2016 11; 14(11):1430-1468. PMID: 27799513.
      View in: PubMed
    45. St Helen G, Ross KC, Dempsey DA, Havel CM, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Nicotine Delivery and Vaping Behavior During ad Libitum E-cigarette Access. Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Oct; 2(4):363-376. PMID: 28393086.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Strasser AA, Souprountchouk V, Kaufmann A, Blazekovic S, Leone F, Benowitz NL, Schnoll RA. Nicotine Replacement, Topography, and Smoking Phenotypes of E-cigarettes. Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Oct; 2(4):352-362. PMID: 27942543.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Brown-Johnson CG, Oppezzo M, Benowitz NL, Prochaska JJ. "You have the right to protect your health": Perceptions of Secondhand Smoke and Exposure Mitigation Strategies in Low-Income Patients With Heart Disease, San Francisco, 2011-2012. Prev Chronic Dis. 2016 08 25; 13:E116. PMID: 27560724; PMCID: PMC5003531.
    48. Benowitz NL, Donny EC, Hatsukami DK. Reduced nicotine content cigarettes, e-cigarettes and the cigarette end game. Addiction. 2017 Jan; 112(1):6-7. PMID: 27555354.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Goniewicz ML, Gawron M, Smith DM, Peng M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Exposure to Nicotine and Selected Toxicants in Cigarette Smokers Who Switched to Electronic Cigarettes: A Longitudinal Within-Subjects Observational Study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Feb; 19(2):160-167. PMID: 27613896.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Tidey JW, Pacek LR, Koopmeiners JS, Vandrey R, Nardone N, Drobes DJ, Benowitz NL, Dermody SS, Lemieux A, Denlinger RL, Cassidy R, al'Absi M, Hatsukami DK, Donny EC. Effects of 6-Week Use of Reduced-Nicotine Content Cigarettes in Smokers With and Without Elevated Depressive Symptoms. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Jan; 19(1):59-67. PMID: 27613885.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Nardone N, Donny EC, Hatsukami DK, Koopmeiners JS, Murphy SE, Strasser AA, Tidey JW, Vandrey R, Benowitz NL. Estimations and predictors of non-compliance in switchers to reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Addiction. 2016 Dec; 111(12):2208-2216. PMID: 27367436.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Benowitz NL, St Helen G, Dempsey DA, Jacob P, Tyndale RF. Disposition kinetics and metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in African American smokers: impact of CYP2A6 genetic variation and enzymatic activity. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2016 07; 26(7):340-50. PMID: 27035242; PMCID: PMC4892970 [Available on 07/01/17].
    53. Martin EM, Clapp PW, Rebuli ME, Pawlak EA, Glista-Baker E, Benowitz NL, Fry RC, Jaspers I. E-cigarette use results in suppression of immune and inflammatory-response genes in nasal epithelial cells similar to cigarette smoke. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016 07 01; 311(1):L135-44. PMID: 27288488.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Flanagan CA, Koller KR, Wolfe AW, Thomas TK, Benowitz NL, Renner CC, Hughes C, Hatsukami DK, Bronars C, Murphy NJ, Day G, Decker PA, Patten CA. Fetal Exposure to Carcinogens With Tobacco Use in Pregnancy: Phase 1 MAW Study Findings. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 11; 18(11):2162-2168. PMID: 27190400.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Ross KC, Gubner NR, Tyndale RF, Hawk LW, Lerman C, George TP, Cinciripini P, Schnoll RA, Benowitz NL. Racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and nicotine intake from cigarette smoking. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2016 09; 148:1-7. PMID: 27180107.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Baurley JW, Edlund CK, Pardamean CI, Conti DV, Krasnow R, Javitz HS, Hops H, Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Bergen AW. Genome-Wide Association of the Laboratory-Based Nicotine Metabolite Ratio in Three Ancestries. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 09; 18(9):1837-1844. PMID: 27113016; PMCID: PMC4978985.
    57. Anthenelli RM, Benowitz NL, West R, St Aubin L, McRae T, Lawrence D, Ascher J, Russ C, Krishen A, Evins AE. Neuropsychiatric safety and efficacy of varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine patch in smokers with and without psychiatric disorders (EAGLES): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lancet. 2016 Jun 18; 387(10037):2507-20. PMID: 27116918.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Gubner NR, Kozar-Konieczna A, Szoltysek-Boldys I, Slodczyk-Mankowska E, Goniewicz J, Sobczak A, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Goniewicz ML. Cessation of alcohol consumption decreases rate of nicotine metabolism in male alcohol-dependent smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 06 01; 163:157-64. PMID: 27107849; PMCID: PMC4880506 [Available on 06/01/17].
    59. Denlinger RL, Smith TT, Murphy SE, Koopmeiners JS, Benowitz NL, Hatsukami DK, Pacek LR, Colino C, Cwalina SN, Donny EC. Nicotine and Anatabine Exposure from Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes. Tob Regul Sci. 2016 Apr; 2(2):186-203. PMID: 29600258.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Ross KC, Dempsey DA, St Helen G, Delucchi K, Benowitz NL. The Influence of Puff Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Rate of Nicotine Metabolism on Daily Nicotine Exposure in African American Smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016 06; 25(6):936-43. PMID: 27030603; PMCID: PMC4891233 [Available on 06/01/17].
    61. Nelson MD, Rezk-Hanna M, Rader F, Mason OR, Tang X, Shidban S, Rosenberry R, Benowitz NL, Tashkin DP, Elashoff RM, Lindner JR, Victor RG. Acute Effect of Hookah Smoking on the Human Coronary Microcirculation. Am J Cardiol. 2016 Jun 01; 117(11):1747-54. PMID: 27067622.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Benowitz NL, Burbank AD. Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: Implications for electronic cigarette use. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2016 08; 26(6):515-23. PMID: 27079891.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Brondfield M, Wu L, Benowitz N. Minoxidil-Associated Pleuropericardial Effusion. J Gen Intern Med. 2016 Sep; 31(9):1105. PMID: 26951281; PMCID: PMC4978667 [Available on 09/01/17].
    64. Northrup TF, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Hoh E, Quintana PJ, Hovell MF, Matt GE, Stotts AL. Thirdhand Smoke: State of the Science and a Call for Policy Expansion. Public Health Rep. 2016 Mar-Apr; 131(2):233-8. PMID: 26957657; PMCID: PMC4765971 [Available on 03/01/17].
    65. Nollen NL, Cox LS, Yu Q, Ellerbeck EF, Scheuermann TS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Mayo MS, Ahluwalia JS. A clinical trial to examine disparities in quitting between African-American and White adult smokers: Design, accrual, and baseline characteristics. Contemp Clin Trials. 2016 Mar; 47:12-21. PMID: 26667382; PMCID: PMC4818177 [Available on 03/01/17].
    66. Northrup TF, Khan AM, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Hoh E, Hovell MF, Matt GE, Stotts AL. Thirdhand smoke contamination in hospital settings: assessing exposure risk for vulnerable paediatric patients. Tob Control. 2016 11; 25(6):619-623. PMID: 26635031.
      View in: PubMed
    67. St Helen G, Havel C, Dempsey DA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Nicotine delivery, retention and pharmacokinetics from various electronic cigarettes. Addiction. 2016 Mar; 111(3):535-44. PMID: 26430813; PMCID: PMC4749433 [Available on 03/01/17].
    68. Donny EC, Denlinger RL, Tidey JW, Koopmeiners JS, Benowitz NL, Vandrey RG, al'Absi M, Carmella SG, Cinciripini PM, Dermody SS, Drobes DJ, Hecht SS, Jensen J, Lane T, Le CT, McClernon FJ, Montoya ID, Murphy SE, Robinson JD, Stitzer ML, Strasser AA, Tindle H, Hatsukami DK. Randomized Trial of Reduced-Nicotine Standards for Cigarettes. N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct; 373(14):1340-9. PMID: 26422724; PMCID: PMC4642683.
    69. Morris PB, Ference BA, Jahangir E, Feldman DN, Ryan JJ, Bahrami H, El-Chami MF, Bhakta S, Winchester DE, Al-Mallah MH, Sanchez Shields M, Deedwania P, Mehta LS, Phan BA, Benowitz NL. Cardiovascular Effects of Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarettes: Clinical Perspectives From the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Section Leadership Council and Early Career Councils of the American College of Cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Sep 22; 66(12):1378-91. PMID: 26383726.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Prochaska JJ, Benowitz NL. Smoking cessation and the cardiovascular patient. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2015 Sep; 30(5):506-11. PMID: 26196657; PMCID: PMC4624444.
    71. Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Kangelaris KN, Siew ED, Janz DR, Bernard GR, May AK, Jacob P, Havel C, Benowitz NL, Ware LB. Cigarette Smoke Exposure and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2015 Sep; 43(9):1790-7. PMID: 26010690; PMCID: PMC4737582.
    72. Prochaska JJ, Benowitz NL. The Past, Present, and Future of Nicotine Addiction Therapy. Annu Rev Med. 2016; 67:467-86. PMID: 26332005.
      View in: PubMed
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    78. Zhu AZ, Cox LS, Ahluwalia JS, Renner CC, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Genetic and phenotypic variation in UGT2B17, a testosterone-metabolizing enzyme, is associated with BMI in males. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2015 May; 25(5):263-9. PMID: 25794161; PMCID: PMC4382380.
    79. Whitehead TP, Havel C, Metayer C, Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in dust from homes of smokeless tobacco users, active smokers, and nontobacco users. Chem Res Toxicol. 2015 May 18; 28(5):1007-14. PMID: 25794360; PMCID: PMC4827423.
    80. Whitsel LP, Benowitz N, Bhatnagar A, Bullen C, Goldstein F, Matthias-Gray L, Grossmeier J, Harris J, Isaac F, Loeppke R, Manley M, Moseley K, Niemiec T, O'Brien V, Palma-Davis L, Pronk N, Pshock J, Stave GM, Terry P. Guidance to employers on integrating e-cigarettes/electronic nicotine delivery systems into tobacco worksite policy. J Occup Environ Med. 2015 Mar; 57(3):334-43. PMID: 25742539.
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    83. Bandiera FC, Ross KC, Taghavi S, Delucchi K, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. Nicotine Dependence, Nicotine Metabolism, and the Extent of Compensation in Response to Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Sep; 17(9):1167-72. PMID: 25555385; PMCID: PMC4542742.
    84. Japuntich SJ, Eilers MA, Shenhav S, Park ER, Winickoff JP, Benowitz NL, Rigotti NA. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among hospitalized nonsmokers with coronary heart disease. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Jan; 175(1):133-6. PMID: 25383761.
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    87. Benowitz NL, Nardone N, Hatsukami DK, Donny EC. Biochemical estimation of noncompliance with smoking of very low nicotine content cigarettes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Feb; 24(2):331-5. PMID: 25416718; PMCID: PMC4323626.
    88. St Helen G, Jacob P, Peng M, Dempsey DA, Hammond SK, Benowitz NL. Intake of toxic and carcinogenic volatile organic compounds from secondhand smoke in motor vehicles. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Dec; 23(12):2774-82. PMID: 25398951; PMCID: PMC4257856.
    89. Al-Abri S, Meier KH, Colby JM, Smollin CG, Benowitz NL. Cardiogenic shock after use of fluoroamphetamine confirmed with serum and urine levels. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2014 Dec; 52(10):1292-5. PMID: 25350468.
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    91. Zhu AZ, Zhou Q, Cox LS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Gene variants in CYP2C19 are associated with altered in vivo bupropion pharmacokinetics but not bupropion-assisted smoking cessation outcomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2014 Nov; 42(11):1971-7. PMID: 25187485; PMCID: PMC4201132.
    92. Hsieh SJ, Zhuo H, Benowitz NL, Thompson BT, Liu KD, Matthay MA, Calfee CS. Prevalence and impact of active and passive cigarette smoking in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2014 Sep; 42(9):2058-68. PMID: 24942512; PMCID: PMC4134734.
    93. Bhatnagar A, Whitsel LP, Ribisl KM, Bullen C, Chaloupka F, Piano MR, Robertson RM, McAuley T, Goff D, Benowitz N. Electronic cigarettes: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014 Oct 14; 130(16):1418-36. PMID: 25156991.
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    95. Hajek P, Etter JF, Benowitz N, Eissenberg T, McRobbie H. Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefit. Addiction. 2014 Nov; 109(11):1801-10. PMID: 25078252; PMCID: PMC4487785.
    96. Donny EC, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Sved AF, Tidey JW, Cassidy RN. Reduced nicotine product standards for combustible tobacco: building an empirical basis for effective regulation. Prev Med. 2014 Nov; 68:17-22. PMID: 24967958; PMCID: PMC4253911.
    97. St Helen G, Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Havel C, Peng M, Jacob P. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure after water pipe smoking in hookah bars. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Jun; 23(6):1055-66. PMID: 24836469; PMCID: PMC4047652.
    98. Grana R, Benowitz N, Glantz SA. E-cigarettes: a scientific review. Circulation. 2014 May 13; 129(19):1972-86. PMID: 24821826; PMCID: PMC4018182.
    99. Grana RA, Ling PM, Benowitz N, Glantz S. Electronic cigarettes. Cardiology patient page. Circulation. 2014 May 13; 129(19):e490-2. PMID: 24821830; PMCID: PMC4074376.
    100. Shiffman S, Dunbar MS, Benowitz NL. A comparison of nicotine biomarkers and smoking patterns in daily and nondaily smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Jul; 23(7):1264-72. PMID: 24740202; PMCID: PMC4621008.
    101. Kassem NO, Daffa RM, Liles S, Jackson SR, Kassem NO, Younis MA, Mehta S, Chen M, Jacob P, Carmella SG, Chatfield DA, Benowitz NL, Matt GE, Hecht SS, Hovell MF. Children's exposure to secondhand and thirdhand smoke carcinogens and toxicants in homes of hookah smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Jul; 16(7):961-75. PMID: 24590387; PMCID: PMC4072898.
    102. Chenoweth MJ, Zhu AZ, Sanderson Cox L, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Variation in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) A503V and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3 E158K is associated with minor alterations in nicotine metabolism, but does not alter cigarette consumption. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2014 Mar; 24(3):172-6. PMID: 24448396; PMCID: PMC3985268.
    103. Piliguian M, Zhu AZ, Zhou Q, Benowitz NL, Ahluwalia JS, Sanderson Cox L, Tyndale RF. Novel CYP2A6 variants identified in African Americans are associated with slow nicotine metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2014 Feb; 24(2):118-28. PMID: 24305170; PMCID: PMC3931261.
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    106. Prochaska JJ, Fromont SC, Delucchi K, Young-Wolff KC, Benowitz NL, Hall S, Bonas T, Hall SM. Multiple risk-behavior profiles of smokers with serious mental illness and motivation for change. Health Psychol. 2014 Dec; 33(12):1518-29. PMID: 24467257; PMCID: PMC4425305.
    107. Hendricks PS, Delucchi KL, Benowitz NL, Hall SM. Clinical significance of early smoking withdrawal effects and their relationships with nicotine metabolism: preliminary results from a pilot study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 May; 16(5):615-20. PMID: 24353342; PMCID: PMC3977489.
    108. Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Ahluwalia JS, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL, Faseru B, Buchanan TS, Cox LS. Factors associated with discontinuation of bupropion and counseling among African American light smokers in a randomized clinical trial. Ann Behav Med. 2013 Dec; 46(3):336-48. PMID: 23733379.
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    110. Jacob P, Goniewicz ML, Havel CM, Schick SF, Benowitz NL. Nicotelline: a proposed biomarker and environmental tracer for particulate matter derived from tobacco smoke. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Nov 18; 26(11):1615-31. PMID: 24125094; PMCID: PMC3929594.
    111. Yang J, Pearl M, Jacob P, DeLorenze GN, Benowitz NL, Yu L, Havel C, Kharrazi M. Levels of cotinine in dried blood specimens from newborns as a biomarker of maternal smoking close to the time of delivery. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Dec 01; 178(11):1648-54. PMID: 24068198; PMCID: PMC3842901.
    112. David SP, Strong DR, Leventhal AM, Lancaster MA, McGeary JE, Munafò MR, Bergen AW, Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Conti DV, Brown RA, Lerman C, Niaura R. Influence of a dopamine pathway additive genetic efficacy score on smoking cessation: results from two randomized clinical trials of bupropion. Addiction. 2013 Dec; 108(12):2202-11. PMID: 23941313; PMCID: PMC3834197.
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    114. Prochaska JJ, Das S, Benowitz NL. Cytisine, the world's oldest smoking cessation aid. BMJ. 2013 Aug 23; 347:f5198. PMID: 23974638.
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    117. Zhu AZ, Renner CC, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. CHRNA5-A3-B4 genetic variants alter nicotine intake and interact with tobacco use to influence body weight in Alaska Native tobacco users. Addiction. 2013 Oct; 108(10):1818-28. PMID: 23692359; PMCID: PMC3775934.
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    120. Goniewicz ML, Knysak J, Gawron M, Kosmider L, Sobczak A, Kurek J, Prokopowicz A, Jablonska-Czapla M, Rosik-Dulewska C, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes. Tob Control. 2014 Mar; 23(2):133-9. PMID: 23467656; PMCID: PMC4154473.
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    123. Benowitz NL, Prochaska JJ. Smoking cessation after acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Feb 05; 61(5):533-5. PMID: 23369418.
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    128. Rubinstein ML, Shiffman S, Rait MA, Benowitz NL. Race, gender, and nicotine metabolism in adolescent smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Jul; 15(7):1311-5. PMID: 23239845; PMCID: PMC3682846.
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    131. Northcross AL, Trinh M, Kim J, Jones IA, Meyers MJ, Dempsey DD, Benowitz NL, Hammond SK. Particulate mass and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure from secondhand smoke in the back seat of a vehicle. Tob Control. 2014 Jan; 23(1):14-20. PMID: 23172398.
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    136. Zhu AZ, Binnington MJ, Renner CC, Lanier AP, Hatsukami DK, Stepanov I, Watson CH, Sosnoff CS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Alaska Native smokers and smokeless tobacco users with slower CYP2A6 activity have lower tobacco consumption, lower tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposure and lower tobacco-specific nitrosamine bioactivation. Carcinogenesis. 2013 Jan; 34(1):93-101. PMID: 23027621; PMCID: PMC3534190.
    137. Renner CC, Lanier AP, Lindgren B, Jensen J, Patten CA, Parascandola M, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Hatsukami DK. Tobacco use among southwestern Alaska Native people. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Feb; 15(2):401-6. PMID: 22949573; PMCID: PMC3612002.
    138. Avila-Tang E, Al-Delaimy WK, Ashley DL, Benowitz N, Bernert JT, Kim S, Samet JM, Hecht SS. Assessing secondhand smoke using biological markers. Tob Control. 2013 May; 22(3):164-71. PMID: 22940677; PMCID: PMC3639350.
    139. Dempsey DA, Meyers MJ, Oh SS, Nguyen EA, Fuentes-Afflick E, Wu AH, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Determination of tobacco smoke exposure by plasma cotinine levels in infants and children attending urban public hospital clinics. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012 Sep 01; 166(9):851-6. PMID: 22566513; PMCID: PMC3997061.
    140. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Lu SE, Steinberg ML, Benowitz NL. Nicotine intake and smoking topography in smokers with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2012 Sep; 14(6):618-27. PMID: 22938167; PMCID: PMC3641517.
    141. Joel DL, Denlinger RL, Dermody SS, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Donny EC. Very low nicotine content cigarettes and potential consequences on cardiovascular disease. Curr Cardiovasc Risk Rep. 2012 Dec 01; 6(6):534-541. PMID: 23264843.
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    143. Lee W, Ray R, Bergen AW, Swan GE, Thomas P, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL, Lerman C, Conti DV. DRD1 associations with smoking abstinence across slow and normal nicotine metabolizers. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012 Jul; 22(7):551-4. PMID: 22495174; PMCID: PMC3376177.
    144. Binnington MJ, Zhu AZ, Renner CC, Lanier AP, Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 genetic variation and its association with nicotine metabolism in South Western Alaska Native people. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012 Jun; 22(6):429-40. PMID: 22569203; PMCID: PMC3349071.
    145. Frey PF, Ganz P, Hsue PY, Benowitz NL, Glantz SA, Balmes JR, Schick SF. The exposure-dependent effects of aged secondhand smoke on endothelial function. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 May 22; 59(21):1908-13. PMID: 22595411.
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    147. St Helen G, Novalen M, Heitjan DF, Dempsey D, Jacob P, Aziziyeh A, Wing VC, George TP, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. Reproducibility of the nicotine metabolite ratio in cigarette smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 Jul; 21(7):1105-14. PMID: 22552800; PMCID: PMC3392523.
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    149. St Helen G, Goniewicz ML, Dempsey D, Wilson M, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Exposure and kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cigarette smokers. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012 Apr 16; 25(4):952-64. PMID: 22428611; PMCID: PMC3330130.
    150. Buchanan TS, Berg CJ, Cox LS, Nazir N, Benowitz NL, Yu L, Yturralde O, Jacob P, Choi WS, Ahluwalia JS, Nollen NL. Adherence to varenicline among African American smokers: an exploratory analysis comparing plasma concentration, pill count, and self-report. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Sep; 14(9):1083-91. PMID: 22367976; PMCID: PMC3432278.
    151. Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Hall SM, Stewart S, Wilson M, Dempsey D, Jacob P. Smoking behavior and exposure to tobacco toxicants during 6 months of smoking progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 May; 21(5):761-9. PMID: 22354905; PMCID: PMC3348427.
    152. Okuyemi KS, Faseru B, Reed GA, Cox LS, Bronars CA, Opole I, Whembolua GL, Mayo MS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL. Effects of menthol on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion among Black smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Jun; 14(6):688-93. PMID: 22318754; PMCID: PMC3356293.
    153. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Lu SE, Steinberg ML, Benowitz NL. Rapid smoking may not be aversive in schizophrenia. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Jan; 15(1):262-6. PMID: 22318691; PMCID: PMC3524052.
    154. Cox LS, Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Choi WS, Faseru B, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS. Bupropion for smoking cessation in African American light smokers: a randomized controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Feb 22; 104(4):290-8. PMID: 22282543; PMCID: PMC3283533.
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    157. King DP, Paciga S, Pickering E, Benowitz NL, Bierut LJ, Conti DV, Kaprio J, Lerman C, Park PW. Smoking cessation pharmacogenetics: analysis of varenicline and bupropion in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Feb; 37(3):641-50. PMID: 22048466; PMCID: PMC3260990.
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    159. Prochaska JJ, Benowitz NL, Glantz SA, Hudmon KS, Grossman W. Cardiology Rx for Change: improving clinical attention to tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure in cardiology. Clin Cardiol. 2011 Dec; 34(12):738-43. PMID: 21987417.
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    161. Wang YG, Swick TJ, Carter LP, Thorpy MJ, Benowitz NL. Sodium oxybate: updates and correction to previously published safety data. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011 Aug 15; 7(4):415-6. PMID: 21897784; PMCID: PMC3161779.
    162. Matt GE, Quintana PJ, Destaillats H, Gundel LA, Sleiman M, Singer BC, Jacob P, Benowitz N, Winickoff JP, Rehan V, Talbot P, Schick S, Samet J, Wang Y, Hang B, Martins-Green M, Pankow JF, Hovell MF. Thirdhand tobacco smoke: emerging evidence and arguments for a multidisciplinary research agenda. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Sep; 119(9):1218-26. PMID: 21628107; PMCID: PMC3230406.
    163. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Lu SE, Kumar S, Steinberg ML, Cottler B, Benowitz NL. Shorter interpuff interval is associated with higher nicotine intake in smokers with schizophrenia. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Nov 01; 118(2-3):313-9. PMID: 21596491; PMCID: PMC3655704.
    164. Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Wilson M, Jacob P. Racial differences in the relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and nicotine and carcinogen exposure. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Sep; 13(9):772-83. PMID: 21546441; PMCID: PMC3168241.
    165. Benowitz NL, Samet JM. The threat of menthol cigarettes to U.S. public health. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 09; 364(23):2179-81. PMID: 21542737.
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    166. Pérez-Stable EJ, Benowitz NL. Do biological differences help explain tobacco-related disparities? Am J Health Promot. 2011 May-Jun; 25(5 Suppl):S8-10. PMID: 21510792.
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    167. Ahmed B, Jacob P, Allen F, Benowitz N. Attitudes and practices of hookah smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2011 Apr-Jun; 43(2):146-52. PMID: 21858960.
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    168. Hamidovic A, Kasberger JL, Young TR, Goodloe RJ, Redline S, Buxbaum SG, Benowitz NL, Bergen AW, Butler KR, Franceschini N, Gharib SA, Hitsman B, Levy D, Meng Y, Papanicolaou GJ, Preis SR, Spring B, Styn MA, Tong EK, White WB, Wiggins KL, Jorgenson E. Genetic variability of smoking persistence in African Americans. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 May; 4(5):729-34. PMID: 21436384.
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    169. Calfee CS, Matthay MA, Eisner MD, Benowitz N, Call M, Pittet JF, Cohen MJ. Active and passive cigarette smoking and acute lung injury after severe blunt trauma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Jun 15; 183(12):1660-5. PMID: 21471091; PMCID: PMC3136993.
    170. Falcone M, Jepson C, Benowitz N, Bergen AW, Pinto A, Wileyto EP, Baldwin D, Tyndale RF, Lerman C, Ray R. Association of the nicotine metabolite ratio and CHRNA5/CHRNA3 polymorphisms with smoking rate among treatment-seeking smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Jun; 13(6):498-503. PMID: 21385908; PMCID: PMC3103715.
    171. Cox LS, Faseru B, Mayo MS, Krebill R, Snow TS, Bronars CA, Nollen NL, Choi WS, Okuyemi KS, Salzman GA, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF, Ahluwalia JS. Design, baseline characteristics, and retention of African American light smokers into a randomized trial involving biological data. Trials. 2011 Jan 25; 12:22. PMID: 21266057; PMCID: PMC3038942.
    172. Goniewicz ML, Eisner MD, Lazcano-Ponce E, Zielinska-Danch W, Koszowski B, Sobczak A, Havel C, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Comparison of urine cotinine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and their ratio to discriminate active from passive smoking. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Mar; 13(3):202-8. PMID: 21330276; PMCID: PMC3045466.
    173. Polosa R, Benowitz NL. Treatment of nicotine addiction: present therapeutic options and pipeline developments. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2011 May; 32(5):281-9. PMID: 21256603.
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    174. Strasser AA, Benowitz NL, Pinto AG, Tang KZ, Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Tyndale RF, Lerman CE. Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts smoking topography and carcinogen biomarker level. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Feb; 20(2):234-8. PMID: 21212060; PMCID: PMC3077576.
    175. Hsieh SJ, Ware LB, Eisner MD, Yu L, Jacob P, Havel C, Goniewicz ML, Matthay MA, Benowitz NL, Calfee CS. Biomarkers increase detection of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2011 Jan; 39(1):40-5. PMID: 20935560; PMCID: PMC3148017.
    176. Jacob P, Yu L, Duan M, Ramos L, Yturralde O, Benowitz NL. Determination of the nicotine metabolites cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine in biologic fluids of smokers and non-smokers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure and for phenotyping cytochrome P450 2A6 activity. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2011 Feb 01; 879(3-4):267-76. PMID: 21208832; PMCID: PMC3050598.
    177. Zapawa LM, Hughes JR, Benowitz NL, Rigotti NA, Shiffman S. Cautions and warnings on the US OTC label for nicotine replacement: what's a doctor to do? Addict Behav. 2011 Apr; 36(4):327-32. PMID: 21220188.
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    178. Frey P, Waters DD, DeMicco DA, Breazna A, Samuels L, Pipe A, Wun CC, Benowitz NL. Impact of smoking on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary disease receiving contemporary medical therapy (from the Treating to New Targets [TNT] and the Incremental Decrease in End Points Through Aggressive Lipid Lowering [IDEAL] trials). Am J Cardiol. 2011 Jan 15; 107(2):145-50. PMID: 21129718.
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    179. Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Havel C, Wilson M, Jacob P. Urine menthol as a biomarker of mentholated cigarette smoking. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Dec; 19(12):3013-9. PMID: 20962297; PMCID: PMC3005539.
    180. Hatsukami DK, Perkins KA, Lesage MG, Ashley DL, Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Backinger CL, Zeller M. Nicotine reduction revisited: science and future directions. Tob Control. 2010 Oct; 19(5):e1-10. PMID: 20876072; PMCID: PMC4618689.
    181. Piano MR, Benowitz NL, Fitzgerald GA, Corbridge S, Heath J, Hahn E, Pechacek TF, Howard G. Impact of smokeless tobacco products on cardiovascular disease: implications for policy, prevention, and treatment: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010 Oct 12; 122(15):1520-44. PMID: 20837898.
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    182. Benowitz N, Goniewicz ML, Eisner MD, Lazcano-Ponce E, Zielinska-Danch W, Koszowski B, Sobczak A, Havel C, Jacob P. Urine cotinine underestimates exposure to the tobacco-derived lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in passive compared with active smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Nov; 19(11):2795-800. PMID: 20805316; PMCID: PMC2976834.
    183. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Benowitz NL. Carbamazepine but not valproate induces CYP2A6 activity in smokers with mental illness. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Oct; 19(10):2582-9. PMID: 20719908; PMCID: PMC2952059.
    184. Mumenthaler MS, Benowitz NL, Taylor JL, Friedman L, Noda A, Yesavage JA. Nicotine deprivation and pilot performance during simulated flight. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2010 Jul; 81(7):660-4. PMID: 20597245.
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    185. Aquilina NJ, Delgado-Saborit JM, Meddings C, Baker S, Harrison RM, Jacob P, Wilson M, Yu L, Duan M, Benowitz NL. Environmental and biological monitoring of exposures to PAHs and ETS in the general population. Environ Int. 2010 Oct; 36(7):763-71. PMID: 20591483; PMCID: PMC3148021.
    186. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Lu SE, Kumar S, Shen J, Foulds J, Kipen H, Benowitz NL. Higher nicotine levels in schizophrenia compared with controls after smoking a single cigarette. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010 Aug; 12(8):855-9. PMID: 20584771; PMCID: PMC2910875.
    187. Benowitz NL. Nicotine addiction. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 17; 362(24):2295-303. PMID: 20554984; PMCID: PMC2928221.
    188. Gan Q, Lu W, Xu J, Li X, Goniewicz M, Benowitz NL, Glantz SA. Chinese 'low-tar' cigarettes do not deliver lower levels of nicotine and carcinogens. Tob Control. 2010 Oct; 19(5):374-9. PMID: 20507920; PMCID: PMC2978929.
    189. Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Yu L, Jacob P. Estimation of nicotine dose after low-level exposure using plasma and urine nicotine metabolites. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 May; 19(5):1160-6. PMID: 20447913; PMCID: PMC2867075.
    190. Foianini A, Joseph Wiegand T, Benowitz N. What is the role of lidocaine or phenytoin in tricyclic antidepressant-induced cardiotoxicity? Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010 May; 48(4):325-30. PMID: 20507243.
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    191. Gandhi KK, Williams JM, Menza M, Galazyn M, Benowitz NL. Higher serum caffeine in smokers with schizophrenia compared to smoking controls. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Jul 01; 110(1-2):151-5. PMID: 20227198; PMCID: PMC2885547.
    192. Hukkanen J, Ukkola O, Benowitz NL. Varenicline and pheochromocytoma. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Mar 02; 152(5):335-6. PMID: 20194248.
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    193. Benowitz NL. Secondhand smoke and infectious disease in adults: A global women's health concern: Comment on "Passive Smoking and Tuberculosis". Arch Intern Med. 2010 Feb 08; 170(3):292-3. PMID: 20142577.
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    194. Mwenifumbo JC, Zhou Q, Benowitz NL, Sellers EM, Tyndale RF. New CYP2A6 gene deletion and conversion variants in a population of Black African descent. Pharmacogenomics. 2010 Feb; 11(2):189-98. PMID: 20136358; PMCID: PMC2922202.
    195. Hukkanen J, Jacob Iii P, Peng M, Dempsey D, Benowitz NL. Effects of nicotine on cytochrome P450 2A6 and 2E1 activities. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Feb; 69(2):152-9. PMID: 20233178; PMCID: PMC2824476.
    196. Rigotti NA, Pipe AL, Benowitz NL, Arteaga C, Garza D, Tonstad S. Efficacy and safety of varenicline for smoking cessation in patients with cardiovascular disease: a randomized trial. Circulation. 2010 Jan 19; 121(2):221-9. PMID: 20048210; PMCID: PMC4096941.
    197. Ho MK, Faseru B, Choi WS, Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Thomas JL, Okuyemi KS, Ahluwalia JS, Benowitz NL, Tyndale RF. Utility and relationships of biomarkers of smoking in African-American light smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Dec; 18(12):3426-34. PMID: 19959692; PMCID: PMC2791893.
    198. Goniewicz ML, Havel CM, Peng MW, Jacob P, Dempsey D, Yu L, Zielinska-Danch W, Koszowski B, Czogala J, Sobczak A, Benowitz NL. Elimination kinetics of the tobacco-specific biomarker and lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Dec; 18(12):3421-5. PMID: 19959691; PMCID: PMC2804843.
    199. Gan Q, Yang J, Yang G, Goniewicz M, Benowitz NL, Glantz SA. Chinese "herbal" cigarettes are as carcinogenic and addictive as regular cigarettes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Dec; 18(12):3497-501. PMID: 19959701; PMCID: PMC2789338.
    200. Bernert JT, Jacob P, Holiday DB, Benowitz NL, Sosnoff CS, Doig MV, Feyerabend C, Aldous KM, Sharifi M, Kellogg MD, Langman LJ. Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: a round-robin study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Dec; 11(12):1458-66. PMID: 19933777; PMCID: PMC3167685.
    201. Hovell MF, Zakarian JM, Matt GE, Liles S, Jones JA, Hofstetter CR, Larson SN, Benowitz NL. Counseling to reduce children's secondhand smoke exposure and help parents quit smoking: a controlled trial. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Dec; 11(12):1383-94. PMID: 19875762; PMCID: PMC2784487.
    202. Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Swan GE. Genetic influences on individual differences in nicotine glucuronidation. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2009 Oct; 12(5):507-13. PMID: 19803778; PMCID: PMC3202423.
    203. Benowitz NL, Schultz KE, Haller CA, Wu AH, Dains KM, Jacob P. Prevalence of smoking assessed biochemically in an urban public hospital: a rationale for routine cotinine screening. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Oct 01; 170(7):885-91. PMID: 19713287; PMCID: PMC2765360.
    204. Wang YG, Swick TJ, Carter LP, Thorpy MJ, Benowitz NL. Safety overview of postmarketing and clinical experience of sodium oxybate (Xyrem): abuse, misuse, dependence, and diversion. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009 Aug 15; 5(4):365-71. PMID: 19968016; PMCID: PMC2725257.
    205. Eisner MD, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Balmes J, Blanc PD. Longer term exposure to secondhand smoke and health outcomes in COPD: impact of urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Aug; 11(8):945-53. PMID: 19587064; PMCID: PMC2711983.
    206. Thomas PD, Mi H, Swan GE, Lerman C, Benowitz N, Tyndale RF, Bergen AW, Conti DV. A systems biology network model for genetic association studies of nicotine addiction and treatment. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009 Jul; 19(7):538-51. PMID: 19525886.
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    207. Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Dempsey D, Herrera B, Yu L, Jacob P. Urine nicotine metabolite concentrations in relation to plasma cotinine during low-level nicotine exposure. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Aug; 11(8):954-60. PMID: 19525206; PMCID: PMC2734286.
    208. He Y, Bergen AW, Hops H, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Webster C, Benowitz N, Swan GE. Genome-wide linkage of cotinine pharmacokinetics suggests candidate regions on chromosomes 9 and 11. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009 Jun 05; 150B(4):554-9. PMID: 18785207; PMCID: PMC2693302.
    209. Dukic VM, Niessner M, Pickett KE, Benowitz NL, Wakschlag LS. Calibrating self-reported measures of maternal smoking in pregnancy via bioassays using a Monte Carlo approach. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 06; 6(6):1744-59. PMID: 19578458; PMCID: PMC2705215.
    210. Bergen AW, Conti DV, Van Den Berg D, Lee W, Liu J, Li D, Guo N, Mi H, Thomas PD, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Krasnow R, He Y, Nishita D, Jiang R, McClure JB, Tildesley E, Hops H, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL, Lerman C, Swan GE. Dopamine genes and nicotine dependence in treatment-seeking and community smokers. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Sep; 34(10):2252-64. PMID: 19494806; PMCID: PMC3558036.
    211. Swan GE, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Bergen AW, He Y, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. Genetic and environmental influences on the ratio of 3'hydroxycotinine to cotinine in plasma and urine. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009 May; 19(5):388-98. PMID: 19300303; PMCID: PMC2849278.
    212. Bondy SJ, Zhang B, Kreiger N, Selby P, Benowitz N, Travis H, Florescu A, Greenspan NR, Ferrence R. Impact of an indoor smoking ban on bar workers' exposure to secondhand smoke. J Occup Environ Med. 2009 May; 51(5):612-9. PMID: 19369895.
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    213. Benowitz NL, Dains KM, Hall SM, Stewart S, Wilson M, Dempsey D, Jacob P. Progressive commercial cigarette yield reduction: biochemical exposure and behavioral assessment. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Mar; 18(3):876-83. PMID: 19258480; PMCID: PMC2802575.
    214. Rubinstein ML, Benowitz NL, Auerback GM, Moscicki AB. Withdrawal in adolescent light smokers following 24-hour abstinence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Feb; 11(2):185-9. PMID: 19246428; PMCID: PMC2658900.
    215. Benowitz NL, Hukkanen J, Jacob P. Nicotine chemistry, metabolism, kinetics and biomarkers. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2009; (192):29-60. PMID: 19184645; PMCID: PMC2953858.
    216. Benowitz NL. Pharmacology of nicotine: addiction, smoking-induced disease, and therapeutics. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2009; 49:57-71. PMID: 18834313; PMCID: PMC2946180.
    217. Benowitz NL, Bernert JT, Caraballo RS, Holiday DB, Wang J. Optimal serum cotinine levels for distinguishing cigarette smokers and nonsmokers within different racial/ethnic groups in the United States between 1999 and 2004. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Jan 15; 169(2):236-48. PMID: 19019851.
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    218. Schnoll RA, Patterson F, Wileyto EP, Tyndale RF, Benowitz N, Lerman C. Nicotine metabolic rate predicts successful smoking cessation with transdermal nicotine: a validation study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Mar; 92(1):6-11. PMID: 19000709; PMCID: PMC2657225.
    219. Jacob P, Havel C, Lee DH, Yu L, Eisner MD, Benowitz NL. Subpicogram per milliliter determination of the tobacco-specific carcinogen metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2008 Nov 01; 80(21):8115-21. PMID: 18841944; PMCID: PMC3167662.
    220. Benowitz NL. Nicotine and postoperative management of pain. Anesth Analg. 2008 Sep; 107(3):739-41. PMID: 18713874.
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    221. Perkins KA, Lerman C, Coddington S, Jetton C, Karelitz JL, Wilson A, Jennings JR, Ferrell R, Bergen AW, Benowitz NL. Gene and gene by sex associations with initial sensitivity to nicotine in nonsmokers. Behav Pharmacol. 2008 Sep; 19(5-6):630-40. PMID: 18690117; PMCID: PMC2743299.
    222. Perkins KA, Lerman C, Grottenthaler A, Ciccocioppo MM, Milanak M, Conklin CA, Bergen AW, Benowitz NL. Dopamine and opioid gene variants are associated with increased smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood. Behav Pharmacol. 2008 Sep; 19(5-6):641-9. PMID: 18690118; PMCID: PMC2717609.
    223. Sohn M, Benowitz N, Stotts N, Christopherson D, Kim KS, Jang YS, Ahn MS, Froelicher ES. Smoking behavior in men hospitalized with cardiovascular disease in Korea: a cross-sectional descriptive study. Heart Lung. 2008 Sep-Oct; 37(5):366-79. PMID: 18790337.
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    224. Rubinstein ML, Benowitz NL, Auerback GM, Moscicki AB. Rate of nicotine metabolism and withdrawal symptoms in adolescent light smokers. Pediatrics. 2008 Sep; 122(3):e643-7. PMID: 18762498; PMCID: PMC2722964.
    225. Rubinstein ML, Benowitz NL, Auerback GM, Moscicki AB. A randomized trial of nicotine nasal spray in adolescent smokers. Pediatrics. 2008 Sep; 122(3):e595-600. PMID: 18762494; PMCID: PMC2744418.
    226. Tutka P, Dempsey DA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL, Kroetz DL. Nicotine metabolism in pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Aug; 10(8):1385-90. PMID: 18686186; PMCID: PMC2923225.
    227. Xing J, Chen M, Wood CG, Lin J, Spitz MR, Ma J, Amos CI, Shields PG, Benowitz NL, Gu J, de Andrade M, Swan GE, Wu X. Mitochondrial DNA content: its genetic heritability and association with renal cell carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Aug 06; 100(15):1104-12. PMID: 18664653; PMCID: PMC2720693.
    228. Conti DV, Lee W, Li D, Liu J, Van Den Berg D, Thomas PD, Bergen AW, Swan GE, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL, Lerman C. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta2 subunit gene implicated in a systems-based candidate gene study of smoking cessation. Hum Mol Genet. 2008 Sep 15; 17(18):2834-48. PMID: 18593715; PMCID: PMC2525499.
    229. Weiss ST, McLeod HL, Flockhart DA, Dolan ME, Benowitz NL, Johnson JA, Ratain MJ, Giacomini KM. Creating and evaluating genetic tests predictive of drug response. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2008 07; 7(7):568-74. PMID: 18587383; PMCID: PMC2682785.
    230. Piper ME, McCarthy DE, Bolt DM, Smith SS, Lerman C, Benowitz N, Fiore MC, Baker TB. Assessing dimensions of nicotine dependence: an evaluation of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Jun; 10(6):1009-20. PMID: 18584464; PMCID: PMC2614360.
    231. Haller C, Kearney T, Bent S, Ko R, Benowitz N, Olson K. Dietary supplement adverse events: report of a one-year poison center surveillance project. J Med Toxicol. 2008 Jun; 4(2):84-92. PMID: 18570167; PMCID: PMC3550135.
    232. Triche EW, Grosso LM, Belanger K, Darefsky AS, Benowitz NL, Bracken MB. Chocolate consumption in pregnancy and reduced likelihood of preeclampsia. Epidemiology. 2008 May; 19(3):459-64. PMID: 18379424; PMCID: PMC2782959.
    233. Benowitz NL. Neurobiology of nicotine addiction: implications for smoking cessation treatment. Am J Med. 2008 Apr; 121(4 Suppl 1):S3-10. PMID: 18342164.
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    234. Haller CA, Duan M, Jacob P, Benowitz N. Human pharmacology of a performance-enhancing dietary supplement under resting and exercise conditions. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Jun; 65(6):833-40. PMID: 18341680; PMCID: PMC2485232.
    235. Grosso LM, Triche E, Benowitz NL, Bracken MB. Prenatal caffeine assessment: fetal and maternal biomarkers or self-reported intake? Ann Epidemiol. 2008 Mar; 18(3):172-8. PMID: 18083538; PMCID: PMC2275917.
    236. Figueiredo VC, Szklo M, Szklo AS, Benowitz N, Lozana JA, Casado L, Masson E, Samet J. Determinants of salivary cotinine level: a population-based study in Brazil. Rev Saude Publica. 2007 Dec; 41(6):954-62. PMID: 17992352.
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    237. Ring HZ, Valdes AM, Nishita DM, Prasad S, Jacob P, Tyndale RF, Swan GE, Benowitz NL. Gene-gene interactions between CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 in nicotine metabolism. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Dec; 17(12):1007-15. PMID: 18004205.
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    238. Benowitz NL, Hall SM, Stewart S, Wilson M, Dempsey D, Jacob P. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure with smoking of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarette. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Nov; 16(11):2479-85. PMID: 18006940.
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    239. Lin J, Swan GE, Shields PG, Benowitz NL, Gu J, Amos CI, de Andrade M, Spitz MR, Wu X. Mutagen sensitivity and genetic variants in nucleotide excision repair pathway: genotype-phenotype correlation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Oct; 16(10):2065-71. PMID: 17932354.
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    240. Lazcano-Ponce E, Benowitz N, Sanchez-Zamorano LM, Barbosa-Sanchez L, Valdes-Salgado R, Jacob P, Diaz R, Hernandez-Avila M. Secondhand smoke exposure in Mexican discotheques. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Oct; 9(10):1021-6. PMID: 17852765.
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    241. Etter JF, Lukas RJ, Benowitz NL, West R, Dresler CM. Cytisine for smoking cessation: a research agenda. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008 Jan 01; 92(1-3):3-8. PMID: 17825502.
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    242. Hutchison KE, Allen DL, Filbey FM, Jepson C, Lerman C, Benowitz NL, Stitzel J, Bryan A, McGeary J, Haughey HM. CHRNA4 and tobacco dependence: from gene regulation to treatment outcome. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Sep; 64(9):1078-86. PMID: 17768273.
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    243. Lerman C, LeSage MG, Perkins KA, O'Malley SS, Siegel SJ, Benowitz NL, Corrigall WA. Translational research in medication development for nicotine dependence. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2007 Sep; 6(9):746-62. PMID: 17690709.
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    244. Sohn M, Stotts NA, Benowitz N, Christopherson D, Kim KS, Jang YS, Ahn MS, Froelicher ES. Beliefs about health, smoking, and future smoking cessation among South Korean men hospitalized for cardiovascular disease. Heart Lung. 2007 Sep-Oct; 36(5):339-47. PMID: 17845880.
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    245. Williams JM, Gandhi KK, Steinberg ML, Foulds J, Ziedonis DM, Benowitz NL. Higher nicotine and carbon monoxide levels in menthol cigarette smokers with and without schizophrenia. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Aug; 9(8):873-81. PMID: 17654300.
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    246. Stepanov I, Hecht SS, Lindgren B, Jacob P, Wilson M, Benowitz NL. Relationship of human toenail nicotine, cotinine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol to levels of these biomarkers in plasma and urine. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jul; 16(7):1382-6. PMID: 17627002.
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    247. Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and the personalization of irinotecan therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Jul 01; 25(19):2646-7. PMID: 17563392.
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    248. Swan GE, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Krasnow RE, Wilhelmsen KC, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Genetic and environmental sources of variation in heart rate response to infused nicotine in twins. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jun; 16(6):1057-64. PMID: 17548663.
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    249. Lee AM, Jepson C, Shields PG, Benowitz N, Lerman C, Tyndale RF. CYP2B6 genotype does not alter nicotine metabolism, plasma levels, or abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jun; 16(6):1312-4. PMID: 17548706.
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    250. Altman RB, Benowitz N, Gurwitz D, Lunshof J, Relling M, Lamba J, Wieben E, Mooney S, Giacomini K, Weiss S, Johnson JA, McLeod H, Flockhart D, Weinshilboum R, Shuldiner AR, Roden D, Krauss RM, Ratain M. Genetic nondiscrimination legislation: a critical prerequisite for pharmacogenomics data sharing. Pharmacogenomics. 2007 May; 8(5):519. PMID: 17465717.
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    251. Dukic VM, Niessner M, Benowitz N, Hans S, Wakschlag L. Modeling the relationship of cotinine and self-reported measures of maternal smoking during pregnancy: a deterministic approach. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Apr; 9(4):453-65. PMID: 17454700.
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    252. Kandel DB, Hu MC, Schaffran C, Udry JR, Benowitz NL. Urine nicotine metabolites and smoking behavior in a multiracial/multiethnic national sample of young adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Apr 15; 165(8):901-10. PMID: 17322544.
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    253. Jacob P, Wilson M, Benowitz NL. Determination of phenolic metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human urine as their pentafluorobenzyl ether derivatives using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2007 Jan 15; 79(2):587-98. PMID: 17222024.
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    254. Levi M, Dempsey DA, Benowitz NL, Sheiner LB. Prediction methods for nicotine clearance using cotinine and 3-hydroxy-cotinine spot saliva samples II. Model application. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2007 Feb; 34(1):23-34. PMID: 17206525.
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    255. Levi M, Dempsey DA, Benowitz NL, Sheiner LB. Population pharmacokinetics of nicotine and its metabolites I. Model development. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2007 Feb; 34(1):5-21. PMID: 17206524.
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    256. Mabry PL, Tooze JA, Moser RP, Augustson EM, Malcolm RJ, Benowitz NL. Nicotine, cotinine, withdrawal, and craving patterns during smoking and nicotine nasal spray use: results from a pilot study with African American men. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Jan; 9(1):65-82. PMID: 17365738.
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    257. Matt GE, Hovell MF, Quintana PJ, Zakarian J, Liles S, Meltzer SB, Benowitz NL. The variability of urinary cotinine levels in young children: implications for measuring ETS exposure. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Jan; 9(1):83-92. PMID: 17365739.
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    258. Rubinstein ML, Thompson PJ, Benowitz NL, Shiffman S, Moscicki AB. Cotinine levels in relation to smoking behavior and addiction in young adolescent smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Jan; 9(1):129-35. PMID: 17365743.
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    259. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Herrera B. Nicotine intake and dose response when smoking reduced-nicotine content cigarettes. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Dec; 80(6):703-14. PMID: 17178270.
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    260. Roden DM, Altman RB, Benowitz NL, Flockhart DA, Giacomini KM, Johnson JA, Krauss RM, McLeod HL, Ratain MJ, Relling MV, Ring HZ, Shuldiner AR, Weinshilboum RM, Weiss ST. Pharmacogenomics: challenges and opportunities. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Nov 21; 145(10):749-57. PMID: 17116919.
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    261. Benowitz NL, Swan GE, Jacob P, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Tyndale RF. CYP2A6 genotype and the metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Nov; 80(5):457-67. PMID: 17112802.
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    262. Hukkanen J, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Effect of grapefruit juice on cytochrome P450 2A6 and nicotine renal clearance. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Nov; 80(5):522-30. PMID: 17112808.
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    263. Blackford AL, Yang G, Hernandez-Avila M, Przewozniak K, Zatonski W, Figueiredo V, Avila-Tang E, Ma J, Benowitz NL, Samet JM. Cotinine concentration in smokers from different countries: relationship with amount smoked and cigarette type. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Oct; 15(10):1799-804. PMID: 17021350.
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    264. Johnstone E, Benowitz N, Cargill A, Jacob R, Hinks L, Day I, Murphy M, Walton R. Determinants of the rate of nicotine metabolism and effects on smoking behavior. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Oct; 80(4):319-30. PMID: 17015050.
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    265. Repace J, Hughes E, Benowitz N. Exposure to second-hand smoke air pollution assessed from bar patrons' urinary cotinine. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Oct; 8(5):701-11. PMID: 17008197.
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    266. Thai D, Dyer JE, Benowitz NL, Haller CA. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and ethanol effects and interactions in humans. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 Oct; 26(5):524-9. PMID: 16974199; PMCID: PMC2766839.
    267. Pletcher MJ, Hulley BJ, Houston T, Kiefe CI, Benowitz N, Sidney S. Menthol cigarettes, smoking cessation, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary function: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Sep 25; 166(17):1915-22. PMID: 17000950.
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    268. Murphy NG, Albin C, Tai W, Benowitz NL. Anabasine toxicity from a topical folk remedy. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2006 Sep; 45(7):669-71. PMID: 16928847.
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    269. Matta SG, Balfour DJ, Benowitz NL, Boyd RT, Buccafusco JJ, Caggiula AR, Craig CR, Collins AC, Damaj MI, Donny EC, Gardiner PS, Grady SR, Heberlein U, Leonard SS, Levin ED, Lukas RJ, Markou A, Marks MJ, McCallum SE, Parameswaran N, Perkins KA, Picciotto MR, Quik M, Rose JE, Rothenfluh A, Schafer WR, Stolerman IP, Tyndale RF, Wehner JM, Zirger JM. Guidelines on nicotine dose selection for in vivo research. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Feb; 190(3):269-319. PMID: 16896961.
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    270. Kandel DB, Schaffran C, Griesler PC, Hu MC, Davies M, Benowitz N. Salivary cotinine concentration versus self-reported cigarette smoking: Three patterns of inconsistency in adolescence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Aug; 8(4):525-37. PMID: 16920650; PMCID: PMC2538943.
    271. Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Rennard SI, Oncken C, Hecht SS. Biomarkers to assess the utility of potential reduced exposure tobacco products. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Aug; 8(4):600-22. PMID: 16920658.
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    272. Block G, Dietrich M, Norkus E, Jensen C, Benowitz NL, Morrow JD, Hudes M, Packer L. Intraindividual variability of plasma antioxidants, markers of oxidative stress, C-reactive protein, cotinine, and other biomarkers. Epidemiology. 2006 Jul; 17(4):404-12. PMID: 16755268.
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    273. Lea RA, Dickson S, Benowitz NL. Within-subject variation of the salivary 3HC/COT ratio in regular daily smokers: prospects for estimating CYP2A6 enzyme activity in large-scale surveys of nicotine metabolic rate. J Anal Toxicol. 2006 Jul-Aug; 30(6):386-9. PMID: 16872570.
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    274. Wu X, Spitz MR, Amos CI, Lin J, Shao L, Gu J, de Andrade M, Benowitz NL, Shields PG, Swan GE. Mutagen sensitivity has high heritability: evidence from a twin study. Cancer Res. 2006 Jun 15; 66(12):5993-6. PMID: 16778168.
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    275. Eisner MD, Balmes J, Yelin EH, Katz PP, Hammond SK, Benowitz N, Blanc PD. Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes. BMC Pulm Med. 2006 Jun 06; 6:12. PMID: 16756671; PMCID: PMC1524811.
    276. Swan GE, Hops H, Wilhelmsen KC, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Cheng LS, Hudmon KS, Amos CI, Feiler HS, Ring HZ, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, Benowitz N. A genome-wide screen for nicotine dependence susceptibility loci. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2006 Jun 05; 141B(4):354-60. PMID: 16671072; PMCID: PMC2563426.
    277. Lerman C, Tyndale R, Patterson F, Wileyto EP, Shields PG, Pinto A, Benowitz N. Nicotine metabolite ratio predicts efficacy of transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Jun; 79(6):600-8. PMID: 16765148.
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    278. Benowitz NL, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Swan GE, Jacob P. Female sex and oral contraceptive use accelerate nicotine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 May; 79(5):480-8. PMID: 16678549.
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    279. Le Houezec J, Benowitz NL. Smoking habits, nicotine use, and congenital malformations. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 May; 107(5):1166; author reply 1168. PMID: 16648425.
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    280. Al Koudsi N, Mwenifumbo JC, Sellers EM, Benowitz NL, Swan GE, Tyndale RF. Characterization of the novel CYP2A6*21 allele using in vivo nicotine kinetics. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Jun; 62(6):481-4. PMID: 16758265.
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    281. Grosso LM, Triche EW, Belanger K, Benowitz NL, Holford TR, Bracken MB. Caffeine metabolites in umbilical cord blood, cytochrome P-450 1A2 activity, and intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jun 01; 163(11):1035-41. PMID: 16641310.
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    282. Hatsukami DK, Benowitz NL, Rennard SI, Oncken C, Hecht SS. Biomarkers to assess the utility of potential reduced exposure tobacco products. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Apr; 8(2):169-91. PMID: 16766411.
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    283. Lea R, Benowitz N, Green M, Fowles J, Vishvanath A, Dickson S, Lea M, Woodward A, Chambers G, Phillips D. Ethnic differences in nicotine metabolic rate among New Zealanders. N Z Med J. 2005 Dec 16; 118(1227):U1773. PMID: 16372023.
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    284. Wilhelmsen KC, Swan GE, Cheng LS, Lessov-Schlaggar CN, Amos CI, Feiler HS, Hudmon KS, Ring HZ, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, Benowitz NL, Hops H. Support for previously identified alcoholism susceptibility Loci in a cohort selected for smoking behavior. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Dec; 29(12):2108-15. PMID: 16385180.
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    285. Haller CA, Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Hemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight-loss supplements in humans. Am J Med. 2005 Sep; 118(9):998-1003. PMID: 16164886.
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    286. Hukkanen J, Dempsey D, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Effect of pregnancy on a measure of FMO3 activity. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Aug; 60(2):224-6. PMID: 16042678; PMCID: PMC1884929.
    287. Williams JM, Ziedonis DM, Abanyie F, Steinberg ML, Foulds J, Benowitz NL. Increased nicotine and cotinine levels in smokers with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder is not a metabolic effect. Schizophr Res. 2005 Nov 15; 79(2-3):323-35. PMID: 15961287.
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    288. Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Bernert JT, Wilson M, Wang L, Allen F, Dempsey D. Carcinogen exposure during short-term switching from regular to "light" cigarettes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Jun; 14(6):1376-83. PMID: 15941944.
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    289. Haller CA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Short-term metabolic and hemodynamic effects of ephedra and guarana combinations. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Jun; 77(6):560-71. PMID: 15961987.
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    290. Hukkanen J, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Metabolism and disposition kinetics of nicotine. Pharmacol Rev. 2005 Mar; 57(1):79-115. PMID: 15734728.
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    291. Hukkanen J, Gourlay SG, Kenkare S, Benowitz NL. Influence of menstrual cycle on cytochrome P450 2A6 activity and cardiovascular effects of nicotine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Mar; 77(3):159-69. PMID: 15735610.
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    292. Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Lessov CN, Jacob P, Tyndale RF, Wilhelmsen K. Nicotine metabolism: the impact of CYP2A6 on estimates of additive genetic influence. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2005 Feb; 15(2):115-25. PMID: 15861035.
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    293. Vukovich MD, Schoorman R, Heilman C, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Caffeine-herbal ephedra combination increases resting energy expenditure, heart rate and blood pressure. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005 Jan-Feb; 32(1-2):47-53. PMID: 15730434.
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    294. Gelal A, Balkan D, Ozzeybek D, Kaplan YC, Gurler S, Guven H, Benowitz NL. Effect of menthol on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of felodipine in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jan; 60(11):785-90. PMID: 15592925.
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    295. Campuzano JC, Hernandez-Avila M, Jaakkola MS, Lazcano Ponce E, Kuri Morales P, Bautista P, Benowitz NL, Ceraso M, Blackford A, Samet JM. Determinants of salivary cotinine levels among current smokers in Mexico. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004 Dec; 6(6):997-1008. PMID: 15801572.
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    296. Arcavi L, Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and infection. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Nov 08; 164(20):2206-16. PMID: 15534156.
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    297. Swan GE, Benowitz NL, Jacob P, Lessov CN, Tyndale RF, Wilhelmsen K, Krasnow RE, McElroy MR, Moore SE, Wambach M. Pharmacogenetics of nicotine metabolism in twins: methods and procedures. Twin Res. 2004 Oct; 7(5):435-48. PMID: 15527659.
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    298. Hughes JR, Benowitz N, Hatsukami D, Mermelstein RJ, Shiffman S. Clarification of SRNT workgroup guidelines for measures in clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004 Oct; 6(5):863-4. PMID: 15700922.
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    299. Dempsey D, Tutka P, Jacob P, Allen F, Schoedel K, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL. Nicotine metabolite ratio as an index of cytochrome P450 2A6 metabolic activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Jul; 76(1):64-72. PMID: 15229465.
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    300. Benowitz NL, Herrera B, Jacob P. Mentholated cigarette smoking inhibits nicotine metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Sep; 310(3):1208-15. PMID: 15084646.
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    301. Benowitz N, Dempsey D. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004 Apr; 6 Suppl 2:S189-202. PMID: 15203821.
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    302. Haller CA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Enhanced stimulant and metabolic effects of combined ephedrine and caffeine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Apr; 75(4):259-73. PMID: 15060505.
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    303. Haller CA, Duan M, Benowitz NL, Jacob P. Concentrations of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine in commercial dietary supplements. J Anal Toxicol. 2004 Apr; 28(3):145-51. PMID: 15107143.
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    304. Jacob P, Haller CA, Duan M, Yu L, Peng M, Benowitz NL. Determination of ephedra alkaloid and caffeine concentrations in dietary supplements and biological fluids. J Anal Toxicol. 2004 Apr; 28(3):152-9. PMID: 15107144.
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    305. Lerman C, Kaufmann V, Rukstalis M, Patterson F, Perkins K, Audrain-McGovern J, Benowitz N. Individualizing nicotine replacement therapy for the treatment of tobacco dependence: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Mar 16; 140(6):426-33. PMID: 15023708.
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    306. Sivarajan Froelicher ES, Miller NH, Christopherson DJ, Martin K, Parker KM, Amonetti M, Lin Z, Sohn M, Benowitz N, Taylor CB, Bacchetti P. High rates of sustained smoking cessation in women hospitalized with cardiovascular disease: the Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS). Circulation. 2004 Feb 10; 109(5):587-93. PMID: 14769679.
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    307. Benowitz NL. Smoking less as a treatment goal for those who cannot stop smoking. Am J Med. 2004 Feb 01; 116(3):203-5. PMID: 14749168.
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    308. Sohn M, Hartley C, Froelicher ES, Benowitz NL. Tobacco use and dependence. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2003 Nov; 19(4):250-60. PMID: 14702859.
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    309. Benowitz NL, Peng M, Jacob P. Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on chlorzoxazone and caffeine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Nov; 74(5):468-74. PMID: 14586387.
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    310. Swan GE, Hudmon KS, Jack LM, Hemberger K, Carmelli D, Khroyan TV, Ring HZ, Hops H, Andrews JA, Tildesley E, McBride D, Benowitz N, Webster C, Wilhelmsen KC, Feiler HS, Koenig B, Caron L, Illes J, Cheng LS. Environmental and genetic determinants of tobacco use: methodology for a multidisciplinary, longitudinal family-based investigation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 Oct; 12(10):994-1005. PMID: 14578134; PMCID: PMC2587265.
    311. Miao FJ, Green P, Benowitz N, Levine JD. Vagal modulation of spinal nicotine-induced inhibition of the inflammatory response mediated by descending antinociceptive controls. Neuropharmacology. 2003 Oct; 45(5):605-11. PMID: 12941374.
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    312. Benowitz NL, Pomerleau OF, Pomerleau CS, Jacob P. Nicotine metabolite ratio as a predictor of cigarette consumption. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003 Oct; 5(5):621-4. PMID: 14577978.
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    313. Abrams DI, Hilton JF, Leiser RJ, Shade SB, Elbeik TA, Aweeka FT, Benowitz NL, Bredt BM, Kosel B, Aberg JA, Deeks SG, Mitchell TF, Mulligan K, Bacchetti P, McCune JM, Schambelan M. Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med. 2003 Aug 19; 139(4):258-66. PMID: 12965981.
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    314. Gelal A, Guven H, Balkan D, Artok L, Benowitz NL. Influence of menthol on caffeine disposition and pharmacodynamics in healthy female volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Sep; 59(5-6):417-22. PMID: 12915954.
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    315. Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology and implications for treatment. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2003 Jul-Aug; 46(1):91-111. PMID: 12920702.
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    316. Patterson F, Benowitz N, Shields P, Kaufmann V, Jepson C, Wileyto P, Kucharski S, Lerman C. Individual differences in nicotine intake per cigarette. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003 May; 12(5):468-71. PMID: 12750245.
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    317. Jaakkola MS, Ma J, Yang G, Chin MF, Benowitz NL, Ceraso M, Samet JM. Determinants of salivary cotinine concentrations in Chinese male smokers. Prev Med. 2003 Mar; 36(3):282-90. PMID: 12634019.
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    318. Winston L, Benowitz N. Once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides: how much monitoring is truly required? Am J Med. 2003 Feb 15; 114(3):239-40. PMID: 12637142.
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    319. Benowitz NL. Basic cardiovascular research and its implications for the medicinal use of nicotine. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Feb 05; 41(3):497-8. PMID: 12575982.
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    320. Henningfield JE, Benowitz NL, Ahijevych K, Garrett BE, Connolly GN, Wayne GF. Does menthol enhance the addictiveness of cigarettes? An agenda for research. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003 Feb; 5(1):9-11. PMID: 12745502.
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    321. Dietrich M, Block G, Benowitz NL, Morrow JD, Hudes M, Jacob P, Norkus EP, Packer L. Vitamin C supplementation decreases oxidative stress biomarker f2-isoprostanes in plasma of nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Nutr Cancer. 2003; 45(2):176-84. PMID: 12881011.
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    322. Jacob P, Hatsukami D, Severson H, Hall S, Yu L, Benowitz NL. Anabasine and anatabine as biomarkers for tobacco use during nicotine replacement therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Dec; 11(12):1668-73. PMID: 12496059.
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    323. Mahrer-Imhof R, Froelicher ES, Li WW, Parker KM, Benowitz N. Women's Initiative for Nonsmoking (WINS V): under-use of nicotine replacement therapy. Heart Lung. 2002 Sep-Oct; 31(5):368-73. PMID: 12487015.
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    324. Pitsiu M, Gries JM, Benowitz N, Gourlay SG, Verotta D. Modeling nicotine arterial-venous differences to predict arterial concentrations and input based on venous measurements: application to smokeless tobacco and nicotine gum. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2002 Aug; 29(4):383-402. PMID: 12518710.
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    325. Benowitz NL. Smoking cessation trials targeted to racial and economic minority groups. JAMA. 2002 Jul 24-31; 288(4):497-9. PMID: 12132983.
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    326. Haller CA, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Pharmacology of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine after single-dose dietary supplement use. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Jun; 71(6):421-32. PMID: 12087345.
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    327. Wakschlag LS, Pickett KE, Cook E, Benowitz NL, Leventhal BL. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and severe antisocial behavior in offspring: a review. Am J Public Health. 2002 Jun; 92(6):966-74. PMID: 12036791; PMCID: PMC1447496.
    328. Benowitz NL, Hansson A, Jacob P. Cardiovascular effects of nasal and transdermal nicotine and cigarette smoking. Hypertension. 2002 Jun; 39(6):1107-12. PMID: 12052850.
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    329. Campbell BJ, Rowbotham M, Davies PS, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Systemic absorption of topical lidocaine in normal volunteers, patients with post-herpetic neuralgia, and patients with acute herpes zoster. J Pharm Sci. 2002 May; 91(5):1343-50. PMID: 11977110.
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    330. Dempsey D, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Accelerated metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in pregnant smokers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 May; 301(2):594-8. PMID: 11961061.
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    331. Hsue PY, Salinas CL, Bolger AF, Benowitz NL, Waters DD. Acute aortic dissection related to crack cocaine. Circulation. 2002 Apr 02; 105(13):1592-5. PMID: 11927528.
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    332. Kosel BW, Aweeka FT, Benowitz NL, Shade SB, Hilton JF, Lizak PS, Abrams DI. The effects of cannabinoids on the pharmacokinetics of indinavir and nelfinavir. AIDS. 2002 Mar 08; 16(4):543-50. PMID: 11872997.
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    333. Schaedeli F, Pitsiu M, Benowitz NL, Gourlay SG, Verotta D. Influence of arterial vs. venous sampling site on nicotine tolerance model selection and parameter estimation. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2002 Feb; 29(1):49-66. PMID: 12194535.
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    334. Benowitz NL, Pérez-Stable EJ, Herrera B, Jacob P. Slower metabolism and reduced intake of nicotine from cigarette smoking in Chinese-Americans. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Jan 16; 94(2):108-15. PMID: 11792749.
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    335. Hatsukami DK, Slade J, Benowitz NL, Giovino GA, Gritz ER, Leischow S, Warner KE. Reducing tobacco harm: research challenges and issues. Nicotine Tob Res. 2002; 4 Suppl 2:S89-101. PMID: 12573171.
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    336. Hall SM, Tunstall CD, Ginsberg D, Benowitz NL, Jones RT. Nicotine gum and behavioral treatment: a placebo controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1987 Aug; 55(4):603-605. PMID: 3624619.
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